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Life Science Journal 
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 10 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 35), December 25, 2013. life1004
 Cover (oniline), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1004
 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

The Value of Measurement of Circulating Tumour Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Nashwa Sheble1, Gehan Hamdy2, Moones A Obada3, Gamal Y Abouria3, Fatma Khalaf 4, Enas A Khattab 5

 

1 Hepatology Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufyia University.

2 Internal Medicine Department, faculty of Medicine Cairo University.

3 Clinical Pathology Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufyia Universities.

4 Biochemistry Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufyia University.

5 Internal Medicine Department, faculty of Medicine Fayoum University.

nashwamero@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women. During the past 20 years, the incidence of HCC has tripled while the 5-year survival rate has remained below 12%. The presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) reflects the aggressive nature of the tumour during the development of the HCC. CTCs detection and identification can be used to estimate prognosis and may serve as an early marker to assess antitumor activity of treatment. CTCs are an interesting source of biological information in order to understand dissemination, drug resistance, and treatment-induced cell death. The aim is to estimate the CTCs (AFP mRNA & TGF- β1 mRNA) in the peripheral blood of patients with HCC as an early non invasive marker of HCC detection and prognosis. Patients and methods: The study was done on 100 patients, 58 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. Detailed clinical history and examination were carried out. Complete blood count, liver function test, serum Albumin, serum AFP, AFP mRNA, serum TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 mRNA were measured. Abdominal ultrasound was done for all studied subjects and CTscan Abdomen for those with HCC to determine the size and number of tumour. Results: The detection rate of AFP mRNA was 39.7%, 11.9% and5% in patients with HCC, LC and control subjects respectively with a significant expression in HCC patients compared to other groups. Also TGF-β1 mRNA expression was significantly high in HCC cases with detection rate 60.3%, 14.3% in HCC and LC respectively while it was not detected in the controls. Both CTC were correlated with Milan criteria. The serum levels of AFP and TGF-β1 was significantly higher in HCC patients. Conclusion: TGF-β1 mRNA is a more reliable marker for diagnosis of HCC and if combined with AFP mRNA yielded better prediction of HCC prognosis. Since HCC is among the cancers with worst prognosis, early diagnosis and treatment are essential for better outcome.

[Nashwa Sheble, Gehan Hamdy, Moones A Obada, Gamal Y Abouria, Fatma Khalaf, Enas A Khattab. The Value of Measurement of Circulating Tumor Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1-11] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

 

Key words: Hepatocellular carcinoma, AFP, TGF- β1, CTC

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2

Study on Drought Resistance Caused by Ion Beam-mediated Transformation of Exogenous DNA of Wheat Variant

 

Jing Xiao1, Fei Gao2, Yanlei Qi1, Yunhong Gu1*, Zhen Jiao1 , Qingsheng Jin3

 

1Henan Province Ion Beam Bio-engineering Key Laboratory, Physics Department of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China

2Basic Medical college of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563000, Guizhou Province, China

3Institute of Crops and Utilization of Nuclear Technology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, Zhejiang Province, China

xiaotianya2012@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Wheat variation materials with great economic value were obtained by ion beams and they were used for drought resistance relevant research. Through the analysis of 12 variation materials at germination period, the relative germination rate and relative germination energy of variation material 5504, 5606 and 5626 were higher than that of wild materials, which indicated that drought resistance of variation materials at the seeding stage was stronger than wild ones. Several agronomic traits of variation materials such as height, tiller number and 1000-grain weight were analyzed by the means of variance analysis and multiple comparisons on the condition of whole-growth-stage water stress and normal irrigation respectively. The key drought index of variation material 5402 and 5486 were higher than 1, which showed their drought resistance had been improved. Among 780 bands identified by RAPD analysis, 328 ones were polymorphic and the accumulated frequency was 42.05%, therefore, it was concluded that abundant variations, which was induced by the transformation mediated by ion beams, occurred in variation materials at the level of DNA.

[Jing Xiao, Fei Gao, Yanlei Qi, Yunhong Gu, Zhen Jiao. Study on Drought Resistance Caused by Ion Beam-mediated Transformation of Exogenous DNA of Wheat Variant. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):12-19] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2

 

Key words: Transformation mediated by ion beam implantation wheat drought resistance

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Adiponectin rs16861194 polymorphism and diabetes risk in multi-ethnic population: a meta- analysis of case-control studies

 

Xinxin Liu*, Ling Wang*, Wenjie Li*

 

*College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

suyingliu7777@163.com

 

Abstract: Adiponectin rs16861194 has been implicated in risk for diabetes. However, the results from different studies remain controversial. The present meta-analysis of literatures was performed to clarify these association in multi-ethnic population. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of adiponectin rs16861194 polymorphism and risk of diabetes. A total of 5 eligible studies, including 2726 diabetes cases and 2889 controls, were identified to the meta-analysis. The results in total population showed that the risk for diabetes was increased among the variant heterozygous genotype AG and the dominant model AG+GG, compared with the wild type AA (OR:1.28 ; 95% CI 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002 and OR:1.29; 95% CI 1.14-1.47; P=0.0001). However, no association were found between diabetes risk and the homozygote genotype GG. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, the OR for the variant homozygote GG was 1.74 (95% CI 1.04-2.91) for Chinese. But, there is a protective effect of the variant heterozygote genotype AG and the dominant model AG+GG for non-Chinese population. This meta-analysis has demonstrated that adiponectin rs16861194 polymorphism might have contributed to individual susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.

 [Xinxin Liu, Ling Wang, Wenjie Li. Adiponectin rs16861194 polymorphism and diabetes risk in multi-ethnic population: a meta- analysis of case-control studies. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):20-26] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

 

Keywords: Adiponectin; diabetes; polymorphism

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4

The effects of Hcy on the expression and the methylation status in promoter region of estrogen receptor α gene

 

Weiming Zuo 1, Yuping Huang 2, Zhiqiang Yuan3, Yushan Huang4

 

1. Affiliated Hospital, Jinggangshan University, Ji’an, Jianxi 343000, China

2. Gannan Medical College, Ganzhou, Jianxi 341000, China

 3. People's Hospital of Jishui County, Jishui, Jiangxi 331500, China

4. Medical College, Jinggangshan University, Ji’an, Jianxi 343000, China

hys.oyls@aliyun.com

 

Abstract: To investigate the impacts of Homocysteine on the expression and DNA methylation in promoter region of estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene, and explore its potential mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of humans and THP-1 monocytes were treated by Hcy with different concentrations for different periods of time. The DNA methylation status was assayed by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, the expression of ERα of the cells was detected by immunohistochemical assay. In the two kinds of cells, the results all showed that the Hcy treatment resulted in de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ER gene with a concentration- and treating time-dependent manner, and the hypermethylation of the ERα gene lead to the decreased expression of ERα. These data indicated that Hcy had the function of inducing de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ER gene of THP-1 cells and SMCs. The atherogenic mechanism of Hcy might involve the hypermethylation of the ER gene, leading to the proliferation of SMCs in atherosclerotic lesions.

[Zuo WM, Huang YP, Yuan ZQ, Huang YS. The effects of Hcy on the expression and the methylation status in promoter region of estrogen receptor α geneLife Sci J 2013;10(4):27-31] (ISSN:1097-8135) http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4

 

Keywords: homocysteine; estrogen receptor ; DNA methylation; atherosclerosis

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5

Red Cell Distribution Width as a Marker of Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Heba Sherif1, Nagwa Ramadan1, Mona Radwan1, Enas Hamdy2 and Rabab Reda1

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

2Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

dr_nagwa2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Red cell distribution width (RDW) is considered a prognostic marker which may reflect an underlying inflammatory process. This marker can be used as a predictor for macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Aim of the study: was to investigate the relation between RDW and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes and it is relation to other inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Subjects and methods: This study is a cross-sectional study of 75 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 healthy controls. All subjects underwent thorough history, clinical examination and investigations including measurement of hs-CRP and calculation of RDW. Results: In the present study RDW was found to be elevated in diabetic patients with macrovascular complications (15.2511.77) as compared to those without macrovascular complications with statistically significant difference (p =0.04). Also RDW was found to be elevated in diabetic patients with microvascular complications but this was not statistically significant (p= 0.87). Hs-CRP was elevated in diabetic patients with macro- and microvascular complications (3.124.06) with statistically significant difference as compared to control group (p =0.02). There was significant positive correlation between hs-CRP and HbA1c. Also positive correlations were found between RDW and hs-CRP. Conclusion: High levels of RDW are associated with increase risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

[Heba Sherif, Nagwa Ramadan, Mona Radwan, Enas Hamdy and Rabab Reda. Red Cell Distribution Width as a Marker of Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):32-39] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5

 

Keywords: Red cell distribution width, inflammation, type 2 Diabetes mellitus

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6

Utilization of Solid Dispersion Technique to Improve Solubility and Flowability of Acyclovir

 

Khaled M. Hosny 1,2, Adbulrahman M Alahdal 3

 

1.Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

2.Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

3.Department of clinical pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

elswaify2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Purpose; Acyclovir is the most common drug used for treatment of herpes viruses. Challenges face acyclovir use, include; very poor aqueous solubility leads to low oral bioavailability (15-30%), and poor powder flowability which cause problems during the  manufacture. The main objective of this research is to utilize different grades of natural and synthetic cyclodextrin to prepare acyclovir in the form of solid dispersion to overcome all the previously mentioned drawbacks. Methods: Solid dispersions were prepared by kneading and coevaporation methods using different grades of natural and synthetic cyclodextrins and evaluated for drug content, solubility study, flowability parameters (Hausner ratio, Carr’s index, and angle of repose) determination. Results: Solid dispersions were successfully developed and enhanced the solubility of drug by more than 16 folds in case of β-cyclodextrin and 13-folds in case of hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin (HP-α-CD). Angle of repose decrease from 55o to 24o, Hausner ratio decreased from 1.75 to 1.067, and Carr’s index decreased from 42.8% to 16.3% which indicated the enhancement in acyclovir flowability when prepared as solid dispersion by using HP-α-CD. Conclusion: It can be concluded that HP-α-CD is an efficient polymer to prepare acyclovir solid dispersion. The prepared SD increased the solubility by more than 13-folds and in the same time enhanced the flowability of acyclovir. In spite of β-cyclodextrin enhanced the solubility to more extent (16-folds) but it not enhanced the flowability of acyclovir.

 [Hosny K., Alahdal A. Utilization of Solid Dispersion Technique to Improve Solubility and Flowability of Acyclovir. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):40-44] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6

 

Keywords: Acyclovir, cyclodextrin, solid dispersion, flowability, Hausner ratio

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7

The effect of urea and formaldehyde on heat coagulation time (HCT) of camel milk

 

Metwalli, A. A. M1,2.; Ismail*, E. A1,3; Alhaj, O.A1; Saleh, K. A2 and Ibrahim, F.S2

 

1Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.; 2Department of Dairy Science, College of Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt; 3Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt.

sayed1973@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Heat coagulation time-pH curve (HCT/pH) of camel milk in the range of pH 6.4-7.2 was determined at 120 0C. The effect of dialysis of camel milk against Jennes and Koops buffer on HCT was determined. Moreover, the addition of camel milk whey and casein addition as well as urea, formaldehyde and mixture of both was studied. Results showed that camel milk has poor heat stability. However, this stability was markedly improved by adding formaldehyde at a concentration of 7.5 mM; while urea showed to have little effect on camel milk stability at a concentration of 30 mM. A mixture of urea and formaldehyde at a concentration of 5 mM/each was shown to have great a synergistic effect on HCT of camel milk. Dialysis of camel milk against J & K buffer has also shown to increase HCT of camel milk consequently improves heat stability. Heat coagulation time was found to decrease when camel whey proteins concentration was increased. Results showed that camel milk heat stability behavior differs from that of cow milk.

[Metwalli, A. A. M; Ismail, E. A; Alhaj, O. A; Saleh, K. A and Ibrahim, F.S. The effect of urea and formaldehyde on heat coagulation time (HCT) of camel milk. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 45-50] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7

 

Key Words: camel milk, heat stability, urea, formaldehyde, J & K buffer

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8

Appreciations and Constraints for ICT Use in Higher Education in Algeria

 

Belkacem Kouninef1, Mohammed Djelti2, Baghdad Kourbali3

 

1,2 Institut National des Tlcommunications et des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication

 INTTIC, Laboratoire LaRATIC – Oran, ALGERIA

3 Sciences Economiques, Universit d’Oran - ALGERIA

bkouninef@ito.dz

 

Abstract: Algeria is witnessing a significant shift in its university system with a growing number of students from year to year due to its youthful population and a dynamic transition in the integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The use of ICT by teachers and students raise important reflections. We present in this paper some aspects concerning the conditions and constraints related to the use of ICT in higher education in Algeria. We discuss the basic infrastructure elements that can contribute significantly to the integration of ICT in higher education. The used methodology is descriptive and analytical. Data are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. We show that the constraints and difficulties related to the integration of ICT in higher education are mainly due to a lack of infrastructure and support.

 [Kouninef B, Djelti M, Kourbali B. Appreciations and Constraints for ICT Use in Higher Education in Algeria. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):51-56] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8

 

Keywords: Higher education, ICT integration, infrastructures, constraints.

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9

Evaluation of special education programs offered in inclusive schools in Saudi Arabia from teachers perspectives

 

Abdulhade Issa Haimour

 

Special Education Department, Faculty of Education, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

haimour79@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate special education programs that are applied in inclusive schools in Saudi Arabia from teachers perspectives. This study also aimed to discover whether statistically significant differences existed in the opinions of teachers based on their position, gender, teaching experience, and educational level. 615 questionnaires consisting of 20 Likert statements were distributed to a random sample of regular and special education teachers working in inclusive settings in Saudi Arabia. Eighty-five percent (n=523) teachers completed and returned usable questionnaires. An analysis of the collected data, using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, indicated that the teachers’ evaluations for special education programs applied in their schools were generally acceptable. The results also indicated significant differences in the teachers’ evaluations based on their position and educational levels, with more positive evaluations found among special education teachers with master’s degrees. Furthermore, significant differences were not found in the teachers’ evaluations based on gender or amount of teaching experience.

[Abdulhade Issa Haimour. Evaluation of special education programs offered in inclusive schools in Saudi Arabia from teachers perspectives. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):57-66]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

 

Keywords: Evaluation, programs, inclusive, special education, perspectives.

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10

Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

 

Osama M. Ahmed1, 3; Walaa G. Hozayen2; Haidy Tamer Abo Sree 3; Mohamed B; Ahmed4

 

1Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni- Suef, Beni-Suef University Egypt

2Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

3Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine Nahda University, Beni-suef, Egypt

osamamoha@yahoo.com; walaahozayen@hotmail.com; haidyalshafeey@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, which is commonly used in the treatment of uterine, ovarian, breast and lung cancers, Hodgkin's disease and soft tissue sarcomas as well as in several other cancer types. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin,total protein and albumin levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT were assessed. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. In coclusion, it can be supposed that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX hepatopathy without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

[Osama M. Ahmed; Walaa G. Hozayen; Haidy Tamer Abo Sree; and Mohamed B; Ahmed. Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 67-74]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10

 

Key words: Doxorubicin, purslane, hepatotoxicity and antioxidants.  

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Adsorption of Barium and Iron Ions from Aqueous Solutions by the Activated Carbon Produced From Mazot Ash

 

Nora M Hilal*, A.A. Emam, A. A. El-Bayaa, N. A. Badawy and A. E.Zidan

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

aliata1966@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Activated carbon produced from mazot ash, was tested for the adsorption of barium and iron metal ions using batch experiments in single metal solution under controlled experimental conditions. The adsorption processes were affected by various parameters such as equilibrium time, pH, concentration of metals, adsorbent dose and particle size. The adsorbent exhibited good sorption potential for barium and iron metal ions at pH 7.5+0.5. C = O and S= O functional groups present on the carbon surface were the adsorption sites to remove metal ions from solution. The results shown that the Freundlich isotherm model achieved best fit with the equilibrium adsorption data for adsorption of barium and iron metal ions. The maximum adsorption capacities of barium and iron metal ions were 10.62 and 83.96 mg/g, respectively. The values of separation factor were between zero and one indicating favorable sorption for two tested metals ions. The surface coverage values were approaching unity with increasing solution concentration indicating effectiveness of adsorbent under investigation.

[Nora M Hilal, A.A. Emam, A. A. El-Bayaa, N. A. Badawy and  A. E. Zidan. Adsorption of barium and iron ions from aqueous solutions by the activated carbon produced from masot ash. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):75-83] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11

 

Key words: Activated carbon, Barium and iron, Sorption isotherm, zero point charge.

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Interaction of mass media, government bodies of the power and public opinion in crime prevention questions: urgent criminological, political and legal aspects

 

Tolegen Mukhtar Adilbekovich1, Boretsky Alexey Vladimirovich2, Balashov Talgat Toleuovich3

 

1 Kostanay State Teacher Training Institute, Kostanay, Kazakhstan.

Cand.Jur.Sci., associate professor.

*Email: mukhtar_t80@mail.ru

2 Innovative Euroasian University, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan.

*Email: alexey1977.77@mail.ru

3 Kazakh State Pedagogical University named after Abay, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

Doct. Jur. Sci., associate professor.

 

Abstract: In the scientific article problem issues, devoted to interaction of mass media and public opinion in crime prevention are considered: actual criminological, political and legal aspects. Analyzing the established practices in the considered area the authors give grounds for the active state regulation of mass media activity and control over the information stream, which produces a negative impact on the society.

[Tolegen Mukhtar Adilbekovich, Boretsky Alexey Vladimirovich, Balashov Talgat Toleuovich. Interaction of mass media, government bodies of the power and public opinion in crime prevention questions: urgent criminological, political and legal aspects Life Sci J 2013;10(4):84-92]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12

 

Key words: crime prevention, mass media, public consciousness, transnational crimes.

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Performance Assessment of Zero-Watermarking Techniques for Online Arabic Textual-Content

 

Omar Tayan1,2, Yasser M. Alginahi1,3 and Muhammad N. Kabir1

 

1IT Research Center for the Holy Quran and Its Sciences (NOOR)

2College of Computer Science and Engineering

3Deanship of Academic Services

Taibah University, P.O Box 344, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarrah, Saudi Arabia

{otayan, yginahi}@taibahu.edu.sa, dr.nomankabir@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The advantages of fast and simple digital information exchange over the Internet has attracted problems and threats in the form of digital attacks that could compromise information integrity, protection and authentication. Such issues are more prominent for text-content due to the dominance of textual-data sent online. Any compromise on integrity and security is clearly intolerable for the case of sensitive textual-content being propagated. This paper addresses mechanisms for ensuring intact integrity and authentication of samples of sensitive textual-content disseminated over the Internet through the use of zero-watermarking. In this work, two robust zero-watermarking approaches (Method A and B) are proposed which are capable of detecting any content-modifications while avoiding any embeddings/modifications on the original text to be disseminated. The proposed methods provide a good indication of the relative sensitivities of each approach to third-party modifications during the key-extraction phase. The contribution of this paper includes a comparative analysis of the newly proposed methods against the existing relevant state of the art techniques based on two cost functions specifically applicable to our target application domain with promising results. Finally, the derived system was capable of achieving a pivotal requirement by ensuring that the textual-content could be traced back to its original publisher for authentication purposes, or otherwise, had detected document-tampering, as in the case of third-party modifications.

[Tayan O, Alginahi Y.M, Kabir M.N. Performance Assessment of Zero-Watermarking Techniques for Online Arabic Textual-Content. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):93-100] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13

 

Keywords: watermarking; evaluation; online Arabic text; sensitivity-analysis.

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Effect of Acacia spp. on soil properties in the highlands of Saudi Arabia

 

Hashim El Atta, Ibrahim Aref, Abdullah Ahmed

 

 Dept. of Plant Production, College of Food and Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh Postal Code 11451, P.O. Box 2560, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. hmabu@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Saudi Arabia is characterized by its low and sporadic rainfall, huge areas of semi-arid and arid nature including desert. Consequently, the vegetation cover is sparse and limited to certain valleys and water courses. Acacia spp. constitutes one of the major woodlots along the valleys. The impact of these woodlots on soil properties and nutrients has not been investigated yet. Trees in arid areas have a magnificent capability of modifying soil properties; however knowledge in this respect has been mostly observational. Few studies have used realistic field conditions and indigenous species which farmers prefer. In addition, studies on Acacia spp. on the highlands are limited. The present study was conducted with the objective of determining the effect of Acacia spp. in the highlands on soil properties and nutrients. Four locations in Al Baha region (south-western Saudi Arabia) where Acacia spp. woodlots existed were chosen. Altitude of the study locations was 1495-2566 m.a.s.l. Variability of species was the main criterion for choice of locations. Soil organic matter (OM %), soil texture (clay, sand and silt), and available soil macronutrients [N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus) and K (potassium)] were determined under the canopy of trees and outside the canopy (control) and compared. Since soil under and outside the canopy has been under the same climate, it was assumed that possible differences in soil properties were due to Acacia spp. The results revealed significant increase in OM % and available NPK and differences in clay and sand % under the canopy compared to outside the canopy. Acacia etbaica Schweinf under its canopy provided comparatively the best soil structure and the highest quantities of OM % and available NPK. Thus, Acacia woodlots in these locations paved the way for future agricultural and agrosilvopastural production in a country which imports most of its food stuff and fodder.

[El Atta H. Ali, Aref M. Ibrahim, Ahmed A. Ismail. Effect of Acacia spp. on soil properties in the highlands of Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):100-105] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14

 

Keywords: Acacia spp.; Soil texture; Macronutrients; Organic matter

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Distance and Size Measurements of Objects in the Scene from a Single 2D Image

 

YasirSalih1, M.T. Simsim1, Aamir S. Malik2

 

1.1Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, P. O. Box 5555, 21955 Makkak, Saudi Arabia

2.2Centre of Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia

ysali@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Current depth estimation methods use multiple cameras, multiple images or multiple depth cues for estimating depth of field and 3D shape recovery. Therefore, these methods have large computational requirements and they generally are not suitable for real time applications which require instantaneous results such as object tracking and automated surveillance. In this paper, we employ a depth estimation algorithm from single image using trigonometry. This method uses camera’s extrinsic parameters such as field of view, pitch angle and camera height. These parameters can be acquired from camera installation data and no effort is spent on computing them. Using these parameters the depth and geometry of any image point is computed using trigonometry formulas. This algorithm has very short computational time and higher accuracy compared to existing depth estimation methods which makes it ideal for real time applications. In addition, this method can compute the actual width and height of an object in the scene and as consequence the area (size) of the object is computed. Moreover, it can be used for computing distances between objects and points in the image. This can be very useful for aerial images where this method can measure the width of a river or the size of vegetation and many more.

[Salih Y., Simsim MT., Malik AS. Distance and Size Measurements of Objects in the Scene from a Single 2D Image. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):106-119] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15

 

Keywords: Triangulation; depth estimation; 3D shape recovery; image metrology

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A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study of the Cyclic Human Endometrial Angiogenesis

 

Hanan A. Amin1,2 and Siham K. Abunasef1,3

 

1Anatomy Department – Faculty of Medicine - King Abdulaziz University -KSA

Histology Department – Faculty of Medicine - 2 Cairo University- 3Ain Shams University- - Egypt

abunasef2@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: All platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factors (PDGFs) had important roles in embryogenesis and adult maintenance, in addition to sharing in the phenotypes of different diseases and malignancies. They were considered as activating factors in angiogenesis in the endometrium. Aim of the work: The current study aimed at describing and evaluating the immunohistochemical and morphometrical expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) or (PDGF.44C) in the normally cycling human endometrium. Materials and Methods: Thirty two normal endometria were studied. The endometria were “dated” on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. TP expression was assessed with the platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PDGF.44C) monoclonal antibody, using the Avidin Biotin Complex (ABC) method. The mean area percent and the optical density of the PDGF.44C positive reaction were morphometricaly determined using Leica Qwin image analysis system. The collected data was statistically analysed. Results: In normal proliferative endometrium PDGF.44C was found invariably patchy. Expression was cytoplasmic in glandular epithelium, and nuclear in stromal cells. This immunohistochemical picture remained almost unaltered during the early secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle but, most impressively, PDGF.44C was expressed uniformly in the epithelium of all endometrial glands towards the end of the cycle. At this stage, expression was mixed nuclear/cytoplasmic and there was very little stromal nuclear staining. Conclusion: PDGF.44C was expressed consistently in normal endometrium, suggesting a role in physiological angiogenesis. It had a definite pattern of distribution, which was dependent on the phase of menstrual cycle shifting from the endometrial stroma to the endometrial glands with progress of the cycle.

[Hanan A. Amin and Siham K. Abunasef. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study of the Cyclic Human Endometrial Angiogenesis. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):120-129]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16

 

Key words: PDGF.44C - thymidine phosphorylase – angiogenesis- endometrium-human

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Levels of Reduced Glutathione in Erythrocyte of different Arabian camel (Camelus dromedaries) Breeds

 

Ali Alkaladi1 , Mohamed Afifi1,2, Yahia Youssef Mosleh1,3 and E.K.F Elbeshehy1,4

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

2Permanent address: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

3Department of Aquatic Environment, Faculty of Fish Resources, Suez University, Egypt.

4Department of Agricultural Botany , Faculty of Agriculture , Suez Canal University , Egypt

mama200100@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The maintenance of reduced glutathione (GSH) content in camel's erythrocytes is essential for their viability as this tripeptide protects the cell components from oxidative damage. The reduced glutathione level has been estimated in four different breeds of Arabian camel, The overall GSH level in camels was found as 6.7 0.37 mmol/gHb, with the highest concentration  in the Majaheem ( 8.6 0.4 mmol/gHb), and lowest in Shaele (5.13 0.3 mmol/gHb) breeds. The effect of breed was found to be a significant on glutathione level. Higher levels of GSH were found in mature adult as compared with immature and aged. Aged animals showed a higher level of GSH if compared with immature. Males of all breeds in all ages have a significant higher RBCs GSH concentration than females.  in conclusion, the RBCs GSH concentrations were varied with in the Arabian camel breed, sex and age.

[Ali Alkaladi, Mohamed Afifi, Yahia Youssef Mosleh and E.K.F Elbeshehy.. Levels of Reduced Glutathione in Erythrocyte of different Arabian camel (Camelus dromedaries) Breeds.Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):130-134]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17

 

Key wards: Reduced glutathione, Camelus dromedaries, age, sex, breed

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Role of berberine on schistosomiasis-inducted oxidative stress and damage in spleen of mice

 

Saleh Al-Quraishy, Mohamed S. Al-Khalifa, Mohamed A. Dkhil*

 

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

*mohameddkhil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Schistosomiasis is of great public health and socio-economic importance in the developing world. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on schistosomiasis-induced splenic injury. Mice were divided into three groups. The first group acted as a control non-infected group. The second and the third groups were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercaria. The third group received berberine chloride on day 46 postinfection for 10 days. Infection induced severe splenic tissue damage as well as an alteration of the oxidative stress biomarkers. Berberine was able to improve the splenic histology and the change in glutathione, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, catalase and super oxide dismutase. These findings suggest that berberine exerts its beneficial effects on S. mansoni-induced oxidative stress may be attributed to its antioxidant activity. This could help in protecting host tissue from injuries induced by parasites.

[Al-Quraishy S, Al-Khalifa MS, Dkhil MA. Role of berberine on schistosomiasis-inducted oxidative stress and damage in spleen of mice. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):135-139] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18

 

Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni; berberine; spleen; mice; oxidative stress

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Hepatoprotective Efficacy of Chicory alone or combined with Dandelion leaves against induced Liver Damage

 

Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki1, Mohamed Kamel Abo-Golayel12*

 

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University

2Medical Research Center, Ain Shams University Hospitals, Ain Shams University

mohdabogolayel2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Several phytomolecules have been reported as potent hepatoprotective agents against different toxicants. Chicory and dandelion water extract was also found to have protective effect on acute liver inflammation induced by CCl4 in rats. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the hepatoprotective activity of chicory leaves alone or mixed with dandelion leaves water extracts against carbon tetrachloride induced liver intoxication in Wister albino rats. One hundred and twenty rats weighing 150-200 gm were included in the current study. Carbon tetrachloride was used as a hepatotoxic agent while, chicory and chicory/dandelion mixture leaves water extracts were used as a probable hepatoprotective agent. Rats were divided into two main groups. Group A (normal control group) and group B (liver injured group). Various biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of chicory alone or chicory/dandelion mixture leaves water extract. The study was also supported by histopathology of liver sections and DNA extraction of the rats livers to investigate the genomic DNA integrity. Results revealed that the serum biomarkers in carbon tetrachloride treated rats recorded elevated concentration indicating severe hepatic damage by carbon tetrachloride. The results of the serum biomarkers of chicory and its mixture with dandelion treated rats showed significant reduction indicating the effect of the plants leaves extract in restoring the normal functional ability of the hepatocytes.

[Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki and Mohamed Kamel Abo-Golayel. Hepatoprotective Efficacy of Chicory alone or combined with Dandelion leaves against induced Liver Damage. Life Sci J.2013;10(4):140-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.lifesciencesite.org. 19

 

Key Words: Cichorium intybus ; Chicory leaf water extract ; (CLWE) ; Taraxacum officinale; (DLWE) Dandelion; Hepatoprotective activity.

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Frequency Rates of Fungal Contaminants in Imported Meats from Alexandrian Retail Markets

 

Hassan A. M. Samaha

 

Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology; Department of Microbiology and Immunology; Faculty of Pharmacy; Al-Azhar University; Cairo; Egypt

E-Mail: samaha1964@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Secondary metabolites excreted by fungal contaminants of foods can lead to fatal health problems. This study investigated one hundred samples of imported frozen meat collected from different Alexandria markets both quantitatively and qualitatively for fungal burden. Both different molds and yeasts were detected with (mean SD) and range (48.4 2.01) x 103 and (2 – 9) x 104 CFU/gm for molds, besides (51.5 1.99) x 103 and (2 - 9) x 104 CFU/gm, respectively. Molds were detected in 92% of samples with the following decreasing order: Aspergillus species (73.9%), Penicillium species (56.5%), Cladosporium species (51.1%), Rhizopus species (44.6%), Mucor species (39.1%), Alternaria species (34.8 %), Trichoderma species (26.1%), Helminthosporium species (22.9%), Phialophora species (18.5%), Geotrichum species (15.2%), Fusarium species (13.0%), Epidermophyton species (9.8%), Paecilomyces species (8.7%) and Trichophyton species (4.3%), respectively. In addition, yeasts were found in tested meat samples in the following descending order: Candida species (64.9%), Torulopsis species (24.5%) and Rhodotorulla species (17.0 %), respectively. Details of the above mentioned results and its ramifications on meat qualities and public health will be discussed in the text.

[Hassan A. M. Samaha. Frequency Rates of Fungal Contaminants in Imported Meats from Alexandrian Retail Markets. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):158-165]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20

 

Keywords: Mycotoxins. Aflatoxin

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Predictors of Hospital length of Stay among Egyptian Elderly

 

Sherine M.H. El Banouby, Sarah A. Hamza, Samia A. Abdul-Rahman and Ahmed K. Mortagy

 

1Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

sa1382001@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: With the demographic changes, older people are admitted to hospitals. Longer hospital length of stay (LOS) has been described among this population resulting in adverse outcomes and increased health costs. To avoid such adverse outcomes, risk factors of prolonged LOS must be identified and managed. Subjects and methods: A prospective cohort study enrolling 205 elderly patients admitted to inpatient ward of Ain Shams University Hospitals. All patients were assessed both on admission and discharge using comprehensive geriatric assessment and laboratory investigations [total proteins, albumin, total cholesterol, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)[. LOS was also calculated. Results: LOS was significantly higher in females (p <0.05), age older than 67 years (p <0.01), participates who experienced intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p<0.01) and patients admitted due to neurological disease and multiple medical problems (p <0.01). Significant negative correlation with serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, sodium, and potassium (p <0.01) were reported. There was a significant negative correlation between LOS and mental functions (p <0.01). Patients who experienced deterioration in function had significant higher LOS than those had stationary functional capacity (P<0.01). Deterioration in total proteins, albumin, cholesterol and sodium are significantly associated with LOS. Conclusion: Advanced age, female sex, number of previous hospitalizations, complications or ICU admission during hospitalization, patients admitted with neurological or multiple causes, patients admitted in geriatric department, patients with cognitive or functional impairment, and malnourished patients, all are at risk factors for prolonged LOS.

[Sherine M.H. El Banouby, Sarah A. Hamza, Samia A. Abdul-Rahman and Ahmed K. Mortagy. Predictors of Hospital length of Stay among Egyptian Elderly. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):166-170] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21

 

Keywords: predictors, hospital length of stay, elderly

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Possible application of fractional order derivative to image edges detection

 

Oguoma Ikechukwu Chiwueze1, 3 and Alain Cloot2.

 

1,2Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science,

University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

1,3Email: ikeoguoma@yahoo.com, 2Email: ClootAH@ufs.ac.za

 

3Department of Mathematics, Science and Technology, School of Teacher Education, Central University of Technology Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

 

Abstract: This paper focuses on the possible application of the concept of fractional calculus to image processing. In particular, we generalized the Prewitt operator using the fractional order derivative to detect the edges in a given image. The comparison of results obtained via the modified operator gives more details than the existing operator that uses the ordinary derivative. The fractional derivative used in this work is in the Caputo sense; in addition, the numerical evaluation of the fractional operator is done using a finite difference scheme.

[R Vaishnavi, Fazila Begum. A Deep Pipelined VLSI Architecture For High Throughput HSDPA Wireless Standard. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):171-176]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22

 

Keywords:  Edges detection; Fractional-Prewitt operator; Caputo derivative; numerical results

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Antiosteoporotic Effect of Some Herbal Extracts versus Alendronate on an Animal Model of Osteoporosis

 

Laila Sabry1, Mai Abdul Sattar2, Hanan Ali Amin3*, and Essam Abdel Sattar4

 

Departments of Pharmacology1, 2 and Anatomy 3, Faculty of medicine, King Abdul Aziz University

2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University.

3 Department of Histology, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University.

4 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

hananaliamin@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the rationale for the use of two herbal extracts of Sophora japonica and Calligonum comosum whether alone or in combination versus alendronate in treatment of osteoporosis. Female albino rats were randomly arranged in eleven groups; 8 rats each. First group served as normal control while the second was sham operated. The remaining nine groups were ovariectomized (OVX); the first of which was not treated and served as a control for the other OVX and treated groups, while the second group received only DMSO (vehicle). The third group was treated with alendronate.Fourth, fifth; sixth and seventh groups were treated with Sophora and Calligonum at two dose levels respectively. In addition, eighth and ninth groups were treated with both plants at two dose levels. Alendronate and the extract of the herbs were administered orally daily for three months. Body weight was measured, biochemical effects were evaluated and histomorphometrical examination of the distal parts of the tibia. The results obtained revealed that OVX – treated rats exhibited a dose- dependent improvement in all measured parameters; body weight, biochemical markers, histomorphometic changes compared to non treated OVX-control group. Furthermore, combination of both plant extracts produced near results to that of alendronate improvement on biochemical markers and on cortical and trabecular bone thickness and this was a dose –dependent. Therefore, the present study clearly demonstrated that the extracts of Sophora Japonica and Calligonum Comosum have the potential for being used as alternative or supplement therapy for osteoporosis.

[Laila Sabry, Mai Abdul Sattar, Hanan Ali Amin, and Essam Abdel Sattar..Antiosteoporotic Effect of Some Herbal Extracts versus Alendronate on an Animal Model of Osteoporosis. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):177-187]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23

 

Key wards: Osteoporosis, Sophora japonica, Calligonum comosum and Alendronate.

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The model particle with torsion for 4 dimensional null Cartan curves

 

Nevin Grbz

 

Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Mathematics and Computer Sciences Department

ngurbuz@ogu.edu.tr

 

Abstract: We study the model whose Lagrangian depend the torsion of the particle path for null Cartan curves in Lorentzian space .

[Nevin Grbz. The model particle with torsion for 4 dimensional null Cartan curves. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):188-190]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24

 

Keywords:  Lorentzian space, Cartan curves, null.

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Hepatic and renal tissue damages induced by Cerastes cerastes gasperetti crude venom

 

Mohamed K. Al-Sadoon1,*, Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim2, Diab MS2 and Amira A. Bauomy2

 

1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Zoology & Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

msadoon@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Snakebite remains an important medical problem in both developing and developed countries because; it is an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Viper snakes are widely distributed in desert areas; the Cerastes cerastes gasperetti is one member of the family Viperidae where their bites are a serious threat to life and since Cerastes cerastes gasperetti venom has received little interest, this study was designed to investigate the effect of LD50 of Cerastes cerastes gasperetti crude venom on histopathological changes as well as on some important serum and tissue homogenates (liver and kidney) parameters. In addition, Cerastes cerastes gasperetti crude venom caused hepatic and renal injuries as indicated by histopathological changes in the liver and kidney tissues. Serum ALT, AST activities, total bilirubin, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were all increased. On contrary, serum levels of ALP, γ-GT, albumin, uric acid and glucose were decreased as a result of envenomation. Kidney and liver lipid profile levels, glycogen content in kidney were also decreased, in contrast, glycogen content in liver and LDH activity in renal and hepatic homogenates expressed an increment as a result. On the basis of the above results it can hypothesize that Cerastes cerastes gasperetti crude venom is potent toxin-mediated hepatorenal toxicity and causes disturbance in carbohydrates and lipids metabolism.

[Al-Sadoon MK, Abdel Moneim AE, Diab MM, Bauomy AA. Hepatic and renal tissue damages induced by Cerastes cerastes gasperetti crude venom. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):191-197] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25

 

Keywords: Cerastes cerastes gasperetti; histopathology; serum biochemical; liver, kidney

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Comparative analysis of red blood cell membrane proteins that are targets for protozoan merozoite invasion in different animal species

 

Michelo Syakalima1, Victor C. Zulu2, Martin Simuunza2,  Mathew Nyirenda1

 

1. North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, Department of Animal Health Studies, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho. South Africa.

2. University of Zambia, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Disease Control, P.O Box 32379, Lusaka, . Zambia.

Michelo.Syakalima@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Erythrocyte membrane protein Band 3 and the sialoglycoproteins are implicated in what are termed as sialic acid independent and sialic acid dependent invasion mechanisms of apicomplexan merozoites, respectively. The efficiency of invasion of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) by these parasites is known to differ across species and the putative reason for this variation is the status of these proteins in the different species. This study examined physical factors of these target receptors in a number of species to appreciate some of the RBC related attributes that may influence the invasion efficiency. The apparent molecular weights and relative quantities of protein band 3 were determined as well as the sialoglycoproteins in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly-Acramide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels stained with Coomasie blue and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) stain, respectively. The total sialic acid content of the membranes was also determined in each species. ANOVA using StatView 4.5J was used for statistical levels. The apparent molecular weights (kD) of band 3 were recorded and so were the relative quantities (%) of the protein in the same species. There were significant differences of apparent molecular weights in all species except between deer, cow and dog; and between cow and dog. As for the relative quantities there were significant differences in all species except between deer, cow, dog and sheep; cow, dog and sheep; and dog and sheep. As for the total sialic acid content (%) of the RBC membranes there were significant differences in most species except between cow and horse; deer and horse; and llama and humans.

This study showed the physical differences in the target RBC receptors responsible for apicomplexan merozoite invasion in different animal species and thus highlights their potential to influence merozoite parasite invasion efficiency.

[ Syakalima M, Zulu V.C, Simuunza M, Nyirenda M. Comparative analysis of red blood cell membrane proteins that are targets for protozoan merozoite invasion in different animal species. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):198-203] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

 

Keywords: Erythrocyte membrane protein band 3, Sialic acid

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Association between Oral Submucosal Fibrosis and Habitual Gutka and Pan Usage

 

* Masoomeh Shirzaii, **Maryam Hormozy, ***Javid Dehghan Haghighi, ****Mani Javadimehr,

 

 *Dentist, Faculty Member of Dental College, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

**Faculty Member of College of Health Science, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

***J Faculty Member of Dept. of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

 ****M.S. Faculty Member of School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Corresponding Author Address: Maryam Hormozy, M.Sc, Faculty Member of College of Health Science, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Telephone: +985412419406. Fax: +985412419406. Mobile: +989151912196,

E-mail: hormozym.@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition caused by the use of areca nut in various forms. There are few reports on areca nut use and OSF in Chabahar, south Iran. In this descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study 397 users of Pan / Gutka (products contain areca nut) were studied to survey the oral submucosal fibrosis. The criterion of diagnosis of OSF in this study was the limitations of mouth opening and stiff fibrotic bands within the mucosa. Information about the amount of consumption, kind of substance used, and duration of consumption was mentioned in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed and studied by, SPSS 14, c hi-square test. Of 397 Pan (Areca nut) / Gutka consumers (391 men and 6 women), 70 participants (17.63%) men and one woman (0.25%) were affected by OSF. The risk of OSF in Gutka consumers (20%) was more than pan users (17.54%). Duration, dose and frequency of consumption were significantly associated with OSF occurrence (p< 0.05). Recent study indicated strong relationship between consumption of products containing areca nut with OSF.

[Masoomeh Shirzaii, Maryam Hormozy, Javid Dehghan Haghighi, Mani Javadimehr. Association between Oral Submucosal Fibrosis and Habitual Gutka and Pan Usage. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):204-209] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27

 

Key words: areca nut, pan, oral, Submucosa fibrosis, betel quid.

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Solving Fractional Vibrational Problem Using Restarted Fractional Adomian’s Decomposition Method

 

Jamshad Ahmad and Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, HITEC University Taxila Cantt Pakistan

jamshadahmadm@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, the proposed Restarted Fractional Adomian’s Decomposition Method (RFADM) is applied to obtain the analytical approximate solutions to the time fractional vibration equation. The fractional derivative are described in the Modified Remann-Liouville sense. The proposed  method  performs extremely well in terms of efficiency and simplicity. The effectiveness and good accuracy of method is verified by the numerical results. Numerical results are presented graphically.

[Jamshad Ahmad and Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din. Solving Fractional Vibrational Problem Using Restarted Fractional Adomian’s Decomposition Method. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):210-216]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

 

Keywords: Fractional differential equation; Modified Remann-Liouville derivative; Fractional vibration equation; wave velocity.

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The Effectiveness of the Peer Mediation Model on Empowering Primary School Students in Conflict Resolution

 

1Hamideh Jorbozeh, 2Tahereh Dehdari, 3Akbar Hassanzadeh, 4*Mohammad .H. Taghdisi,  5A. Fatemeh Hosseini

 

1,2,4Health Education & Promotion Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Teharn, Iran.

3Biostatistics & Epidemiology Department, Esfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

5Biostatistics & Epidemiology Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

*m-taghdisi@tums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation (CRPM) training on empowering 10-11-year-old primary school students in resolving interpersonal conflicts during 2011-2012 in Tehran (Iran). Participants and methods: The participants were fourth- and fifth graders from a mid- socioeconomic status school. A quasi-experimental design was used. The experimental group was consisted of 122 students and the control group  included 153 students. All the fourth and fifth graders in the experimental group received training. Report forms were filled by both groups before and after training. Results: After the intervention 152 conflicts were reported by students in the experimental group. Out of which, 125 (82.2%) resulted in wise-agreement (win-win) and 27 (17.8%) resulted in no mutual agreement. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that CRPM training was an effective strategy in empowering primary school students associated with interpersonal conflicts resolution.

[Hamideh Jorbozeh, Tahereh Dehdari, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Mohammad H. Taghdisi, A. Fatemeh Hosseini. The Effectiveness of the Peer Mediation Model on Empowering Primary School Students in Conflict Resolution. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):217-222]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29

 

Keywords: Peace education, Peer mediation, Empowerment, Conflict resolution, Primary school children.

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Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among Umm Al- Qura University Students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: A cross -section study

 

Samaa S. Elsoadaa1*, Amany M. Abdelhafez 1,2, Naeem M. Rabeh3, Seham E. Zahran1,4, Mostafa M. H. Osfor1

 

1 Department of clinical nutrition, Faculty of applied medical sciences, Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia

2 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

3 Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Home Economic Faculty, Helwan University, Egypt.

4 Department of Food Hygiene and Control, Animal Health Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

dr.samaaelsoadaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The health benefits of adequate fruits and vegetables (FV) consumption are significant and documented. Moreover, increased fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with reduction in the development of chronic diseases. The main objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of fruit and vegetables intake among Umm Al-Qura University students, and to identify the epidemiological factors associated with low level of consumption of FV. Subjects and methods: A cross- sectional study was carried among 703 students of Umm Al- Qura University (109 males, 594females) based on self-administered questionnaire composed of: demographic- socio- economic data, anthropometric measurements, physical activities, medical history (of the students and their parents) and dietary assessment including: 24hr recall to assess FV consumption. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS V 16). Result: About 13.8% of males and 38.6% of females consume FV greater than or equal to five serving a day, indicating a gap of approximately 25 % between the males and females. Also, the parents' educational level was affecting positively the consumption of FV. Low FV consumption tended to decrease with low monthly income. Conclusions: Factors associated with higher level of intake of FV were female gender, higher educational level, and higher monthly income.

[Samaa S. Elsoadaa, Amany M. Abdelhafez, Naeem M. Rabeh, Seham E. Zahran, Mostafa M. H. Osfor. Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among Umm Al- Qura University Students: A cross- section study. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):223-231]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30

 

Keywords: fruits, vegetables, consumption, 24hr recall.

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Synergy of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System Potentiate the Growth of Tomato Genotypes under Cadmium Stress

 

Shamsul Hayat1,2, Syed Aiman Hasan3, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni1 and Aqil Ahmad2

 

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

3College of Science and Technology, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

hayat_68@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Ten varieties of tomato has been screened against four concentration of cadmium (3, 6, 9, 12 mg/kg) amended in soil on the basis of their photosynthetic performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities to ascertain the resistant and sensitive type. Cadmium inhibited the growth of all the varieties of tomato in concentration dependent manner. The highest concentration (12 mg /kg of soil) was most toxic and at these concentration three varieties namely NBR-Uttam, Malti and S-22 could not germinate. The variety K-25 was proved to be most resistant and grow even at highest concentration and the variety S-22 is the most sensitive one because it could not germinate even at lower concentration.

[Shamsul Hayat, Syed Aiman Hasan, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni and Aqil Ahmad. Synergy of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System Potentiate the Growth of Tomato Genotypes under Cadmium Stress. Life Sci. J. 2013; 10(4):232-240]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31

 

Keywords: Antioxidant; cadmium; photosynthesis; tomato

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Effect of Ethanol Ingestion in The Pregnant Albino Rat on The Development of Pyramidal Neurons

 

Allam A1,2*, Abdul-Hamid M2

 

1. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

2. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-suef University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The current study shows the effect of low dose of diluted ethyl alcohol (0.5 ml of 33% ethyl alcohol) on cerebral cortex neurons in albino rat pups. The pups were divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E, each of 15 animals. Neuronal loss, oedema, pyknotic cells, vacuolation, neurocyte chromatolysis and dilated blood vessels were observed in cerebral cortex of the treated pups. The intensity of Nissl granules were reduced in the treated groups. In conclusion, the present study showed that alcohol ingestion by pregnant dams at low dose lead to pathological alterations in the pups in addition to retardation of pyramidal neurons in the treated groups depending on the duration of alcohol exposure. So, the most affected group was group B.

[Allam AA, Abdul-Hamid M. Effect of Ethanol Ingestion in the Pregnant Albino Rat on The Development of Pyramidal Neurons. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):241-247] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

 

Key words: pyramidal neurons; ethanol; cerebrum; histopathology; alcohol

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Effect of Urografin on the Kidney of Adult Female Albino Rat and the Possible Protective Role of Nebivolol: A Morphological and Ultrastructural Study

 

Mohamed Emad 1, Al-Moatassem-Bellah Mohamed El-Sherif 1, Maha Khaled Abd-El Wahed 2 and Radwa Mohammed Ahmed 2

 

Anatomy and Embryology Departments, Faculties of Medicine, Cairo University 1 and Fayoum University 2.

dr.mahakhald@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Contrast- induced nephropathy (CIN) means impairment of renal functions occurring within 48-72 hours following intravascular administration of contrast media with the absence of alternative cause. Urografin is one of the most commonly used high-osmolar contrast agents. It induces its nephrotoxic effects via different mechanisms. Nebivolol is a selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, used as a prophylactic agent for CIN for several reasons. The present work was designed to study the histological and ultrastructural changes in the kidney of the adult female albino rat following intravenous administration of urografin and the possible protective role of nebivolol if used concomitantly with urografin. Material and Methods: Fifty adult female albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into five groups, ten rats each; group І (normal control), group П (dehydrated sham) dehydrated for 3 days, group Ш (dehydrated nebivolol treated) dehydrated for 3 days and received nebivolol by oral route at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg for 5 days, group ІV(dehydrated contrast medium administration) dehydrated for 3 days and injected urografin intravenously at a dose of 6 ml/kg at day 4, groupV (dehydrated contrast medium and nebivolol administration) dehydrated for 3 days, received nebivolol by oral route at a dose of 2 mg/kg for consecutive 5 days and injected urografin intravenously at a dose of 6ml/kg at day4.Twenty four hours after the end of the experiment, all animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. Both kidneys were excised and prepared for either light microscopic or transmission electron microscopic studies. Results: Administration of urografin to dehydrated rats resulted in severe nephrotoxic changes both in cortex and medulla. These findings were supported by ultrastructural study of glumeruli, proximal convoluted tubules and medullary thick ascending loop of Henle. Concomitant administration of nebivolol afford a partial protection to renal glomeruli and the renal tubules. Conclusion: Urografin administration caused significant alterations in the renal histological structure. Concomitant administration of nebivolol affords a partial protection against urografin-induced nephrotoxicity due to its vasodilator and antioxidant effects. It can be recommended to use nebivolol to protect against urografin-induced nephropathy especially in patients who undergo coronary angiography.

[Mohamed Emad, Al-Moatassem-Bellah Mohamed El-Sherif, Maha Khaled Abd-El Wahed and Radwa Mohammed Ahmed. Effect of Urografin on the Kidney of Adult Female Albino Rat and the Possible Protective Role of Nebivolol: A Morphological and Ultrastructural Study. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):248-261]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33

 

Key Words: Contrast-induced nephropathy, Urografin, Nebivolol, Kidney, Female rats

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Effect of Corm Weight on Saffron Production in Saudi Arabia

 

Mahmoud Sharaf-Eldin1,2, Jos-Antonio Fernandez3, Abdulrahman Al-Khedhairi1 and Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed*4,5

 

1 Salman bin Abdulaziz University (SAU), College of Science and Humanities, P.O. Box 83, 11942 Alkharj, Saudi Arabia

2 National Research Centre (NRC), Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 33 Elbehooth St., 12622 Cairo, Egypt

3 University of Castilla-La Mancha, School of Agronomy (ETSIA) & Group of Biotechnology (IDR), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete, Spain

4 King Saud University, College of Science, Zoology Department, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

5 National Research Centre, Department of Natural & Microbial Products, 33 Elbehooth St., 12622 Cairo, Egypt

*eaelsayed@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Saudi Arabia is one of the highest consuming countries for saffron spice. In year 2009; the price for one kg of saffron spice in the local market reached 18,000 SR (˜US$ 5,000). We report, for the first time, the cultivation of saffron in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), in particular at Alkharj Governorate. The effect of corm weight on saffron production was investigated under Alkharj governorate cultivation conditions. Corms of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) of Spanish origin (accession #: BCU001584 from Minaya, Albacete, Spain) were provided by Professor J.A. Fernndez (Albacete, Spain). Three different corm weights (fresh weight) as CW1: >10g, CW2: ≥5g - ≤10g and CW3: <5g were studied. The higher weight of saffron corms increased the number of leaves per corm. The maximum mean values of leaf length were obtained as a result of lesser weight of saffron corms weighing <5g. The highest number of sprouts was observed with the use of saffron corms weighing >10g. None of the three corm weights produced saffron flowers, which might be due to the late planting in December, while the flowering period is mainly in November. Daughter corms have been produced by the three different corm weights. The higher weight of saffron mother corms increased the number of daughter corms, up to three daughter corms per mother corm were produced by the end of May.

[Sharaf-Eldin M, Fernandez J-A, Al-Khedhairi A, Elsayed EA. Effect of Corm Weight on Saffron Production in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):262-265] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

 

Keywords: Corm weight; Crocus sativus; Daughter corms; Saffron

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Method for the Controlled Environment Pressure Measuring

 

Anton Alexandrovich Sinitsyn

 

Vologda State Technical University, Razina Street, 25-2, 160029, Vologda, Russian Federation

london_690@mail.ru

 

Abstract: In this paper we propose a new method of studying the nature of the vibration component for the pressure change over time for the energy device that permits to work out the start-stop mode, run mode of the continuous operation and the shutdown of the energy device, the transient modes, when you change the basic (a resonance frequency, a flow and composition of fuel and air) and additional (a fuel pressure, a working medium temperature) operation parameters of the energy device, gives you the opportunity to register and process the measurement results to compare the frequency characteristics at various points of the devices working space, to evaluate the presence of defects in their work. The literary and the patent survey have showed that this method is not currently used, and the devices implementing such a method, are not available on the measuring devices market. The application of measuring complex based on the proposed method, will allow us to try out engineering technique of the design and verification calculations of the devices based on a vibrating, pulsating or detonation fuel combustion, and to apply the energy efficient devices of the energy complex for the further branch development. The author has identified the main problems of the pilot plant development for the measuring complex, the character of the vibration component for the pressure change over time for the energy device, and also the numerical and full-scale tests were carried out. The prototype of measuring complex that implements all the features of this method was developed. The tests on the operating boiler of intermittent burning PV-400, installed in the hot water boiler house in one of the academic buildings of the Vologda State Technical University were made. Based on the simulation results were developed the recommendations on improving the design technology of the pulsating combustion boilers. The results were transmitted and implemented at the enterprise, which produces such boiler units. This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

[Sinitsyn A.A. Method for the Controlled Environment Pressure Measuring. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):266-272] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

 

Keywords: a vibration characteristic, an environmental pressure, an intermittent burning, a frequency diagram, energy efficiency.

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The European Experience in Waste Management

 

Leonid Ivanovich Sokolov and Svetlana Mikhailovna Kibardina

 

Vologda State Technical University, Lenin Street, 15, 160000, Vologda, Russian Federation

post559473@mail.ru

 

Abstract: The overall situation in waste management in the EU in connection with coming into effect of Framework Directive of 2008 that changed the approach to waste management is analyzed in the article. The experience of Germany in the area of waste management, in particular, waste management policy, the organization of waste collection and waste disposal is analyzed in detail. Special attention is paid to preventing the occurrence of waste and recycling waste, including waste from landfills, in different industries; the effectiveness of different forms of waste utilization. A new approach to understanding production waste is presented. The process of consolidation in the EU for joint problem solving in waste utilization is shown. The evaluation of the situation in Russia is given and the conclusion about the necessity to use the European experience in waste management is drawn. The adherence to the principle of responsibility for Russia for the production collection and recycling after using it and the necessity to develop technical legislation in the area of waste management by taking into consideration the European regulations is manifested.

[Sokolov L.I., Kibardina S.M. The European Experience in Waste Management. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):273-278] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36

 

Keywords: waste management, the EU Waste Framework Directive, waste utilization, recycling, deposition.

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Evaluation of the Impact of Old Refuse Dumps for Industrial Wastes on Groundwater Quality and Sanitation of Dumps

 

Leonid Ivanovich Sokolov

 

Vologda State Technical University, Lenin Street, 15, 160000, Vologda, Russian Federation

post559473@mail.ru

 

Abstract: The demand for comprehensive monitoring of hazardous wastes at dumps and landfills using a network of monitoring wells constructed in the sanitary protection zones is proved in this paper. The quality of drainage water entering the environment from old landfills and dumps is reported. The effect of pollution on groundwater quality in technological accumulations of industrial wastes of an old landfill of a machine-building plant is studied. The method for assessing the security conditions of pressure water depending on filtration duration of contaminated water from the first aquifer to the pressure horizon for an aquiclude distributing these horizons is shown. The flow rate of polluted water in a stratum under the action of natural underground water flow is calculated. The area of possible soil and water pollution with time is calculated with allowance for soil porosity. The isolation scheme for a landfill having no basic isolation is elaborated. The sanitation method for old landfills and industrial dumps is shown. An alternative to the old landfills with the controlled pollutant leaks is presented.

[Sokolov L.I. Evaluation of the Impact of Old Refuse Dumps for Industrial Wastes on Groundwater Quality and Sanitation of Dumps. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):279-285] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

 

Keywords: landfill, dump, sanitation, wastes, sludge, groundwater.

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Anti-inflammatory Activity and Acute Toxicity (LD50) of Some New Synthesized Pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)-2-methoxybenzamide and Thieno[2,3-b]pyridine Derivatives

 

Mohamed M. Abdulla1, Abd El-Galil E. Amr2,3,*, Mohamed A. Al-Omar2, Azza A. Hussain4 and Ahmed F. A. Shalaby4

 

1 Research Unit, Saco Pharm. Co., 6th October City 11632, Egypt

2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

3Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

4Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gizza, Egypt

Aeamr1963@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In continuation of our previous work, a series of substituted pyridine derivatives (3-12) were synthesized according to our previous reported procedures using chalcone derivatives 2a-c as starting materials. The pharmacological screening showed that many of these obtained compounds have good anti-inflammatory activities comparable to Prednisolone as a reference drug. Initially the acute toxicity of the compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD50. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS spectral data and elemental analysis. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data, LD50 and pharmacological activities of the synthesized compounds were reported.

