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 Life Science Journal 
 Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 10 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 33), June 25, 2013. life1002, Quarterly
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1002

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Joint mechanism of clinical medicine and public health service of AIDS

 

Changjun Tian 1, Yue Tian 2, Chunmei Zhang 3, Liang Zhang 1

 

1School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China

2Shanghai University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai, China

3 Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, China

Tiancj567@126.com

 

Abstract: Since the year of 2004, we have been focusing on the coordination of prevention and therapy of AIDS on the basis of the epidemic status of AIDS in the rural area in Henan Province, to prevent its further transmission although the medical resource is limited. After the enthusiasm of medical and public health teams has been fully aroused, we have achieved a satisfactory result by exploring and establishing a set of strategy and method to integrate clinical medicine and public health resource. The resource is shared, the management becomes standard, the operation is concordant, the efficiency is promoted and the patients’ life quality is improved. Our study provides a practical model for establishing a joint mechanism of clinical medicine and public health in the treatment of AIDS and other infectious diseases.

[Changjun Tian, Yue Tian, Chunmei Zhang, Liang Zhang. Joint mechanism of clinical medicine and public health service of AIDS. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):1-4] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.01

 

Keywords: AIDS; clinical medicine; public health; joint mechanism.

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2

A Comparison of the Pre-Competition and Post-Competition Anxiety Levels of Taekwondo Athletes

 

Behrouz Ghorbanzadeh1, Perican Bayar2

 

1Azarbaijan University of Shahid Madani, Physical Education and Sports School, Tabriz, Iran

2Ankara University Physical Education and Sports School, Ankara, Turkey

Email: behrouzghorbanzadeh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A total of 468 taekwondo athletes, 231 females and 237 males, in the adult category, who had participated in the 2012 Turkish Taekwondo Championship; with an average age of 20.91 years (Sd=3.66) participated in the present research for the comparison of the pre-competition and post-competition anxiety levels of taekwondo athletes. The research was conducted using the survey technique of data collection and the competitive state anxiety inventory-2 (CSAI-2) (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump and Smith 1982) and it was used in the present research to measure the anxiety levels of the sportspeople. The Turkish implementation of the inventory was performed by Koruē (1998). Statistically significant difference cannot be found between the inventory scores of females and males who participated in the research according to their genders (P>0.05). Whether there was a significant difference between the inventory scores of sportspeople according to their ages was tested by one-way analysis of variance, and a statistically significant difference was found between the self-assessment scores of the taekwondo athletes measured 1 day before according to their ages (P<0.05). A significant difference was not found between the self-assessment scores of athletes measured 1 day before according to their sports ages (p>0.05). Consequently, it was observed that the cognitive and somatic anxiety scores of taekwondo athletes increased and their self-confidence scores decreased as the competition drew closer. After the competition, it was detected that the cognitive and somatic anxiety scores decreased and self-confidence scores increased. The anxiety levels of the taekwondo athletes increased just before the competition, but a decrease in anxiety was observed after the competition. Pre-competition and post-competition anxiety levels were found to have an effect on the success of the athletes. All in all, it was observed that the state anxiety measured by CSAI-2 showed pre-competition and post-competition changes and there was a change in anxiety cognition.

[Behrouz Ghorbanzadeh,Perican Bayar. A Comparison of the Pre-Competition and Post-Competition Anxiety Levels of Taekwondo Athletes. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):5-10] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.02

 

Key Words: Taekwondo, Competition, State Anxiety, Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, Self-Confidence.

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3

Current Status and Countermeasure of the Research on Rare Diseases in China

 

Nan Ma1, Wei Nie*1,2, Tianchang Wang1, Chenmei Li3

 

1Center for Rare Disorders, Henan Academy of Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450003, China

2Institute of hospital administration, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China

3The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China

mananhnsyky@163.com

 

Abstract: Through the description of the epidemic characteristics of rare disease, we have realized the properties of the rare diseases and disease spectrum. In the US and EU, legislation including the Orphan Drug Act (1983) and the Orphan Regulation No 141/2000 has brought many rare disease treatments into clinical practice. Many problems in China on rarity including: less society's attention; difficulties in obtaining timely, accurate diagnoses; lack of experienced healthcare providers; useful, reliable and timely information may be hard to find; research activities are less common; developing new medicines may not be economically feasible; treatments are sometimes very expensive. Emphasis is required to support appropriate research and development leading to better prevention, diagnosis and treatments of rare diseases. Conclusions: In this article, the primary tasks faced by China have been proposed: to call on the government to legislate as soon as possible; to establish information platform of rare diseases and orphan drugs for sharing the global rare diseases resources; to establish Rare Disease Outpatient Service (RDOPS) for improving the level of diagnosis and treatment; to carry out tertiary prevention of the rare diseases; to establish the rare diseases epidemiological surveillance system in our country.

[Nan Ma, Wei Nie, Tianchang Wang, Chenmei Li. Current Status and Countermeasure of the Research on Rare Diseases in China. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):11-14]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.03

 

Key words: Rare Disease, Orphan Drugs, status, Countermeasure.

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4

Global Analysis of Influencing Forces of Fire Activity: the Threshold Relationships between Vegetation and Fire

 

Ruisen Luo1, 2, Yingying Dong1, Muye Gan1, Dejun Li2, Shuli Niu3, 2, Amy Oliver2, Ke Wang1*, Yiqi Luo2*

 

1College of Environmental & Resources Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

2Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA

3Synthesis Research Center of CERN, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China

kwang@zju.edu.cn; yluo@ou.edu

Abstract : Manylarge scale firestudies considered the relationships between fire and its influencing factors as smooth.However, the responses of fire activity to influencing factors could be abrupt on the global scale, because the hysteretic responses of vegetation to fire and vegetation types are discrete. This study examined the climatic, vegetation, anthropogenic, lightning, and topographic factors driving variations in global fire density, and discussed the thresholds of vegetation on fire activity. Fire density was developed from 7 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data to represent global fire activity, and nine typical influencing variables were selected. The random forest regression tree method was used to identify the relative importance and relationships between fire and the influencing variables. The patterns of global fire density were captured well by the model (78.33% variance was explained), and the related thresholds were identified. Climatic factors played a primary role in determining global fire density. Agricultural land use and topographic roughness were not identified as the most important factors, probably due to the large scale we considered. Three intervals of tree density were identified to have distinct levels of fire density. Intermediate tree density (9%-53%) was related with the highest fire density, but both low and high percent of tree cover were associated with low fire density (7.0 vs. 1.3/0.9 counts per 100 km2 per year). This study could provide further insights into understanding of the threshold effects of influencing factors on fire activity, and contribute to advances in fire modelingand vegetation distribution studies.

[Ruisen Luo, Yingying Dong, Muye Gan, Dejun Li, Shuli Niu, Amy Oliver, Ke Wang, Yiqi Lu. Global Analysis of Influencing Forces of Fire Activity: theThreshold Relationships between Vegetation and Fire. Life Sci J 2013; 10(2):15-24] (ISSN:1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.04

 

 Keywords: Fire density, Percent of tree cover, Thresholds, Global, Random forest, Regression tree, MODIS, GIS

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5

A Fast Stand-by Mode Transition Scheme Using TV Power-off Signal for Set Top Box Power Saving

 

Ikram Syed, Daesik Shin, Hoon Kim

 

Department of Electronics Engineering, University of Incheon, Incheon, Korea

engr.ikramsyed@gmail.com; hoon@incheon.ac.kr

 

Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient set-top box (STB) power-saving scheme using TV power-off signal. Unlike a conventional mode transition scheme requires user input monitoring for stand-by mode transition, the proposed power-saving scheme transits to stand-by mode immediately when the STB detects TV power-off signal. The fast mode transition to stand-by mode saves the power consuming remarkably. Simulation results show that the power consumption is reduced with increase in TV power-on/off event rate which is modeled as Poisson process. The proposed scheme saves the power up to 19% compared to the conventional scheme.

[Ikram Syed, Daesik Shin, Hoon Kim. A Fast Stand-by Mode Transition Scheme Using TV Power-off Signal for Set Top Box Power Saving. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):25-29] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.05

 

Keywords: Power-saving, set-top box, TV power-off, fast stand-by mode transition, auto power down.

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6

A Research of the Relation Between Study Orientations, Gender and School Achievement

 

Aysel Memiş

 

Faculty of Education, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, 67300, Turkey

E-mail: ayselmemis@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to assess the study orientations of primary school fifth grade students, to determine their relationship with gender and achievement and to find how much the sub-dimensions of study orientation predicted the achievements. The sample consisted of some 234 fifth grade students randomly selected from six state schools in Eregli in the Black Sea Region. The study orientations of students were measured with the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA), and their achievements were determined depending on the year-end transcripts obtained from the school administirators. According to the survey results, students’ study attitude scores were higher than their study habits, and the scores of girls were higher than those of boys. There was a positive and significant relation (p<.01) between study orientation and achievements. In all courses, all sub-dimensions other than teacher approval were each a significant predictor.

[Aysel Memiş. A Research of the Relation Between Study Orientations, Gender and School Achievement. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):30-38] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.06

 

Key Words: Study orientation, study habit, study attitude, academic achievement, gender differences.

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7

EEAR: An Energy Effective-Accuracy Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

 

Farzad KIANI1, Ali AGHAEIRAD2, Malik Kemal SIS1, Alp KUT1, Adil ALPKOCAK1

 

1Department of Computer Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, 232, Turkey

2 Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, Iran

EmailFarzad.kiyani@gmail.com

 

Abstract In this paper, Energy Effective-Accuracy Routing (EEAR) protocol is suggested for wireless sensor networks on the basis of energy saving while communication between sensor nodes on the whole network EEAR can conserve energy until keeping communication and routes leading to sink, by data-center gradient diffusion routing protocol. This is realizing by detection and turning on/off radio frequency and other elements of extra sensor nodes. EEAR, which is inspired from combining Gradient-Based Routing (GBR) route finding and Naps topology management protocol while applying both protocols advantages, keeps nearly constant level of routing accuracy with no need to geographic location information. After establishing communicative layers towards the sink while conserving inter-layer communication, this protocol puts extra nodes in sleeping state. In fact, in each layer, a node can go to sleep state by detecting some other nodes that can do communication duty on behalf of that node. Despite conformity with all data delivery models, EEAR produces considerable results in continuous and event-driven models towards query-driven model. In this paper we have implemented EEAR and compared it with some other methods, including GBR, Naps and GAF. Simulation results show that EEAR without requiring position information, performs at least as well as location based protocols in terms of topology control, routing and energy saving, and increases the packet delivery amount and decreases average packet delay.

[Farzad KIANI, Ali AGHAEIRAD, Malik Kemal SIS, Alp KUT, Adil ALPKOCAK. EEAR: An Energy Effective-Accuracy Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):39-45].(ISSN:1097-8135). http:www.lifesciencesite.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.07

 

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, energy effective-accuracy, energy-aware, routing.

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The causal Model of effective factors on Intention to use of information technology among payam noor and Traditional universities students

 

Hossien Zare and Sedigheh Yazdanparast

 

Payame Noor University, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iran

Email: S.yazdanparast6@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this study is presenting the causal modeling of intention to use technology among university student. Correlation is used as the method of research. Instrument of this study is standard questionnaire. The collected data is analyzed with AMOS software. The result indicate that facilitative condition, cognitive absorption, perceived enjoyment, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness have significant and direct effect on intention to use technology. Also, facilitative condition, cognitive absorption, perceived enjoyment, perceived ease of use and computer playfulness have significant and direct of effect on perceived usefulness. Facilitative condition, cognitive absorption, perceived enjoyment, and playfulness have significant and direct effect on perceived ease of use.