[Mohamed M. Abdulla, Abd El-Galil E. Amr, Mohamed A. Al-Omar, Azza A. Hussain and Ahmed F. A. Shalaby. Anti-inflammatory Activity and Acute Toxicity (LD50) of Some New Synthesized Pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)-2-methoxybenzamide and Thieno[2,3-b]pyridine Derivatives. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):286-297] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

 

Keywords. Chalcones; cyanopyridone; cyanoaminopyridine; thienopyridine; anti-inflammatory activities.

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Effectiveness and safety review by using ropivacaine and bupivacaine in patients with spinal anesthesia: a meta-analysis

 

Du Guang-sheng1, Tu Wen-long1*, Hu Chong-hui1, Ye Ling1, Chen Yuan-liang1, Huang Xiao-xia1

 

1Department of Anesthesiology, Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 321000, China.

wenl_tu@163.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ropivacaine in spinal anesthesia. Methods: Methods: We electronically searched the Chinese academic journals database (1990-2012) and medline (1990-2012). Results: The meta-analysis included 6 trials from 82 studies,a total of 215 patients were included in the analysis. The results of meta-analyses showed that the motor-block time to complete block of ropivacaine was significantly shorter than that of bupivacaine (WMD=1.22 min, 95%CI (0.41, 2.02), P=0.02))The motor-block time to complete recovery of ropivacaine was significantly shorter than that of bupivacaine for cesarean delivery in spinal anesthesia (SMD=-66.59, 95%CI (-72.88, -60.30), P=0.004). Conclusion: Equivalent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine provide similar analgesia in spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. However, haemodynamics in spinal anesthesia with ropivacaine fluctuate lightlier than with bupivacaine. Ropivacaine is suitable for spinal anesthesia in low—abdominal operations.

[Du Guang-sheng, Tu Wen-long, Hu Chong-hui, Ye Ling, Chen Yuan-liang, Huang Xiao-xia. Effectiveness and safety review by using ropivacaine and bupivacaine in patients with spinal anesthesia: a meta-analysis. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):298-301] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39

 

Key words: Ropivacaine; Bupivacaine; Spinal anesthesia; Meta-analysis.

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A Fifth-order Numerical Convergence for Linear Volterra Integro-differential Equation

 

Ali FILIZ1, Ali ISIK1, Mehmet EKICI2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Adnan Menderes University, 09010 AYDIN-Turkey

2. Department of Mathematics, Bozok University, 66100 Yozgat-Turkey

E-mail: afiliz@adu.edu.tr

 

Abstract: In this paper a new fifth-order numerical solution of linear Volterra integro-differential equation is discussed. Example of this question has been solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Verner method for Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) part and Newton-Cotes formulae (quadrature rules) for integral parts. Finally, a new fifth-order routine is devised for numerical solution of the linear Volterra integro-differential equation.

[FILIZ A, ISIK A, EKICI M. A Fifth-order Numerical Convergence for Linear Volterra Integro-differential Equation. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):302-309] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

 

Keywords: A fifth-order accuracy; Lagrange polynomial interpolating; quadrature formulae; Runge-Kutta methods; Volterra integro-differential equation.

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Trust and Reputation Analysis in Fading Wireless Sensor Network Channel

 

Rami Al-Hmouz 1, Mohammed Momani 2, Maen Takruri 3

 

1. King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

2. University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

3. American University of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE

ralhmouz@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This paper introduces a Trust model and a Reputation System for wireless sensor nodes in fading multi paths channel. The proposed model establishes the continuous version of the Beta Reputation System applied to binary events. In doing so, we introduce a theoretically sound Bayesian probabilistic approach for mixing second hand information from neighboring nodes with directly observed information. A Trust model in a wireless sensor network addresses the security issue and how to deal with possibly malicious and unreliable nodes. Although encryption and cryptography keys are used, these deterministic approaches fail to answer the problem of securing the routing and content of information through a network. Reputation systems are developed to combine with deterministic measures to secure the integrity of a network. Previous research focused on binary transactions in a network, such as routing. This paper introduces Trust model for continuous data in multi paths fading channel.

[Al-Hmouz R, Momani M, Takruri M. Trust and Reputation Analysis in Fading Wireless Sensor Network Channel. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):310-318] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 41

 

Keywords: Trust management; fading channel Sensor network.

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The Proposal of a Novel Software Testing Framework

 

Munib Ahmad 1, Fuad Bajaber 2, M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi 2

 

1. Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

2. Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

munib_kamboh@ciitlahore.edu.pk, fbajaber@kau.edu.sa, rmuhammd@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Software testing is normally used to check the validity of a program. Test oracle performs an important role in software testing. The focus in this research is to perform class level test by introducing a testing framework. A technique is developed to generate test oracle for specification-based software testing using Vienna Development Method (VDM++) formal language. A three stage translation process, of VDM++ specifications of container classes to C++ test oracle classes, is described in this paper. It is also presented that how derived test oracle is integrated into a proposed functional testing framework. This technique caters object oriented features such as inheritance and aggregation, but concurrency is not considered in this work. Translation issues, limitations and evaluation of the technique are also discussed. The proposed approach is illustrated with the help of popular triangle problem case study.

[Ahmed M, Fuad B, Qureshi MRJ. The Proposal of a Novel Software Testing Framework. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):319-326] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42

 

Keywords: Framework; Testing; Software Reliability; Test Oracle.

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Monoamine Oxidase A and B Inhibitors of Some Synthesized Heterocyclic Derivatives and Their Structure Activity Relationships

 

Mohamed M. Abdulla1, Mohamed A. Al-Omar2 and Abd El-Galil E. Amr2,3,*

 

1 Research Unit, Saco Pharm. Co., 6th October City 11632, Egypt

2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

3 Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

* aeamr1963@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We herein report the monoamine oxidases A and B inhibitors of some synthesized substituted pyrimidines, thiazolopyrimidines and pyrazoles derivatives. Seventeen pyrimidine, thiazolo-pyrimidine, pyrazole, and pyridine derivatives 1-17 containing a carboxamide, ester, amide and ketone groups attached to a heterocyclic moiety synthesized and screened for their monoamine oxidases A and B inhibitors activities. The newly synthesized derivatives containing pyrimidine, thiazolopyrimidine, pyrazole, and pyridine moieties linked with different function groups considered as a lead for potent monoamine oxidases A and B inhibitors agents. The detailed synthetic pathways of obtained compounds and monoamine oxidases A and B inhibitors were reported.

[Mohamed M. Abdulla, Mohamed A. Al-Omar and Abd El-Galil E. Amr. Monoamine Oxidase A and B Inhibitors of Some Synthesized Heterocyclic Derivatives and Their Structure Activity Relationships. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):327-335] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43

 

Keywords: 5-Chloroanisic acid; Pyrimidines; Thiazolopyrimidine; monoamine oxidases A and B inhibitors; SAR.

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Mothers’ Experience of Caring For Their Hospitalized Child in Jordan's Hospitals

 

Raghad  H. AbdelKader1; Diana H. Arabiat2, Lubna A. Abushaihka3 and Inshirah qadri4

 

Maternal and Child Health Department, Faculty of Nursing, the University of Jordan, Jordan

r.abdelkader@ju.edu, jor.abdelkader96@yahoo.com, i.qadri@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: Background: Parents' presence near their hospitalized child has been recognized to be important for both child and parents. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences when their child was admitted to the hospital and to capture the mothers’ perspective of their participation. Material and Method: A phenomenological hermeneutic design was adapted to capture mothers' experiences of her child's hospitalization and her participation. Conversational style interviews were conducted with mothers of 8 children at the pediatric ward of a tertiary metropolitan hospital in Amman. Results: The major categories that illustrated the mothers' experiences of participation in their childcare included reasons for staying with the child, impact on family’s routine, expectations of nurses, and comments on facility provisions. Discussion: Our findings highlight high needs among mothers for participation in caring of their hospitalized children, in addition to their needs for communication. Mothers in this study believed that accompanying their hospitalized child is an unconditional aspect of being a parent and hold a strong desire for participation. Overall, these findings showed diminishing levels of emotional and practical support to the mothers at a time when the need for support and communication was likely greater; therefore, nurses should take the initiative in assessing these needs and in supporting them accordingly.

[Raghad H. Abdel Kader; Diana H. Arabiat, Lubna A. Abushaihkaand Inshirah qadri. Mothers’ Experience of Caring For Their Hospitalized Child in Jordan's Hospitals. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):336-342] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44

 

Keywords: hospitalized children, parents' participation, parents' experience.

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Effect of melatonin on the oxidative stress induced by the food additive (C.I. Food Yellow 3) on some blood parameters and antioxidant enzymes in male rat kidney

 

Dalia Fouad1,2, Hessa Alobaid1 and Abdulaziz A. Al-Jafary3

 

1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University. P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh 11459, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ein Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

3Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Riyadh 11459, Saudi Arabia

dibrahim@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Many azo dye derivatives are used as food colourants in a number of products. The use of some food additives, however, has been restricted or totally prohibited because of concerns about cytotoxic effects. There is a new trend to use antioxidants to neutralise the suspected effects of food additives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of melatonin in terms of reducing the cytotoxicity induced by the food colour additive C.I. Food Yellow 3 (CIFY3) in male rats (Rattus norvegicus). This evaluation was achieved through the measurement of different haematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation, as well as histological examination of the kidney. Rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each: group 1, control; group 2, CIFY3-treated; group 3, melatonin-treated and group 4, melatonin- and CIFY3-treated. Groups 2-4 were repeatedly gavaged with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) of CIFY3, 10 mg/kg bw of melatonin or both for three weeks. The study examined abnormalities in weight gain, hair colour and density, and changes in haematological parameters. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBAS), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the histological appearance of the kidney were also evaluated. The results revealed marked decreases in the percentage of body weight gain, white blood cell (WBC) counts and haemoglobin (Hb) content, whereas no significant changes were observed in red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), haematocrit value (Hct) or mean corpuscular volume (MCV). CIFY3 produced cytotoxic effects, as indicated by increases in TBAS levels, SOD activity and renal damage, whereas the catalase level was not affected. The results also indicated that oral melatonin administration significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect induced by CIFY3 through increase in WBC counts, Hb content and SOD activity, besides a decrease in TBAS levels, weight gain, hair colour and density which supports the use of supplemental melatonin as a chemopreventive antioxidant agent.

[Fouad D, Alobaid H, Al-Jafary. Effect of melatonin on the oxidative stress induced by the food additive (C.I. Food Yellow 3) on some blood parameters and antioxidant enzymes in male rat kidney. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):343-350] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45

 

Keywords: Melatonin; C.I. Food Yellow 3; SOD; catalase; lipid peroxidation; kidney haematological parameters; male albino rat.

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Synthesis and Reactions of Some New Substituted 3b-Hydroxyandrostan-17-Ones and Their Derivatives

 

Mohamed M. Abdulla1, Abd El-Galil E. Amr2, 3,*, Mohamed A. Al-Omar2, Azza A. Hussain4 and Mohamed S. Amer4

 

1Research Unit, Saco Pharm. Co., 6th October City 11632, Egypt

2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

3Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

4 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazige University, Zagazige Egypt

aeamr1963@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. A series of androstano[17,16-c] pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized using arylmethylene of 3b-hydroxyandrostan-17-one derivatives 1a-e, which were protected by stirring with acetyl chloride to give acetate derivatives 2a-e. Compounds 2a-d was treated with hydrazine hydrate to afford the 17-hydrazino-androstane derivatives 3a-d and 4a-d, which were cyclized by trifluoroborane-etherate to yield androstanopyrazolines 5a-d. Treatment of 2a-d with refluxing hydrazine hydrate in propionic acid gave N-propionylpyrazoline derivatives 6a-d. Similarly, compounds 1a,c,e were protected by stirring with trifluoroacetic anhydride to give 3b-trifluoroacetate derivatives 7a-c, which was treated with hydrazine hydrate in refluxing ethanol or methanol to afford 17-hydrazino-androstane derivatives 8a-c and 9a-c. Compounds 8a-c and 9a-c were cyclized in refluxing trifluoroborane-etherate to yield androstanopyrazoline derivatives 10a-c. Finally, condensation of 7a-c with refluxing hydrazine hydrate in propionic acid gave N-propionyl pyrazoline derivatives 11a-c, respectively.

[Mohamed M. Abdulla. Abd El-Galil E. Amr, Mohamed A. Al-Omar, Azza A. Hussain and Mohamed S. Amer. Synthesis and Reactions of Some New Substituted 3b-Hydroxyandrostan-17-Ones and Their Derivatives Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):351-361] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46

 

Keywords: Synthesis, Androstane, Arylidines, Pyrazoline derivatives.

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Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Some New Substituted5, 7- Diiodo-8-Hydroxy Quinoline Derivatives

 

Hoda H. Fahmy1, Nagy M. Khalifa1,2,*, Dalal A. Abou El Ella3, Mohamed A. Ismail3, Noha M. Mostafa1 and Abdelhamid A. Hamdy4

 

1Department of Therapeutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, king Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudia Arabia.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of pharmacy,Ain Shams University, Egypt

4Department of Microbiology, Natural and Microbial Products, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622, Cairo, Egypt nagykhalifa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A series of new quinoline derivatives incorporating chalcone, pyrazoleand pyridine moieties using 5, 7- diiodo-8-hydroxy quinolineas starting material have been synthesized and tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillusniger. Some of the tested compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity and the results suggest that [Ethyl 3-(5,7-diiodoquinolin-8-yloxy) propanoate]would be potent antifungal activity aganistA. niger, havinginhibitionzonestwo times more thanthe standard drug (Nystatin)and might thus provide a new class of lead structures in the search for novel antifungal agents.

[Hoda H. Fahmy, Nagy M. Khalifa, Dalal A. Abou El Ella, Mohamed A. Ismail, Noha M. Mostafa andAbdelhamid A. Hamdy. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Some New Substituted5, 7- Diiodo-8-Hydroxy Quinoline Derivatives. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):362-368] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 47

 

Keywords: Diiodo-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives; Antimicrobial agents; Antifungal activities.

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Comparison Study of Sensitivity Between Three Sensors to Detect Partial Discharge on Natural Palm Oil

 

 M.A. Alsaidi*, MM Yaacob, Ahmed Resan, Abdullah J. H. Al Gizi, N. Kamaruddin and S. Hadji

 

Institute of High Voltage and High Current, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi

Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

maliksaady@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: High-voltage transformer is the most critical and expensive component in a power system network in order to ensure the stability of the system. Partial discharge (PD) detection is a technique widely used for high voltage equipment insulation condition monitoring and assessment. Many researchers have used acoustic emissions (AE) at the vicinity of the discharge zones to detect PD. This paper compares the sensitivity of multimode fiber optical sensor step-index (MMF-SI)and multimode fiber optical sensor graded-index (MMF-GI) with piezoelectric film sensor (PZT). The fiber optical sensor (FOS) and PZT sensors were immersed in an oil tank fitted with two steel electrodes which were connected to different values of high voltage source. The experimental results show that three sensors have peculiar characteristics for the detection of AE and could be used as alternative detection devices.

[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):369-372] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48

 

Keywords: optical fiber sensor, acoustic emission, piezoelectric sensor, partial discharge, natural palm oil.

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Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid in Prevention of Oxaliplatin Neurological Toxicity

 

Ali M. Gado1, Wael El-Mashad2 and Nehal El-Mashad3

 

1 Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Dept., College of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

2 Physiology Dept., College of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

3 Clinical Oncology Dept., College of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

draligado@riyadh.edu.sadaligado@yahoo.com

 

Background: Oxaliplatin, an effective antineoplastic agent against colorectal tumors, can cause severe peripheral neurotoxicity, which seriously limits its clinical application. To date, there is no effective treatment for this complication. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) been shown to be an effective in the treatment of diabetic distal sensory-motor neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ALA on preventing oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity in patients with colorectal tumors. Methods: In this study, Forty-nine patients with colorectal cancer were treated with Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin and Fluorouracil Regimen (FOLFOX4 protocol). The patients were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group (24 patients) and control group (25 patients). The experimental group received ALA, while no neuroprotective agents were applied in the control group. The incidence rates and classification of neurotoxicity in the two groups were evaluated and the differences between the two groups were examined. Furthermore, the effect of ALA on neuronal electrophysiological parameters was also examined. Results: The grade of neurotoxicity in the experimental group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) after two, four and six cycles of chemotherapy. Interference of daily activity was significantly lower in the ALA group than in the control group. In addition, the evaluation of motor and sensory nerve conductions showed significantly improvement in ALA group compared to the control group. The rate of increment of conduction velocity in ALA group is greater in the sensory nerve than in the motor nerve compared to the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: The data suggested that ALA could reduce the grade of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity and was an effective neuroprotective agent against oxaliplatin-induced high-grade neurotoxicity in patients with colorectal tumors.

[Ali M. Gado, Wael El-Mashadand Nehal El-Mashad. Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid in Prevention of Oxaliplatin Neurological Toxicity. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):373-379] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

 

Keywords: Oxaliplatin, neurotoxicity, Alpha Lipoic acid.

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Potential Precipitating Factors of Variceal Bleeding

 

Gamal F. El Naggar, Mahmod F. Selim, Atef M. Taha, Nashwa M. Nor Eldin, Loai M. Elahwal, Khalid Z. Darwish, Ahmed A. Abo omar

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background and study aim: Variceal bleeding accounts for 10-30% of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and is a major cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. The incidence of chronic liver disease and hence portal hypertension in Egypt is exceptionally high, maintaining the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide, bilharzial periportal fibrosis as well as rising rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this work, we prospectively studied the potential precipitating factors for variceal bleeding in Middle Delta, Egypt. Patients and methods: Four hundred consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to Tanta University Hospital, from April 2011 till October 2011 with endoscopy documented acute variceal bleeding were invited to participate in the study. Our patients were classified into: Group I: 400 Patients with liver cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. Group II: 50 Matched patients with same Child-Pugh class and esophageal varices without bleeding (As a control group). All patients included in the study will be subjected to full history taking with a standard questionnaire regarding constipation, vomiting, cough, and other potential risk factors. Result: Vomiting, constipation and sever cough showed significant statistical increase in bleeding patients than the control group. (P.value < 0.05). The relation between the constipation and vomiting and the recurrence of bleeding was statistically significant. (P value < 0.05). Conclusion: Straining activities and infection could precipitate variceal bleeding episode. Routine vaccination, proper management of infection will reduce bleeding and rebleeding episode in cirrhotic patients with varices.

[Gamal F. El Naggar, Mahmod F. Selim, Atef M. Taha, Nashwa M. Nor Eldin, Loai M. Elahwal, Khalid Z. Darwish, and Ahmed A.Abo omar. Potential Precipitating Factors of Variceal bleeding. Life Sci J 2013; 9(4):380-385]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50

 

Key words: Precipitating factors, variceal bleeding, Cough, constipation, infection.

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Improvement of Carotenoid Pigments Produced by Rhodotorula glutinis

 

Hany M. Yehia1, Ebtesam M. Al- Olayan2, Manal F. Elkhadragy2, Abd-El-Rahman M. Khalaf- Allah3 and Nagwa M. El-Shimi3

 

1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2 Chair Vaccines for Infectious diseases, Women Student Medical Studies & Sciences Sections King Saud University - Building NO: 1 - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University

hanyehia@ksu.edu.sa, hanyyehuia43@yahoo.de

 

Abstract: Wild strain of the red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was isolated from different food sources (dates, milk, sausage, and sugarcane). Trails for studying the carotenoids productivity of this strain [volumetric production (g/l) and cellular carotenoids (g/g)] were carried out using different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, organic acids and mineral salts. The major carotenoid pigments comprising -carotene, torulene and torularhodi. It was found that at 2% glucose the wild strain of R. glutinis gave highest volumetric production (165 g/l). The wild strain of R. glutinis was subjected to mutagenesis using U.V radiation (254 nm) for two minutes. The highest volumetric production (g/l) and cellular carotenoid accumulation (g/g) were 369 g/l and 46 g/g after 96 and 24 hours; respectively.

[Hany M. Yehia, Ebtesam M. Al- Olayan, Manal F. Elkhadragy, Abd-El-Rahman M. Khalaf- Allah and Nagwa M. El-Shimi. Improvement of Carotenoid Pigments Produced by Rhodotorula Glutinis. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):386-400] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51

 

Key words: Rhodotorula glutinis, carotenoid, pigments, U.V radiation.

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Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquid Solution

 

Hisham Imam1, Khaled A.Elsayed2, Lotfi Z. Ismail2, Mostafa Afify2 and M. Atta Khedr1

 

1National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Giza12211

 2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza12211, Egypt

khaleda4@yahoo.com, moustafa_physics@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by laser (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) ablation of a silver target immersed in various concentrations of NaCl solutions as well as in distilled water. The silver nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in distilled water at different experimental parameters. The effect of ablation time on size and aggregation of AgNPs prepared in distilled water was studied. The average size of the produced particles is increased as ablation time increased. As the ablation time increases the intensity of plasmon peak increase indicating the AgNPs concentration increases. As the fluence increases the size of nanoparticles decreases until they reached their critical size below which above this value the nanoparticles begin to agglomerate again and the size increased.

[Hisham Imam, Khaled A. Elsayed, Lotfi Z. Ismail, Mostafa Afify and M. Ata Khedr. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquid solution. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):401-404]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52

 

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Laser ablation.

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Copepod dynamics in the epipelagic zone of two different regional aquatic ecological basins at the northern Red Sea, Egypt

 

Hamed A. El-Serehy1,2*, Nasser S. Abdel-Rahman3, Khaled A Al-Rasheid1, Fahad A. Al-misned1, Hesham M. Shafik4,5, Magdy M.Bahgat5 and Mohamed Gweik1

 

1 Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145 Saudi Arabia

2 Port Said University, Faculty of Science, Marine Science Department, Port Said, Egypt

3 National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries, Suez, Egypt

4 Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Limnoecology Research Group, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Veszprem, Egyetem u. 10, Hungary

5Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Egypt

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed

*helserehy@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to observe the copepod community structure in the oligotrophic habitats of the Gulf of Aqaba. The study investigates the community's temporal and spatial fluctuation and its profile of vertical distribution in sandy habitats when compared to the coral reef habitats of the gulf. Sampling was carried out through four cruises during spring (March 2008), summer (June 2008), autumn (September 2008) and winter (December 2008). Nutrient concentrations were found to be very low. The copepod community of the Gulf of Aqaba was found to be dominated by 81 species. All 81 of these species were encountered in the waters of sandy coasts (Ras Burka and Nuweiba), but, surprisingly, only 51 were found in the waters of the coral reef area (Hibika and Abu Galoum). Seasonal changes in the vertical and horizontal distribution of planktonic copepods are described for a 100 m water column in the Gulf of Aqaba, covering spring, summer, autumn and winter. Four different distribution patterns exemplified by planktonic copepods are highlighted: (1) a horizontal variance, demonstrating an inverse distribution pattern between sandy and coral reef habitats, in which the population density was greater offshore at the coral reef stations, while it was greater inshore at the sandy stations; (2) a vertical distribution pattern in which approximately 50% of the population occurred in the upper 25 m of the water column of the gulf, while less than 10% occurred between the depths of 75 and 100 m; (3) a seasonal distribution pattern in which the copepods exhibited considerable fluctuation in their occurrence and abundance, with a peak in winter (December) and minimum abundance values during summer (September); (4) a site distribution patterns with a peak in population density at the northern stations and a decline southwards. These patterns of copepod distribution in the Gulf of Aqaba suggested a strong influence from local endemic geographic and hydrographic differences, the predation impact of local inhabitants and the policy of "better dead than unfed", but no response to water nutrient levels. It is suggested that copepods in the coral reef habitats of the Gulf of Aqaba serve as a preferable food item for the higher trophic levels of the reef inhabitants.

[El-Serehy HA, Abdel-Rahman NS, Al-Rasheid KA, Al-Misned FA, Shafik HM, Bahgat MM, Gweik M. Copepod dynamics in the epipelagic zone of two different regional aquatic ecological basins at the northern Red Sea, Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):405-412] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53

 

Keywords: Zooplankton, Copepoda, Vertical distribution, Seasonal dynamics, Red Sea.

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MALDI Biotyper Characterization of Microorganisms Colonizing Heating Ventilation Air-Conditioning Systems at a South African Hospital

 

N. J. Malebo *and K. Shale

 

Central University of Technology, Free State, Department of Life Sciences, Private Bag X2053 Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; E-mail: nmalebo@cut.ac.za

 

Abstract: Airborne microbial contaminants can spread from heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) systems resulting in exposure to indoor surfaces and building occupants. Rapid identification of airborne contaminants is a necessity especially in healthcare settings. In the current study, samples were collected from a 5X5 surface area of ventilation grills at a public hospital using swabs. In general bacterial counts were above 12cfu/cm-2 while fungal counts were below 5cfu/cm-2, ranging from clean (<5) to very contaminated (>10). Microbial contaminants were identified and characterized using the MALDI-TOF MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Identified genera included Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Rhodotorula and Penicillium. Microorganisms identified in the current study using the MALDI TOF MS have no reported clinical implications; however, some are potential pathogens due to the presence of immune-compromised patients in these settings. The probable aerosolization of these microorganisms from ventilation systems could result in microorganisms settling on hospital surfaces and possible contamination of medical equipment. The current study also demonstrates the MALDI-TOF MS as a rapid, inexpensive and effective method for microbial characterization of microorganisms isolated from HVAC systems.

[N. J. Malebo and K. Shale. MALDI-TOF MS Characterization of Microorganisms Colonizing Heating Ventilation Air-Conditioning Systems at a South African Hospital. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):13-17] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54

 

Keywords: Bioaerosols, Heating Ventilation Air-Conditioning systems, Hospital Acquired Infections, MALDI Biotyper, Scanning Electron Microscopy.

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Empirical investigation of the sustainability practice from the hoteliers by IPA analysis

 

Kun-Shan Wu 1, Yi-Man Teng 2 and Di-Man Huang 3

 

1. Department of Business Administration, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei 251, Taiwan

2. Department of Food & Beverage Management, Taipei Chengshih University of Science and Technology, Peitou, Taipei 112, Taiwan (corresponding author)

3. Department of Management Sciences, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei 251, Taiwan

E-mail: wellslin0626@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: This study aims to examine hoteliers’ perceived importance and performance of green hotel seal criterion factors in the Taiwan hotel industry by using an Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA). Empirical data obtained from hoteliers can identify attributes that hoteliers consider as important but performance as unsatisfactory. The IPA grids illustrated that our results reveal the sustainability activities that hoteliers rated as highly important and performed well are related to water and energy conservation saving, reduce waste, and refrain from providing single-use type bathroom supplies. The value factor fell into the Concentrate Here quadrant; such as establish annual baseline metrics of its energy, water, single-use product consumption, and waste material disposal, participate in related community activities and customer feedback improvement. These items within quadrant II labeled as “concentrate here” imply that hoteliers in Taiwan should focus more resources on improving their performance in the development of green hotel as neglecting these items could threaten the long-term development of green hotel. Implications for Taiwan hoteliers and researchers were discussed.

 [Wu KS, Teng YM, Huang DM. Are lodging really go green? Empirical investigation of the sustainability practice from the hoteliers by IPA analysis. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):418-427] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55

 

Keywords: Green hotel, Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA).

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Effect of Ginger, Curcumin and Their Mixture on Blood Glucose and Lipids in Diabetic Rats

 

Hala A. H. Khattab, Nadia S. Al-Amoudi and Al-Anood A. Al-Faleh

 

Home Economic Dept., Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdul-Aziz University

haya_khattab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of curcumin, ginger and their mixture in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods: Male albino rats (n=35) weighing (180-195 g) were divided into two main groups; first group: negative control (n=7) fed standard diet and second group: diabetic rats (n=28), which divided equally to four subgroups as follows: diabetic untreated rats (positive control), diabetic rats treated with curcumin (0.5 % of diet), diabetic rats treated with ginger (3% of diet) and diabetic rats treated with their mixture. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitonial injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Results: The results reported that the STZ-induced diabetic group exhibited very highly significant (p<0.001) hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated in malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied with weight loss and reduced in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities when compared with control negative group. Treatment with curcumin, ginger or their mixture reported very highly significant (p< 0.001) improvement in biological evaluation, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities when compared with untreated diabetic group. Histopathological investigation of liver and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats represented the presence of sever changes, meanwhile treatment overcome this changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal, this improvement in the cells may explain the antidiabetic effect of the plants under study especially in their mixture. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the curcumin and ginger mixture possesses significant reduction in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic, as well as antioxidant effect in diabetic rats. Therefore, it recommends using mixture of curcumin and ginger to alleviate the oxidative stress caused by diabetes. Further research is required to find out the exact mechanisms of curcumin and ginger responsible for antidiabetic and antioxidant activities.