[Hossien Zare, Sedigheh Yazdanparast. The causal Model of effective factors on Intention to use of information technology among payam noor and Traditional universities students. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):46-50]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http:www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.08

 

Keywords: Intention to use information technology, cognitive absorption, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, facilitative condition and Computer playfulness

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9

 A Novel FMEA approach for ranking Mould Designs in foundries

 

T.A. Selvan 1, C. Jegadheesan2, P. Ashoka Varthanan1, K.M. Senthilkumar3

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering,Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641008, India

2 Arulmigu Meenakshi College of Engineering, Vadamavandal, Tamilnadu, 604410, India

3 Sri Ranganathar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641111, India

Email: ta_selvan@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT: This paper addresses a novel Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) to prioritize the mould design of a specific cast component by evaluating the risks associated with failure modes using a case study data. The data is obtained from a macro foundry industry in India. Traditional FMEA uses Risk priority Number (RPN) to evaluate risk level of a component or process. The RPN index is found by calculating the product of severity (S), occurrence frequency (O) and detection (D) indexes. The various sets of S, O, and D indexes may produce an identical value of RPN. But in foundries, prioritizing the failures through the traditional FMEA produces unmatched results when RPN values are identical during preproduction trials. This research paper explains an alternate FMEA approach named FEAROM (Failure Effects And Resolution Of Modes) to determine matched result in practice for finalizing the mould designs. Modified fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method interdependent with the Analytic Hierarch Process (AHP) is used for validating the results obtained using FEAROM method. The results presented are based on an experimental study carried out for a specific component in a foundry using the sand casting method. It is found that proposed FEAROM model harmonizes nicely in practice and turns out quality castings.

[T.A. Selvan,C. Jegadheesan, P. Ashoka Varthanan, K. M. Senthilkumar. A Novel FMEA approach for ranking Mould Designs in foundries. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):51-60] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.09

 

Keywords: Failure mode effect analysis, Risk Priority Number, Failure Effects And Resolution Of Modes, TOPSIS, AHP.

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10

The Existing Capacities for Citizen Participation in the Structural Transformations of the Historic Core of Shiraz

 

Seyed Koorosh Sarvarazadeh1, H. Lamit2, Nima Norouzi3, Maryam Shabak3

 

1 Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia

 2Department of Landscape, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia

3 Department of Architecture, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia

Email: ssarvarzadeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract :Since the last four decades, the historic core of cities has faced with enormous transformations in which cultural heritage properties have been threatened by various surge of redevelopment. The historic core of Shiraz in Iran has also been the subject of such controversial issues. This paper aims to examine the effects of social, economic, and physical transformations on the body of the historic core of Shiraz, and the role of citizens within it. The paper begins by highlighting the importance of various transformations in the historic core and providing an understanding of their effects on the built-heritage conservation; and then, it examines the structure of urban management and the role of citizens within it. This study found that the existing capacities in social, economic, political, and cultural aspects for citizen participation in the process of urban planning and management in the historic core of Shiraz city.

[Seyed Koorosh Sarvarazadeh, H. Lamit, Nima Norouzi, Maryam Shabak. The Existing Capacities for Citizen Participation in the Structural Transformations of the Historic Core of Shiraz. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):61-68]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http:www.lifesciencesite.com. 10. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.10

 

Keywords: the structural transformation, the historic core, citizen participation, Shiraz

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Image post-processing techniques of 64-slice CT in the diagnosis of external cardiac malformations

 

Yonggao Zhang *1△, Shaohua Hua 2△, Ying Liu 1, Jianbo Gao1, Jie Liu 1, Shuting Liu 1, Peipei Hao1

 

1Department of radiology, The first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou university, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, China

2Department of ultrasound, The first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou university, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, China

Joint first authors, (E-mail: zyg01578@126.com)

 

Abstract: Objective To discuss the value of Image post-processing techniques of 64-slice CT in the diagnosis of external cardiac malformationsMaterials and methods Retrospective reviews of imaging data base were done which consisted of 59 patients with congenital cardiovascular malformations who presented to our hospital. The scanning data were carried on multiple planar reformation (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) as needed. The operation results were taken as diagnostic standard to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice spiral CT. Results 69 external cardiac malformations (cardiovascular connection department and peripheral vascular malformations) were confirmed by operation in all 59 patients. 67 malformations correctly diagnosed and 2 malformations were incorrecty diagnos in 64-slice spiral CT. The accuracy in diagnosing cardiovascular connection department and peripheral vascular malformations were 97.10% (67/69). There was no significant difference in image scores compared with the three image post-processing techniques (P value were 0.612, 0.902 and 0.815, respectively). Conclusions 64-slice spiral CT may be used as a primary technique and as a substitute for the diagnosis imaging portion of cardiovascular connection and peripheral vascular malformations.

[Yonggao Zhang, Shaohua Hua, Ying Liu, Jianbo Gao, Jie Liu, Shuting Liu, Peipei Hao. Image post-processing techniques of 64-slice CT in the diagnosis of external cardiac malformations. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):69-73].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.11

 

Keywords:image post-processing techniques; X-ray computer, tomography; external cardiac malformation.

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Quality Services as perceived by students of International and Public schools

 

Kazi Enamul Hoque, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Abdul Jalil Othman,Pradip Kumar Mishra, Rahmad Sukur Ab. Samad

 

Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

keh2009@um.edu.my

 

Abstract: In today’s world of global competition, rendering quality service is a key for success. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of service delivery between Saudi and Malaysian public Schools operated in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this research, there are five important factors the researcher used to examine the service delivery in both Malaysian and Saudi schools through student perception namely (1) physical evidence, (2) contact personnel, (3) reputation and assessment, (4) admission, and (5) teaching and teachers. Quantitative approach is used in this study. Responses from 250 students are analysed. The result shows that Malaysian students had lower satisfaction than Saudi ones on the service delivery in their schools in all six factors mentioned above. All the mean scores of Malaysian school are lower than the Saudi. There is also found significant difference of the satisfaction with the service delivery between Malaysian and Saudi students. It is suggested that public Malaysian schools consider the service delivery weakness and find the solutions for them even the schools are mostly supported by the government.

[Kazi Enamul Hoque, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Abdul Jalil Othman, Pradip Kumar Mishra, Rahmad Sukur Ab. Samad. Quality Services as perceived by students of International and Public schools. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):74-78].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.12

 

Keywords: Service delivery, Saudi Schools, Malaysia Schools, Service quality.

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Variable-Length Variable-Weight Prime Codes with Zero Cross Correlation for SAC-OCDMA Communication Systems

 

M.Malleswari1, K.Murugesan2

 

1Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil, Tamil Nadu, India

2Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chembarambakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

 E-mail: malleshwarim@yahoo.co.in, k_murugesan2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, a new code family called Variable-Length Variable-Weight (VLVW) prime code is presented for spectral-amplitude-coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. These codes are constructed from the basic prime code groups. The code construction procedure is simple and the cross correlation value of the proposed new code is always zero. Thus it suppresses completely the phase-induced intensity noise and eliminates the effect of multi-user interference. Another important feature is that depending on the prime number (p), we can generate p numbers of code families each with different length and weight. Further, from the numerical analysis it is observed that the proposed code has better error performance and supports higher number of simultaneous users than the system with MQC codes and PMP codes. Also, the system with the proposed code supports approximately 230 number of simultaneous users for the given bit error rate (10-9) when p=11, M=5 and w=11.

[M.Malleswari, K.Murugesan. Variable-Length Variable-Weight Prime Codes with Zero Cross Correlation for SAC-OCDMA Communication Systems. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):79-85]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.13

 

KeyWords: optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA), spectral amplitude-coding (SAC), modified quadratic congruence (MQC) codes, partial modified prime (PMP) codes, multi-user interference (MUI).

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Global Analysis of Fire Regimes: Burnt Area and Fire Intensity

 

Ruisen Luo1, 2, Lingbing Wu3, Zhoulu Yu1, Zhangquan Shen1, Hongwei Xu1, Ke Wang1*, Jinsong Deng1*

 

1College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

2Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA

3 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

kwang@zju.edu.cn; jsong_deng@zju.edu.cn.

Abstract: Delineating global fire zones and analyzing their variations in different vegetation types areimportant to understand the climate-vegetation-fire coupling, and could serve as a reference to policy makers. However, few studies have investigated the two prominent fire characteristics (burnt area and fire intensity) together, and their variations in different vegetation types. As a first step to exploring these two fire characteristics as a whole, we presented a flexible classification of global fire zones based on metrics of burnt area and fire radiative power derived from satellite data. The distribution of the fire zones in different vegetation types and their relationships with the variables on climate, ignition, and anthropogenic activity were analyzed further. We found that fire zone of both largeburnt area and high fire intensity coincidedmainly with low anthropogenic activities (population density < 20 people km-2).In contrast, fire zone of both smallburnt area and low fire intensity showeda clear tendency to high population density (> 90 people km-2). Additionally, the distribution of fire zones greatly varied with vegetation types, but this was presumably attributed to different causes. Insights from this study could have important implications for biodiversity conservation and be used to direct fire management efforts, given the important roles of burnt area and fire intensity in fire regime studies. Although only two dimensions of fire regimes were considered in this study, the framework of our analysis could be generalized to integrate more indicators of fire regimes at large scales.

[Ruisen Luo, Lingbing Wu, Zhoulu Yu, Zhangquan Shen, Hongwei Xu, Ke Wang, Jinsong Deng. Global Analysis of Fire Regimes: Burnt Area and Fire Intensity. Life Sci J 2013; 10(2):86-94] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.14

 

Keywords: Global fire regimes; burnt area; fire radiative power; environmental; anthropogenic factors; MODIS

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Effect of Nano Particles on Self Compacting Concrete: An Experimental Study

 

Amirhossein Karamoozian1, Masood Karamoozian2 and Hamidreza Ashrafi3

 

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, M.Sc. student in Construction and Management Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University-Qeshm Branch, Iran

3Department of Civil Engineering, Assistant Professor, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran ah_karamoozian@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Nanotechnology is a research area that has revolutionized mechanical and chemical properties of materials. Recently, focusing on concrete as a porous material with micro-scale and nano scale pores, researchers developed investigations to find microstructure and mechanical properties of concrete. This paper investigates the effect of nano-silica as an addition on new concrete generation called self consolidating concrete, (SCC) and high strength SCC. For the designed mixes, the fresh properties (Slump Flow, L-box, V-funnel and J-ring tests) as well as the hardened concrete properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were determined at different ages in order to establish the adequacy of nano SCC for structural applications. The results were compared with SCC specimens without nano-silica addition. In order to investigate the development on the microstructure of SCCs, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging on specimens were also performed. Results show that use of nano-silica with micro-silica can improve the engineering properties of hardened SCC.

[Amirhossein Karamoozian, Masood Karamooziana, Hamidreza Ashrafi. Effect of Nano Particles on Self Compacting Concrete: An Experimental Study. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):95-101].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.15

 

Key words: Self compacting concrete; Nano particles; Fresh properties.

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Performance And Analysis Of Compression Artifacts Reduction For Mpeq-2 Moving Pictures Using Tv Regularization Method

 

M.Anto bennet 1, I. Jacob Raglend2

 

1Department of ECE, Nandha Engineering College, Erode- 638052, India

2Noorul Islam University, Tamil Nadu, India

bennetmab@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Novel approach method for the reduction of compression artifact for MPEG–2 moving pictures is proposed. Total Variation (TV) regularization method, and obtain a texture component in which blocky noise and mosquito noise are decomposed. These artifacts are removed by using selective filters controlled by the edge information from the structure component and the motion vectors. Most discrete cosine transforms (DCT) based video coding suffers from blocking artifacts where boundaries of (8x8) DCT blocks become visible on decoded images. The blocking artifacts become more prominent as the bit rate is lowered. Due to processing and distortions in transmission, the final display of visual data may contain artifacts. A post-processing algorithm is proposed to reduce the blocking artifacts of MPEG decompressed images. The reconstructed images from MPEG compression produce noticeable image degradation near the block boundaries, in particular for highly compressed images, because each block is transformed and quantized independently. The goal is to improve the visual quality, so perceptual blur and ringing metrics are used in addition to PSNR evaluation and the value will be approx. 43%.The experimental results show much better performances for removing compression artifacts compared with the conventional method.