[Hala A. H. Khattab, Nadia S. Al-Amoudi and Al-Anood A. Al-Faleh. Effect of Ginger, Curcumin and Their Mixture on Blood Glucose and Lipids in Diabetic Rats. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):428-442] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56

 

Key words: Curcumin, ginger, diabetic rats, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, histopathology.

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Seasonal variations in food selectivity, condition factor and the hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices in the endangered killifish Aphanius dispardispar (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in Alhasa, Saudi Arabia

 

I. M. Ageili, A.S. Al-Akel and EM Suliman*

 

Department of Zoology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

elaminsuliman@yahoo.com, Mobile: +966551155308

 

Abstract: Food selectivity investigations of Aphanius dispar dispar were carried out during March 2010 to February 2011 from two different sites at Alhasa, Saudi Arabia. The electivity index (Ei) was found positive for all food items collected from the fish gut. The electivity index for the various food items were recorded as: blue green algae 0.40.19; and 0.360.14; desmids 0.430.21 and 0.330.21, diatoms 0.430.21 and 0.230.20, green algae 0.190.24 and 0.320.17, invertebrates 0.280.23 and 0.290.12, protozoa 0.240.12 and 0.280.07 and rectifiers 0.190.24 and 0.280.09 for Sites1 and 2, respectively. The condition factor (K) varied from 1.39 - 1.87 and 1.44-2.23. The hepatosomatic index (HIS) was ranged from 2.64 - 4.56 and 1.59 - 4.88 and the male gonadosomatic Index in male was recorded at 0.78 -1.98 and 1.52- 6.95 and female as 0.19 - 4.08 and 2.97 - 11.07 for site 1 and 2, respectively. A. d. dispar is an omnivorous fish that feed actively on both phytoplankton and zooplankton. The high values of (K), (HIS) and (GSI) throughout the year indicated that this fish is healthy and well adapted to its environment. Aphanius d. dispar is an endangered fish species and should be protected from predation and exotic fish competition.

[I. M. Ageili, A.S. Al-Akel and EM Suliman. Seasonal variations in food selectivity, condition factor and the hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices in the endangered killifish Aphanius dispardispar (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in Alhasa, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):443-449] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57

 

Keywords: Freshwater fish; feeding habits; environmental adaptation; conservation.

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The effect of different diets and temperatures on growth rate, nutrient utilization and body composition of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

 

Waleed Al-Deghayem, Hamoud Fares Al-Balawi, Saleh Kandeal and El Amin Suliman*

 

Box: 2455, Department of Zoology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding author, e-mail: elaminsuliman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Growth and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus of initial mean weight (101.87 0.9) were investigated using four diets (D1, D2, D3 and D4) of a constant protein level (36%). The diets were maintained at three different temperatures (24, 28 and 32 ). The four diets showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) growth rate at temperature 28 C (192.42 g, 154.22g, 157.46g and 164.21g for D1, D2, D3 and D4 respectively) and temperature 32 ℃ showed the least growth performance in all experimental diets (134.62g, 111.71g, 116.93g, 126.63g for D1, D2, D3 and D4 respectively). D1-28 showed the highest (p < 0.05) growth (192.42g) in all diets. The daily feed intake, Daily protein intake, specific growth rate and mortality rate were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between all treatments. The fish composition was also not significantly (p < 0.05) different before and after the experiment for all diets and temperatures. Protein efficiency ratio(142.24), feed Conversion efficiency (54.96), protein retention efficiency (87.05) and the condition factor (0.7) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in D1-28, followed by D4-28 (126.03, 45.48, 78.53, 0.66 respectively). Lipid retention efficiency was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in D4-32 (41.34) followed by D1-24 (42.95). Gonadosomatic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in D1-32 (24.56) followed by D2-32 (23.98).

[Waleed Al-Deghayem, Hamoud Fares Al-Balawi, Saleh Kandeal and El Amin Suliman. The effect of different diets and temperatures on growth rate, nutrient utilization and body composition of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Life Sci J 2013;10(4):450-456] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58

 

Key words: African catfish, partial replacement, optimum temperature.

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Reproductive activity of the sand boa, Eryx jayakari throughout the year in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia

 

Mohammed K. Al-Sadoon*, S.A. Kandeal, F.S. Al-Otaibi

 

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

msadoon@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The biological reproductive aspects of the sand boa, Eryx jayakari, in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were investigated over a period of one year. Study of the reproductive cycles of male and female Eryx jayakari revealed that the breeding season is relatively short (2-2.5 months), since it extends from March to May. Thereafter, females lay the eggs during July, and hatching probably takes place during early July till mid-September. However, offspring were seen and collected at end of October. Thereafter, no evidence for sexual activity was observed, this may indicate just a single clutch during the year. Relative testis weight to body weight was increased (= 0.083 %) during reproductive activity where maximal expansion of seminiferous tubules was also attained ( diameter = 457 m) and testis volume (= 380 mm) during May. On the other hand, the ovarian activity was the highest throughout April and May where ovarian parameters were greater and an average egg diameter of 27 mm was recorded. A positive correlation was observed between the weight of fat bodies in the male and female Eryx jayakari and their reproductive activity. Maximum weight of fat bodies was reached during May (= 6.3 g and 15.4 g in males and females, respectively).

[Al-Sadoon MK, Kandeal SA, Al-Otaibi FS. Reproductive activity of the sand boa, Eryx jayakari throughout the year in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):457-461] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

 

Keywords: Reproductive activity, cycle, testis, ovary, Eryx jayakari.

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Spatial Assessment of Pro- Poorness of Households’ access to Education in Rural and Urban Nigeria

Ogunsola GO+ and Oyekale AS++

 

+Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

++Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University Mafikeng Campus

 Mmabatho 2735 South Africa.

naturalmercy@yahoo.com, asoyekale@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The essence of education cannot be over emphasized. Meanwhile, there are inequalities in educational access and achievement as well as high levels of absolute educational deprivation of both children and adults. The data used were the demographic health and survey of 1999, 2003 and 2008. Fuzzy set approach was used to aggregate welfare attributes before computing the pro-poor policy indices (PPPI). Results show that, while it pro-poor based on the two measures of poverty in urban households, it is only poverty incidence pro-poor in rural areas. This study reveals that rural and urban households is anti-poor Jigawa (slightly pro-poor with PPPI of 1.0378), Kaduna, Kastina and Sokoto states show pro-poorness with respect to education. Access to education in north east is only pro-poor in 2007 with respect to poverty incidence but anti poor in Bauchi, Borno and Taraba states. Therefore putting education in proper perspective, efforts should therefore be geared towards improving education access.

[Ogunsola GO and Oyekale AS. Spatial Assessment of Pro- Poorness of Households’ access to Education in Rural and Urban Nigeria. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):462-469] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60

 

Keywords: Education, pro-poor policy index, anti-poor, fuzzy set.

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Synthesis and Reactions of Some Novel 5,7-diiodo-8-Hydroxyquinoline Candidates as Antimicrobial Agentes

 

Nagy M. Khalifa1,2, , Hoda H. Fahmy2, Dalal A. Abou El Ella3, Mohamed A. Ismail3, Noha M. Mostafa2,

Mohamed A. Al-Omar1

 

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

2 Department of Therapeutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Division, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Egypt

nagykhalifa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract. A series of N- acetamides 2a,b, N-Mannich bases 5a,b,  sugar hydrazone (6a-e, 7a-c), imide and bis-imide derivatives 8-12 have been synthesized by using ethyl-2-(5,7-diiodoquinolin-8-yloxy)acetate 1 as starting material The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data and microbial evaluation of the synthesized compounds were reported.

[Nagy M. Khalifa, Hoda H. Fahmy, Mohamed A. Al-Omar and Noha M. Mostafa. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel 5,7-diiodo-8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):470-476]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

 

Keywords: 5,7-Diiodo-8-hydroxy quinoline derivatives; Antimicrobial agents; Sugar hydrazones.

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Optimization of Makespan and Mean Flow Time for Job Shop Scheduling Problem FT06 Using ACO

 

Nasir Mehmood1, Muhammad Umer2, Dr. Riaz Ahmad3, Dr. Amer Farhan Rafique4

 

F. Author, Nasir Mehmood is with National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan at its School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering (SMME) as a student.

S. Author, Mohammad Umar is with National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan at its School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering (SMME).

T. Author, Riaz Ahmad is with National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan at its School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering (SMME).

F. Author, Amer Farhan Rafique is with Mohammad Ali Jinnah University (MAJU), Islamabad, Pakistan

rajanasiraja@hotmail.com1, muhammad.umer@smme.nust.edu.pk2, dresearch@nust.edu.pk3,

afrafique@yahoo.com 4

 

Abstract: Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is inspired by the foraging behavior of the ants which are mostly blind but due to the indirect means of communication between the ants called stigmergy, they follow the shortest path between their nest and the source of the food. The swarm intelligence of the ants is then translated into the artificial intelligence by means of ant colony optimization metaheuristics. Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) is very prominent area of a manufacturing environment. These problems are called Combinatorial Optimization Problems (COP) which are NP-hard. The solution of these NP-hard problem through exact algorithm is not suitable. The best way to tackle such problems is the metaheuristic approach which finds out the optimal solution in minimum possible time. There exits many metaheuristics approaches to solve such COP like Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Simulated Annealing (SA) and ACO. In this paper COP from the manufacturing environment, JSSP FT06 will be solved through ACO based algorithm with the objective function to minimize the makespan and mean flow time. The results of the proposed algorithm will be checked against the Best Known Solution (BKS) of the benchmark problem FT06. This paper will show how the proposed algorithm has produced better results than the BKS of the FT06. Then the achieved results will be compared with the results of the other metaheuristic approaches like GA, Conventional Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA), Positive Selection based Modified Clonal Selection Algorithm (PSMCSA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Tabu Search (TS). This paper shall discuss the results and its analysis in detail regarding the makespan, mean flow time and the computational time of the FT06 problem. And in the end this paper shall draw conclusion on the basis of this research and shall render some recommendations as well.

[Mehmood N, Umer M, Ahmad R, Farhan A. Optimization of Makespan and Mean Flow Time for Job Shop Scheduling Problem FT06 Using ACO. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):477-484] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

 

Keywords: Job Shop Scheduling Problems (JSSP); Ant Colony Optimization (ACO); Genetic Algorithm (GA); Artificial Immune System.

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Impact of Drought Period on Water Quality and Trace Metals Distributions in Water and Sediment of Ismailia Canal, River Nile, Egypt

 

M. H. Abdo

 

National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries

mh_omr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ismailia Canal branched from River Nile is considered as one of the most important irrigation and drinking water resources in Egypt. During drought period the water level decreased and staining. This leading to the concentrations of the most physico-chemical parameters were increased. Physical parameters include (air and water temperatures EC,TS,TDS and TSS). Chemical parameters (pH, DO, BOD, COD, CO3--, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4--, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NO2-, NO3-, NH3, PO43-, TP and SiO2-). In addition to some trace metals (Fe, Mn, Zn. Cu, Pb, Cd, Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Mo) in water and surficial sediment of Ismailia Canal during drought period were measured.

[M. H. Abdo. Impact of Drought Period on Water Quality and Trace Metals Distributions in Water and Sediment of Ismailia Canal, River Nile, Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):485-492]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

 

Key wards: drought period, trace metals, water quality, sediment, Ismailia Canal.

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Physico- Chemeical Studies on the Pollutants Effect in the Aquatic Environment of Rosetta Branch

 River Nile, Egypt

 

M. H. Abdo

 

National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Inland Waters and Aquaculture Branch

mh_omr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rosetta branch is receiving several and different pollution types from different sources; sewage and domestic effluents from El-Rahaway drains (more than 5 Χ 108 m3 daily effluents). Agricultural wastes at Soble drain as well as industrial effluents produced from El-Malya and Soda Companies at Kafr El-Zyat City. All these pollutants prominent affect on the aquatic environment of the Rosetta branch. To study the impact of these effluents on the Rosetta branch aquatic environment, 40 water samples were collected during four successive seasons from 10 stations along the branch. Physical and chemical parameters were included air and water temperatures, transparency, EC, salinity, TS, pH, DO, BOD, COD, CO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO2-, NO3-, NH3, PO43-, TP and SiO3-. The obtained results declared that, the high concentration values of EC, TS, Cl-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, NH3, PO43- and TP were recorded at point's discharge of these drains with water branch. However, the salinity, EC, TS, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were found very increased at sites affected by saline water of Mediterranean Sea e.g. Edifina, Rosetta cities and estuary.

[M. H. Abdo. Physico-Chemeical Studies on the Pollutants Effect in the Aquatic Environment of Rosetta Branch, River Nile, Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):493-501] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

 

Key words: Physico-chemical, Pollutants, aquatic environment, Rosetta branch, River Nile. 

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Supportive and Defensive Communication Climate among Subordinate Staff of Salman bin Abdulaziz University: An Empirical Assessment

 

Nasser S. Al-Kahtani, Zafrul Allam

 

 College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdulaziz University,

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: The present investigation was an attempt to explore the supportive and defensive communication climate among subordinate staff of Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 336 subordinate staff working in various departments of the university. Gibb’s (1961) communication climate inventory was used to assess the feelings of subordinate staff. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied to analyze the data. The results revealed that neutrality and empathy was found most prominent facets of defensive and supportive communication climate, the correlation between neutrality and other facets of defensive communication climate were found significant whereas, correlation between empathy and provisionalism & spontaneity of supportive communication were found significant, effect of age on supportive communication climate was observed significant and gender did not appear significant factor in the study. The investigation suggested some measures for effectiveness of communication at workplace based on findings.

[Nasser S. Al-Kahtani, Zafrul Allam. Supportive and Defensive Communication Climate among Subordinate Staff of Salman bin Abdulaziz University: An Empirical Assessment. Life Sci J 2013;502-509]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

 

Key Words: Communication, Climate, Supportive climate, Defensive climate, Age, Gender.

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Effectiveness of Some Plant Extracts against Fusarium spp. Causing Cotton Seedlings Damping-off.

 

Abd El-Rahim M.A. El-Samawaty1,2, Mohamed A. Yassin1,2,  Mohamed A. Moslem1 and Moawad R. Omar2

 

1Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2Agricultural Research Center, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

myassin@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The antifungal activity of 4 plant extracts from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) was in vitro evaluated against 10 Fusarium spp. causing cotton seedlings damping-off.  The pathogenicity of such Fusarium spp. on cotton seedlings was confirmed using soil infestation technique under greenhouse conditions. Experimental results were statistically analyzed and the least significant difference was used to compare means. Some of the tested isolates were found to be virulent on the two inoculated cultivars compared with the control. Other isolates were virulent on one of the tested cultivars only. The highest virulent degrees were recorded for F. moniliforme on the Giza-90 cultivar and F. oxysporum on the Giza-86 cultivar.  Most of the applied plant extracts were found to be effective in inhibiting the Fusarium growth. The efficacy of all tested plant extracts was increased as the concentration increase. The potency of such extracts were varied depending on the concentrations and Fusarium spp. Garlic extract, at 20% concentration exhibited more than 50% inhibition against 80% of the tested species. Meanwhile, 94% inhibitions of all tested isolates were achieved by 4% concentration of the clove extract. Both of the clove and garlic extracts were successfully effective in suppressing the Fusarium growth in vitro. They could be promising as a source of natural eco-friendly phyto-fungicidal compounds for in vivo applications.

[El-Samawaty A.M.A., Yassin M.A., Moslem M.A., Omar M.R. Effectiveness of Some Plant Extracts against Fusarium spp. Causing Cotton Seedlings Damping-off. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):510-515] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66

 

Keywords: Disease control, Medicinal plants, Fungicide, Phytopathogens.

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Effects of testosterone on norepinephrine release in isolated rat heart and the flutamide intervention on testosterone

 

Yanshen Li, Weiwei Yue, Xiuzhao Wu, Yanyu Lu, Jiangkun Yu, Yanzhou Zhang

 

Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China

Email: zhangyanzhou2050 @sina.com

 

Abstract: Aims: To investigate the effects of testosterone on norepinephrine release in the isolated rat hearts and its probable mechanism. Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats (n=280) were randomized to 4 groups. The control group was perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer ; the testosterone groups were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 4 different concentrations of testosterone (100.0nmol/L, 10.0 nmol/L, 1.0nmol/L, and 0.1nmol/L, respectively); the testosterone with flutamide groups were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 4 different concentrations of testosterone plus 100.0nmol/L flutamide (testosterone 0.1nmol/L+ flutamide 100.0nmol/L, testosterone 1.0nmol/L+ flutamide 100.0nmol/L, testosterone 10.0nmol/L+ flutamide 100.0nmol/L, testosterone 100.0nmol/L+ flutamide100.0nmol / L,respectively); the flutamide groups were perfused with KH buffer containing flutamide100.0nmol / L. Observe the norepinephrine release in both case of electrical stimulation and myocardial ischemia. Electrical field stimulation at 5 V (effective voltage) and 6 Hz (pulse width 2 ms) for 1 min, myocardial ischemia was induced by global stopping. Results: Electrical stimulation of the ventricle evoked norepinephrine release, and this was diminished by the perfusion with testosterone at a concentration of 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0nmol/L (P <0.01). Following acute ischemia, testosterone (1.0, 10.0 and 100.0nmol/L) significantly reduced norepinephrine release (P <0.01), the norepinephrine overflow was similar between the testosterone group and the testosterone with flutamide (P >0.05). Conclusions: It is suggested that testosterone suppresses ischemia and electrical stimulation induced norepinephrine release in the isolated rat hearts and the flutamide could not block this inhibition.

[Yanshen Li, Weiwei Yue, Xiuzhao Wu, Yanyu Lu, Jiangkun Yu, Yanzhou Zhang. Effects of testosterone on norepinephrine release in isolated rat heart and the flutamide intervention on testosterone. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 516-522]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

 

Key Words: testosterone; ischemia-reperfusion; norepinephrine; flutamide

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MODELING OF MICROSCALE SOLID ROCKET COMPOSITE PROPELLANT

 

Abdelkarim Morsy Hegab1, Hani HussainSait1, Ahmad Hussain2*, Ashraf Balabel3, Mahdi Almutawa4,

Fathi Djouider2

 

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Rabigh,King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Nuclear Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

3Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Taif University, Saudi Arabia

4Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Email: ahassain@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract:The heterogeneous propellants consisting of Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) particles imbedded in a Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadience (HTPB) are widely used in solid rocket industries. In this study, the effect of AP particles diameter and the random distribution with the HTPB on the burning of such propellant is presented. A mathematical model which describes the unsteady burning of a heterogeneous propellant by simultaneously solving the combustion fields in the gas phase and the thermal field in the solid phase with appropriate jump condition across the gas/solid interface is developed. The gas-phase kinetics is represented by a two-step reaction mechanism for the primary premixed flame and the primary diffusion flame between the decomposition products of the HTPB and the oxidizer AP. The propagation of the unsteady non-planer regression surface is described, using the Essentially-Non-Oscillatory (ENO) scheme with the aid of the level set strategy. The results show that the large AP particle diameter has a great effect on the combustion surface deformation and on the burning rate as well. Moreover, the effect of various parameters on the surface propagation speed, flame structure, and the burning surface geometry is obtained.

[Abdelkarim Morsy Hegab, Hani HussainSait, Ahmad Hussain, Ashraf Balabel, Mahdi Almutawa, Fathi Djouider. MODELING OF MICROSCALE SOLID ROCKET COMPOSITE PROPELLANT. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 523-531]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifescienceite.com 68

 

Keywords: composite propellant, gas/solid phases, heterogeneous propellant, ap/htpb, level set method

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Repeated measurement analysis of the area under the curve of photoplethysmogram among diabetic patients

 

Sahnius Usman 1, Md Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz 2, Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali 2

 

1Department of Electrical, UTMSPACE, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor

sahnius@ic.utm.my

 

Abstract: Non-invasive studies using photoplethysmography(PPG) have great potential to be used for a wide range of clinical measurements. In this study, we propose that arterial stiffness may be measured using an approach based on a pulse contour analysis of PPG. The area under the curve (auc-PPG) was compared between patients with HbA1c<8% (Group 1) and HbA1c>10% (Group 2). The auc-PPG was significantly higher in diabetic subjects with HbA1c<8% than in those with HbA1c>10%. To investigate the association between the first and repeated measurements, a paired t-test was conducted. There was no significant difference in auc-PPG between the first and repeated measurements for either group of diabetic patients. These results indicated that the arterial stiffness in patients with different levels of HbA1c can be approximated using auc-PPG.

[Usman S, Reaz MBI, Ali MAM. Repeated measurement analysis of the area under the curve of photoplethysmogram among diabetic patients. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):532-539]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69

 

Keywords: Photoplethysmography; signal processing; area under curve; Type 2 diabetes

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Weather Forecasting as an Early Warning System: Pattern of Weather Forecast Usage among Coastal Communities in Malaysia

 

Siti Zobidah Omar1*, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril1, Nurani Kamaruddin1, Jusang Bolong2,

Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva1

 

1Laboratory of Cyber Generation, Institute for Social Science Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

2Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Language and Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

majudesa.desa3@gmail.com or zobidah@fbmk.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to explore the patterns of weather forecasting usage among coastal communities in Malaysia. Focus group discussions (FGD) were held with two groups of communities at Kuala Paka Village in Dungun, Terengganu. A total of seven fishermen were involved in the first FGD, while a total of four housewives were involved in the second. The results show that the fishermen chose television as their main source of weather forecasting, while the housewives chose radio. For the respondents, particularly the fishermen, weather forecasting acts as an early warning system, and they accentuated the importance of weather self-monitoring before making their decision on whether or not to proceed with their fishing activities. In addition, the respondents reflected on the importance of information with regard to wind and waves, and stated that such information is vital for them, particularly during the northeast monsoon season.

[Omar SZ, Shaffril HAM, Kamaruddin N, Bolong J, D’Silva JL. Weather Forecasting as an Early Warning System: Pattern of Weather Forecast Usage among Coastal Communities in Malaysia. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 540-549]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

 

Keywords: Fishermen; early warning systems; climate change; weather forecasting

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On Adomian’s Decomposition Method for solving nonlocal perturbed stochastic fractional integro-differential equations

 

Mahmoud M. El-Borai 1, M.A.Abdou2, Mohamed Ibrahim M. Youssef 2

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

 

Abstract: Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied to approximately solve stochastic fractional integro-differential equations involving nonlocal initial condition. The convergence of the ADM for the considered problem is proved. The mean square error between approximate solution and accurate solution is also given.

[Mahmoud M. El-Borai, M.A.Abdou, Mohamed Ibrahim M. Youssef. On Adomian’s Decomposition Method for solving nonlocal perturbed stochastic fractional integro-differential equations. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):550-555]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://wwwlifesciencesite.com. 71

 

Keywords: Fractional integral; stochastic integro-differential equations; Adomian decomposition method (ADM); Adomian polynomials; Mean square error

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Attitudes of Academicians in Schools of Physical Education and Sports towards Political Participation: A Relational Study

 

Mustafa Yaşar Şahin

 

Gazi University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Ankara, Turkey

Email: mysahin@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study investigates the attitudes of academicians in Schools of Physical Education and Sports towards political participation in scope of gender, membership to political and labor union organizations and in terms of relational levels of political alienation, political activity and political values perceived from institution.  The study was conducted on 176 instructors in Schools of Physical Education and Sports at Universities between 2011–2012 academic years.  “Scale of Attitude towards Political Participation” consisting of three sub-dimensions was used to collect data and Mann-Whitney U Test and Pearson Correlation analysis was used to analyze the data. The significance coefficient was regarded as (α) 0.05 in analyses.   In the end, it was found that academicians who are active in political organizations are more active politically and there is a statistically significant difference in favor of non-members of labor union within the sub-dimension of alienation according to the variable of labor union membership. Accordingly, being a member of political and nongovernmental organizations positively affects political participation. As for the gender variable, male academicians have a higher mean score in the dimensions of activity and political perception derived from institutions and females have higher scores in the sub dimension of alienation. As a result of the analysis on the relationship between sub-dimensions, a negative oriented relationship between political activity and alienation and a positive oriented relationship between political activity and political perception derived from institutions was found.

[Şahin M.Y. Attitudes of Academicians on Duty in Schools of Physical Education and Sports towards Political Participation: A Relational Study. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 556-564]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72

 

Keywords: Political Participation, Politics, Academics 

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The effect of Yoga on anxiety symptoms in women with obsessive compulsive disorder

 

Fatemeh Ranjbar 1*, Mehdi Broomand 2, Amirhossein Akbarzadeh3

 

1Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2Razi University Hospital, Tabriz University of medical science, Tabriz, Iran

3Medical student, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

ranjbarf@tbzmed.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This study examined the therapeutic effect of Yoga on symptoms of women with obsessive compulsive disorder. In this assessor blinded randomized clinical trial, 40 women with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCS) aged between 19 and 55, were assigned to practice Yoga (intervention) or watching TV as comparison. Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YB-OCS) was used to assess the severity of OCD that was later compared between trial groups. The YB-OCS score for obsessive thoughts was 12.5 3.1 in intervention group versus 12.33.05 in comparison group (p=0.36). The YB-OCS score for obsessive compulsive condition was 11.65 3.1 in intervention group versus 11.12.8 in comparison group (p=0.35). Severity of anxiety decreased significantly after Yoga and participants reported well-being and a better function. Based on paired t-test results, only the intervention group patients experienced a significant decrease in severity of anxiety (P<0.05) and the change in comparison group was not statistically significant. Short term Yoga exercises didn’t appear to be effective for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

[Fatemeh Ranjbar, Mehdi Broomand, Amirhossein Akbarzadeh. The effect of Yoga on anxiety symptoms in women with obsessive compulsive disorder. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):565-568]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

 

Keywords: Obsessive compulsive disorder; Yoga; Alternative medicine; meditation therapy

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Realization of correlation between Round Trip Time (RTT) and hop counts in packet switched networks

                                                                                                                      

Ijaz Ali Shoukat*, Abdullah Al-Dhelaan, Mohsin Iftikhar

 

Computer Science Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences 

King Saud University, P. O. Box. 51178 Riyadh 11543, Saudi Arabia

ishoukat@ksu.edu.sa, dhelaan@ksu.edu.sa, miftikhar@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: QoS in communication networks can be best predicted by RTT and hop counts. Usually, RTT is directly proportional to the incremental count of hops in communication networks. There persists a correlation between these two metrics but how robust this correlation is an open question.  Several studies reported different opinions about the correlation between RTT and hop counts.  Some authors reported no correlation, some predicted weak correlation and few others evidenced strong correlation between RTT and hop counts. What is the actuality behind these ambiguities related to RTT and hop count’s relationship? In this paper we made an effort to realize the correlations between RTT and hop counts by considering two cases:  (1) - Correlation between RTT and hop counts in an end to end path lies between client and server of any individual communication network. (2) - The mutual correlation between RTT and hop counts among the different set of end to end paths exist among different remote servers behind different networks with varying conditions of distances. We applied mathematics to measure the correlation by acquiring the experimental readings of both variables (RTT and hop counts) under active probing mechanism of networks testing. The correlation between RTT and hop count can be more effective to predict various network conditions like high load or congestion.

[Ijaz Ali Shoukat , Abdullah Al-Dhelaan , Mohsin Iftikhar. Realization of correlation between Round Trip Time (RTT) and hop counts in packet switched networks. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):569-576]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescienceite.com. 74

 

Keywords: QoS; RTT and hop count’s relationship; Congestion; Flow Control; Latency

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Growth Parameters and Insulin Like Growth Factor-1: Comparison between Cyanotic and Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease and Normal Children

 

Siamak Shiva1*, Mahmood Samadi1, 2, Maryam Mohammadpour Shateri1, Afshin Habibzadeh2

 

1Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2 Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

 shivasiamak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have been reported show significant growth retardation. Also it seems that low insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) levels could in CHD patients cause growth retardation, but the etiology of growth retardation in the patients with CHD is still unclear. In this study we aim to compare IGF-1 levels in cyanotic and acyanotic CHD patients and evaluate its correlation with growth parameters. sixty children with congenital heart disease (30 cyanotic and 30 acyanotic patients) and 30 healthy children were studied. Demographic findings, blood oxygen saturation, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and IGF-1 levels were compared between groups. LVEF was significantly higher in control group than other groups (p=0.04) and blood oxygen saturation and IGF-1 was significantly lower in cyanotic group than other groups (both, p<0.001). There was significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and blood oxygen saturation (r=0.45, p<0.001), IGF-1 and age (r=0.63, p<0.001), IGF-1 and BMI (r=0.40, p<0.001), IGF-1 and height (r=0.37, p<0.001) and IGF-1 and head circumference (r=0.44, p<0.001). The positive correlation between IGF-1 and growth parameters as well as low IGF-1 levels in cyanotic patients in comparison to acyanotic patients and healthy children are indicative of malnutrition and growth retardation in these patients which could be due to chronic hypoxemia considering lower blood oxygen saturation in these patients.

[Siamak Shiva, Mahmood Samadi, Maryam Mohammadpour Shateri, Afshin Habibzadeh. Growth Parameters and Insulin Like Growth Factor-1: Comparison between Cyanotic and Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease and Normal Children. Life Sci J 2013;10(4): 577-580]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75

 

Key words: Congenital Heart Disease, growth Retardation, IGF-1

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The Comparative Analyses of the PreS1-Ag and the Pattern of HBV Serum Marker in 1134 Patients with Hepatitis B Virus

 

Junzhong Lu, Qiyun Fu*, Yingmei Zhang

 

Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, Jiangsu 223300, China

Email: fuqy1969@163.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate the clinical significance of detection of the preS1-Ag, the preS1-Ag and the pattern of HBV serum marker were analyzed retrospectively in 1134 patients with HBV. The results showed that six modes have been detected. The communal were HBsAg/Anti-HBe/Anti-HBc(+)(58.73%),HBsAg/HBeAg/anti-HBc(+) (21.43%) and HBsAg/Anti-HBc(+)(17.99%). Although HBsAg/HBeAg(+) was uncommon, but the positive rate of preS1-Ag was the highest(100%). The total positive rate of preS1-Ag was 76.90%, but the total positive rate of HBeAg was 18.87%. The Positive rate of PreSl was higher significantly than that of HBeAg. Comparison of HBeAg (+)groups with HBeAg (-)groups, the positive rate of PreS1 had significant differences(all P<005). In 214 cases with HBeAg (+), the PreS1 was 199 cases, accounting for 98.51%. In 920 cases with HBeAg (-), the PreS1 was 673 cases, accounting for 73.15%,which implied that the PreS1- Ag had good consistency with the HBeAg, and the preS1-Ag was more sensitive and meaningful than HBeAg at detecting the duplication of HBV. It can be used as observation indexes such as infection, replication, treatment and prognosis of HBV hepatitis. HBV preSl -Ag has very high value for the diagnosis, curing and observation of chronic hepatitis patients.

[Junzhong Lu, Qiyun Fu, Yingmei Zhang. The Comparative Analyses of the PreS1-Ag and the Pattern of HBV Serum Marker in 1134 Patients with Hepatitis B Virus. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):581-583]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76

 

Key words: Hepatitis B virus; Serum markers; HBsAg; HBeAg; PreS1-Ag

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The Influence of Raw Material Composition on the Quality of Sinter

 

. Saltuk BLKBAŞI1, Baran TUFAN1, Turan BATAR2 and Akın ALTUN3

 

1Dokuz Eyll University, Department of Mining Engineering, Tınaztepe Campus, 35160, Buca, Izmir-TURKEY

2Gediz University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Seyrek-Menemen, 35665, Izmir-TURKEY

3Akdeniz University, Engineering Faculty, Kestel-Alanya, 07425, Antalya-TURKEY

osbolukbasi@gmail.com, baran.tufan@deu.edu.tr

 

Abstract: In this study provides an overview of chemical and physical properties of commercial iron ores as well as their influence on sintering performance. The sinter structure and its characteristics mainly depend on the raw material chemistry, phase body, crack distribution and the sintering process parameters. The aim of the studies is to present a new approach to the characterization of complex macrostructures and microstructures, especially those found in effect of sinter quality and productivity. A number of the commercial iron ores were tested in an industrial sinter plant to study the effect of iron ore composition on the sintering properties. Sintering process was performed for each individual using iron ore as constant basicity, coke dust and flux. The sintering properties of blending ores, including productivity, tumbler index (TI), suitable moisture and coke rate were approximately equal except reduction degradation index (RDI) values, to the weighted means of the individual ores. An important feature of this system is the simultaneous use of X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-EDS) which enables to determine both macro and microstructure of a sinter with high accuracy.

[. Saltuk BLKBAŞI, Baran TUFAN, Turan BATAR and Akın ALTUN. The Influence of Raw Material Composition on the Quality of Sinter. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):584-594]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77

 

Keywords: Sinter, Iron Ore, Mineralogical Analysis, Tumbler Index

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A meta-analysis of correlation of ER gene polymorphisms and risk in Chinese population with coronary heart disease

 

Liping Ding1,2, Lihua Hu2, Zhitao Jin2, Taohong Hu2, Huili Ma2, Lina Zhang2, Xincheng Qiu2, Caiyi Lu1*

 

1Institute of Geriatric cardiology,Chinese PLA General Hospital.

2Department of Cardiology, Second Artillery General Hospital of PLA.

 

Abstract: Objective:To investigate the correlation of the polymorphism of the estrogen receptor alpha gene Pvu II site and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese population. Methods: Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL. The range of time is 1995 to 2009. Two reviewers independently screened the studies for eligibility, evaluated the quality and extracted the data from all the eligible studies, with confirmation by cross-checking. Divergences of opinions were settled by discussion. Meta-analysis was finally processed by Rev Man 5.0 software. Results: Nine case-control studies were included, involving 1464 cases with coronary heart disease and 1 203 cases in the control group. The results of Meta-analyses showed that, as to the correlation of the polymorphism of ER alpha gene Pvu II site T/C and CHD, there was no signii cant dif  erence in the risk of CHD between people with dif  erent genotypes, i.e. the C allele versus T allele (OR=0.95, 95%CI 0.77 to 1.17, P=0.63), genotype of (TC + CC) versus TT (OR=0.97, 95%CI 0.73 to 1.28,  P=0.81), genotype of TC versus TT (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.68 to 1.26, P =0.64). Conclusion: Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphism Pvu II site are not associated with the coronary heart disease in Chinese population.

[Liping Ding, Lihua Hu, Zhitao Jin, Taohong Hu, Huili Ma, Lina Zhang, Xincheng Qiu, Caiyi Lu. A meta-analysis of correlation of ER gene polymorphisms and risk in Chinese population with coronary heart disease. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):595-598]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

 

Key words: Estrogen receptor alpha; Coronary heart disease; Polymorphism; Chinese population; Meta-analysis

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Synthesis and Reactions of Some New Substituted Androstanopyrazoline and Androstanoisoxazole Derivatives Using Their Arylmethylene as Starting Materials

 

Mohamed M Abdulla1, Abd El-Galil E Amr2,3,*, Mohamed A Al-Omar2, Azza A Hussain4, Mohamed S Amer4

 

1Research Unit, Saco Pharm. Co., 6th October City 11632, Egypt

2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

3Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

4 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazige University, Zagazige Egypt

aeamr1963@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. A series of substituted androstanopyrazoline and androstanoisoxazoleand their derivatives 3-13 have been prepared via the reacting of protected arylmethylene of 3b-hydroxy-androstan-17-one derivatives 2a-e with hydrazine derivatives to yield N-substituted pyrazolines3a-c, 4a-c and5a-c, respectively. Coupling of 1d,e with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give oxazole derivatives 6a,b, which was protected with acetyl chloride or trifluoroacetic anhydride to give protected products 7a,b and 8a,b. Additionally, the reaction of 1a,b,d with diethyl malonate afforded diester derivatives 9a-c. Also, treatment of 1c,d with Adams catalyst gave decarbonyl derivatives 10a,b, which was oxidized with potassium chromate in sulfuric acid to give the corresponding oxidized products 11a,b.Finally, compounds 10a,b was treated with acetyl chloride or trifluoroacetic anhydride to give protected products 12a,b and 13a,b.

[Mohamed M. Abdulla,Abd El-Galil E. Amr, Mohamed A. Al-Omar, Azza A. Hussain, and Mohamed S. Amer. Synthesis and Reactions of Some New Substituted Androstanopyrazoline and Androstanoisoxazole Derivatives Using Their Arylmethylene as Starting Materials. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):599-607]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 79

 

Keywords: Synthesis, Arylidines, Pyrazolines, Isoxazoles, Androstane derivatives

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Molecular analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms rs2228570 (FokI) and rs1544410 (BsmI) in patients with Behcet’s Disease

 

Hamidreza Khodadadi 1, Alireza Khabazi 2, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian 3, Hale Akhavan-Niaki 4, Mehrdad Asghari Estiar 5, Leila Emrahi 6, Mahmoud Amin Marashi 7, Saber Bostani 8, Sousan Kolahi 9, Ebrahim Sakhinia *10

 

1Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

2Connective Tissue Disorder Research Center and Rheumatology Research Team, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

5Students' Scientific Research Center, Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

6Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

7Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

8Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

9Connective Tissue Disorder Research Center and Rheumatology Research Team, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

10Department of Medical Genetics and Tabriz Genetic Analysis Center, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

esakhinia@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Recent studies have shown vitamin D3 has immune-modulatory effect .The functional differences in the immune-modulatory action of vitamin D is mediated via the  vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms. In this study, we assessed the association between the two common polymorphisms of VDR gene (FokI, BsmI) and  Behcet’s Disease   (BD), A chronic inflammatory and multisystem disorder. Using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, we analyzed the prevalence of the common polymorphisms of VDR gene in patients with BD (n=50) and controls (n=50) in an Iranian Azari population. A significant difference was found for the FokI polymorphism between the BD and the control group. The f allele frequency of 26% was present in BD patients compared to 13% of controls and was significantly associated with BD (P = 0.03); (OR=O.42, 95% CI=0.2-0.88). There was no significant difference in the polymorphisms BsmI between the case and control groups. Accordingly, the FokI variant remains a candidate functional polymorphism; the f allele isoform interacts with the basal transcription factor HB less efficiently than does the F allele isoform, providing a possible mechanism for the reduced transactivation associated (connected) with this allele. The association between VDR polymorphisms and autoimmune diseases varies across different ethnic population. Results of our studies could be followed by further studies with more patients to discover other relationships.

[Khodadadi H, Khabazi A, Ghaderian SMH,  Akhavan-Niaki H, Asghari Estiar M, Emrahi L, Marashi MA, Bostani S, Kolahi S, Sakhinia E. Molecular analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms rs2228570 (FokI) and rs1544410 (BsmI) in patients with Behcet’s Disease. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):608-615]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 80

 

Keywords: Vitamin D Receptor Gene; Behcet’s Disease; FokI; BsmI

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Review Article: Multiobjective Fuzzy Stochastic Linear Programming Problems in the 21st Century

 

Abdulqader Othman Hamadameen 1, Zaitul Marlizawati Zainuddin 2

 

1. Researcher in Optimization, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, UTM.

2. Lecturer at Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, UTM.

geetakh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The focus of this paper is a survey of various kinds of multiobjective linear programming problems, where fuzziness and/or randomness in objective and/or in constraints are discussed comprehensively including full fuzzy stochastic in both the objective functions and constraints. This paper also studied the multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems, and what relatives to them chronologically in this century, such formulation, and the various research methodology that has been used in transforming them to their corresponding equivalent deterministic linear programming problems. Optimal solution for the original problem has been discussed too.

[Abdulqader Othman Hamadameen, Zaitul Marlizawati Zainuddin. Review Article, Multiobjective Fuzzy Stochastic Linear Programming Problems in the 21st Century. Life Sic J 2013; 10(4):616-647]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 81

 

Keywords: Multiobjective optimization problems; Multiobjective linear programming problems; Multiobjective stochastic linear programming problems; Multiobjective fuzzy linear programming problems; Multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems; Fuzzy random variables; Fuzziness and randomness; Optimal solution; Pareto optimal solution; Efficient solution.

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The Role of Grape Seed Extract in the Effect of Swimming Exercises on Epilepsy

 

aRecep Soslu, bErkut Tutkun, cAlparslan Kartal, dMustafa Ertugrul Ciplak, eResul Cekin, fYetkin Utku Kamuk

 

aIbrahim Cecen University, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Agri, Turkey

bOndokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Yasar Dogu Sports Sciences, Samsun, Turkey

cHitit University, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Corum, Turkey

dBulent Ecevit University, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Zonguldak, Turkey

eAmasya University, Faculty of Education, Amasya, Turkey

fTurkish Army Sports School and Training Center, Ankara, Turkey

Corresponding Author: Erkut Tutkun, erkuttutkun@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Grape seed extract (GSE) is one of the strongest known antioxidants. GSE actively prevents the formation of free radicals and assists in their elimination. Our aim was to investigate the effects on epileptiform activity of GSE administered concurrently with swimming exercises. A total of 35 male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. Epileptiform activity was induced in rats through the injection of penicillin (500 IU) into the left cerebral cortex. Thirty minutes after the application of penicillin, 200 mg/kg of GSE dissolved in normal saline was administered intraperitoneally. Based on the results of the statistical analysis, a significant decrease in spike frequency was observed after 60 minutes in the 15-minute group (67%), after 40 minutes in the 30-minute group (43%), and after 40 minutes in the 60-minute group (42%), while no significant decrease was identified in the amplitude values of the groups. According to the study results, in rats performing short-, medium-, and long-term swimming exercises, GSE administration allowed epileptiform activity to decrease within a shorter period of time. Thus, patients with epilepsy can potentially perform swimming exercises more safely by regularly using antioxidant substances.

[Soslu R, Tutkun E, Kartal E, Ciplak ME, Cekin R, Kamuk YU. The Role of Grape Seed Extract in the Effect of Swimming Exercises on Epilepsy. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):648-653]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82

 

Keywords: Grape seed extract, epilepsy, rat swimming exercise

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Fitting GARCH Models to Crude Oil Spot Price Data

 

Rana Abdullah Ahmed1, Ani Bin Shabri2

 

 1  2Department of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, 81310, Makaysia.

1Department of Mathematics, College of Basic Education, University of Mousl, Mousl, Iraq

ranooshutm@gmail.com1, ani@utm.my2

 

Abstract: Crude oil price forecasting has generated interest across the globe for over forty decades. This interest in crude oil spot price is mainly due to the volatility of the product which results in fat tails in the distribution of the series. The price of this energy commodity has always been highly volatile. Since crude oil price variability affects other sectors and stock market, the prediction of future crude oil prices has become crucial. The aim of this paper is to apply the GARCH model in crude oil time series modeling in order to illustrate the advantages of these nonlinear models and we fit three GARCH models namely; GARCH–N, GARCH–t and GARCH–G to forecasting crude oil spot prices. The study adopted two crude oil prices from West Texas Intermediate and Brent to evaluate the performance of the models developed. The results revealed that GARCH–N model is the best for forecasting for Brent and that GARCH–G model is the best for the forecasting of WTI crude oil spot prices judging by their Mean Squared Error (MSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE).

[Rana Abdullah Ahmed, Ani Bin Shabri. Fitting GARCH Models to Crude Oil Spot Price Data. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):654-661]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

 

Keywords: Volatility; Forecasting; Model; and GARCH

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The Nurses' and Patients' Perception about Nursing Caring Behaviors at Tanta Mental Health Hospital

 

Nahed Ahmed Morsi and Aml Ibrahim Sabra

 

Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Tanta University

rona_sabra@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Caring has an ethical and a moral component and it is essential element in forming successful temporary relationships where goals and satisfaction can be achieved. The shortage of nurses, increasing admission rates coupled with the decreased length of stay for psychiatric patients have created a chaotic healthcare environment. The result of interactions in this type of environment may create or increase frustration, anxiety, and a sense of not being cared for by nurses. At the same time psychiatric nurses become anxious as to whether or not they are meeting their patients' needs. At is important that nurses understand and identify which behaviors patients view as caring behaviors in order to optimize the nurse-patient experience. This study aimed to: 1- Identify the patients' and nurses 'perceptions about caring behaviours. 2- Compare between patients' and nurses' perception about nursing caring behaviours.This study followed the descriptive comparative research design. The present study was conducted in the psychiatric inpatient wards at "Tanta Mental Health Hospital", which is affiliated to the Ministry of Health.The target population of this study comprised into two categories: namely psychiatric patients and nurses who provide direct care to psychiatric patients (number 50 for both) who admitted to the previous mentioned setting. One tool was used to collect data for the study, caring behavior assessment tool (CBA). It aims to assess nurse caring behavior for both psychiatric patients and nurses. The study showed that, there are marked differences and similarities between both nurses' and patients' perception regarding nursing caring behaviors. The study recommended that, psychiatric nurse should gain an increasing knowledge and practice of what caring behaviors from the patient's view and should be educated to view the patient holistically, that is to assess and provide appropriate intervention for mental, physical and emotional needs.

[Nahed Ahmed Morsi and Aml Ibrahim Sabra. The Nurses' and Patients' Perception about Nursing Caring Behaviors at Tanta Mental Health Hospital. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):662-669]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84

 

Keyword: Caring behavior – Psychiatric patients- Nurses – Perception.

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Heavy and trace elements are important diagnostic tools during the progression of atherosclerosis; high cholesterol diet supplemented with high zinc level delays or prevents the progression of atherosclerosis

 

Mohamed Anwar K Abdelhalim1, Sherif A. Abdelmottaleb Moussa2, Yanallah Hussain AL-Mohy1

 

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, P. O. Box 90950, Riyadh, 11623, Saudi Arabia.

abdelhalimmak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The mechanism of atherogenesis has not yet fully understood despite different studies in this area. The effects of high cholesterol diet (HCD) on the changes of trace elements [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)] in several tissues of rabbits have not been well documented before. Thus, the aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in heavy and trace elements in several tissues of rabbits fed on HCD and HCD + Zn for feeding period of 12 weeks compared with the control rabbits; as a diagnostic tool during the progression of atherosclerosis as well as an early detection for cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The HCD group was fed a NOR rabbit chow supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil. The HCD + Zn group was fed on NOR Purina Certified Rabbit Chow plus 1.0% cholesterol and 1.0% olive oil supplemented with 350 ppm Zn (total estimate 470 ppm Zn) for the same feeding period of time. Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations were measured in five types of tissue (kidney, heart, lung, aorta, and liver) from control, HCD and HCD + Zn rabbits using ICP-ES. Comparing HCD to control rabbits, we found an increase in Fe, Cu, Pb and Cd levels in kidney, heart, lung, aorta, and liver tissues of rabbits; while a decrease observed in Zn level in kidney, heart, lung, aorta, and liver tissues. Comparing HCD + Zn with the control rabbits, we found that supplementation of Zn to the HCD decreased the levels of Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cd in kidney, heart, lung, aorta, and liver tissues of rabbits. These results demonstrate that Fe plays a major role during the progression of atherosclerosis through the production of free radicals, deposition and absorption of intracellular and extracellular lipids in the intima, connective tissue formation, and smooth muscle proliferation. Furthermore, inducing anemia in HCD rabbits may delay or inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis. Cu plays a minor role in atherosclerosis. Zn plays a major role in atherosclerosis; it may act as an endogenous protective factor against atherosclerosis perhaps by reducing lesion Fe content.

[Mohamed Anwar K Abdelhalim, Sherif A. Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Yanallah Hussain AL-Mohy. Heavy and trace elements are important diagnostic tools during the progression of atherosclerosis; high cholesterol diet supplemented with high zinc level delays or prevents the progression of atherosclerosis. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):670-680]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

 

Keywords: Heavy elements; trace elements, high cholesterol diet; lipids; rabbits; atherosclerosis; zinc supplementation

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Effect of water stress on relative water and chlorophyll contents of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher in Saudi Arabia

 

Ibrahim Aref , Hashim El Atta*, Mudawi El Obeid, Abdalla Ahmed, Pervaiz Khan, Mohamed Iqbal

 

Department of Plant Production, King Saud University, Riyadh, P.O. Box 2460, Saudi Arabia

hmabu@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Water stress effect on RWC (needle relative water content) and chlorophyll content of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher was studied in three locations in South Western Saudi Arabia. The species was subdivided into seedlings, saplings, mature and over-mature. Water stress had significantly reduced the RWC of needles and the effect was more pronounced in older trees compared to seedlings and saplings. Similarly, both chlorophyll a and b were significantly reduced and the reduction was correlated with tree age.

[Aref I, El Atta H, El Obeid M, Ahmed A, Khan P, Iqbal M. Effect of water stress on relative water and chlorophyll contents of Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):681-685]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 86

 

Keywords: Juniperus procera; water stress; RWC; Chlorophyll content.

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Assessment of heavy metals concentrations resulting natural inputs in Wadi El-Gemal surface sediments, Red Sea coast

 

Hashem Abbas Madkour 2 Mohamed Anwar K abdelhalim 1 and A. El-Taher 3,4

 

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

2National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Red Sea Branch, Hurghada 84511, Egypt

3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University, 51452 Buraydah, KSA

4Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452, Egypt

mabdulhleem@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This paper deals with increased heavy metals concentrations in the marine sediments in-front of the mouth of Wadi El-Gemal area due to high natural inputs from the wadi. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co and Cd concentrations were determined in surface marine sediments at Wadi El-Gemal along the Egyptian Red Sea. heavy metal concentrations in sediments of the study area are high compared to that in the impact areas of the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The results indicate that the high concentrations of heavy metals in marine sediments are particularly affected by the high contribution of terrigenous materials through the stream of Wadi El-Gemal. Heavy metals concentrations in the sediments decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline with the exception of Pb, which increased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in the sea and land geology of the study area. On the other hand, heavy metals show an increasing tendency in the mud fraction of Wadi El-Gemal area.The present work reflects how much the marine sediments are influenced by natural inputs from this wadi. The collected data will be useful in management and suitable development of the area, beside being helpful as database in the future.

[Hashem Abbas Madkour,Mohamed Anwar K abdelhalim and A. El-Taher. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations resulting natural inputs in Wadi El-Gemal surface sediments, Red Sea coast. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):686-694] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 87

 

Keywords: Heavy metals, Marine sediments, Natural inputs Wadi El-Gemal, Red Sea

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A delayed viral infection model with antibody immune response

 

A. Alhejelan1,2, A. M. Elaiw1 and M. A. Alghamdi1

 

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Science Buraidah, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.

Emails: am_math@outlook.com (A. Alhejelan),  a_m_elaiw@yahoo.com (A. Elaiw),

proff-malghamdi@hotmail.com (M. A. Alghamdi)

 

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behavior of a virus infection model with antibody immune response and distributed intracellular delays. The incidence rate of the infection is given by Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. Two types of distributed time delays have been incorporated into the model to describe the time needed for infection of uninfected cell and virus replication. Using the method of Lyapunov functional, we have established that the global stability of the model is completely determined by two threshold numbers, the basic reproduction number  and the antibody immune response reproduction number . We have proven that if , then the uninfected steady state is globally asymptotically stable (GAS), if , then the infected steady state without antibody immune response is GAS, and if , then the infected steady state with antibody immune response is GAS.

[Alhejelan, A., Elaiw, A.M. and Alghamdi M.A. A delayed viral infection model with antibody immune response. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):695-700]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 88

 

Keywords: Virus dynamics; Antibody immune response; Global stability; Lyapunov functional.

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Elemental Analysis of Phosphate Fertilizer consumed in Saudi Arabia

 

A. El-Taher 2 and Mohamed Anwar K abdelhalim1

 

11Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University, 51452 Buraydah, KSA

mabdulhleem@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: In present work, we have reported the elemental analysis of phosphate fertilizer used in Saudi Arabia measured by means of different analytical methodology. The concentration of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K has been determined by gamma-ray spectrometer with NaI(Tl) detector. It was found that the average values of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K ranged between 91.3 to 554.9 Bq kg-1, 8.861.8 to 428 Bq kg-1 458 to 27004.9 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured value of activity concentration of 40 K was estimated to be within the excepted world average range for NPK fertilizer (mean value 2700 Bq kg-1). It was observed that the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) in fertilizers are lower than the allowed maximum value of 370 Bq kg-1, however, the calculated representative level index, Igr, values for NPK and TSP phosphate fertilizers exceed the upper limit (Igr @1). Furthermore, the concentration of the environmental pollutants (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and common elements (Mg, Mn, and Fe) was carried out using Atomic Absorption spectrometer (AAS). The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in `the literature.

[El-Taher,A and Mohamed Anwar K abdelhalim. Elemental Analysis of Phosphate Fertilizer consumed in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):701-708] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 89

 

Keywords: Elemental Analysis - Heavy Metals - Natural Radioactivity- XRD

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[Life Sci J 2013;10(4):709-719] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 90

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A Medical-Surgical Nurse's Perceptions of Caring Behaviors among Hospitals in Taif City

 

Hanan .A. M. Youssef1, Magda. A.M. Mansour2, Ibrahim R. A. Ayasreh 3 and Nabeel A. A. Al- Mawajdeh 4

 

Head of 1Nursing Department, Assistant Professor of Critical Care Nursing, Taif University

2 Associate Professor of Adult Nursing –Assiut University, Taif University

3Lecturer of Critical Care Nursing-Taif University

4Lecturer of Adult Nursing-Taif University

dr_h_911@hotmail.com, Magda_albeah@hotmail.com, ibrahimayasreh@yahoo.com, nabeelmawajdeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Caring is considered a universal need, central concept for nursing and an important component in the delivery of nursing care. The literature is rich of previous studies that focused on perceptions of nurses toward nurse caring behaviors, but most of these studies were conducted in western communities. The purpose: identify a medical-surgical nurse's perceptions of caring behaviors among hospitals in Taif city. Method(s): A convenience sample of 90 nurses of two major hospitals in Taif city were completed the demographics questionnaire, and the Caring Behavior Assessment (CBA) questionnaire. Results: Nurse participants ranked the four items from Humanism/Faith-hope/ Sensitivity subscale as the most important caring behaviors, while three items from Helping/trust subscale had the least important caring behaviors, there is a statistical significances between demographic characteristics of nurses regarding educational qualifications and Expression of positive\negative feelings, Supportive\protective\corrective environment, and Humanism \faith-hope\sensitivity also between years of experiences and Supportive\protective\corrective environment and Expression of positive\negative feelings. Conclusions & Recommendations: This study provided evidence that nurses recognized overall caring behaviors and each individual subscales as important and the applicability of Watson's theory in Middle Eastern cultures. It is recommended to develop a more comprehensive and short quantitative tool to measure caring for future researches, studying of medical-surgical patients' perceptions of caring behaviors among hospitals in Taif city is also recommended.

[Hanan A. M. Youssef, Magda. A.M. Mansour, Ibrahim R. A. Ayasreh and Nabeel A. A. Al- Mawajdeh. A Medical-Surgical Nurse's Perceptions of Caring Behaviors among Hospitals in Taif City. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):720-730]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 91

 

Keywords: Nursing Care, Nursing Caring Behaviors, Perception, Medical Department, Surgical Department

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Microbial quality of bottled water and their molecular characterization in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

H. A. A. Al-Zahrani1*and El-Hamshary, O. I. M.2,3*

 

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul-Aziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

3Department of Microbial Genetics, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

olaelhamshary@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The microbiological quality of fifty one bottled water samples representing 17 domestic bottled water brands and three different water desalination plants from Jeddah Saudi Arabia, were analyzed. Results of microbial analysis revealed that none of the 51 samples were found to contain fungal growth, 9 (17.6%) of samples of bottled water (3 brands) and one from three of water desalination plants were contaminated with 6 different species of bacteria. Bacterial identification was conducted. Results showed that 5.88% (3/51 bottles) and 3.9 % (2/51 bottles) of the bottled water from retail stores and processing plants were contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerugenosa respectively and 1.96% (1/51 bottles) were contaminated by either Pseudomonas flourescens, Anthracoid, Micrococcus, Gram negative bacilli non-fermenter spp. or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In this study genetic fingerprinting of water-borne isolates S. aureus, Gram negative bacilli non-fermenter spp., P. aeruginosa and P. flourescenses isolated from different bottled water samples, were studied using RAPD markers. Such information will be useful in their classification, ecology and diagnosis. The number of bands obtained by PCR reactions may serve in future studies for comparison purposes.

[H.A. A. Al-Zahrani and El-Hamshary, O. I. M. Microbial quality of bottled water and their molecular characterization in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):731-737]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92

 

Key wards: RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, Staphylococcusaureus, Stenotrophomonasmaltophilia, bottled water

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Assessment of NKT Cells in CMV-Infected and Non-Infected Leukemic Children in Menoufia University Hospital

 

Bakr A1., El-Rashidi F2. El-Rajhy N1., Zahran W1.,  Mohamed A. Soliman3 and Eed E.M1.

 

1 Microbiology and Immunology Department Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University

2 Pediatric Department Hematology/oncology unit, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University

3 Clinical Pathology and Hematology Department Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University

Mohamedabdelrehim@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Natural killer T (NKT) cells constitute a unique subset among mature lymphocytes cells. As a part of the innate immune system, NKT cells play a critical early role in host defense in response to cytomegalovirus infection and leukemia. The potential importance of NKT cells in leukemic children was clear in this study. CMV infection has been associated with a number of hematological malignancies including leukemia. This may be due to the fact that patients suffering from haematopoietic malignancies are under immunosuppressive conditions induced by increased tumor cells and administration of chemotherapeutics. Although, NKT cell numbers significantly decreased in patients with leukemia, it remains unclear how NKT cells are involved in anti-tumor immunity because NKT cell numbers are extremely small.