[M.Anto bennet, I. Jacob Raglend. Performance And Analysis Of Compression Artifacts Reduction For Mpeq-2 Moving Pictures Using Tv Regularization Method. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):102-110]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.16

 

Key words: Total Variation (TV) regularization method, compression artifacts, Mosquito Noise, Blocky noise, PSNR (Peak Signal-Noise Ratio), De blocking edge filter, DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform), Video coding, MPEG compression.

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The Symmetric (2, 4)-nets

 

Ahmad N. Al-Kenani

 

Department of Mathematics, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80219, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

aalkenani10@hotmail.com

 

Abstract : We give a vector space presentation of the unique symmetric (2, 4)-net con- structing it from sets of subspaces of V (5, 2) satisfying a certain condition. All such sets of subspaces in V (5, 2) are determined.

[Ahmad N. Al-Kenani. The Symmetric (2, 4)-nets. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):111-114].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.17

 

Keywords: vector; space; presentation; unique symmetric; subspace

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Implementation of Marker based Watershed Image Segmentation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

 

Ayesha Khalid Khan, Gulistan Raja and Ahmad Khalil Khan

 

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila, Pakistan

gulistan.raja@uettaxila.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Medical image segmentation is a prominent method to segment out specific regions of a given medical image. In this research paper we have implemented marker based watershed segmentation technique by applying different detection operators on MRI test images. The image is converted into grey scale and then its gradient magnitude image is found by different detection operators. The thresholded image is taken to show the image details in binary representation. The binary image is processed using marker based watershed technique for segmentation where different morphological operations are performed. Image parameters of the segmented image with respect to the input image in the optimum range are computed. The output shows the successful segmentation of different regions of the MRI. The results are evaluated on the basis of different image parameters namely Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM), Normalized-Cross Correlation (NCC), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Standard Deviation (SD). This technique has been implemented in the MATLAB 7.6.0(R2008a).

[Ayesha Khalid Khan, Gulistan Raja and Ahmad Khalil Khan. Implementation of Marker based Watershed Image Segmentation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):115-118]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.18

 

Key words: Watershed, Detection operators, SSIM, NCC, MSE, SD.

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An Hightened Switching Technique For An Interleaved Boost Converter Operated In Lower Duty Cycle

 

R.Vijayabhasker1*, S.Palaniswami2, M. Newlin Rajkumar3, V. Venkatesa Kumar4

 

1*, 3,4Assistant Professor, Anna University, Regional Centre, Coimbatore

2Principal, Government College of Engineering, Bodinayakkanur

kaviji04@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Interleaving technique in the boost converter effectively reduces the ripple current as a function of duty cycle. In this paper an improved switching technique for an interleaved boost converter is proposed and it is specifically designed for the converter operating under less than 50% duty cycle. In this technique, the auxiliary circuit resonance is composed of an inductor and a capacitor forming a resonant tank, which is used as controlling module as well as energy storage device for driving huge load even under lower duty cycle. An enhanced switching time of the converter is obtained due to the controlled resonance that decreases the number of phases of switching sequences. Inductor coupling in boost stages enables higher current sharing. In this topology, the time for attaining Zero voltage switching and zero current switching is greatly reduced due to the pre-excitation in main switches. The clamped diode acts as a bypass path that can reduce the loss in conduction. The design analysis is simulated using “MATLAB Simulink model” which illustrates the better performance of the converter.

[R. Vijayabhasker, S.Palaniswami, M. Newlin Rajkumar, V. Venkatesa Kumar. An Hightened Switching Technique For An Interleaved Boost Converter Operated In Lower Duty Cycle. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):119-125].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.19

 

Keywords:Interleaved Boost Converter, Zero Voltage Switchingand Zero Current Switching.

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A Review of Hydraulic Jump Properties in Different Channel Bed Conditions

 

H.M. Imran*, Shatirah Akib

 

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ihosen83@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to investigate the potential use of corrugated and roughened beds for reducing the hydraulic jump length and sequent depth. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the available literature on the hydraulic jump properties including different types of corrugated and roughened beds. Hydraulic jumps are frequently used for excessive kinetic energy dissipation under hydraulic structures and the jumps are often generated with the assistant of baffle blocks and kept inside the stilling basin. Corrugated and roughened beds showed considerable energy dissipation at the downstream. The jump length and sequent depth also significantly reduced with respect to the smooth bed. Consequently, the use of corrugated and roughened beds reduced the scouring length and scouring depth as well as the stilling basin installation cost. This paper discusses the implications of corrugated and roughened beds, and highlights their findings in different installation systems by many researchers. Finally, it is found that the applications of corrugated and roughened beds are always showed better performance than that of the smooth bed. In addition, this study identified some research needs for the future.

[H.M. Imran, Shatirah Akib. A Review of Hydraulic Jump Properties in Different Channel Bed Conditions. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):126-130].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.20

 

Keywords: Hydraulic jump, Corrugated and roughened bed, Jump length, Bed shear stress, Sequent and scour depth.

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Ontology Extraction and Semantic Ranking of Unambiguous Requirements

 

Subha R.1, Palaniswami S. 2

 

1Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 042, India

2 Government College of Engineering, Bargur, 635104, India

kris.subha@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper describes a new method for ontology based standardization of concepts in a domain. In Requirements engineering, abstraction of the concepts and the entities in a domain is significant as most of the software fail due to incorrectly elicited requirements. In this paper, we introduce a framework for requirements engineering that applies Semantic Ranking and significant terms extraction in a domain. This work aims to identify and present concepts and their relationships as domain specific ontologies of particular significance. The framework is build to detect and eliminate ambiguities. Semantic Graph is constructed using semantic relatedness between two ontologies which is computed based on highest value path connecting any pair of the terms. Based on the nodes of the graph and their significance scores, both single as well as multi word terms can be extracted from the domain documents. A reference document of ontologies that will help requirement analyst to create SRS and will be useful in the design is created.

[Subha R.,Palaniswami S. Ontology Extraction and Semantic Ranking of Unambiguous Requirements. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):131-138].(ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.21

 

Keywords: Content based retrieval, Information Retrieval, Semantics, Software Engineering.

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Anthropometric Home Office Computer Workstation Setup for Online Learning

 

Orhan Korhan and Mahdi Davari

 

Department of Industrial Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North CYPRUS via Mersin 10, 99628, TURKEY. orhan.korhan@emu.edu.tr

 

Abstact : Online learning is form of study which acquires vogue, both at undergraduate and graduate degrees. It comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. Therefore computer use highly involved in such learning programs. This study aims to design anthropometric home office computer workstation setup for online learners. Anthropometric measurements were collected from 10 respondents (7 male and 3 female) to design a home office computer workstation to reduce the perceived musculoskeletal discomfort. Electromyogram experiments – before and after intervention – on two different computer workstations were conducted to find out the muscle groups exposed to pressure during online learning activities. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results show that the design of computer workstation for online learners has validated impact on risk factors of musculoskeletal discomfort. Correlation analysis confirms that the relations between surface electromyogram (sEMG) activities in new design were less than those in the old design. Discriminant analysis shows that the classification scores were significantly reduced by the developed new computer workstation design. The significance of this study is to provide muscle discomfort reducing furniture and user-friendly interfaces during online learning. Such proper home office computer workstation is necessary to prevent strain injuries which can lead to long-term disabilities.

[Orhan Korhan, Mahdi Davari. Anthropometric Home Office Computer Workstation Setup for Online Learning. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):139-146]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.22

 

Keywords: Musculoskeletal discomfort, computer workstation design, online learning.

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Query Disambiguation Using Clustering and Concept Based Semantic Web Search For efficient Information Retrieval (QDC-CSWS)

 

M.Barathi 1, S.Valli2

 

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SMK Fomra Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 603103, India

2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600025, India

bharathi.damu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Search queries are short and ambiguous and return a large number of results, in which only a few are relevant to the users. Some search engines suggest a set of related terms to make a user query more specific. Many query expansion techniques are based on keyword and term co-occurrences. These approaches disambiguate the queries and return only a few results that are semantically similar to the user query and ignore the relevant ones. To overcome the ambiguous and short queries, a novel cluster based semantic query expansion technique has been proposed. The proposed work QDC-CSWS first generates the cluster for the initial query results. Secondly, the generated clusters are ranked based on the content similarity to the query. Thirdly, the relevance score is computed against the cluster label and the original query. Fourthly, the ranked clusters are provided as suggestions to the user to disambiguate the query. Finally, the cluster label is enriched by mapping the selected cluster labels with the ontology to extract semantically related concepts. Using only ontology or using only the clustering technique for query expansion might deviate from the query and consequently yield irrelevant results. Sometimes different terms and phrases that co-occur with the initial query are generated by chance and the cluster labels have no semantic meaning. So, to add semantic to these cluster labels, they are mapped on to the ontology concepts, to extract semantically related concepts for expansion. The experimental results show, that this proposed approach has better precision than the existing methods.

[M. Barathi, S. Valli. Query Disambiguation Using Clustering and Concept Based Semantic Web Search For efficient Information Retrieval (QDC-CSWS). Life Sci J 2013;10(2):147-155].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.23

 

Keywords: Query Expansion, Ontology, Clustering, Precision, Word sense Disambiguation, Suffix Tree, Relevance Feedback, Pseudo Relevance Feedback.

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The Holy Quran Digitization: Challenges and Concerns

 

Muhammad Khurram Khan 1,3, Yasser M. Alginahi 2,3

 

1Center of Excellence in Information Assurance, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2Deptment of Computer Science, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

3IT Research Center for the Holy Quran and its Sciences (NOOR), Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

mkhurram@ksu.edu.sa, yginahi@taibahu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Quran is the sacred, the most authentic, and unchanged book of the God since its revelation over 14 centuries. People usually read Quran using the traditional printed version on paperback format called Mushaf. The recent advent of smart technologies like smart phones, digital devices and tablets has collected the daily life routines under a single touch and Muslims are adopting these new tools with an exponential growth. In this paper, we highlight the challenges and concerns Muslim community has relevant to the digitization of the Holy Quran. A survey was conducted to explore the trends and adoption of technology using digital and smart devices for reading and learning Quran in the Muslim community. In addition, it was also endeavored to identify that how Muslims feel important or mandatory to have an Islamic body to monitor and endorse the digital versions and copies of the Holy Quran available in the digital format. The paper is supported by tactful survey results and analysis extracted from 17 questions and 668 responses from different parts of the world.

[Muhammad Khurram Khan, Yasser M. Alginahi. The Holy Quran Digitization: Challenges and Concerns, Life Sci J 2013;10(2):156-164].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.24

 

Keywords: Quran Research, Survey, Smart devices, Web applications.

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Perceived Leadership Behavior in Sports: The Interaction between Individual Differences and Task Characteristics

 

Hasan Birol YALCIN, Ph.D.