[Bakr A., El-Rashidi F. El-Rajhy N., Zahran W.,  Mohamed A. Soliman and Eed E.M. Assessment of NKT Cells in CMV-Infected and Non-Infected Leukemic Children in Menoufia University Hospital. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):738-746]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 93

 

Key wards: CMV, NKT, leukemia

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Rural Women Empowerment through Self Help Groups in Nigeria: The Role of Participation and Volunteerism

 

Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah1  Nobaya Ahmad2  Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji3

 

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

1 asnarul@putra.upm.edu.my (Corresponding Author), 2 nobaya@putra.upm.edu.my, 3 ndasmn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Active participation and volunteerism of rural women in self help group’s activities are vital for sustainable women development. This paper seeks to examine the role of participation and volunteerism in SHG’s activities towards women’s empowerment. Participation and volunteerism in SHGs by women occur as a result of their awareness of their felt needs and that they can always come together to solve their problems through collective efforts. The general aim of this paper is to describe how participation and volunteerism in women’s SHGs reinforce a sense of personal ability that creates expectation for a successful women development. The paper also briefly looks at the extent to which rural women are empowered through and genuine participation of the members. A sample of 282 SHG members were selected through simple random (lottery method) out of 30 SHGs identified in agricultural activities from the three senatorial districts of Niger State and a schedule was designed and administered among the respondents. The results of this study indicated that majority of the respondents had participated in SHGs voluntary (Self Mobilization) and were fully motivated and involved in carrying out every aspect of group activities. The study also revealed that respondents had shown greater level of volunteerism towards the success of the group approaches. It was observed that the majority of the respondents had always encouraged themselves for maximum participation towards the success of the group goals. Thus, with self mobilization type of participation and a high spirit of volunteerism within individuals and groups in organization, the success of building a group, community and society will be fully attainable.

[Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Nobaya Ahmad, Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji. Rural Women Empowerment through Self Help Groups in Nigeria: The Role of Participation and Volunteerism. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):744-754]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 94

 

Keywords: Participation, Volunteerism, Women Empowerment, Self Help Groups, Community Development.

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Seasonal variations in food selectivity, condition factor and the hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices in the endangered killifish Aphanius dispardispar (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in Alhasa, Saudi Arabia

 

Ibrahim Mohamed Ageili., Ali Suliman Al-Akel. and El Amin Mohamed Suliman*

 

Department of Zoology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

*elaminsuliman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Food selectivity investigations of Aphanius dispar dispar were carried out during March 2010 to February 2011 from two different sites at Alhasa, Saudi Arabia. The electivity index (Ei) was found positive for all food items collected from the fish gut. The electivity index for the various food items were recorded as: blue green algae 0.40.19; and 0.360.14; desmids 0.430.21 and 0.330.21, diatoms 0.430.21 and 0.230.20, green algae 0.190.24 and 0.320.17, invertebrates 0.280.23 and 0.290.12, protozoa 0.240.12 and 0.280.07 and rectifiers 0.190.24 and 0.280.09 for Sites1 and 2, respectively. The condition factor (K) varied from 1.39 - 1.87 and 1.44-2.23. The hepatosomatic index (HIS) was ranged from 2.64 - 4.56 and 1.59 - 4.88 and the male gonadosomatic Index in male was recorded at 0.78 -1.98 and 1.52- 6.95 and female as 0.19 - 4.08 and 2.97 - 11.07 for site 1 and 2, respectively. A. d. dispar is an omnivorous fish that feed actively on both phytoplankton and zooplankton. The high values of (K), (HIS) and (GSI) throughout the year indicated that this fish is healthy and well adapted to its environment. Aphanius d. dispar is an endangered fish species and should be protected from predation and exotic fish competition.

[Ageili, IM,Al-Akel, AS, Suliman, EM. Seasonal variations in food selectivity, condition factor and the hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices in the endangered killifish Aphanius dispardispar (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in Alhasa, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):754-761] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 95

 

Keywords: Freshwater fish; feeding habits; environmental adaptation; conservation.

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Development of the innovation management system in organization

 

Bakhytzhan Seksenbayev1, Aygerim Abeldanova 2, Bekaidar Nurmashev1, Altyn Yessirkepova3, Zhanna Aliyeva 3

 

1-South Kazakhstan State Pharmaceutical Academy, Shymkent, Republic of Kazakhstan

2-Kazakh academy of transport and communications named after M. Tynyshpaev, Almaty, Kazakhstan

3-South Kazakhstan State University named after M.Auezov, Shymkent, Republic of Kazakhstan

 essirkepova@mail.ru

 

Abstract: Тhe growth rate of the gross domestic product, taken place in recent years, shows a post-crisis rise of Kazakhstan's economy. However, it is important that the GDP growth in the country’s economy is due to the development of industries producing high-tech and competitive products, providing domestic demand and output to an external market. An important factor for solving the problem is to increase the scale of investments in innovative projects of organizations and their effectiveness, which will lead to the implementation of the concept principles on transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to a "green economy" ultimately.

[Seksenbayev B., Abeldanova A., Nurmashev B., Yessirkepova A., Aliyeva Z. Development of the innovation management system in organization. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):762-766]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 96

 

Keywords: innovation management, management system, organization, development of the innovation

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Evaluation of The effect of Propolis extract on the Tongue mucosa of an Induced toxic rabbit by Fenitrothion

 

Elham F.Mahmoud1 and Mahmoud F. Mahmoud2

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Suez Canal University. Egypt.

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Taibahu University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, KSA.

2 Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University Egypt

drelham_fathy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of propolis as a natural antioxidant in prevention of fenitrothion induced toxicity on rabbit’s tongue mucosa. Methods: Thirty healthy white New Zealand rabbits weighing between 1800 and 2200 g. were divided randomly into 3 groups, control (group I), fenitrothion administration (group II), fenitrothion administration 1 h after propolis extract administration (groups III) respectively. The rabbits were then sacrificed after 28 days. The tongue sections were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Results: Histopathologically the fenitrothion group showed evidence of hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis with acanthosis. Meanwhile, the basal cell layer revealed basilar hyperplasia, nuclear hyperchromatism and mild dysplasia. The tongue’s muscles revealed signs of fatty degeneration. Histological examination of the tongue mucosa of propolis treated group showed a relatively normal appearance. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant increase in the optical density of caspase-3 cleaved activity in experimental group II. Conclusions: In a rabbit model the administration of natural antioxidants (propolis) could have beneficial effect on prevention of cytotoxicity induced by organophosphorous compounds (fenitrothion).

[Elham F.Mahmoud and Mahmoud F. Mahmoud. Evaluation of The effect of Propolis extract on the Tongue mucosa of an Induced toxic rabbit by Fenitrothion. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):767-775]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 97

 

Key words: fenitrothion, propolis, tongue, rabbit, caspase-3

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Preservice Teachers’ Thinking about Agency and Assessment in the Context of Personal Competencies and Structural Constraints

 

Jeffrey Spencer Clark 1, Medet Jandildinov 2, Roza Abitayeva 3, Kulbarshin Akhmetkarimova 4 and

Nursulu Algozhaeva 5

 

1Utah State University, USA, Utah, 84322, Logan, 2800 Old Main Hill;

2Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Kazakhstan, 050010, Almaty, 25 Jambyl;

3Zhezkazgan Baikonurov University, Kazakhstan, 100600, Zhezkazgan, 1B Alashakhan;

4Subsidiary of Science Center for Advanced Training of Teachers in the Karaganda Region "Orleu", Kazakhstan, 100019, Karaganda, 24 Zhiyenbayeva;

5Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan, 050057, Almaty, 58 Zhiyenkulov.

 

Abstract: This case study provides a glimpse into two preservice social studies teachers’ thinking about their own agency as curriculum developers. Albert Bandura’s framework for personal agency was used as a theoretical lens to better understand the preservice teachers’ thinking about their own intentionality (their purpose for teaching social studies) and forethought (their perceived capabilities and constrains in future school community). The analysis of twenty data items found that both preservice teachers’ developed curriculum that supported their purpose for teaching social studies; however, when they considered the assessments that they had developed a divergence in their thinking emerged. The findings also suggest that the preservice teachers’ differing expectations about acceptance in their future school communities contributed to their divergent thinking about assessment. The preservice teachers’ understood the outcomes of their assessment decisions in two distinct ways, and this shaped how they perceived their own agency in the current educational climate.

[Clark J.S., Jandildinov M., Abitayeva R., Kulbarshin Akhmetkarimova K., Algozhaeva N. Preservice Teachers’ Thinking about Agency and Assessment in the Context of Personal Competencies and Structural Constraints. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):776-789] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 98

 

Keywords: teachers’ training, preservice teachers, agency, assessment, curriculum.

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Financial mechanism of housing and utilities infrastructure of Russian Federation

 

Elena Mihajlovna Kryukova1, Dina Rafikovna Makeeva1, Marija Anatol'evna Atamanova1 and Irina Gennad'evna Shadskaja2

 

1Russian State University of Tourism and Service,

Moskovskaja oblast', Pushkinskij r-n, 141221, pos. Cherkizovo, ul. Glavnaja, 99

2Institut turizma i gostepriimstva (g. Moskva) (filial) Russian State University of Tourism and Service

Moskovskaja oblast', Pushkinskij r-n, 141221, pos. Cherkizovo, ul. Glavnaja, 99

 

Abstract: Because of socio-economic significance of this industry (it is responsible for forming of appropriate life and culture level of population of Russian Federation, finding a key to financial mechanism of development of housing and utilities infrastructure is an up-to-date task and it demands scientific grounds. In this connection study of structure of financial mechanism of housing and utilities infrastructure, from its elements to the methods and tools of organization of financial relations seems to the authors rather up-to-date.

[Kryukova E.M., Makeeva D.R., Atamanova M.A., Irina Gennad'evna Shadskaja I.G. Financial mechanism of housing and utilities infrastructure of Russian Federation. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):790-794] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 99

 

Keywords: housing and utilities infrastructure, financial mechanism, elements, methods, tools, principles, reforms, world practice

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Revisiting the Issue of Legislation in the Sphere of Entrepreneurial Activity in Kazakhstan

 

Rassul Moldabayev

 

Kazakh Humanitarian and Law University, st. Korgalzhyn, 8, Astana c. 010000, Kazakhstan

 

Abstract: This article deals with the statutory regulation of entrepreneurial activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan during the period of formation and gaining independence. Chronological framework of the research covers the period between 1990s and nowadays, in which the transition to free market has taken place, the foundation for formation entrepreneurial activity in Kazakhstan has been being laid, legislative framework for certain sectors and institutions of law, which regulate entrepreneurial activity, has been affected. Various governmental programs of supporting entrepreneurial activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan were considered. Normalization of entrepreneurial legislation and enactment of the Code of Entrepreneurship of the Republic of Kazakhstan was suggested.

[Moldabayev R. Revisiting the Issue of Legislation in the Sphere of Entrepreneurial Activity in Kazakhstan. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):795-798] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 100

 

Keywords: Statutory regulation of entrepreneurial activity. Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Entrepreneurship. The Code of Entrepreneurship of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

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Selenium containing heterocyclic: Synthesis, antimicrobial of some new selenazole Substituted phthalazin-ones  

 

Ibrahim E. El-Shamy 1, A. M. Abdel-Mohsen 2, 4 (*), Moustafa M. G. Fouda 3 (*), Numan Almonasy 5,

Salem S. Al-Deyab 3, Maher A. El-Hashash 6

 

1. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

2 Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic

3 Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia,

4 Textile Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, P.O. 12622, Giza 12522, Egypt.

5 Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic.

6 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

abdo_mohsennrc@yahoo.com, abdel-mohsen@ceitec.vutbr.cz, m_gaballa@yahoo.com, mmfoudah@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The principal purpose of the present study is to synthesize and investigate the antimicrobial and antifungal activities of new 1, 3-selenazole derivatives having phthalazin-1(2H)-one moieties. A multi-step reaction route was developed to synthesize a several of targeted derivatives starting from 4-alkyl/aryl-phthalazin-1(2H)-one and 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS, IR spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of all derivatives against four species of bacteria and two species of fungi were investigated. The antimicrobial and antifungal activity was determined in the extracts using disk diffusion method. Amoxicillin and Ketoconazole were used as standard drugs for the bacteria and fungi, respectively.

[Ibrahim E. El-Shamy, A. M. Abdel-Mohsen, Moustafa M. G. Fouda, Numan Almonasy, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Maher A. El-Hashash. Selenium containing heterocyclic: Synthesis, antimicrobial of some new selenazole Substituted phthalazin-ones. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):799-809] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 101

 

Keywords: Selenium, phthalazin-1(2H)-one, antimicrobial activity

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Histochemical and Biolchemical effects induced by LD50 of Cerastes cerastes gasperetti crude venom in mice

 

Mohamed K. Al-Sadoon1,*, Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim2, Amira A. Bauomy2 and Marwa S. M. Diab3

 

1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Zoology & Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

3Molecular Drug Evaluation Department, National Organization for Drug Control & Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt.

msadoon@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Snake venoms comprise mixtures of enzymes and proteins that act on vital systems of the victim. The present study aimed to investigate the histochemical and biochemical effects of the horned viper (Cerastes cerastes gasperetti: Ccg) snake venom in mice. Thirty six male adult Swiss albino mice (20–25g) were injected intraperitoneally and divided into 2 groups (n=18): control group injected with 200 μl saline solution and group (2) injected with LD50 of Ccg venom (0.978 mg/kg). Liver, kidney and testis were collected from six mice after 1, 3 and 6 hours, post envenomation. Histological examination of testis sections after1, 3 and 6 hours, post envenomation showed seminferous tubules displaying an impairment of spermatogenesis stages arrangement with severe vacuolization of most affected tubules and appearance of pyknotic spermatocyt. Histochemical investigations revealed marked reduction in both carbohydrates and proteins after injection of LD50 of Ccg crude venom at the different time. Oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite/nitrate levels, antioxidants glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were assayed in tissues homogenates. The venom induced significant increases in the levels of MDA and nitrite/nitrate while the content of GSH and the activity of CAT were significantly decreased, especially after 6 hours of envenomation. The results revealed that the Ccg venom induced time-dependant significant increases in the levels of MDA and nitrite/nitrate in all examined organs, especially in the hepatic tissues. It can be concluded that cytotoxic effects of Ccg venom might be related to induction of excessive oxidative stress and histochemical alternations in organs of the envenomated animals.

[Al-Sadoon MK, Abdel Moneim AE, Bauomy AA, Diab MM. Histochemical and Biolchemical effects induced by LD50 of Cerastes cerastes gasperetti crude venom in mice. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):810-817] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 102

 

Keywords: Cerastes cerastes gasperetti, histochemical, oxidative stress, liver, kidney, testis

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The Use of Psychotechnical Methods in Formation of Vocal Performance

 

Li Eryong

 

College of Art, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013, China

lieryong@yandex.by

 

Abstract: A professional training of singers shall have a scientific basis, and the teaching of vocal technique (singing technique) shall be based on the use of various formation methods of the exponent's professional qualities. The analysis of activity of leading vocal teachers of the past and present brings us to the conclusion that psychotechnology, as a method of professional training, has always been and still remains one of the most efficient methods of vocal training, in particular, at the initial stage of singer upbringing. Thus, in our opinion, the psychotechnical methods are the most promising ones. The article deals with the possible use of psychotechnical methods in formation of such vocality components, as singing breath and adequate emotional state.

[Eryong Li. The Use of Psychotechnical Methods in Formation of Vocal Performance. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):818-823] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 103

 

Keywords: psychotechnology, psychotechnical methods, practical psychology, singing breath, emotional state, muscular tension.

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Main ways of attracting investments into agriculture and agro-industrial complex of Russia

 

Parviz  Hajiyev 1 and Zhanna Mingaleva 2

 

1JTL Dis,Tic, Ltd. Istanbul/Turkey

2Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 29, Komsomolsky Av., Perm, 614000, Russia

 

Abstract: In the article the issues of agricultural development in Russia and improvement of its investment attractiveness are observed. Having analyzed perspective trends in development of agricultural production and AIC (agro-industrial complex) the authors formulate basic ways of attracting investments into agriculture of Russia. Institutional element of the process of encouragement of investment activity in Russian agriculture is emphasized, as the most important one. Such main forms of modern development of AIC as agro-industrial associations and clusters are analyzed. Necessity of establishing of biotechnological and agro-industrial (food) clusters on the base of main industries of agriculture is shown. Complex investment and innovative projects in agriculture and agro sector must be of utter importance - in this way industries which are included in it, as well as Russian economy in general, will develop fast. The investments must be attracted on every stage of production process, beginning with selection work and ending with deep processing of agricultural raw materials. Having investigated the experience of establishing and functioning of agro-industrial clusters of different types in different regions of Russia authors demonstrate main problems and bottle-necks in their development. The problem of import of dangerous production from other countries which does not correspond to phytosanitary and veterinarian norms is demonstrated.

[Hajiyev P., Mingaleva Zh. Main ways of attracting investments into agriculture and agro-industrial complex of Russia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):824-829] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 104

 

Keywords: agriculture, AIC (agro-industrial complex), clusters, investment projects, private investments, state support, innovative projects.

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Analysis of Potential of Error-correcting Capabilities of Codes

 

Igor Yakovlevich Lvovich, Andrey Petrovich Preobrazhenskiy, Oleg Nikolaevich Choporov

 

Voronezh Institute of High Technologies, Voronezh, Russia

bearia1991@yandex.ru

 

Abstract: The article is devoted to analysis of error-correcting capabilities of codes. Encoding of text, audio and video information was considered, the authors tested error-correcting capability of the following codes: Hamming, Bose-Choudhuri –Hoquenghem (BCH) and Reed-Muller. Effectiveness of BCH and Reed-Muller codes was tested on files in MPEG-2 format, because this format is basic for transmission of the video-flow in IP-television.

[Lvovich I.Ya., Preobrazhenskiy A.P., Choporov O.N. Analysis of Potential of Error-correcting Capabilities of Codes. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):830-833] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 105

 

Keywords: coding, text-based information, audio information, video information.

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Finishing of cellulosic fabrics with Chitosan/polyethylene glycol-siloxane to improve their Performance and antibacterial properties

 

Rasha M. Abdel-Rahman1, A. M. Abdel-Mohsen2, 4 (*), Moustafa M. G. Fouda3, 4 (*), Salem S. Al Deyab3,

Asmaa S. Mohamed5, Ibrahim E. El-Shamy 6

 

1 Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic.

2 Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic.

3 Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455,  Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

4 Textile Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, P.O. 12622, Giza 12522, Egypt.

5 Department of Medical Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt.

6 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

m_gaballa@yahoo.com, mmfoudah@ksu.edu.sa, abdo_mohsennrc@yahoo.com, abdel-mohsen@ceitec.vutbr.cz

 

Abstract: Finishing agent; chitosan/polyethylene glycol-dimethyl siloxane (CS-PEG-DMS) was used for the treatment of cellulosic fabrics (dyed and white) to impart antibacterial activity and to enhance the performance properties, like crease recovery angle (CRA) and tensile strength (TS) too. The effect of chitosan, polyethylene glycol-dimethyl siloxane, Butantetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), sodium hypophosite (SHP) concentrations were studied and optimized to incorporate the finishing agent chemically with the cellulosic fabrics. The treated fabrics show high antibacterial activity against gram -ve, and gram + ve bacteria species (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus respectively). In addition, the performance of the finished fabrics was improved.

[Rasha M. Abdel-Rahman, A. M. Abdel-Mohsen, Moustafa M. G. Fouda, Salem S. Al Deyab, Asmaa S. Mohamed, Ibrahim E. El-Shamy. Finishing of cellulosic fabrics with Chitosan/polyethylene glycol-siloxane to improve their performance and antibacterial properties. Life Sci J 2013;10 (4):834-839] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 106 

 

Keywords: chitosan, polyethylene glycol-dimethyl siloxane, antibacterial activity

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Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 3-arylidene chromen-2, 4-dione derivatives

 

F. K. Mohamed 1, A. Y. Soliman 1, Ramadan M. Abdel-Motaleb1, Rasha M. Abdel-Rahman 2 (*)

 A. M. Abdel-Mohsen 3, 5, Moustafa M. G. Fouda 4 (*), Salem S. Al Deyab 4, Asmaa S. Mohamed 6

 

1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

 2 Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic.

3 Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic.

4 Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

5 Textile Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, P.O. 12622, Giza 12522, Egypt.

6 Department of Medical Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt.

rmmar2008@yahoo.com, m_gaballa@yahoo.com, mmfoudah@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Derivatives of 3-arylidene chromen-2, 4-dione 1 were synthesized to be used as a starting material for synthesizing some new fused heterocyclic compounds containing coumarin moiety. When compounds 1 reacted with hydrazine derivatives, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, urea, thiourea, semicarbazide and thiosemicarbazide it gave the corresponding compounds 2-5. Compound 4a, b reacted with methyl iodide in DMF and K2CO3 at room temperature to afford the corresponding 6a, b. All these compounds were screened InVitro for their antibacterial activity.

[F. K. Mohamed, A. Y. Soliman, Ramadan M. Abdel-Motaleb, Rasha M. Abdel-Rahman, A. M. Abdel-Mohsen,  Moustafa M. G. Fouda, Salem S. Al Deyab, Asmaa S. Mohamed. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 3-arylidene chromen-2, 4-dione derivatives. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):840-845]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 107

 

Keywords: Coumarin, hydrazine, pyrazol, isoxazol, pyrimidine and antibacterial activity

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Synthesis of new coumarin derivatives using Diels-Alder reaction

 

A. Y. Soliman1, F. K. Mohamed1, Ramadan M. Abdel-Motaleb1, Rasha M. Abdel-Rahman2 (*),

A. M. Abdel-Mohsen3,5, Moustafa M. G. Fouda 4 (*), Salem S. Al Deyab 4, Asmaa S. Mohamed6

 

1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

 2 Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

3 Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic.

4 Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

5 Textile Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, P.O. 12622, Giza 12522, Egypt.

6 Department of Medical Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt.

rmmar2008@yahoo.com, m_gaballa@yahoo.com, mmfoudah@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: A novel series of new coumarin derivatives were prepared using Diels-Alder reaction. Derivatives of chromeno 2, 4- dione 1a, b reacted with dienophile such as cinnamic acid, acrylonitrole and maleic anhydride to afford Diels-Alder adduct 2-4a, b respectively. In addition, compound 4 reacted with hydrazine hydrate to afford the corresponding pyidazine derivatives 5.

[A. Y. Soliman, F. K. Mohamed, Ramadan M. Abdel-Motaleb, R. M. Abdel-Rahman, A. M. Abdel-Mohsen, Moustafa M. G. Fouda, Salem S. Al Deyab, Asmaa S. Mohamed. Synthesis of new coumarin derivatives using Diels-Alder reaction. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):846-850] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 108

 

Keywords: Coumarin, pyrano, pyridazine and Diels-Alder.

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Estimating Oil Palm Yields using Vegetation Indices Derived from Quickbird

 

Siva K Balasundram 1, Hadi Memarian 2, Rajiv Khosla 3

 

1. Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia

43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, siva@upm.edu.my

2. Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand

Birjand, Iran

3. Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1170, USA

 

Abstract: A single-date archived QuickBird satellite imagery and oil palm yield data collected over a 12-year time series were used to generate empirical oil palm yield models under Malaysian conditions. Vegetation indices and yield data were subject to correlation analysis, followed by regression modeling and model validation using standard metrics. Results showed a strong positive correlation between vegetation indices and oil palm yields, across different planting periods. Among vegetation indices, RVI showed the best correlation with oil palm yield. Empirical models were found to be significant for the 1990-2002 and the 1998-1999 planting periods. Models built using RVI and MSAVI showed a strong fit between estimated yield and observed yield. In the 1998-1999 planting period, however, only RVI and GNDVI showed reliable strength in yield estimation. Overall, findings of this study suggest that selected QuickBird-derived vegetation indices can be used to estimate oil palm yields with reliable accuracy.

[Balasundram SK, Memarian H, Khosla R. Estimating Oil Palm Yields using Vegetation Indices Derived from Quickbird. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):851-860] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 109

 

Keywords: Oil palm; satellite remote sensing; vegetation indices; empirical modeling

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Anatomical studies on the cranial nerves of fully formed embryonic stage of Liza ramada (Risso, 1827). I. The eye muscle nerves and the ciliary ganglion

 

1Dakrory, A.I.; 2Abdel-Kader, T.G. and 3Ali, H.M.

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt

3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Salahddin University, Erbil, Iraq

tgabdelkader@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study deals with the eye muscle nerves and the ciliary ganglion of the bony fish Liza ramada. The eye muscle nerves include the nervi oculomotorius, trochlearis and abducens. The oculomotor nerve leaves the cranial cavity through its own foramen. It innervates the rectus superior, rectus inferior, rectus medialis and the obliquus inferior muscles. It carries pure somatic motor fibres and visceromotor (parasympathetic) ones. The ciliary ganglion is small and there is only one ciliary nerve arising from it. The radix ciliaris longa originates from the truncus ciliaris. The nervus trochlearis passes outside the cranial cavity through its own foramen. It has no connection with the other cranial nerves. It carries pure somatic motor fibres to the obliquus inferior muscle. The nervus abducens leaves the cranial cavity through its own foramen. It enters the posterior eye muscle canal (myodome) and it has no connection with the other cranial nerves. It carries pure somatic motor fibres to the rectus lateralis muscle.

[Dakrory, A.I.; Abdel-Kader, T.G. and Ali, H.M. Anatomical studies on the cranial nerves of fully formed embryonic stage of Liza ramada (Risso, 1827). I.The eye muscle nerves and the ciliary ganglion Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 861-876]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 110

 

Key Words: Liza ramada -oculomotor-trochlear-abducens-ciliary ganglion

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The Performance of Ten Imported Tree and Shrub Species Grown Under the Environmental Conditions of RiyadhRegion, Saudi Arabia

 

*Fahed A. Al-Mana and Yahia A. Ahmad

 

Plant Production Department, College of Food & Agricultural Sciences,King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

* falmana@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract:The performance and growth of ten imported tree and shrub species were evaluated under the environmental conditions of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.The tree species wereAcaciavisco, Acacia salicina, Acacia pruinocarpa, Leucaenagreggii, while the shrubs were Caesalpiniamexicana, Parkinsoniaflorida, Sennaartemisioidesxsturtii, Sennaartemisioidesxartemisioides, Sennaartemisioidesfilifolia, and Sophoratomentosa. One year old seedlings were planted in the field and left to grow naturally. Plant growth measurements were taken at an interval of two months for one year.Leucaenagreggii gavethe highest values of plant height (4.64m), and crown diameter (2.6m) and had the longest flowering period and highest flowering rate percentage. Acacia salicina also reached 4 m in height and gave the highest values of stem diameter (10.87cm), number of branches (24) and crown height (3.94m). Acacia pruinocarpa gave the lowest plant height (2.41m), crown height (2.27m) and number of branches (17), while Acacia visco gave the lowest stem diameter (7.57cm) and crown diameter (2.03m) and had no blooming during the study period. The shrub species measurements showed that Caesalpiniamexicana gave the highest values of plant height (2.83m), crown height (2.63m) and stem diameter (9.5cm) while Sophoratomentosa gave the lowest plant height (1.07m), crown height (0.97m) and stem diameter (4.11cm). TheSennaartemisioides subspecieswere blooming continuously, giving mass of uniform yellow flowers for ten months,and the highest flowering rate occurred in March. These species grow in round shape and have aesthetic characteristics which allow them to be suitable for landscape uses.Generally the tree and shrub species performed very well under the arid environmental conditions of Riyadh region.

[Fahed A. Al-Mana and Yahia A. Ahmad. The Performance of Ten Imported Tree and Shrub Species Grown Under the Environmental Conditions of Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 877-885]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 111

 

Keywords: imported tree and shrub species, Acacia spp., Sennaartemisioides, arid climate, Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia

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Examination of substance-use and its psychological signs among the spes students

 

Engin Gezer

 

Mustafa Kemal University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Hatay, Turkey.

gezerengin@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was descriptively undertaken in order to discover the psychological signs of substance-use among the students who studied at the schools of physical education and sports and to determine whether or not there was a significant difference between substance-use and psychological signs. The sample of the study was composed of 273 students (106 female students and 167 male students) who studied at the Schools of Physical Education and Sports of Mustafa Kemal University and whose mean age was 21.931.88.The psychological signs were measured using Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) which was developed by Derogatis and the validity and reliability tests of which were made by Şahin and Durak. The analyses of the data were performed with percentage calculations, frequency analyses and Mann Whitney-U test.As the result of the study, there were statistically significant differences between smoking, volatile substance-use and narcotic substance-use, and psychological signs among the students. It was found out that BSI subscale scores of the students who smoked and used volatile substance and narcotic substance were significantly higher than those who did not smoke and use volatile substance and narcotic substance. As for alcohol use, there was no difference among the students.