 

Abant Izzet Baysal University – School of Physical Education and Sports, Bolu, Turkey

E-mail: yalcinhasanbirol@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The concept of leadership is perhaps one of the most extensively researched topics in sport studies. Therefore, the present study examined athletes’ perceptions towards their coaches’ leadership behavior. Within this broader thrust, the sub-group differences defined by gender (an individual characteristic), task type (a situation characteristic), and gender by task type (their interactions) were investigated and compared. The five perceived leadership behaviors assessed by using the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) were training and instruction, democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, social support and positive feedback. The internal consistency for sub-scales of perceived version of LSS ranged from.58 to.89 in the study. The subjects of the study were 128 females and 294 males university athletes from eight different universities. The multivariate analysis for task dependence variables showed that there was statistically significant difference between interdependent sports and dependent sports among university student athletes, Wilks’ lambda =.85, F(5,416) = 5.79, p <.05. Similarly, the multivariate analysis also indicated that the grouping variables of male interdependent sports, female interdependent sports, male dependent sports, and female dependent sports were found to have significant effect on the LSS, Wilks’ lambda =.91, F(5,416) = 3.11, p <.05. Follow up univariate analysis were performed only on task dependence and the interaction of gender and task dependence, because the multivariate test was not significant for gender. Leadership behavior in sports plays an integral role in the success of athletes’ performance and athletic teams. Based on the findings of the present study, athletes, coaches and researchers will have better understanding as to the importance of coaching leadership behaviors and the interaction between individual differences (gender) and situational characteristics (task dependence). The results were further discussed and elaborated.

[Yalcin, H. B. Perceived Leadership Behavior in Sports: The Interaction between Individual Differences and Task Characteristics. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):165-172] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.25

 

Keywords: Perceived leadership, individual difference, task characteristic, sports

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Lead Exposure and Serum VEGF and TGF-β1 Levels of Residents in Area with High Incidence of Cancer Along S River

 

Shi-Qun Li1, Liu-Xin Cui1, Ping Li1, Xue-Min Cheng1, Qi-Ting Zuo2, Yu-Tang Xue3, Rui-Chang Liu3, Jing-Yuan Zhu1*

 

1. Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, 450001

2. Department of Water Resources and Environment, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, 450001

3. Centers for Disease Control, Shenqiu town, Zhoukou. Henan province, China, 466300

Corresponding Author: Ph.D Jing-Yuan Zhu1*

Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China

Tel: 0371-67781462; Fax: 0371-67781462; E-mail: yuanzhu@zzu.edu.cn

 

AbstractObjective: This study was aimed to investigate the influence of lead pollution of S River on the serum VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β1) levels in residents of high cancer incidence areas. Methods: Contaminated and control area were chosen from villages less than 5km and more than 20km away from the S river respectively, which have similar population composition and economy condition. The concentrations of lead in drinking water, soil, grain and vegetables samples from two areas were measured respectively by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 796 residents aged from 30 to 60 years old were collected and divided into 4 groups including contaminated high-risk group, contaminated normal group, control high-risk group and control normal group via questionnaire. Serum lead levels were detected by cyclic voltammetry method. Serum VEGF and TGF-β1 levels were measured by Elias. Results: The lead levels in drinking water, soil, vegetables and grain samples of contaminated area were higher significantly than those of control area respectively (P<0.05). The serum lead mean level of residents in contaminated area (115.82μg/L) was higher than those in control area (89.24μg/L) significantly (P<0.05). Serum VEGF and TGF-β1 levels of contaminated high-risk group were both higher than those of other three groups significantly (P<0.05). The serum VEGF and TGF-β1 levels in 4 group had obvious positive correlation (r=0.79, P<0.001). Serum VEGF and TGF-β1 levels varied between groups with different serum lead levels significantly. Serum VEGF and TGF-β1 levels were decreasing along with the increasing of serum lead levels when the serum lead concentration was lower than about 100μg/L, while when the serum lead concentration was higher than 110μg/L, serum VEGF and TGF-β1 levels were significantly increasing (P<0.05). Conclusion: The lead pollution of S river increases the lead exposure that may have relationship with the increasing of serum VEGF and TGF-β1 levels in residents of contaminated area with high mortality of tumor.

[Shi-Qun Li, Liu-Xin Cui, Ping Li, Xue-Min Cheng, Qi-Ting Zuo, Yu-Tang Xue, Rui-Chang Liu, Jing-Yuan Zhu. Lead Exposure and Serum VEGF and TGF-β1 Levels of Residents in Area with High Incidence of Cancer Along S River. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):173-177] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.26

 

Key words: Lead, Water Pollution, VEGF, TGF-β1, Cancer.

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Dermatologists’ Practices and Attitudes towards the Management of Moderate to Severe Psoriasis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

 

Mona A. Atwa1 and Lamiaa A Fiala2

 

1Dermatology and Venereology Department, and 2Community and Occupational Medicine Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. atwamona@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives In the past ten years, psoriasis management has changed dramatically. The recognition of co-morbidities by dermatologists is a key to successful patient outcome. We aimed to assess the dermatologists’ practices and attitudes towards the management of psoriasis and the extent to which they screen their patients for medical and psychological co-morbidities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods One hundred seventy five dermatologists in the private sector in Riyadh city were surveyed in the period from January, 1 to April, 30, 2012 for their daily practices and attitudes towards the management of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. They were also surveyed for screening of psoriasis patients for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and their practices and attitudes towards systemic therapies of psoriasis. Results Among 90 dermatologists who responded to the questionnaire, 32 (35.6%) used a validated clinical severity score for assessment of the severity of psoriasis, and 6 (6.7%) used a validated scale for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Only 32 dermatologists (35.6%) screened for diabetes mellitus, 28 (31.1%) screened for obesity, 39 (43.3%) screened for hypertension, and 30 (33.3%) screened for dyslipidemia. Conclusion Most dermatologists did not routinely use a validated score for assessment of the severity of psoriasis or HR-QoL. Most of them also did not screen psoriasis patients for CVD risk factors. Educating the dermatologists regarding the importance of accurate assessment of psoriasis severity and the recognition of co-morbidities is needed.

[Mona A. Atwa and Lamiaa A Fiala. Dermatologists’ Practices and Attitudes towards the Management of Moderate to Severe Psoriasis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):178-186]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27. doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.27

 

Key words: dermatologists’ practices, co-morbidities, screening attitude.

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mRNA Expression of aquaporin1,7,8 in colonic mucosa of rat models with slow transit constipation

 

Li Zhen1, Zhang Shuijun2, LI Guobin1, ZHI Hui1, Wang Guixian1, Song Junmin1, Yuan Weitang1*.

 

1Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China

2 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dryuanweitang@126.com.

 

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The relationship between melanosis coli (MC) and aquaporinAQP has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between the expression of aquaporin1,7,8 and the pathological mechanism of MC. METHODS: A rat model of slow transit constipation was designed, and the correlated changes of aquaporin protein 1, 7 and 8 at the mRNA level were examined. The rat model of slow transit constipation was produced with diphenoxylate administration. The mRNA expression of AQP1 and AQP 7 from STC rats and control rats were examined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AQP1 was expressed in ascending and descending colon of both control and STC rats. RESULTS: For the ascending colon, the AQP1 grayscale ratio in control and STC rats were 0.546±0.064 and 0.279±0.074 (P < 0.05), respectively; these were 0.574± 0.075 and 0.571± 0.078 (P > 0.05), respectively in descending colon. AQP7 was also expressed in ascending and descending colon of both control and STC rats, with 0. 495±0.053 and 0. 503±0.060 in ascending colon (P > 0.05), and 0. 521±0.082 and 0. 522±0.062 in descending colon (P > 0.05), respectively; but AQP8 had little expression in both proximal and distal colon of trial and control groups. Conclusions: Expression of AQP1 in proximal colon of rats with STC was down-regulated,and it may play a regulation role in water absorption;the expressions of AQP7 and AQP8 had a little alteration in proximal and distal colon of both groups.

[Li Zhen, LI Guobin, ZHI Hui, Wang Guixian, Song Junmin, Yuan Weitang. mRNA Expression of aquaporin1,7,8 in colonic mucosa of rat models with slow transit constipation. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):187-190] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.28

 

Keywords: mRNA; Expression; colonic mucosa; rat; transit constipation.

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Prevalence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp Urinary Isolates from Sudan with confirmed ESBL phenotype

 

Omar B Ahmed1, Alfadel O Omar2, Atif H Asghar1 and Mogahid M Elhassan3

 

1Department of Environmental and Health Research, The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Institute for Hajj and Omraa. Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

2College of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.

3Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.

abuaglah1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify some of the genes, namely: CTX-M, SHV, and TEM, responsible for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenomenon among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp isolated from Sudanese patients infected with urinary tract infection (UTI). Two hundred and eighteen Gram negative urinary isolates were collected at different hospitals in Khartoum State. Identification of the isolates was done by using conventional biochemical methods, and microbact 2000 24E system from Oxoid. ESBLs were screened according to CLSI guidelines. ESBLs Positive strains were tested for the presence of ESBL encoding genes using PCR with specific primers for the detection of CTX-M, SHV and TEM genes. Out of 218 Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp, ESBL was demonstrated in 130 (59.6%) of the isolates. The presences of CTX-M, SHV and TEM genes was confirmed in 68 (52.3%) of the isolates. The ESBL genes were detected in 19 Klebsiella spp and in 49 of Escherichia coli isolates. The communist frequent ESBL gene was CTX-M which was 48 and was observed in 35 and 13 of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. The frequency of TEM gene was 38 and observed in 27 of Escherichia coli, and 11 of Klebsiella spp isolates. The frequency of SHV gene was 15 and observed in 3 and 12 of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp, respectively. It was concluded that all these genes were found to be carried by K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli species. ESBL found to be higher in Sudan in comparison to other countries. Among urinary isolates the communist prevalence ESBL gene was CTX-M gene followed by TEM while the least one was SHV gene.

[Omar B Ahmed, Alfadel O Omar, Atif H Asghar and Mogahid M Elhassan. Prevalence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp Urinary Isolates from Sudan with confirmed ESBL phenotype. Life Sci J 2013; 10(2):191-195]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.29

 

Keywords: ESBL, gene, hospital, patient, genotype, phenotype.

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Influence of PI3K p85α expressing deletion on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells

 

SUN Yan, GUO Shenchao

 

Gastroenterology Department, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510150, China

Correspondence to: Sun Yan, E-mail: hilary1107@yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract Objective: To investigate the influence of RNA interference targeting PI3K p85α on the invasion and metastasis of human colorectal cancer LoVo cells. Method: Lentiviral PI3K p85α interference vectors were constructed and stably transfected into LoVo cells. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay were used to determine the influence of PI3K p85α expression on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. Results: Wound healing assay showed that the healing ability of PI3K p85α-depleted cells declined significantly; results of Transwell assay indicated that a decrease in PI3K p85α expression resulted in a significant decrease in invasive potential and motility. Conclusion: Depletion of PI3K p85α protein expression can obviously inhibit the migration of LoVo cells. PI3K p85α may be a new therapeutic target for treatment of colorectal cancer metastasis.

[SUN Yan, GUO Shenchao. Influence of PI3K p85α expressing deletion on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):196-199] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.30

 

Keywords: PI3K p85α; RNA interference; colorectal neoplasms; neoplasm metastasis.

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Quality evaluation of sheets, jam and juice from prickly pear and melon blends

 

Atef, A. M. Abou-Zaid, Nadia, I. Ibrahim, Ramadan, M.T. and A. Nadir

 

Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: Chemical composition of prickly pear and melon fruits was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in (85.64 and 82.82%) respectively. Glucose and fructose in prickly pear were (34.0 and 30.4 g/kg) higher than melon values were (16.2 and 12.1 g/kg) respectively. Whereas minerals as (P, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Cu, Se, Mn, and Zn) in prickly pear higher than those in melon. In this work we used blend of prickly pear and melon to make juice, jam and dried sheets to supplement the lack of mineral in melon by prickly pear and supporting prickly pear aroma by melon aroma. The organoleptic test showed that the products were made from prickly pear had high score followed with 25%, 50% and 75% melon, the products improved in taste and minerals content compared with control sample. Color and other sensory properties improved in blend samples compared to control samples.

[Atef, A. M. Abou-Zaid, Nadia, I. Ibrahim, M. A. El-Bandy, Ramadan, M.T. and A. Nadeer. Quality evaluation of sheets, jam and juice from prickly pear and melon blends. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):200-208]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.31

 

Key words: Melon, prickly pear, juice, sheets, jam.

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Assistance by vena cava filter in treatment of renal angiomyolipoma with inferior vena cava embolustwo cases report and literature review

 

Li Qi1, Li Zhen2, Wang Zhiyong1, Zhang Xuepei1, Qaio Baoping1, Zhang Weixing1, WEI Jinxing1

 

1. Department of Urology, First Affiliated HospitalZhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China

2. Department of Interventional radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China

richee@163.com

 

Abstract: Benign renal angiomyolipoma (AML) rarely presents with evidence of extension into the renal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC) or atrium. To explore the malignant characteristics and treatments of AML, two cases of benign renal AML with a tumor embolus to the IVC were reported. Patients were received right radical nephrectomy with IVC tumor thrombectomy, after vena cava filter was placed in IVC to avoid tumor emboli into atrium under interventional surveillance. Angiomyolipomas were testified by pathology. Patients were totally asymptomatic after operation, and post-operatively review showed no evidence of recurrence and metastasis. Benign renal AML may invade the renal vein and inferior vena cava, showing malignant characteristics. In view risk of tumor embolus into heart and lung, surgical treatment of renal AML and inferior vena cava embolus should be recommended.

[Li Qi, Li Zhen, Wang Zhiyong, Zhang Xuepei, Qaio Baoping, Zhang Weixing, WEI Jinxing. Assistance by vena cava filter in treatment of renal angiomyolipoma with inferior vena cava embolustwo cases report and literature review. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):209-211] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.32

 

Key wordsrenal angiomyolipomavena cava embolusthrombectomy.

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Evaluation of Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy in Patients with Liver cirrhosis by Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Echocardiography Pre and Post Liver Transplantation.

 

Noha A. El Nakeeb1, Iman Esmat2, Mohammed Bahaa3, Sarah H.A. Agwa4, Mourad M. Heidar5.

 

Departments of 1Internal Medicine, 2Cardiology,3 Surgery, 4Medical Research Centre Molecular Biology Unit 5Oncology Diagnostic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

nohanakeeb@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is a chronic cardiac dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) may show signs of cardiac dysfunction. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) could be an indicator of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in patients with chronic liver disease candidate for liver transplantation by measuring BNP and echocardiography before and after liver transplantation. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 25 patients with liver cirrhosis. They were divided into 2 groups: Group 1:Included 15 Patients candidate for Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) as patient group. Group 2:Included 10 patients with Chronic liver disease (child A) as control group. Evaluation of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in patient group (group 1) was done by measuring BNP level by ELIZA and performing echocardiography before and after LDLT by one month. Results: S.BNP levels showed a significant difference between patient group (before liver transplantation) and control group (child A) (P=.000) but there was no significant difference before and after LDLT (P=0.369). There was also a significant difference between patient group (before liver transplantation) and control group (child A) as regard ejection fraction (EF%) (P=.000). Also there was a significant difference between EF% in patient group before and after liver transplantation (P=0.032). There was also a significant difference between echocardiographic findings (E/A ratio and Deceleration time) before and after LDLT in patient group (P=0.008, P=0.034). Conclusion: Echocardiographic findings and S. BNP level might be a non invasive investigation for evaluation of CCM in chronic liver disease before and after living donor liver transplantation.

[Noha A. El Nakeeb, Iman Esmat, Mohammed Bahaa and Sarah H.A. Agwa. Evaluation of Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy in Patients with Liver cirrhosis by Brain Natruretic Peptide and Echocardiography Pre and Post Liver Transplantation. Life Sci J 20132; 10(2):212-219]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.33

 

Key words: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM).

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The outcomes of pregnancy complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus

 

Wei Miao1, Qing Miao2

 

1. Department of Obstetrics&Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2. Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

qing_miao@sina.com

 

Abstract: To investigate the management and outcomes of pregnancy complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a retrospective analysis was performed based on the clinical information from 51 pregnant women with SLEin which 29 patients were at the remission phase, and 22 patients were at the active phase. The results show that women with active SLE had more pregnancy complications including pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, thrombocytopenia, and postpartum hemorrhage. The rates of fetal loss, premature delivery, and cesarean section were also higher in the women with active SLE. The data indicates that conception should be planned in the remission phase, and that once pregnant, patients with SLE should remain under intensive medical care and the collaborative supervision of rheumatologists and obstetricians.

[Wei Miao, Qing Miao. The outcomes of pregnancy complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):220-222] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.34

 

Key words: Pregnancy, systemic lupus erythematosusoutcome.

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Impact of Job Demand and Control on Nurses Intention to Turnover In Obstetrics and Gynecology

 

1Nadia Abdalla Mohamed and 2Salwa Ahmed Mohamed

 

1Obstetrics and Gynecology Health Nursing and 2Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University

drnadia37@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Turnover has a significant impact on the performance, productivity and profitability of healthcare organizations. This study was conducted to assess the impact of job demands and control on nurses' intention to turnover in on Obstetrics and Gynecology departments. A cross-sectional analytic design was used in carrying the study at the Obstetrics and Gynecology departments of Zagazig and Sohag University Hospitals. It included 56 nurses from Zagazig and 37 from Sohag hospitals. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data with the job content scale measuring job demands and job control. The fieldwork was from March to May 2012. The results showed high nurses' willingness to retain their job in their units and in the nursing profession, which was higher in Zagazig hospital (p<0.001). The scores of job control and demand were lower, and significantly higher job control in Zagazig (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified nurse's age and hospital as positive independent predictors of the scores of unit job retention and profession retention. Meanwhile, the unit job retention is predicted by job demand, while profession retention is predicted by job control. The study concludes that the job and profession turnover intentions are low in the study sample. Higher job demands predict more retention of the current job, whereas a higher feeling of control of work predicts more retention of the nursing profession. Hence, improvement of the work environment is needed. The administration of hospitals should identify the intentions to leave at its early phases and take effective actions that motivate the nurses to retain their jobs.

[Nadia Abdalla Mohamed and Salwa Mohamed Ahmed. Impact of Job Demand and Control on Nurses Intention to Turnoverin Obstetrics and Gynecology. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):223-229] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.35

 

Key words: Nursing, Job retention, Turnover, Job demand, Job control.

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In-vitro Wear Measurement of Artificial Knee Prostheses

 

J.-C. Hsiung1,S.-J. Hsu2, J.-J. Liau2,Toru Maruyama3

 

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University

 2 Research and Development Center, United Orthopedic Corporation

3 Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University

E-mail: jchsiung@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This study describes the in-vitro measurement of wear with respect to total knee prostheses and a case study is presented. The objectives of a wear evaluation (ISO 14243) are given and test procedures for wear evaluation on joint-simulating machines are detailed. Information known about the in vitro conditions which a joint prosthesis faces is given, and there is a discussion of the design of a test machine. Finally an overall program for the evaluation of the wear behavior of a real artificial knee-joint prosthesis is described.

[J.-C. Hsiung, S.-J. Hsu, J.-J. Liau, Toru Maruyama. In-vitro Wear Measurement of Artificial Knee Prostheses. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):230-235] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.36

 

Keywords: Wear; Artificial knee joint prostheses; ISO 14243.

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A Study of Thermal Spray Coating on Artificial Knee Joints

 

J.-C. Hsiung1, J Tzeng2, K. Kung1, H.-S. Chen1

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University

2 Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology

E-mail: jchsiung@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Thermal spray coating technology is used worldwide in many industrial applications, but the application of thermal spray biocompatible coatings on the titanium alloy surface in the biomedical field as to improve the knee's functions is a relatively new area. The purpose of this study was to experimentally compare the difference of various pretreatment (ultrasonic vs. high pressure gas cleaning) and to verify the benefit of cryogenic treatment in the post-processing for titanium alloy surface coating in artificial knee joint by thermal spray coating technology. Experimental results exhibit that coating performance with ultrasonic cleaning and cryogenic treatment has been improved and verified.

[J.-C. Hsiung, J Tzeng, K. Kung,H.-S. Chen. A Study of Thermal Spray Coating on Artificial Knee Joints. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):236-241] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.37

 

Keywords: Thermal spray; Artificial knee joint; Titanium alloy; Cryogenic treatment.

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A Study on the Piezoelectric Motor of High Actuating Force

 

Jwo Ming, Jou

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University

e-mail: joujm@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This study is to investigate a new type piezoelectric motor of high actuating force, of which there are four different types design of the piezoelectric stator for the new type piezoelectric motor. And this new type piezoelectric motor has the advantages of high loading ability and low rotational speed. Wherein it net weight is only 40gw, but the loading ability can be up 590gw, as for rotational speed is no more than 53rpm under conditions of 180Vp-p driving voltage and 25.4kHz driving frequency. The new type piezoelectric motor is by an I-type stator, four multi-block piezoelectric ceramic sets and rotor composed. In addition, we found the best motion trajectory or vibration mode shape, driving ability and electromechanical physical behavior from the computer simulations and experiments. And we are also from the results of the simulation and experimental, reverse to estimate the approximate solution of all possible theoretical framework.

[Jwo Ming, Jou. A Study on the Piezoelectric Motor of High Actuating Force. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):242-248] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.38

 

Keywords: High Actuating Force, Piezoelectric Motor, I-Type Stator, Multi-Block Piezoelectric Ceramic Sets, Rotor, Loading Ability, Rotational Speed.

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An EMG-Driven Model to Estimate Knee Joint Moment

 

Y.-P. Sun1*, K.-T. Yen1, Y.-C. Liang2, L.-N. Wu3, K.-C. Lu1

 

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, TAIWAN

2Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, TAIWAN

3Department of Avionic Engineering, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, TAIWAN

*Corresponding author, E-mail: ypsun@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This paper presents a linear regression model to estimate knee joint moment from electromyography (EMG) and joint angle. Because the EMG signal reveals the neural command for muscle control, the proposed model is a key to develop the EMG-driven bionic limb. A teenager is the subject who is asked to take isokinetic exercises for knee extension and flexion in Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. The data such as EMG of rectus femoris and biceps femoris, knee joint angle, angular velocity, and moment are collected and analyzed. The raw EMG data are rectified and processed by moving average to obtain an envelope representing the trend of EMG. After a complete comparison, it is observed that the knee joint moment is highly correlated to EMG and joint angle. By using the least squares method the optimal solutions for linear regression models are solved that establish the EMG-angle-moment relationships for knee extension and flexion respectively. The models are validated by the fresh data which are not used in regression. The maximum percentage error of the optimal EMG-driven model is less than 25% in extension and under 21% in flexion.

[Y.-P. Sun, K.-T. Yen, Y.-C. Liang, L.-N. Wu, K.-C. Lu. An EMG-Driven Model to Estimate Knee Joint Moment. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):249-253] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.39

 

Keywords: electromyography, isokinetic exercise, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, moving average, least squares method, regression.