[Engin Gezer. Examination of substance-use and its psychological signs among the spes students. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 886-894]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 112

 

Key Words: Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Substance Use, SPES students

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Enhanced absorption of Stachydrine using a self-double-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SDEDDS): in vitro and in vivo studies

 

Li Zhang, Quan Zhang, Peng Zhou, Gong Tao, Zhirong Zhong, Zhirong Zhang*

 

Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Tel.:+86-28-85501628; Fax: +86-28-85501628; Email: zhrong_zh@163.com

 

Abstract: Stachydrine, as a quaternary ammonium salt, exhibits low solubility in water, which leads to poor oral bioavailability. Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions are potential for enhancing oral bioavailability of drugs with high solubility and low permeability, but their industrial application is limited due to the instability. Herein, we employed a novel formulation, self-double-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SDEDDS) by formulating mixtures of hydrophilic surfactants and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions, which were easier to be stable through formulations optimization. SDEDDS can spontaneously emulsify to water-in-oilin-water (w/o/w) double emulsions in the mixed aqueous gastrointestinal environment, with drugs encapsulated in the internal water phase of the double emulsions. The current studies have precisely demonstrated the potential utility of SDEDDS for formulating stachydrine with sustained release in vitro and improved oral bioavailability in vivo. The optimal formulation of the stachydrine –SDEDDS was successfully developed. Our study has demonstrated that SDEDDS could be a promising technique for improving the oral absorption of stachydrine with high solubility and low permeability.

[Li Zhang, Quan Zhang, Peng Zhou, Gong Tao, Zhirong Zhong, Zhirong Zhang. Enhanced absorption of Stachydrine using a self-double-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SDEDDS): in vitro and in vivo studies. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 895-899]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 112

 

Key Words: Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Substance Use, SPES students

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Influence of Institutional Factors on Innovations in Grain Production by the Agroindustrial Complex

 

Zhanna Mingaleva 1, Bektur Keneshbayev 2 and Gulmira Mombekova 2

 

1 Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 29, Komsomolsky Av., Perm, 614000, Russia

2 International Kazakh-Turkish University named after H. A. Yasawi, 29, B.Sattarkhan Ave, Turkestan, 161200, Republic of Kazakhstan

d-song-ru@mail.ru

 

Abstract: The article provides the analysis of institutional factors affecting the implementation of innovations in agriculture. The factors such as the technological infrastructure of the economics, the institutional structure of the society, the current conditions of legislation on protection of intellectual property rights, and state innovation policy were identified and analyzed. The general ways of implementation of innovations in crop production were highlighted and conformity of institutions of innovative development of plant growing and grain production in Russia to the modern requirements of development has been assessed. A special emphasis was made on the analysis of the current legal protection of breeding and biotechnological developments in the field of seed growing and grain production. The problem of simplicity of the several ways of protection of intellectual property rights in the field of breeding related with the implementation of several basic methods to improve the seed material in grain production: improvement of seed breeding using standard selection (the so-called development of the sort the varietal selection) and production of genetically modified (GM) seeds (by changes in a gene) in the legislation of Russia and other countries was analyzed. The study of existing standards in the protection of intellectual property rights in grain production and seed growing revealed the general problems of the innovative development of grain production in Russia.

[Mingaleva Zh., Bektur Keneshbayev and Gulmira Mombekova. Influence of Institutional Factors on Innovations in Grain Production by the Agroindustrial Complex. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):900-904]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 114

 

Keywords: innovation, institutional factors, intellectual property rights, intellectual property in the grain production industry.

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Position-based Routing Protocols of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks & Applicability in Typical Road Situation

 

Kashif Naseer Qureshi 1, Abdul Hanan Abdullah1 , Rohana Yusof 2

 

1 Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia

2 Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, Institute of Industrial Technology, Malaysia

kashifnq@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The exchange of information between vehicles is a challenging issue for future Transportation applications. In vehicular Ad-Hoc network, the vehicles are interconnected with each other and they have not any additional infrastructure along the roadside. Vehicular Ad-hoc networks are eminent from other types of Ad-hoc networks. The Ad-hoc network attributed to their features such as infrastructure-less setup and self configure without any centralized manager. The Vehicular Ad-hoc networks have hybrid architecture and due to high mobility the network pose various research challenges. Due to high mobility in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), the various protocols proposed and have been made. In this paper, we studied the position based routing protocols and compare their performance in urban and highway environment and analyze which protocol is best for these environments. Position based routing protocols are based on the vehicle position. The urban and highway environment is different from each other we surveyed the differences and characterizing and analyzing the protocols with each other's. We also discuss the differences between mobile Ad-hoc networks and vehicular Ad-hoc networks and routing strategies as well.

[Kashif Naseer Qureshi, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Rohana Yusof. Position-based Routing Protocols of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks & Applicability in Typical Road Situation. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):905-913]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 115

 

Keywords: Vehicular Ad-Hoc network (VANET), Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) 

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A Model For Integrating Sensor’s And RFID In A Vast Landscape Area For Disaster Monitoring

 

Muhammad Sirajo Aliyu1, Abdul Hanan Abdullah1, Hassan Chizari1, Rohana Yusof2

 

1. Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

2. Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, Institute of Industrial Technology, Malaysia

samuhammad4@live.utm.my

 

Abstract: Vast landscapes are prone to different types of disasters in our environment which need to be monitored. Sensors play a vital role in environmental monitoring where its main function in a mission such as environmental monitoring is to collect information from the monitoring field. Monitoring in our environment against any type of disaster is crucial, due to the uniqueness of disaster monitoring applications; there features are different from other sensor application which may affect the performance of the sensor network. Wider landscape coverage is one of the important feature. In this research, a model was developed to find the optimal number of sensors required to cover a particular area at the monitoring field with a certain constant cost of network design and area to be covered. A mathematical solution based on linear programming to ascertain optimal number of sensors is used, number of simulation has been carried out to verify the proposed model using Matlab. The result shows a maximum coverage of the landscape area and lifespan of network was increased with a good connectivity.

[Muhammad Sirajo Aliyu, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Hassan Chizari, Rohana Yusof. A Model For Integrating Sensor’s And RFID In A Vast Landscape Area For Disaster Monitoring. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):914-919]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 116

 

Keywords: Sensor and RFID Integration; Disaster Monitoring; Coverage

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Selective Overview on Decision Support Systems: Focus on HealthCare

 

Majid Yaghoubi Ashrafi1(MD), Mahtab Karami2, Reza Safdari3(PhD), Azadeh Nazeri4(MD)*

 

[1]MD, Vice-chancellor for treatment, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2PhD Student of Health Information Management, School of Allied-Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3PhD of Health Information Management, Associate-Professor, School of Allied- Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4MD, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

* Corresponding Author: nazeriazadeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Decision support systems (DSS) are one type of the applications of information technology that can help clinicians to make right and in time decisions about patients care. The aim of this study is to get familiar with Decision support applications and their effects on healthcare. Methods: In this systematic review, articles between 2000 and 2012 which were available as full texts through databases and search engines including PubMED, EBSCO host research, Google scholar and which were also the clinical trials were examined, as well as books in this area that were used as primary sources. Results: The findings showed that DSS were applied in five areas in health care, which had significant effect on improving the process of care and the performance of providers. These areas are as follows: disease progress management (15.15%), care and treatment (27.27%), drug prescribing (27.27%), evaluation (18.18%), and prevention (12.12%). Conclusion: An overview of various models of DSS and consideration the components which are enhancing the performance of the system, help clinicians to select appropriate system for their operation in order to achieve significant gains such as reducing medical and medication errors, compliance with standard treatment and medication guidelines, reducing costs and ultimately improving the quality of health care.In general, improvement can be seen in three areas: quality of care and patient safety, cost effectiveness and provider’s level of knowledge.

[Majid Yaghoubi Ashrafi, Mahtab Karami, Reza Safdari, Azadeh Nazeri. Selective Overview on Decision Support Systems: Focus on HealthCare. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):920-928]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 117

 

Keywords: Clinical Decision Support System, Decision Support Systems, Health Information Technology, Healthcare, Clinical

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Optimizing Disease Management with Data Warehousing

 

Azadeh Nazari1 (MD), Mahtab Karami2, Reza Safdari 3 (PhD), Majid Yaghoubi Ashrafi4 (MD)*

 

[1] MD, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2PhD student of Health Information Management, school of Allied-Medical sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD of Health Information Management, Associate-professor, school of Allied- Medical sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

 4*MD, Vice-chancellor for treatment,  Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

 * Corresponding Author: Email: beh.yaq@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Diseases management offers the benefits of lower disease occurrence, improved patient care, and lower healthcare costs. The key mechanism used to identify individuals at risk, stratify patients by risk level and track patients’ progress through the disease management is the data warehouse (DW). By data warehouse, healthcare organizations, clinicians and managers can reduce costs generated by process redesign, obtain right information in areas of patient care, budgeting, planning, research, process improvement, external reporting, benchmarking, trend analysis and marketing and make the right decision to prevent the progression or appearance of the illness, thus maintaining the health of the population. This review article describes operational systems, DW features and component and role of it in disease management programs.

[Azadeh Nazari, Mahtab Karami, Reza Safdari,Majid Yaghoubi Ashrafi. Optimizing Disease Management with Data Warehousing. Life Sci J 2013;10(4): 929-932] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 118

 

Key words: disease management; data warehouse; OLAP; OLTP; data mining; clinical decision making

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Morphological and Molecular identification of some Uromastyx species (Reptilia; Agamidae) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia by forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) of 16S rRNA gene and electrophoretic protein patterns

 

Mohamed Elmogy1,2*, Osama M. Sarhan2,3, Azza M. Elgendy1,2 and Wael M. Alamodi2

 

1Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Biotechnology program, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

*Corresponding author e-mail: elmoogy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The morphological examination, of the collected Spiny-tailed lizards, revealed three Uromastyx subspecies (U. a. aegyptia; U. a. microlepis; and U. ornate ornate or U. ornate philbyi) to be inhabited in the holy land of Makkah of Saudi Arabia . FINS (Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing) approach of 16SrRNA gene could confirm the morphologically identified first two subspecies to be U. a. aegyptia and U. a. microlepis, and identified the third subspecies to be U. ornate philbyi. This is the first successful typing of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene with FINS approach carried out to identify the Spiny-tailed lizard, Uromastyx sp. in Saudi Arabia. The electrophoretic protein pattern analysis on SDS-PAGE showed the protein band of the molecular weight 275 kDa to be a characteristic protein marker for U. aegyptia microlepis; the protein band of 150 kDa to be a characteristic protein marker for U. aegyptia aegyptia; and the three protein bands of 200, 15, and 5 kDa to be characteristic protein markers for U. ornate philbyi. The obtained results suggested that protein electrophoresis is not only powerful tool in targeting the genetic variability within species but also in identifying them.

[Mohamed Elmogy, Osama M. Sarhan, Azza M. Elgendy and Wael M. Alamodi. Morphological and Molecular identification of some Uromastyx species (Reptilia; Agamidae) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia by forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) of 16S rRNA gene and electrophoretic protein patterns. Life Sci J 2013;10(4): 933-938]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 119

 

Keywords: FINS technique; Protein markers; Uromastyx sp.;Molecular identification.

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Learning with Observation of a Motor-Perceived Task; the Example of Running Shoot in Basket-Ball

 

Slim Khiari1 and Habib Ghedira2

 

1 Permanent Teacher-Researcher (Assistant of High Teaching) specialized in Sciences of Education, Didactics and Basket-Ball / Ex-Player of Tunisian National Team of Basket-Ball / Trainer Third Degree of Basket-Ball.

High Institute of Sports and Physical Education / Department of Didactics / University of Sfax, Tunisia.

2 Professor of Medicine / Department of Pulmonology / University of Tunis.

Head of Service of Pulmonology and Head of Laboratory of Breathing Exploration / Hospital Abderrahman MAMI / Ariana / Tunis / Tunisia.

slimkhiari@yahoo.fr, ghedirahabib@gmail.com

 

Abstract: We have focused our attention on “One Against One”, the key situation in Basket-Ball, which we conceived it for a long time in clubs and in National Teams. We have insisted on demonstration, progression, rhythm, the crossing from the known to the unknown, from the easiest to the most difficult and from the most simple to the most complex, leaning on verbal repetition, contextual interference, Part versus whole training and on motivation. In the side of technique and tactics of Basket-Ball, we have taken care of the learners / players to be interested and initiated in stances, placing, shifting, mark, mark-down, pressing, dribble, interception, dummy, revolve, rebound, against and running shoot, preventing repeats and walking with the ball. Our objective is attained. An optimal learning of spatio-temporal and complex task of ground (case of One Against One in running shoot) is a tributary of the complementarity between observation and physical practice. This kind of learning is function of age and it is clearly and harshly better than artificial experiment, in the laboratory, or training without adversary.

[Slim Khiari and Habib Ghedira. Learning with Observation of a Motor-Perceived Task; the Example of Running Shoot in Basket-Ball. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):939-946]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 120

 

Key-Words: Teaching, Didactics, Process, Physical Practice.

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Use of Spectral Reflectance to Discriminate between Potassium Deficiency and Orange Spotting Symptoms in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

 

S. Selvaraja1, S.K Balasundram1*, G. Vadamalai2 and M.H.A Husni3

 

1Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia,

43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

 

Abstract: Potassium (K) deficiency and Orange Spotting (OS) disease exhibit similar symptom via visual assessment. This work investigates the separability of K deficiency and OS disease symptoms using spectral reflectance. This assessment was conducted at a commercial oil palm plantation located in Sungai Buloh, Selangor. Leaves from K-deficient trees, OS-infected trees and nonsymptomatic trees (control) were sampled for spectral reflectance acquisition. Leaf spectral reflectance was acquired under constant halogen lighting. All leaf samples exhibited a green peak at 555 nm wavelength, with an average reflectance value of 0.15. Reflectance between OS-infected and K-deficient leaves showed significant separability at the 400-538 nm and 667-688 nm wavelength regions. Reflectance of K-deficient leaves was significantly different than that of OS-infected leaves across all severity classes.

[Selvaraja S, Balasundram SK, Vadamalai, G, Husni, MHA. Use of Spectral Reflectance to Discriminate between Potassium Deficiency and Orange Spotting Symptoms in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis). Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):947-951]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 121

 

Keywords: Oil palm, potassium deficiency, orange spotting disease, spectral reflectance

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Sexual and Psychological Adverse Events (AE) Facing Stoma patients in our society

 

Soheir Abo El-Fadl Abdel AAL 1 and Ahmed Hussan2

 

1Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing Faculty of Nursing Alexandria University

2Department of Colorectal Surgery Faculty of Medicine Alexandria University

Soheir56@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Stoma operations has been shown to be associated with a lot of bodily, life style and emotional (AEs) which affecting the safety of those patients. This study aimed to identify the most frequent adverse events among stoma patients. This will help the care-givers (CGs) to develop proper strategies of care. Otherwise it help the nurses to prepare the counseling sessions and contents of instructional guides for those patients to maintain their safety. This objective can be achieved through the fulfilling of different needs resulting from this operation. Stomas are performed for people from infants to elderly, for a wide variety of causes. It may be permanent or temporary. Whether it is permanent or temporary, it can be difficult to adjustment form patients, their family and the loved ones. This study is prospective type based on the experience of those who have had stoma surgery. We must be focused on what the (CGs) experiencing or understanding regards the frustrations as well as fears of those patients. We hope that, this study can help to answer the stoma patient’s questions and identify the most frequent (AEs) that usually occur and affecting their safety and life negatively. Subject: - A convenient sample of 75 adult patients with stoma operation, both sex, post operative: At least one month and was selected from the following setting The Main University hospitals in Alexandria and El-Minia for period of two year. Meeting of patients was down in out patient’s clinic and at their home. A specially designed interview questionnaire was developed and utilized for data collection. Stoma examination was down to assess the stoma lumen, mucosa as well as its function and assessment of skin around it. Furthermore the psychological response and sexual practices were assessed by asking the patients about its problems related to sexual and marital life due to this operation. The study revealed that, (50%) of patients were observed as ≥ 40 years old with total mean score equal 37.811.7 years & SD 13.126.More than half of patients(54%) were males and married as will as the total mean score 1.46 0.06 and 2.38 0.13 & SD 0.502 and 1.o2 respectively. Moreover, (30.2%, 20.6%) for patients were illiterate or read and write respectively and the total mean score equal 2.810.17, & SD 1.35. As well as (55.6%) were noticed from Alex. & (44.4%) from El-minia with total mean score equal 1.43 0.07,&SD 0.53. However, the result was represented that,the relation of gender, sexual as well as psychological adverse events assadness and depression were represented among59% and93.1% in male and female respectively. Furthermore, is a highly statistical significant correlations was detected regarding the correlation between sex and psychological events (P=.000٭).

[Soheir Abo El-Fadl Abdel AAL and Ahmed Hussan. Sexual and Psychological Adverse Events (AE) Facing Stoma patients in our society. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 952-961]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 122

 

Keywords: Stoma, adverse events, stenosis, prolaps, retraction, abdomino-perineal resection

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Identify the Periodontal problems Among Adults with (Type 2) diabetes Mellitus (DM).

 

Soheir Abo El-Fadl Abdel AAL 1 and Soheir Mohamed Labeeb Weheeda2

 

1Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing Faculty of Nursing Alexandria University

Soheir56@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Over the past decade, there has been a serious interest in the interrelationship between systemic conditions and oral health. Diabetes is perhaps one of the best documented conditions that have been closely linked with periodontal disease. This study reviews the role of diabetes as a risk factor in periodontal disease. The treatment implications in the management of periodontal disease as an integral component of diabetic care is also discussed in light of the current understanding of the pathogenesis of this chronic conditions. Material and Methods: The clinical assessment of oral condition and laboratory studies examining the relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases. The 100 adult with DM type 2 were selected randomly from both setting out patients’ diabetic clinic at the Main University Hospital& ElQbarry hospital in Alexandria. There age was ranged between20 to 60 - from both sex, with type 2 DM and not visit the dental clinic at least since six months ago. Results: There is positive correlation between periodontal problems as shown to be related to the direct and indirect effects of glycaemic control among (98. 9%) from studied subject with significances correlation, with other factors also being implicated. Although some studies have pointed towards a bi-directional relationship between glycaemic control and periodontal health, it is still not clear if improvement in periodontal health could lead to improved metabolic control. Conclusion: Diabetes and periodontal disease are closely related though a lot of channel, though the effect of periodontal disease on diabetes control remain to be determined, with larger intervention studies. In the light of the increasing evidence of the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease, management of oral health should form an integral serious part of diabetes patients.

[Soheir Abu Elfadle Abd El-AAl. Identify the Periodontal problems Among Adults with (Type 2) diabetes Mellitus (DM). Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 962-969]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 123

 

Key wards: Diabetes mellitus, effect of oral health promotion; oral health behaviors; periodontal health, Periodontitis

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Terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis in Astragalus membranaceus

 

Jongwon Lee, Yeon Bok Kim, Md Romij Uddin, Jin Woong Cho*, Sang Un Park*

 

Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764, Korea

Jin Woong Cho: jwcho@cnu.ac.kr (J.W. Cho) and supark@cnu.ac.kr (S.U. Park)

 

Abstract: Many natural products are high-value chemicals, since only small quantities can be isolated from their native biosynthetic organisms with the majority of them utilized as therapeutic agents for many diseases. The advent of genomics and metagenomics has allowed not only the discovery of a huge number of new promising metabolites, but also the elucidation of their biosynthetic pathways. As a result, the use of well-characterized hosts for their efficient, large scale production is now possible. Astragalus membranaceus is a herb that has traditionally been used in a wide variety of herbal blends and 'natural' remedies in Asiatic medicine, such as Dang-gui buxue tang (Astragalus paired with Angelicae Sinensis; also known as DBT). The genus Astragalus is a very large group of more than 2,000 species distributed worldwide, and is commonly known as milkvetch root. Astragalus contains the plant pigments: formononetin, astraisoflavan, astrapterocarpan, 2’-3’- dihydroxy-7, 4’- dimethooxyisoflavone, and isoliquiritigenin. Other major constituents include D--asparagine,calycosin,cycloastragenol, astragalosides, choline, betaine, kumatakenin, sucrose, glucuronic acid, -sitosterol 1, and soyasaponin. The flavonoid content may also contribute to cardioprotection, as flavonoids tend to possess this mechanism, and the polysacccharide content can also aid this by being a potent anti-inflammatory agent and reducing cholesterol levels in a manner similar to psyllium husk (a fiber). It has recently been investigated more into due to its heart healthy (cardioprotective) effects, its anti-inflammatory effects, and the potential for Astragalus extract to enhance longevity and lifespan. Interestingly, the traditional chinese preparation method of DBT was shown to be a very effective way of extracting the main ingredients from the plant. A few of the research has been done in astragaloside biosynthesis in A. membranaceus and was not reported any one as a review. Therefore, we summrized the information related to astragalosides biosynthesis in this review paper. The biosynthesis of terpenoid and flavonoid in Astragalus membranaceus might play a key role for commercially used in the pharmaceuticals industry both in modern and traditional uses. 

[Lee J, Kim YB, Uddin MR, Cho JW, Park SU. Terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis in Astragalus membranaceus. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):970-973]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 124

 

Keywords: Natural products, biosynthesis, terpenoid, flavonoid, Astragalus membranaceus

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Evaluation of antibiotic producing genes in Streptomyces isolated from a desert environment of Saudi Arabia

 

Mahera M. Shinwari 1, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi*1, Ismet Ara 1 and Milton Wainwright1,2

 

1 Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh-114 51, Saudi Arabia.

1,2 Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S102TN, UK

3King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia

sharbi@ksu.edu.sa*

 

Abstract: In this research 20 actinobacteria isolates species were obtained from a desert extreme environment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The isolates were identified as species of Streptomyces using the diaminopimelic acid method and were evaluated for their ability to produce genes relating to polyketide synthase type I (PKSI), polyketide synthase type II (PKS II) and non-ribosomal peptide (NRPS). In all 20 isolates high frequencies of positive PCR amplification were obtained for PKS-I (15%), PKS-II (50%) and NRPS (50%). High detection levels of biosynthetic systems were for PKSII and NRPS were found and observed in most isolates. However, some strains did not express any of the three genes, although they did exhibit antimicrobial activity.

[Mahera M. Shinwari, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Ismet Ara and Milton Wainwright. Evaluation of antibiotic producing genes in Streptomyces isolated from a desert environment of Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):974-980]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 125

 

Keywords: Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, diaminopimelic acid, polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, gel electrophoresis

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Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus to intravascular cannulae

 

Ghadah Abusalim1, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi2, Hesham Khalil3, Milton Wainwright2,4 and Mohammad A. Khiyami 5

 

1Department of laboratory Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Salman bin Abdluaziz University

2Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh-114 51, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

2,4Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK

5 King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia

E-mail: sharbi@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The use of implantable foreign devices in medicine has recently increased dramatically. Intravascular cannulae and catheters are used to administer fluids, medications, parenteral nutrition, and blood products in order to monitor hemodynamic status and also to provide hemodialysis. The early and late failure of inserted or implanted devices is largely the result of bacterial infection and may lead to the disruption of integration between the device and the tissues which surround it. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are widely considered to be the most common organisms causing device- related infection. Our study showed that S. aureus and S. epidermidis adhered to intravascular cannulae made up of PTFE, SPTFE and vialon. Adhesion of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to intravascular cannulae varied significantly depending upon the type of material used and the presence of coating materials. Both bacteria adhered less to PTFE followed by Vialon and SPTFE and the adhesion capacity of S. aureus and S. epidermidis increased over time. Coating intravascular cannulae with human serum albumin inhibited the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to these cannulae, and pretreatment of cannulae with fibronectin inhibited the adhesion of S. epidermidis but increased the adhesion of S. aureus to all types of cannulae. Pretreatment of cannulae surface with potassium chloride or calcium chloride increased the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to cannulae, suggesting a role for electrostatic forces in the mechanism of such adhesion. This study will hopefully clarify the mechanism of adhesion and provide possible means of preventing such adhesion either by the use of better material coatings or by interfering with the process of adhesion by targeting bacterial structures responsible for it. Currently we recommend the use of PTFE cannulae as they exhibit a lower bacterial adhesion capacity compared to the other tested cannulae.

[Ghadah Abusalim, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hesham Khalil, Milton Wainwright and Mohammad A. Khiyami. Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus to intravascular cannulae. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):981-988]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 126

 

Keywords: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, adhesion, cannulae,  PTFE, Vialon

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Zinc supplementation attenuates lipid peroxidation and increases antiperoxidant activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic men

 

Abdul Razzaq S. Alsalman1, Lamia A. Almashhedy2, Mahmoud Hussein Hadwan*2.

 

1Surgery Dept., College of Medicine, Babylon University, Iraq.

2Chemistry Dept., College of Science, Babylon University, Iraq.

mahmoudhadwan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Oxidative stress and impaired antiperoxidant levels have been proposed as a potential factors involved in the pathophysiology of diverse male infertility types, including asthenospermia. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with antiperoxidant activity in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Semen samples were obtained from 55 fertile and 55 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matching age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220 mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). Total antiperoxidant activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). The mean antiperoxidant activity of fertile controls (59.4% in seminal plasma & 59.13% /106 spermatozoa in spermatozoa) was significantly higher than that of the infertile patient group (39.3% in seminal plasma & 47.74%/106 spermatozoa in spermatozoa) (p<0.05). Antiperoxidant activity levels were significantly elevated in the infertile group which treated with zinc sulfate (54.8% in seminal plasma & 68.69% /106 spermatozoa in spermatozoa) (p<0.05). On the other hand, antiperoxidant activity is positively correlated to sperm motility. Decreased antiperoxidant activity was associated with impaired sperm function. Conjugated diene hydroperoxide (CDH) was found to be increased significantly in the infertile patient group. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation.

[Alsalman A R, Almashhedy L A, Hadwan M H. Zinc supplementation attenuates lipid peroxidation and increases antiperoxidant activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic men. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):989-997] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 127

 

Key words: zinc supplementation, oxidative stress, antiperoxidant activity, asthenozoospermia, seminal plasma.

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Bacterial Diversity in a polluted Manmade Lake Nearby Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

 

Majed M. Albokari

 

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P. O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia

bokarimajed@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A manmade lake (pond) nearby the second industrial city at the south of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was studied for its Bacterial community inhabiting this extreme environmental polluted area; This lake is fed by different types of wastewater ranged from treated wastewater generated from facilities of the industrial city and rainfall draining system; Physico-Chemical parameters of water has been measured including temperature of 31C, pH of 7.6 to 7.8, TDS of 7700 ppm, conductivity of15590 S/cm and selected heavy metals of dominance sequence: Ni > As >Cr > Fe > Zn > Cu >Mn> Co >Pb> Cd.Nitrates, carbonates and sulfates clearly existed at levels that Bactria can utilize for their energy, which were as an average of 25, 252 and 787 mg/L respectively. A total of 16 isolates were identified by using state-of-art RiboPrintersystem which is based on pattern of DNA bands. Aeromonas sp. was dominant with 15% followed by Rhodococcusequi and Pseudomonasputida with 12% each and then Lactobacillusparacasei, Enterobactercoloacae and Brevibacillusbrevis with 8% each.

[Majed M. Albokari. Bacterial Diversity in a polluted Manmade Lake Nearby Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):998-1002]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 128

 

Keywords: Bacterial Diversity, Heavy Metals pollution, Physico-Chemical parameters, RiboPrinter

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Nematodes Rotifers Tardigrades and Diatoms as Vehicles for the Panspermic Transfer of Microbes

 

Sulamain Ali Alharbi 1*, Mohammad A. Khiyami2, Reda Hassan Amasha3, Bassam O. Al-Johny3, Hesham Khalil4, and Milton Wainwrigh1,5

 

1 Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 Riyadh, 11451

2King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia

3Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science- King Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

5Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, S102TN, UK

5Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, University of Buckingham, UK.

*sharbi@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Nematodes, rotifers and tardigrades are extremotolerant invertebrates which can survive long periods of stasis brought about by extreme drying and cold. They can also resist the effects of UV radiation, and as result could act as vehicles for the panspermic transfer of microorganisms. Here we show that NRT contain a variety of bacteria and fungi within their bodies in which environment they could be protected from the extremes of the space and released into new cosmic environments. Diatoms were also shown to contain a viable alga and Escherichia coli and so could also act as panspermic vehicles for the transfer of these and perhaps other, microbes through space. Although not studied here, NRT, and possibly diatoms, also carry protozoa and viruses within their bodies and could act as vehicles for the panspermic transfer of an even wider range of microbes than shown here.

[Sulamain Ali Alharbi, Mohammad Khiyami, Reda Hassan Amasha, Bassam O. Al-Johny, Hesham Khalil, and Milton Wainwrigh. Nematodes Rotifers Tardigrades and Diatoms as Vehicles for the Panspermic Transfer of Microbes. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1003-1006]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 129

 

Keywords: Extromophiles, diatoms, panspermia, survival in space

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Sport Behaviors of Turkish Soccer Players: An Observational Study on Personal and Team-Related Dimensions

 

Corresponding Author: Duysal Askun Celik, duysala@gmail.com

 

aDuysal Askun Celik, bErkut Tutkun, cCelal Taskiran, dErtugrul Ciplak, eFaruk Yamaner

aDepartment of Psychology, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey.

bYasar Dogu Department of Pyhsical Education, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey.

cDepartment of Pyhsical Education, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.

dDepartment of Pyhsical Education, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, Turkey.

eDepartment of Pyhsical Education, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey.