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Construction of Custom-made Artificial Knee Joint By Means of Contact Information

 

ChinYu Wang1*, Han Ciang Jhao1, ChienFen Huang2

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University

2 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taitung Branch

E-mail: cywang333@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: Custom-made artificial knee joints will play a very important role in the future. Aside from the differences on the geometry and dimensions of different human knee, being accustomed to sitting cross-legged, the smoothness of actions, the life of the product and the progress in the design manufacturing technology are actually closely related. This study was conducted in accordance with the specifications of the product, considering the relative curvature between the mesh surfaces of the femoral condyle cartilage and artificial meniscus as the main criteria. It hopes that the artificial knee prosthesis can have characteristics as close as the original human knee. It also hopes that the operated knee joint can be a better match to the muscles, ligaments and organizations around it to improve the compatibility between the new implants and tissue. In order to achieve this purpose, the study constructed a human medical imaging data with three-dimensional reconstruction of the knee and system assembly. Then, it constructed the finite element model to complete the contact area and contact stress characteristics and used these data as the target geometry model. On the other hand, it chose the specifications of the prosthesis replacement according to the user's bone size and geometry. It compared the contact characteristics of the above target geometry with the mesh surfaces characteristics of the prosthesis hoping that the relative motion of the prosthesis and the morphology of the original bone are close after modifying the radius of curvature on the surface of the artificial meniscus base to enhance life of the artificial knee joint. The modeling, analysis and simulation work is completed in the software, in order to shorten the design cycle and to lower the curved modification costs which may bring great convenience for the users. This provides a new practice for custom-made artificial knee design.

[ChinYu Wang, HanCiang Jhao, ChienFen Huang. Construction of Custom-made Artificial Knee Joint By Means of Contact Information. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):254-258] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.40

 

Keywords: Contact stress, LifeMod, Artificial Knee Joint.

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Developing The Custom-made Femoral Component of Knee Prosthesis using CAD/CAM

 

Jeng-Nan Lee*, Chih-Wen Luo, Hung-Shyong Chen, Huang-Kuang Kung and Ying-Chien Tsai

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan

E-mail : jengnan@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The femoral component of knee prosthesis is a biomedical element with complex surface, and the design and production is a complicated task. In this paper, the femoral component of knee prosthesis is studied based on the reverse engineering (RE) system and multi-axis machining. The knee joint 3D geometric model is obtained by using the Mimics software with the computer tomography (CT) medical images and magnetic resonance image (MRI) firstly. The necessary constrains based on surgical experience are integrated into the CAD system. In the process planning of NC machining, the cutting sequence for rough and finish machining is arranged. Through the application of CAM software, the interference-free toolpath and the cutter location file for multi-axis NC machining are generated. The cutting simulations with solid model are performed to verify the generated toolpath and NC program. It is also verified through the real cut on a five-axis machine tool.

[Jeng-Nan Lee, Chih-Wen Luo, et al. Developing The Custom-made Femoral Component of Knee Prosthesis using CAD/CAM. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):259-264] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135) http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 41

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.41

 

Keywords: knee prosthesis; femoral component; reverse engineering; multi-axis machining.

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42

Dynamic Characteristics of the Skull with the Neck Effect

 

 B.W. Huang1, Y.-W. Ou1, C.H. Chang2, G.S. Chen1, K.T. Yen3, J.-G. Tseng4*

 

1Graduate Institute of Mechatronics Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

2Neurosurgery department, Mackay Memorial Hospital Taitung Branch, Taitung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

3Department of Leisure and Sport Management, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

4Bachelor Program of Medical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

 

Abstract: The human head is a combination of the variety of different tissues of the skull, brain, cerebellar, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and neck bone, etc. The differences of both skull and neck bone combined reaction and pure skull reaction are discussed in the analysis. Finite element method (FEM) is employed not only to analyze the natural vibration modes but also to understand the reaction of the combinations of the skull and neck bone. To evaluate the realistic dynamic behavior of the human head, white light scanner and 3D graphics software are used to construct the skull and neck bone combined model. After confirming the correctness of the skull and neck bone combined model and pure skull model, respectively, the real human bone properties are brought into models and the comparisons about the simulated normal modes analysis of the two models are obtained. The found natural frequencies of the human skull-neck structure will help to avoid the injuries on head or neck.

[B.W. Huang, Y.-W. Ou, C.H. Chang, et al. Dynamic Characteristics of the Skull with the Neck Effect. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):265-270] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.42

 

Keywords: Head, Skull, Brain, Neck Bone.

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Investigations of the Diffuse Ultrasonic Field in Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Liposomes on Skin Permeabilitys

 

Yi-Cheng Huang 1*, Shiuh-Kuang Yang 2

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan 833, RO China

2 Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan 804, RO China. E-mail : huang@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This study investigated the permeability of skin to the transdermal delivery of liposomes with or without the application of a diffuse low frequency ultrasonic field. Specimens were exposed to ultrasound at frequencies of 20 and 60 kHz and intensities of 0.19 and 0.43 W/cm2. In these experiments, the diffuse ultrasonic field was produced using an inclined incident transducer and specially designed wedge. The samples exposed to ultrasound were compared to unexposed samples by recording the permeated depth of rhodamine into the skin. An ultrasonic frequency of 60 kHz at an intensity of 0.43 W/cm2 enhanced the permeated depth to a higher degree than other tested parameter combinations. In general, ultrasound of higher applied intensity resulted in greater depth of permeation than lower intensity.

[Yi-Cheng Huang, Shiuh-Kuang Yang. Investigations of the Diffuse Ultrasonic Field in Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Liposomes on Skin Permeabilitys. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):271-275] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.43

 

Keywords: low frequency ultrasound, liposome, diffuse field, designed wedge.

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Nano-indentation Measurement for Young's modulusof the Human Tooth Enamel

 

B. W. Haung1, J.-G. Tseng2, M. Z. Wong3, P. J. Chiu3, and J. H. Kuang3*

 

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Bachelor Program of Medical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung,Taiwan

*E-mail: kuang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The feasibility of employing simple loading and continuous stiffness measurement methods on the Young’s modulus of human tooth enamel is investigated in this work. Different peak loads, i.e. 20, 60, 120 and 180 mN, are both applied in the loading and unloading for the simple load and the continuous stiffness measurement methods. The difference between the mean values and the standard deviations of measured Yonung’s modulus are compared and evaluated. The variation between measured Young’s modulus and the peak loads are also studied and discussed. The measured results indicate that the continuous stiffness measurement method can provide more reliable measured results.

[B. W. Haung, J.-G. Tseng, M. Z. Wong, P. J. Chiu, J. H. Kuang. The Characterization of SmedHSP90 Gene Using Methods of Bioinformatics. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):276-282] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.44

 

Keywords: Nano-Indentation, Continuous Stiffness Measurement, Teeth, Enamel, Young’s Modulus.

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The Performance Improvement of the Spring Fastener for the Medical CPU Cooling Plate

 

H. S. Chen *, Chyouhwu Huang, J.-C. Hsiung, J.-N. Lee and K. H. Kung

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 83347, R.O.C.

*Corresponding Author: H.S. Chen, Professor, E-mail: hschen@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This study focused on the locking performance evaluation of the medical CPU cooling plate spring fastener and its environmental durability after the modification of the fastener body dimension and the improvement of spring materials. Springs used to evaluate environmental durability are made of stainless steel wire and piano wire. The main purpose of the fastener body dimensional modification is to improve fastener locking performance. Study results suggested that the effect of thermal aging has little effect to the free length and compression loading of both piano wire spring and stainless wire spring. The salt spray has little effect on the free length of either piano wire or stainless steel wire spring, however, it significantly affects the compression load, especially for the case of piano wire spring; the change is up to 50.52% after 1200 hours salt spray test. Overall, the heat resistance and weather resistance capabilities of stainless steel wire spring is much better than that of piano wire. By the modification of the fastener plastic main body chamfer and two-protruding-side sizes, it significantly improved the IZOD impact values and fastener pullout force; also, via thermal shock test, it effectively improved the fasteners loosen, flaked and tripped problems.

[H. S. Chen, Chyouhwu Huang, J.-C. Hsiung, J.-N. Lee and K. H. Kung. The Performance Improvement of the Spring Fastener for the Medical CPU Cooling Plate. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):283-289] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.45

 

Keywords: spring fastener, thermal shock, thermal aging, salt spray.

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An evaluation of the potent antimicrobial effects and unsaponifiable matter analysis of the royal jelly

 

Moselhy, W. A.,* Fawzy, A. M.** and Kamel, A. A.**

 

* Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science (for Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

**Beekeeping Research Department, Plant Protection Res. Institute (PPRI), Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

walaa_moselhi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Royal jelly is complex heterogeneous mixtures of flower’s nectar sugars, proteins and bee’s glandular secretions. Royal jelly is the cephalic glands excretion of the young worker honeybees (Apis mellifera). The wonderful effects of royal jelly on the sexual ability and maturity of the queen have been an interesting topic and controversial issue for researchers for many years. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-microbial effects of royal jelly produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) and collected from Egypt and China against four different types of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillis subtilis) and four species of fungi (Aspergillus fumigants, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Syncephalastrum racemosum). Three concentrations of pure royal jelly were prepared and added to the bacterial strains seed layer cultured individually. The samples in different concentrations showed antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria and fungi. The diameter of the clear zone formed in each concentration was measured and correlated to the ability of the extracts to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Interestingly, the results showed the variation of inhibitory effects of royal jelly samples on different strains of the bacteria in-vitro. The differences observed may be related to components of RJ associated with their geographical provenance or with genetic variability between bee colonies. The hydrocarbons and sterols from the fresh Egyptian and Chinese royal jelly were characterized by GC-FID. A total of twenty-four compounds were identified, the chemical profile reveals the dominance of C24 hydrocarbon (Egyptian camphor royal jelly: 39.66%, Egyptian citrus royal jelly: 41.9%, Chinese royal jelly: 44.05%).

[Moselhy, W. A., Fawzy, A. M. and Kamel, A. A. An evaluation of the potent antimicrobial effects and unsaponifiable matter analysis of the royal jelly. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):290-296]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.46

 

Keyword: Apis mellifera, royal jelly, Antimicrobial, (MIC), GC-FID.

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Nitrate reductase-dependent NO production is critical for Arabidopsis roots response to ABA

 

Fu-mei Shi*, Ren-wen Wu, Chao Wang, Jun Li

 

School of Life Science, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059, China

shifumei@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT. The exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) to inhibit root growth has been reported but its signal mechanisms are unclear. In this study, the ABA response was investigated using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants noa1 and nia1,nia2. The post-germination root growth of the nia1,nia2 mutants was more sensitive to ABA than that of both wild-type (WT) and the noa1 mutant. The sensitivity of root growth was restored after ten days. Similarly, the root cells of the nia1,nia2 mutants produced endogenous NO later than those in the WT and noa1 seedlings under ABA treatment. After several days, the fluorescence of NO reemerged followed by a recovery of root growth in the nia1,nia2 mutants. On the other hand, pharmacologic analysis showed that exogenous nitro iron hydrogenated sodium, an NO donor, partially restored root growth under ABA treatment. And tungstate, a target inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR), significantly reduces ABA-induced NO production and stops root growth of WT seedlings. In addition, the ABA treatment enhanced NR activity, which decreased with time. In conclusion, NO production is critical for root growth under ABA treatment. The early source of NO induced by ABA is primarily the NR pathway. Other NO sources appear to be involved later in the regulation of root growth.

[Fu-mei Shi, Ren-wen Wu, Chao Wang, Jun Li. Nitrate reductase-dependent NO production is critical for Arabidopsis roots response to ABA. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):297-303]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 47

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.47

 

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; abscisic acid; nitric oxide; root growth; nia1,nia2 mutants; noa1 mutant.

Abbreviations: ABA, abscisic acid; NO, nitric oxide; WT, wild-type; NR, nitrate reductase; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; VD-toxins, Verticillium dahliae toxins; DAF-2DA, 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate.

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Boundary Value Problems, Fredholm Integral equations, SOR and KSOR Methods

 

I.K. Youssef1 & R.A. Ibrahim2

 

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11566, Egypt

2Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering,_Shoubra, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt

reda_math50@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main interest is the numerical treatment of boundary value problems of the second and fourth order with their equivalent Fredholm integral equation forms. Comparison of the performance of the SOR and the KSOR methods on the systems arise from the differential form and those arise from the equivalent Fredholm form by using discretization techniques of the same accuracy are considered. It is found that the SOR and the KSOR use the same number of iterations with the same system but with different relaxation factors. The number of iterations in case of the integral representations is approximately less than quarter the number of iterations in case of the differential representations in the same time the computational work per iteration in the differential form (sparse systems) is less than that of the integral form. We discussed the advantages of using the integral representation over the use of the differential representation especially when we have a good approximation of the relaxation parameters. All calculations are done with the help of computer algebra system (MATHEMATICA 8.0).