 

Abstract: The current study aims to explore both personal and team-related sports behavior dimensions of Turkish children soccer players. It has been argued that several personal dispositions such as achievement motivation, fear of failure, and aggression levels (Wann, Haynes, McLean, and Pullen, 2003) could be at play when the child is trying to achieve in a sports context. Among related outcomes of these personal dispositions, sports performance, teamwork (Martin, Carron, Eys, and Loughead, 2012), fairplay and sportsmanship behaviors (Arthur-Banning, Wells, Baker, and Hegreness, 2009) have been widely researched and discussed in the literature. The current study will try to explore the relationships between these dimensions from a personal disposition perspective using an observational method. The sample consisted of 79 selected male soccer players. A total of 6 teams were observed during soccer play competition games. The results revealed interesting findings regarding the relationships between several personal and team-related behavior dimensions.

[Duysal Askun Celik. Sport Behaviors of Turkish Soccer Players: An Observational Study on Personal and Team-Related Dimensions. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1007-1015]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 130

 

Keywords: children’s sports behaviors, fear of failure, achievement motivation, aggression, team-orientation and teamwork, sportsmanship, performance

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The Efficiency of Livestock in Agricultural Enterprises

 

Gabdrashit Musinovich Aubakirov

 

Kazakh Research Institute of Economics of Agriculture and Rural Development, Chief Scientific Officer

Astana, 010000, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Auezova Street 24, flat 9

g0058@inbox.ru

 

Abstract: Article contains analysis of institutional changes (made in the course of transition to market economy) in agriculture, economic evaluation of existing forms of economic management both in big and middle/small agriculture enterprises. The most typical regions of Kazakhstan -Kostanai and Almaty regions - were chosen. System approach is presented which is based on analysis of current state and future development of mixed economy in agriculture. In this regard effectiveness of existing infrastructure of agriculture enterprises in terms of economic management forms is calculated, problem areas are defined and the ways to reach sustainable growth of livestock, stable increase in production of meat and milk are described. The main probable factors which lead to increase in effectiveness of production - the sizes of enterprises, specialization of production and improvement of legislative acts - are investigated.

[Aubakirov G.M.. The Efficiency of Livestock in Agricultural Enterprises. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1016-1020] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 131

 

Keywords: livestock, total number of livestock and poultry, mixed economy, competitive environment, agriculture formations (units), the structure of agriculture enterprises, different forms of economic management, the sizes of farms, household farms, effectiveness of production

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Rheology of Sludges and Residues of Effluent Waters

 

Leonid Ivanovich Sokolov

 

Vologda State Technical University, Lenin Street, 15, 160000, Vologda, Russian Federation

post559473@mail.ru

 

Abstract: Wet dispersed wastes are classified in terms of rheological properties and textural features. Rheological models of non-Newtonian liquids by Newton, Bingham, Ostwald, Herschel–Bulkley are presented. On example of suspensions of grinding sludge using viscometric studies complete rheological curves have been obtained, rheological properties of sludges have been studied, and rheological constants have been determined: yield point, flow index and consistency index. It has been established that strength, yield point, viscosity, stability of sludges are determined by dispersity, bonding energy between solid particles and interaction of disperse phase of sludge with its disperse medium. On the basis of tube viscometer design a commercial facility has been developed for determination of pressure loss within pipeline transportation of sludges and their suspensions. Pressure loss as a function of flow velocity of slurries in 150 mm pipeline has been established. Critical flow velocity of sludge suspensions in commercial pipelines have been determined.

[Sokolov L.I. Rheology of Sludges and Residues of Effluent Waters. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1021-1029]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 132

 

Keywords: non-Newtonian fluids, muds, residues, rheological properties, pipeline transport of abnormal liquids.

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Cluster Development Concept of Kazakhstan Engineering on Innovative Basis

 

Shuakhbay Zamanbekovich Zamanbekov

 

Kazakh State Women’s Pedagogical University, Ayteke bi street, 99, 050000, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan

zamanbekov50@mail.ru

 

Abstract: This article consideres the main questions of developing the engineering branch of the republic on a cluster basis. The concept of engineering clustering and necessity of its development for ensuring stability and efficiency of production development of engineering products and increasing its competitiveness is stated in the article. The prime purposes and tasks facing engineering on activization of innovative activity by means of formed clusters are defined as well. Thus special attention is paid to the choice of priority engineering clusters necessary for re-equipment of the enterprises of other industries by cars, processing equipment at the level of international standards. The basis of a choice is made by connection of a cluster with innovative infrastructure which is referred to a service sector, as innovative infrastructure is the most effective tool of introducing new technologies in production of engineering production. In this regard we can consider possibility of creating a cluster structure engineering of the republic in the form of regional or branch clusters, in certain regions of the country where necessary preconditions for formation and their functioning are found. The general structure of engineering cluster indicating the location of priority subsectors of engineering on areas of Kazakhstan is given in the article.

[Zamanbekov S.Z. Cluster Development Concept of Kazakhstan Engineering on Innovative Basis. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1030-1035]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 133

 

Keywords: cluster, innovation, integration, modernization, structure, priority.

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Analysis and evaluation of government activities related to provisioning of public goods

 

Tatiana Pritvorova, Gulnara Baibasheva and Saida Kaidarova

Innovative University of Eurasia, M. Gorkiy Street, 102/4, 140000, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan

mobileaia2013@yandex.ru

 

Abstract: The article deals with the issues of involvement of the public sector of the economy of Kazakhstan in the formation of incomes and expenditures of households. The authors use the method of the system of national accounts - 93 and evaluate dynamics and structure of the household sector income indicators based on it.

[Pritvorova T., Baibasheva G., Kaidarova S. Analysis and evaluation of government activities related to provisioning of public goods. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1036-1041] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 134

 

Keywords: incomes and expenditures of households, actual final consumption, adjusted after-tax income, personalized and social services.

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On the Issue of Structure-Semantic and Predicative Features of Semi-Composite Sentences and Their Functions in the Bounds of Paradigmatic Syntax

 

Rishat Zhurkenovich Saurbayev, Kairat Muhamedhafizovich Tekzhanov, Adilbek Dautbekovich Amrenov, Kuanysh Sovetovich Ergaliyev

 

Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute, 140000, Pavlodar, Mira Street, 60, Kazakhstan

rishat_1062@inbox.ru

 

Abstract: Syntactic theory obtained some new lines that should be generally defined as semantic syntax. Together with the development of semiotics – the study of signs – semantic syntax, as a science, promoted the appearance of notion that sentence is an entire sign and so it has not only syntactic construction (plane of expression), but also content aspect (semantics). In this research we will consider structure-semantic and predicative features of sentence and its functions: structural and predicative. Syntactic relations theory is based on the extent to which the words are connected in a sentence and on contrasting notions of hypotaxis and parataxis. In order to describe the structure of a sentence completely and thoroughly, it is necessary to study its structural, semantic and predicative features in the context of paradigmatic syntax. This particular consideration gives us a complete idea about the nature of composite and semi-composite syntax. The means of structural and semantic links unite groups of syntactic constructions into composite or semi-composite syntactic whole and include incompleteness of the following sentences at the expense of the previous ones. These incomplete constructions make the whole statement semi-composite and create semi-composite sentences that represent a syntactic unit expressed by one or several semi-predicative lines. In present research we use paradigmatic analysis of sentences that have different syntactic structures. This analyses is based on averaged quantities and shows the numerical characteristic for relative volume of syntagmatic system per unit of its derivational system, because relations concerned show the extent of open representation of the sentence’s derivational base that is called “the factor of open predication” (FOP). This factor detects specific predicative volume of sentences. Two main functions with different syntactic content are considered within the bounds of paradigmatic syntax. The first function is related to the possibility to extend a sentence into syntagmatic succession that implements object naming of a situation. The other function – predicative – is connected with relations between object situation, reflected in a sentence, and reality.

[Saurbayev R.Zh., Tekzhanov K.M., Amrenov A.D., Ergaliyev K.S. On the Issue of Structure-Semantic and Predicative Features of Semi-Composite Sentences and Their Functions in the Bounds of Paradigmatic Syntax. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1042-1050] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 135

 

Keywords: paradigmatics, predicativity, semi-composite sentence, constructseme, function, open predication, factor, semi-composition

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The development of PCR test-systems for diagnostics of virus diseases

 

Assilbek Burabaev1, Valentina Matveeva2, Zhumagaly Koshemetov2, Marina Koryagina2, Marlen Yessirkepov1., Bekaidar Nurmashev1

 

1.                    South Kazakhstan State Pharmaceutical Academy, Shymkent, Republic of Kazakhstan

2.                    Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan

marlen-forex@inbox.ru

 

Abstract: The results of the data obtained on the basis of the development of diagnostic test- system RT-PCR based on the hemagglutinin gene F / R for identifying equine influenza virus of strain H3N8, showed high sensitivity and specificity in working conditions. And RNA can be reliably detected in the researched virus strains. Viral fragment 200 b.p. was shown as the product in the result of the amplification, with a sensitivity of 10–9TCD50/ml and the high specificity of the reaction. Isolated RNA maintains its activity for 2-10 months at -18 C. Research work on the development of diagnostic test- system for the detection of HA gene, the gene of EIV, was hold on the basis of RSE RIBSP. In connection therewith, we are announcing our gratitude to all members of the laboratory of diagnostic and indication of viral infections.

[Burabaev A, Matveeva V, Koshemetov Z, Koryagina M, Yessirkepov M, Nurmashev B. The development of PCR test-systems for diagnostics of virus diseases. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1051-1056] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 136

 

Keywords: EIV - equine influenza virus, AF - allantoic fluid, RT-PCR - polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription, RNA – ribonucleic acid, cDNA - complementary DNA, TCD50/ml - designation of the infectious activity of the virus in tissue cytopathic dose.

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Development of New Sensors for the Temperature Control of a Working Body

 

Anton Aleksandrovich Sinitsyn, Dmitry Andreevich Belyanskiy, Igor Andreevich Sukhanov

 

Vologda State Technical University, Razina Street, 25-2, 160029, Vologda, Russian Federation

london_690@mail.ru

 

Abstract: The article proposes a new proven system for control and monitoring of working process parameters at manufacture of construction of the ceramic bricks for modern enterprises, and analyzes a variety of devices for temperature measurement in raw bricks revealing the disadvantages of the existing devices and measuring complexes. To improve the high production efficiency, the competitiveness of products on the market, reduction of prime costs of the products by automation of time- and energy-consuming production technologies, the authors have proposed a method for organization of the optimal industrial control of the drying process of ceramic bricks using new temperature-sensitive sensors Celsius. A digital temperature sensor was used as a sensitive element that eliminates the calibration of primary measuring transducer. The device can be installed on the testing object by threaded junction, magnetic holder, or used to measure the temperature at the desired depth at the expense of the external primary measuring transducer. It is shown that the device is universal and efficient for the industries to control the thermodynamic parameters, which are the core of the technological process.

[Sinitsyn A.A., Belyanskiy D.A., Sukhanov I.A. Development of New Sensors for the Temperature Control of a Working Body. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1057-1061] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 137

 

Keywords: analog-digital device, temperature sensor, ceramic products, seasoning kiln.

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The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relationship between Quality of Work Life and Intention to Leave

 

Mostafa M. Kamel

 

College of Business Administration, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

E-mail: mostafa.kamel@msn.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating role of affective commitment in the relationship between quality of work life and intention to leave. Additionally, the study aims to investigate quality of work life in College of Business Administration, at King Saud University, as faculty members have perceived it. Data Collected from faculty members in male campus. A set of multiple regression analyses have been conducted. Results showed the full mediation of affective commitment in the relationship between quality of work life and intention to leave the organizations. Moreover, results revealed that faculty members are perceiving college QWL to be above average. Detailed insights and recommendations are given to improve the level of QWL.

[Mostafa M. Kamel. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relationship between Quality of Work Life and Intention to Leave. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1062-1067]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 138

 

Keywords: Quality of Work Life, Affective Commitment, KSU College of Business Administration

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Video-assisted thoracoscopic versus open surgery for persistent ductus arteriosus: report of 10 years' experience

 

Jamil Esfahanizadeh 1, Nazanin Aghaee Meybodi 2, Alireza Sepehri Shamloo3, Amir Hoosine Shakiba4, Ali Hooshiar5, Mohammad Abbasi Tashnizi6, Lida Jarahi7, Ali Asghar Moeinipour6, Behrooz Mottahedi 8

 

1.                     Department of Cardiac Surgery, Ghaem Hospital, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2.                     School of medicine, Mashhad branch of Islamic Azad University - Iran.

3.                     Student Research Committee, School of medicine, Cardiac Anesthesia Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4.                     Department of Cardiology, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

5.                     Department of Paramedical school, Mashhad branch of Islamic Azad University - Iran.

6.                     Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

7.                     Departments of Community Medicine, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad, IR Iran

8.                     Department of Cardiac Surgery, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

motahedib@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Video–assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been applied as a less invasive procedure for closing Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The purpose of this study was to compare the -hospital outcomes between VATS PDA ligation and conventional thoracotomy. The hospital records of 135 children who underwent isolated PDA ligation (VATS=83, posterolateral thoracotomy =52) in 2003- 2012 in Mashhad, Iran were assessed. Collected data were evaluated for characteristics of patients, length of hospital and ICU stay, and also in-hospital outcomes included mortality, residual shunt, conversion rate, successful rate, pulmonary complications, chylothorax, and laryngeal nerve dysfunction. In this study we used the Student T-test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test by SPSS software version 18.0,P value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in two groups. Conversion rate was 3.6% in VATS group; therefore immediate thoracotomy was performed in operating room. Overall successful rate for complete PDA closure was 95.1% in VATS and 98% in thoracotomy group. although there was no significant difference in successful rate between two groups (p=0.85). Postoperative pulmonary complications were not significantly different between VATS and thoracotomy group (p=0.15). In VATS group 2 patients had laryngeal nerve dysfunction versus nobody in other group. The intubation time, ICU and hospital stay in VATS group were significantly shorter than other group (p< 0.001). In pediatric VATS technique can be an effective and safe approach than open thoracotomy for closing PDA. Shorter hospital stay, closing of PDA completely and better patient recovery in post operative period were the significant advantages of VATS technique.

[Esfahanizadeh J, Aghaee Meybodi N, Sepehri Shamloo AR, Shakiba AH, Hooshiar A, Abbasi Tashnizi M, Jarahi L, Moeinipour AA, Mottahedi B. Video-assisted thoracoscopic versus open surgery for persistent ductus arteriosus: report of 10 years' experience. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1068-1072]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 139

 

Keywords: Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted, Ductus Arteriosus, Patent, Thoracotomy, Surgical ligation

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Red Sea Water and Biochemical Composition of Seaweeds at Southern Coast of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Hanan Hafez Omar1, Batoul Mohamed Abdullatif1, Molouk Mohamed El-Kazan1, Adel Mansour El-Gendy2

 

1.Biological Science Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

2.Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

hananomar1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the physico-chemical properties of Red Sea water and the chemical composition of commonly occurring seaweeds along the Southern Coast of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The different parameters of the surface water like temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and dissolved nutrients were measured. Seaweeds viz. Halimedaopuntia, Gracillariacorticata and Turbinariatriquetra were analyzed for mineral content, moisture, ash, carbohydrate, protein and lipid. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals inside the investigated seaweeds was within the corresponding range. Total carbohydrate was the most abundant contents in these seaweeds. The vitamins, phytohormones, alginic acid, agar, carrageenan, amino acid profiles and fatty acids of seaweeds were also studied. The seaweed samples were enriched in essential amino acids, ω3and ω6. The results exposed that these seaweed species contain high nutritive value and are promising in the field of pharmaceuticals and industry.

[Hanan Hafez Omar, Batoul Mohamed Abdullatif, Molouk Mohamed El-Kazan, Adel Mansour El-Gendy. Red Sea Water and Biochemical Composition of Seaweeds at Southern Coast of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):1073-1080]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 140

 

Keywords:Seaweeds;seawater; physicochemical analysis;vitamins;hormones;alginate;agar;carrageenan;amino acid; fatty acids

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Incidence of malignancy in thyroid follicular lesions in western Saudi Arabia

 

Munaser S. Alamoodi, MMedSci, FRCSI

 

Assistant Professor and Consultant General Surgeon, Faculty of Medicine, Department of surgery, King Abdulaziz University,Jeddah, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia.

munas88@yahoo.com, sdaqal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The aim of this project was to investigate the incidence of malignancy in follicular lesions as reported by fine needle aspiration (FNA) in western Saudi Arabia in King Abdulaziz University Hospital. It was observed that a high percentage of these follicular lesions were benign, but a significant number were malignant. This study not only deals with follicular carcinoma but other malignancies whose FNA showed follicular lesions, hence raising awareness in dealing with such lesions so as not to miss these malignancies. The focus of this research was to confirm the need for surgical intervention as a significant if not the only method of reaching a diagnosis.

[MunaserAlamoodi, Incidence of malignancy in thyroid follicular lesions in western Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4):1081-1083]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 141

 

Keywords: Fine needle aspiration, follicular lesions, follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma

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Inextensible flows of non-null curves on an pseudo-Euclidean hypersuface in pseudo-Euclidean space

 

Nevin Grbz

 

Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Mathematics and Computer Sciences Department

ngurbuz@ogu.edu.tr

 

Abstract: We study inextensible flows of non-null curves on pseudo-Euclidean surface in  and derive equations for inextensible evolution of non-null curves on pseudo-Euclidean hypersurface. Necessary and sufficient conditions for non-null inextensible curve flow on pseudo-Euclidean hypersurface in are expressed as a partial differential equation involving the i.geodecic curvature and  functions.

[Nevin Grbz. Inextensible flows of non-null curves on an pseudo-Euclidean hypersuface in pseudo-Euclidean space . Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1084-1087]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 142

 

Keywords: Inextensible flow, pseudo-Euclidean space

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Mycobiota of Almond Seeds and the Toxigenicity of Some Involved Genera.

 

Mohamed A. Yassin1,2, Abd El-Rahim M.A. El-Samawaty1,2, Mohamed A. Moslem1 and Medhat A. El-Naggar2,3

 

1Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2Agricultural Research Center, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

3National Research Central Lab., GSFMO, Saudi Arabia.

myassin@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The myco-contaminants associated with almond seeds were surveyed and the fungal isolation frequencies were statistically analyzed. HPLC was used to assess the mycotoxins production of some involved fungi. Nine species belonging to six fungal genera were recovered from a total of 20 random samples of almond collected from different locations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. ustus, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Phoma sp. Rhizopus sp. and Ulocladium atrum were isolated. A. niger was the most predominant while, C. globosum was the least frequent species. Significant positive and negative correlations were found among isolation frequencies of some isolated fungal species. About 40% of A. flavus isolates produced aflatrem (2-3 ppb), while 60% were sterigmatocystin (300-440 ppb) and maltoryzine (7-10 ppb) producers. Meanwhile, 57% of A. niger isolates were capable of producing oxalic acids (47-430 mg/ml). On the other hand, 60% of P. aurantiogriseum isolates were citrinin producers (5-22 ppb) and 40% were citrovirdin producers (20-45 ppb). Due to the ideal nutrient composition of almond, as well as inappropriate processing and storage conditions, the risk of fungal and mycotoxin contamination could be increased. To avoid almond contamination with toxigenic fungi, and prevent hazards to human and animal health; rigorous quarantine, accurate diagnosing methods and healthy storage conditions should be undertaken.

 [Yassin M.A, El-Samawaty A.M.A., Moslem M.A, El-Naggar M.A. Mycobiota of Almond Seeds and the Toxigenicity of Some Involved Genera. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1088-1093]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 143

 

Keywords: Nuts; Storage fungi; Post-harvest, HPLC.

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The potential use of the bivalve Donax trunculus as Bio-indicator for heavy metal pollution of Port Said western coast on the Mediterranean Sea

 

Hamed A. El-Serehy1,2*, Hamdy Aboulela3, Fahad Al-Misned1, Magdy Bahgat4,  Hesham Shafik4,5, Khaled Al-Rasheid1, Mona Kaiser6, Heba Ezz2

 

1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 – Riyadh 11451 Saudi Arabia

2Marine Science Department, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt

3Marine Science Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

4Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt4

5 Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Limnoecology Research Group, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Veszprem, Egyetem u. 10, Hungary

6Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

*Corresponding author, e-mail: helserehy@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Heavy metals were determined in the most abundant species of bivalve mollusks (Donax trunculus) along Port Said coasts on southeastern Mediterranean Sea and in the sediments where they live.  The mean concentrations (g g-1) of heavy metals in bottom sediment were as follows: Fe: 1748.2-1918.7, Mn: 191.4-217.8, Zn: 28-36.6, Cu: 5.7-9.4, Pb: 18.8-24.4, Cd: 1.4-2.0, and in surface water: Fe: 822.6-896, Mn: 169.3-198, Zn: 271.3.6-300, Cu: 12.6-19.3, Pb: 40.0-56.0, Cd: 0.8-2.7,while in soft tissues of the bivalve D. trunculus, the mean concentrations (g g-1 dry weight) were as follows: Fe: 57.2-66.4, Mn: 6.0-7.6, Zn: 32.8-36.4, Cu: 4.0-4.4, Pb: 8.8-9.2, Cd: 2.1-2.4. The present study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soft tissues of the edible bivalve D. trunculus were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption proposed by FAO/WHO, EU. Moreover, estimation of concentration factor (Cf) for the studied metals in the soft tissues of the edible bivalve D. trunculus recorded high accumulation rates of Cd and Cu. The present study confirmed that, the examined bivalve species was associated with enhanced metal content in its soft tissues and was not safe within the limits for human consumption. The potential use of this bivalve species as a suitable bio-indicator was evaluated from correlation tests based on the concentrations of heavy elements in the sediment-metals system and in the water-metals system to those in the bivalve.

[El-Serehy HA, Aboulela H, Al-Misned FA, Bahgat MM, Shafik HM, Al-Rasheid KA, Kaiser M, Ezz H. The potential use of the bivalve Donax trunculus as Bio-indicator for heavy metal pollution of Port Said western coast on the Mediterranean Sea. Life Sci J 2013;10(4):1094-1101]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 144

 

Keywords: Heavy metals, sediment, water, bivalve mollusks , Donax trunculus,  Port Said, Mediterranean Sea

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VEGF and PDGF in liver cirrhosis and their relation to echocardiographic parameters and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

 

Fatma Mohammad Nasr 1, Amna Metwaly 1, Ashraf Abdel khalik 1, Amal I. Sabry, Mona Hassan 2 and Abdallah Morsy Desouky 2.

 

Intesive Care 1, Clinical Chemistry2 Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

fatma_elwakeel@live.com

 

Abstract: Background: Liver fibrosis is an important pathological event in chronic hepatitis patients that eventually progresses to liver cirrhosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis and perpetuates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. VEGF has been shown to be important in atherosclerotic plaque development. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a major mitogen for fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and other cells. It is well established that platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are involved in several pathological settings, including liver fibrosis and atherosclerosis. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the serum level of VEGF and PDGF in liver cirrhosis and the possible association with portal vein diameter, echocardiographic parameters and Carotid Intima Media Thickness (CIMT). Methods: sixty patients with post liver cirrhosis (group 1) and 20 age and sex matched normal volunteers (group 2) underwent echo-Doppler study for evaluation of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and mass, left atrium, aortic and left ventricular dimensions and EF%. Serum levels of VEGF and PDGF were measured by ELISA in serum of all subjects. Ultrasonographic measurement of CIMT, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory evaluation were also done to all subjects. Results: There were statistically significant increase in plasma levels of VEGF (483.6242.3 vs 252180.7) and PDGF (73.425.7 vs 49.270.9) in patients group compared to the controls. The levels of VEGF were positively correlated with portal vein diameter, aortic diameter and CIMT (r=0.306, r=0.236, r=0.252 respectively).While the PDGF levels were positively correlated with interventricular septum thickness (IVST), posterior wall thickness (PWT), left ventricular mass (LVM) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) (r=0.242, r=0.289, r=0.331, r=0.256 respectively). Conclusion: Liver cirrhosis may be associated with increase in VEGF level and as it was correlated with portal vein diameter, VEGF might be involved in cirrhosis associated with portal hypertension. VEGF levels were positively correlated with aortic diameter as it is an endothelium-specific secreted protein that induces vasodilation and increases endothelial release of nitric oxide. As VEGF was also positively correlated with the sonographically measured CIMT (which is an indicator of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk) it may have some role in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in humans. Patients with liver cirrhosis also have increased PDGF levels that were positively correlated with IVS, PWT, LVM and CIMT. So, our data raise the possibility that PDGF may be involved not only in liver fibrosis but also in cardiac fibrosis and atherosclerosis.

[Fatma Mohammad Nasr, Amna Metwaly, Ashraf Abdel khalik, Amal I. Sabry, Mona Hassan and Abdallah Morsy Desouky. VEGF and PDGF in liver cirrhosis and their relation to echocardiographic parameters and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4): 1102-1110]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 145

 

Keywords: liver cirrhosis, VEGF, PDGF, carotid intima-media thickness, interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, portal vein diameter, aortic diameter.

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Effect of Levels and Methods of Potassium and Phosphorus Fertilization on Yield, Fruit Quality and Chemical Composition of “Khalas” Date Palm Cultivar

 

1R. S. Al-Obeed; 1H.A. Kassem and 1,2M.A. Ahmed

 

1Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Horticultural Crops Technology, National Research Centre, Egypt.

khider1968@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons at the Research and Agricultural Experimental Station, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia in order to study the effect of potassium and phosphorus fertilization rates applied either alone or in combinations with each other on leaf mineral content, yield and fruit quality of Khalas date palm cultivar. Potassium and phosphorus rates were added in either; one, two or three equal doses in 15th of February (before flowering), 15 th of April (after fruit set) and 15 th of May (during fruit maturity). The results showed that potassium and phosphorus fertilization increased the fruit set and yield and improved the fruit physical characteristics (fruit weight, volume, length and diameter) at beser stage, and chemical characteristics (TSS, acidity and sugars contents) at Tamer stage, especially with high levels of potassium fertilization. The high level of potassium fertilization increased the pinnae N, P, K and Fe contents, while decreased the Zn and Mn contents. Thus, it is recommended to add the high level of potassium (2 Kg potassium sulphate) and phosphorus (1.5 Kg calcium super phosphate) at three and two equal doses, respectively to increase the yield and fruit quality of “Khalas” date palm grown under the present conditions.

[R. S. Al-Obeed; H.A. Kassem and M.A. Ahmed. Effect of Levels and Methods of Potassium and Phosphorus Fertilization on Yield, Fruit Quality and Chemical Composition of “Khalas” Date Palm Cultivar Life Sci J.2013;10(4):1111-1118]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.lifesciencesite.org. 146

 

Key words: Date palm - fertilization - phosphorus – potassium- yield- fruit quality

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Optimization for Expression of Coxacki Adenovirus Receptor on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell line Using Different Transfection Methods

 

Rania Al-Ashwal1*, Salehhuddin Hamdan2 

 

1IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, University Technology Malaysia 81310, Malaysia

2Department of Biotechnology and Health Science, FBME, University Technology Malaysia 81310, Malaysia

drrania@biomedical.utm.my; saleh@biomedical.utm.my

 

Abstract: Adenovirus cells with little or no expression of Coxacki Adenovirus Receptor have been shown to be inefficient for gene transfer protocols. This paper presents the results of four transfection methods for D1 domain of CAR into the CAR- negative Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. The investigated methods were, Lipofectamine2000 (Invitrogen), Fugen 6(Roche), calcium phosphate precipitation technique and electroporation using 1ul: 2ul of DNA: reagents and 1ul: 2 pulses for electroporation. A reporter gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent proteins were used to determine the percentage of transfected cells under inverted fluorescent microscope. Lipofectamine 2000 conferred the strongest expression of the D1domain of CAR gene and transfection efficiency where the highest number of healthy and good shape of transfected cells was counted. The optimum transfection efficiency was achieved when DNA: Lipofectamine 2000 reagent ratio was 6 ug: 6uL (1:1 ug /ul), healthy proliferating cells plated at range of 5 x105 1x106 cells density, 50-70% confluent on the day of transfection and supplemented with serum for 48hours of incubation. An optimum ratio could be used to prepare stable engineered CHO cells, which express D1 CAR receptor and could enhance the infectability of adenovirus into engineered CHO cells.

[Rania Al-Ashwal, Salehhuddin Hamdan. Optimization for Expression of Coxacki Adenovirus Receptor on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell line Using Different Transfection Methods. Life Sci J