[I.K. Youssef and R.A. Ibrahim. Boundary Value Problems, Fredholm Integral equations, SOR and KSOR Methods. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):304-312]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.48

 

Keywords: boundary value problems; Fredholm integral equation; SOR and KSOR.

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Correlation between Adiponectin and Breast Cancer patients

 

Rabab Aly 1,3, Sahar Zalam 2,3, Fawzia Sharaf 2

 

1. Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

2. Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3. Departement of Medical Laboratory Technology, Tabuk University, KSA

rababzeadah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adipocytokines, such as resistin, and adiponec­tin, are associated with obesity and breast cancer. Several studies have indicated that adipocytokines may influence tumor growth or differentiation.We evaluated the relationship between serum adiponectin and resistin levels and breast cancer risk in 35 biopsy-proven breast cancer patients and 40 age and body mass index matched controls. Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in the breast cancer group than the control group. There was a statistically significant difference in serum resistin levels between breast cancer vs control groups. The lymph node metastasis, tumor grade and tumor size were significantly increased in the patients with low serum adiponectin level (P= 0.024, 0.009 and 0.001). In the patients whose resistin level was high, the frequency of tumor with the higher histological grade and the larger tumor size were significantly increased (P= 0.01 and 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that age at presentation > 30 years; nulliparity and increased BMI were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (P< 0.05). Regression analysis showed that reduced adiponectin (P0.003), and elevated resistin (P0.0008) increased the risk for breast cancer.We conclude that both the low serum adiponectin levels and high resistin levels are likely to be associated with increased breast cancer risk.

[Aly R, Zalam S and Sharaf F. Correlation between adiponectin and breast cancer. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):313-319] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.49

 

Keywords: Adiponectin, Breast cancer, Resistin.

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Mutant A53T α-Synuclein Induces Neuronal Apoptosis by regulating Autophagy

 

Jing Li 1, Guanglei Chu 2, Xuejing Wang 2, Chenghe Fan 2, Wenwen Zhang 2, Yue Wang 2, Junfang Teng 2

 

1 Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No.1, Jianshe East Road, Zhengzhou, China

2 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No.1, Jianshe East Road, Zhengzhou, China

tjf.6666@yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that mutant A53T α-synuclein leads to a variety of cytotoxicity and the mechanism remain to further investigate. In our study, SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with EGFP-N1, EGFP-α-synuclein (WT) and EGFP-α-synuclein (A53T) and incubated for 24 hours. MTT assays showed that the mutant A53T α-synuclein decreased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the mutant A53T α-synuclein increased apoptosis. The mutant A53T α-synuclein up-regulated autophagy was evidenced by punctuate monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) immunoreactivty. The mutant A53T α-synuclein also increased protein levels of beclin I and membrane form LC3 (LC3-II). 3-methylademine (3-MA), the inhibitor of autophagy, can decreased the apoptotic cell death of SH-SY5Y cells indicated by mutant A53T α-synuclein. Together, these findings indicate that mutant A53T α-synuclein induces apoptosis through up-regulating autophagy in SH-SY5Y cellsfurthermoreautophagy inhibitors can decrease the cytotoxicity of mutant A53T α-synuclein.

[Jing Li, Guanglei Chu, Xuejing Wang, Chenghe Fan, Wenwen Zhang, Yue Wang, Junfang Teng. Mutant A53T α-Synuclein Induces Neuronal Apoptosis by regulating Autophagy. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):320-324] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.50

 

Keywords:α-synuclein; apoptosis; autophagy; parkinson’s disease.

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The impact of educational nutritional sessions for prospective preschool teachers on their knowledge, practice and awareness regarding nutritional needs of preschool children in Damanhour City

 

1Zeinab Alam, 2Enas Mohamed Ebrahim and 2Doaa Abd El Salam Amin.

 

1Faculty of kindergarten, basic science Dept.Damanhour University.

2Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University

enas_moh2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The first six years in human life is a period when children develop quickly and effectively. Early childhood is a critical time for the development of food preferences and eating patterns. Feeding habits formed in the toddler years are important building blocks for adult health. Preschool is the perfect setting to educate children on the principles of good nutrition. The preschool or child care center where young children are spending large amounts of time is an effective setting for learning nutrition and increasing preference for foods that are nutritionally beneficial. The nutritional knowledge and awareness of preschool teachers are one of the important factors affecting preschool children's nutritional habit. Aims of this study are to assess the nutritional knowledge, practices and awareness of prospective kindergarten teachers and to identify the effect of implementing the nutritional sessions for prospective preschool teachers on their knowledge, practices and awareness regarding nutritional needs of preschool children. Material and Methods: quasi experimental design, structured questionnaire was used to collect data before and after the conduction of the nutritional sessions. It was conducted in the faculty of kindergarten in Damanhour University. Results: revealed that most of the students (91%) supported the importance of nutritional education to preschool age children and the majority of them had mentioned that they didn’t receive any previous nutritional education before. In addition, the majority of the studied sample didn’t know the daily nutritional requirement of preschool age children. Conclusion and recommendations: The influences of kindergarten teacher nutritional knowledge on preschoolers nutritional habit is evident. Thus their knowledge, attitude and practices must be comprehensive and up-to-date. Nutritional courses for undergraduate teachers must be incorporated in the faculty curriculum and nutrition education and nutrition related activities must be compulsory.

[ZeinabAlam, Enas Mohamed Ebrahimand DoaaAbd El Salam Amin. The impact of educational nutritional sessions for prospective preschool teachers on their knowledge, practice and awareness regarding nutritional needs of preschool children in Damanhour City. Life Sci J 2013; 10(2):325-334]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.51

 

Keywords: Preschool children, educational nutritional sessions, kindergarten teacher.

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Impact of Health Education Program on Menstrual Beliefs and Practices of Adolescent Egyptian Girls at Secondary Technical Nursing School

 

Reem Bassiouny El-Lassyand and AbeerAbd El-Aziz Madian

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University

abmadian@hotmail.comreembass@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Aim of study: is to assess the impact of health education program on menstrual beliefs and practices among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Interventional study was conducted on 97 adolescents at secondary technical nursing school of Damanhour City, Elbehara Governorate, Egypt. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and later health education regarding menstruation and healthy menstrual practices was imparted to the girls. Post-test was done after 3 months to assess the impact of the program. Results: It was observed that 41.2% gained their knowledge from their friends. Menstrual practices among them was found to be fair before the program, while in the post-test, there were a significant differences in student’s level of knowledge and practices. There was a negative correlation between mothers' education and students’ practices. Conclusion and Recommendations: The level of students' knowledge regarding menstruation and menstrual hygiene practices improved after the program. Therefore, it is recommended to implement health educational programs about menstrual hygiene to preparatory and secondary school students to improve their menstrual knowledge, believes and practices.

[Reem Bassiouny El-Lassy and Abeer Abd El-Aziz Madian. Impact of Health Education Program on Menstrual Beliefs and Practices of Adolescent Egyptian Girls at Secondary Technical Nursing School. Life Sci J 2013; 10(2):335-345]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.52

 

Key Words: Menstrualeducation program, menstrual knowledge and practices, menstrual hygiene.

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Towards Developing a set of Indices to assess the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Agricultural Extension Policy

 

Oladele O. I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus. South Africa oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za, Tel: +27183892746, Fax: +27183892748

 

Abstract: This paper identified and proposed the measurement of indicators that would ascertain effectiveness, efficiency and accountability of extension policy. This is based on the fact that a major problem of organizing agricultural extension in developing countries is the absence of a legal and policy framework for providing service and the determination of the impact of existing framework for extension delivery. This paper explored the procedure for extension policy formulation process, approaches to identifying extension policy indicators, categorization of indicators into cluster and their measurement of indicators. The indicators discussed in this paper were isolated from extension policy studies from different part of the world. From a list of 33 indicators, 5 clusters were identified which include extension effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, capability and accountability with 10, 5, 6, 16 and 5 indicators respectively.

[Oladele O.I. Towards Developing a set of Indices to assess the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Agricultural Extension Policy. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):346-351]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.53

 

Keywords: extension policy, indicators, monitoring,

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Phenotypic and virulence genes screening of Escherichia coli strains isolated from different sources in delta Egypt.

 

H.M. Galal1, A.S. Hakim2*, and Sohad, M. Dorgham2

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology and Immunology Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt. Migris410@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study is conducted to identify the strains of Escherichia coli isolated from different sources in delta, Egypt (diarrheic calves, clinical and subclinical mastitis cow`s milk, Mugil capito, Oreochromis niloticus” tilapia” and water) by phenotypic and molecular based techniques. Thirty two E. coli strains were isolated from the previous sources with percentage of 28.57%, 20%, 13.33%, 15%, 36%, and 80% respectively. All the E. coli isolates were further identified by PCR using universal primers targets the 16S rRNA gene that gave specific band for E. coli at 996bp. Serological identification of E. coli isolates was represented by eleven O-Serogroups (O86, O25, O158, O119, O78, O55, O26, O125, O127, O111 and O153). All E.coli strains were screened for their virulence characters phenotypically (hemolytic activity, Congo red binding activity and Vero cell cytotoxicity). The results of hemolytic activity showed that α–hemolysis was detected with percentage of 37.5% while β- hemolysis with percentage of 12.5%. On the other hand 50% of strains gave no hemolysis. All of 32 tested strains for the CR binding affinities were 100% positive while they were not able to produce cytopathic effect on the Vero cells. Further, all the isolated E. coli strains are subjected to screening for certain virulence genes (eaeA, Stx1, Stx2, hylA, Sta and Stb). The eaeA gene was detected in serotypes (O86, O55 and untypable strain) in calves, (O86, O55, O26 and O127) in milk, (O55, O125 and O153) in fish and (O55 and O153) in water. The Stx1 gene was positive in O55 in calves, O55 in milk, O119, O55 and O125 in fish and O55 in water. The gene Stx2 was positive only in case of O55 in calves, O55, O26 and O111 in milk.The hylA gene was detected in O86, O25, O158, O119 and O55 in calves, O55, O86 and O127 in milk, O119,O55 and O125 in fish. The Sta gene was positive in O158 and O55 in calves, O55 and O26 in milk, O119, O55, O125 and untypable strains in fish and O55 in water. While gene Stb was detected in O86, O25, O119 and O78 in calves, O111 in milk, O119, O55 and O125 in fish.

[H.M. Galal, A.S. Hakim, and Sohad, M. Dorgham. Phenotypic and virulence genes screening of Escherichia coli strains isolated from different sources in delta Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):352-361]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.54

 

Keywords: Escherichia coli - virulence genes – diarrheic calves – mastitis- Mugil capito - Oreochromis niloticus - water.

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Application of Synthetic Signal in High-Tech Factory Building

 

Kai-Jen Cheng, Shyi-Lin Lee, Jie-Yu Yang

 

Department of Civil Engineering in Chung Hua University, 707, Sec.2, WuFu Rd., Hsinchu, Taiwan 30012, R.O.C. chengkaijen@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: Due to electricity wirings setup and gas transmission pipelines allocation, high-tech factory buildings all equipped with elevated floors. However, the elevated floor usually amplifies the floor vibration into multiple times. This study applies these common background vibration factors, i.e. the movement of material handling equipments, the running motors inside mechanical facilities, the operation of air conditioning equipments and personnel walking around, etc. then based on in-field measurement results to apply Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to proceed signal separation in order to build up the signal characteristic from each vibration source. Hereafter, apply MATLAB signal processing and white noise to simulate the synthetic signal formation then compare to its actual measured results. Lastly, this synthetic signal here is applied as the background vibration signal as the input data for SAP2000 Structural Analysis Software program, then proceed cross-analyzed with comparison to its actual measured results. The finding of this research indicates EEMD technology efficiently separate the major frequency from the signal and the wave theory effectively simulate its actual measured results. Besides, the synthetic signal generated from white noise can efficiently simulate the characteristic of on-site background signal and replace the in-field measured signal to proceed the time history analysis of the base. In the future, as long as built up sufficient signal characteristic database from versatile activities, the micro vibration specification value can be controlled to fit for every base in the preliminary planning stage.

[Kai-Jen Cheng, Si-Lin Lee, Jie-Yu Yang. Application of Synthetic Signal in High-Tech Factory Building. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):362-367] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.55

 

Keywords: high-tech factory buildings, ambient vibration, white noise.

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Hepatocellular carcinoma with skeletal metastasis: Prognostic analysis

 

Alaa Maria and Rabab Mahmoud.

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

alaamaria1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver worldwide. HCC most commonly metastasizes hematogenously or through lymphatics with carrying a poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to perform a survival analysis of consecutive HCC patients with extrahepatic skeletal metastasis. Material and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2011, 351 consecutive patients with HCC were admitted to Clinical Oncology Department, Tanta University. Among those patients, extrahepatic metastases were detected in 123 patients (35%). Extrahepatic skeletal metastases were detected in 63 patients and were enrolled in the present study. The median age was 58 (range 37-80) years with Male: Female ratio 6: 1. Extrahepatic metastases were diagnosed by X-ray, CT scan, MRI and/or bone scintigraphy. Patients were presented either with skeletal metastases at the initial diagnosis of HCC, 40 (63.5%) patients or developed skeletal metastases during the follow-up period, 23 (36.5%) patients. Results: Palliative irradiation was given to a total of 84 (87.5%) metastatic sites. Spine was the most common site (54 lesions). The main indications for palliative irradiation were pain (100%); associated soft tissue formation (67.9%); neurological complications due to cord compression (64.3%) and instable lesions with increased risk of pathological fracture (13%). Response to radiation therapy varied with pain reduction in 59 lesions (70.2%). The median survival period for all patients from the time of initial diagnosis of metastatic HCC was 7 (range 2-18) months with 1-year survival rate 20.1%. Identified factors influencing survival for extrahepatic skeletal metastatic patients were: performance status (PS), (p<0.0001); Child-Pugh score, (p<0.0001); size of the primary intra-hepatic tumor (p=0.029); portal venous thrombosis, (p=0.0008); CLIP score (p=0.022); intra-hepatic T stage (p=0.004); number of metastatic systems (p=0.0002) and number of metastatic lesions, (p=0.043). When multivariate analysis was performed, the following variables were independent determinants of survival: PS (p=0.001) and Child-Pugh score (p=0.0006). Conclusion: HCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bone metastasis especially in areas with a high incidence of HCC. Considering the possibility of extrahepatic metastases, HCC patients with early intra-hepatic tumor stage should be followed up carefully, particularly those who have been treated for intra-hepatic HCC. Selected HCC patients with skeletal metastases could undergo treatment for intra-hepatic lesion. However, these selected patients must have good hepatic reserve and have good performance status. Further studies are needed to improve the prognosis of HCC patients with skeletal metastases.

[Alaa Maria and Rabab Mahmoud. Hepatocellular carcinoma with skeletal metastasis: Prognostic analysis. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):368-374]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.56

 

Key words: Hepatocellular carcinoma, skeletal metastasis, prognostic factors.

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Design and Development of Low Scale, High Temperature, Hybrid Furnace for the Extraction of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Raw Mineral Quartz

 

Engineer Zaib Ullah Khan1, Prof. Dr. Nasim A. Khan2, Prof. Dr. S. Jawid Askari3, Dr Imran Amin4

 

 1 Research Scholar in Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Science & Technology, Hamdard University, Karachi 74600, Pakistan, rajazaibkhan@yahoo.com, rajazaibkahn@gmail.com

2 Prof. in Energy Engineering, Senior Executive Director, Osmani & Company (Consultant Engineers-Architects-Planners), Karachi 74600, Pakistan. Ex Vice Chancellor, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.

3Prof and Head of the Department, Materials Engineering Department, Dawood College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi

74000, Pakistan. Ex HOD Manufacturing Engineering Department, National University of Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan. Ex Researcher, Department of High Tech Thin Film, School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, P R of China.

4Head-Centre for renewable energy research, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi, 74000, Pakistan

 

Abstract: High temperature furnaces are the most suitable furnaces with the capabilities necessary to proceed further in the research area of obtaining cheap and high quality Metallurgical Grade Silicon (MGS). The Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) / Silicate generally known as quartz is a hard crystalline mineral stone abundantly available in large quantities all over the world in a variety of appearances comprising about 26 % of the earth layer with other elements (mostly oxygen). In Pakistan this mineral is available excessively in Jhangshahi, Sindh and other parts of the country, but is not being used in extracting MGS due to non-availability of high temperature specialized furnaces. However this mineral is used in construction industries and in different steel manufacturing industries as slag. The element silicon which is a known semiconductor (in which electrons are relatively tightly bound until some change in their environment causes them to flow freely) can be obtained through a series of purification processes of MGS (which can be extracted from this mineral quartz through specially designed low scale, high temperature hybrid furnace). The melting of quartz requires a temperature of around 2000OC, with a control environment to obtained MGS with a suitable silicon purity level of around 90 – 95%. During this research work a hybrid furnace with low scale is designed and developed that can attained temperature range of around 2000OC in order to achieve proper and thorough melting of specially prepared raw mineral quartz. The capacity of this furnace is anticipated to be 3-4 Kg of charge initially, which can be further enhanced with both gas as well as electrical firing option. The tests showed that a time of 60-90 minutes is required to heat up the furnace completely in order to attain the required temperature. The time required to melt the first charge of 1 kg was approximately 2 hours at the melting rate of 8.30 gram / minute with average electrode consumption of 0.0467cm / minute (when fired electrically) while average gas consumption of 90 ccf (when fired with gas option). The average MGS production during this research work is anticipated to be 300 grams approximately from 1 kg of raw mineral quartz.

[Engineer Zaib Ullah Khan, Nasim A. Khan, S. Jawid Askari, Imran Amin. Design and Development of Low Scale, High Temperature, Hybrid Furnace for the Extraction of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Raw Mineral Quartz. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):375-383]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.57

 

Key words: Electrical firing, Extraction, Gas firing, Hybrid furnace, Metallurgical Grade Silicon (MGS), Mineral quartz, Refractory, Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Solar cell.

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Ramadan-Like Fasting Reduces Carbonyl Stress and Improves Glycemic Control in Insulin Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

 

Abir Zakaria¹, Inas Sabry², and Amal El Shehaby³

 

¹Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine - Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

² Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

³Clinical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine -Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

drabirzakaria@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: To assess the effect of a culturally-tailored Ramadan-like fasting model on carbonyl stress and glycemic control in insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a single group non-randomized controlled multicentric trial 90 out of 200 insulin treated type 2 diabetic patients, were enrolled in a Ramadan-like fasting model. After two sessions of interactive patient-centered general diabetes education held for 200 patients, only 90 fulfilled the minimal reasonable glycemic control, defined as HbA1c of 9% or less after three months, and were considered eligible to participate in fasting, after a Ramadan-oriented session. Each participant commenced Ramadan-like fasting for 3 consecutive days, under close medical in-hospital supervision. Post-meal culturally-based moderate exercise was integrated, with adjusted insulin regimen, and dietary control. Results: Ramadan-like fasting was found to be beneficial for insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes, with reduction of carbonyl protein stress, mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, mean post-prandial glycemic excursion, and average glucose. The risk for hypoglycemia was mild with one self-detected and managed event, but no hyperglycemic crises. Conclusions: Ramadan fasting may be beneficial in uncomplicated, properly educated, insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes through reduction of carbonyl stress, over and above its glycemic control.

[Abir Zakaria; Inas Sabry MD and Amal El Shehaby. Ramadan-Like Fasting Reduces Carbonyl Stress and Improves Glycemic Control in Insulin Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):384-390] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.58

 

Keywords: Ramadan-like fasting, education, carbonyl protein, glycemic control, exercise.

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A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of communally grazed sheep and goats in a rural area of North West Province, Republic of South Africa.

 

 Francis R. Bakunzi, Louisa K. Nkomo, Lebogang E. Motsei, Rendani V. Ndou, Mathew Nyirenda

 

Centre for Animal Health Studies, North West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa.

francis.bakunzi@nwu.ac.za or lebogang.motsei@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Anthelmintic resistance was investigated between January and March of 2010 using the Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test on 40 each of communally grazed smallholder sheep and goats in a rural area of the North West Province of South Africa. Fecal egg count decreases below 95% were considered to imply resistance to the respective anthelmintics. Results revealed no overall resistance to all the anthelmintics studied in sheep (ų = 96- 98%), while an emerging trend of resistance was noted in goats (ų =71.8- 93%). Only 10% of the sheep farms exhibited resistance to albendazole and ivermectin while 40% showed resistance to closantel. Among goat farms, 40% exhibited resistance to albendazole and closantel, while 60% revealed resistance to ivermectin, implying a farm specific trend as well. On a comparative basis, resistance to all 3 drugs was lower in sheep than in goats. The anthelmintic resistance revealed in goats and on some sheep farms is a cause for concern about the possible spread of resistance that is rampant on numerous commercial sheep farms in South Africa.

[R. Bakunzi, Louisa K. Nkomo, Lebogang E. Motsei, Rendani V. Ndou, Mathew Nyirenda. A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of communally grazed sheep and goats in a rural area of North West Province, Republic of South Africa. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):391-393] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.59

 

Keywords: Sheep and goats, nematodes, small holder, communal grazing, anthelmintic resistance.

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Bacterial foraging optimization supported utility based call admission control framework for 3GPP LTE networks

 

Vijay Franklin1, Paramasivam K 2

 

 1Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India

2Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India

jvfcse@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we present a new design of optimal utility based call admission control framework using Bacterial Foraging Optimization. With the aim of ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) and to reduce the performance degradation in call admission process the utility based scheduling call admission process is optimized. In the proposed algorithm, The foraging behavior of bacteria is considered as user call requests in the call admission process and the available resources is considered as gradients of the chemicals in the environment. Locomotion mechanisms of the bacteria in the environment are considered as the mobility of the nodes in the environment. The information processing strategy and the quality policies are defined as the perception of food and the motivation of move in the environment. The optimization can be achieved through the series of processes on the stimulated cells. The call admission decision and the rescheduling process are based the channel state of network. The utility function of each call request is evaluated based on the Received Signal Strength (RSS), throughput of the network and set of subscribers participated in the call admission process. Our simulation results shows the performance enhancement and optimization using the bacterial foraging optimization with parameters like throughput, fairness, and delay for real time and non real call request. The QoS parameters are evaluated and the proposed method shows reduction in call dropping probability and call acceptance rate is also increased.

[Vijay Franklin, Paramasivam K. Bacterial foraging optimization supported utility based call admission control framework for 3GPP LTE networks. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):394-400]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.60

 

Keywords: Bacterial foraging optimization, Quality of Service, Long Term Evolution, Utility Factor, Received Signal Strength.

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Enhancing Blended Courses to Facilitate Student Achievement of Learning Outcomes

 

Hoda A. Elebiary1 and Sana Al Mahmoud2

 

1Community Health Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt

2Management & Leadership, University of Dammam, KSA

dr.elebiary@gmail.com, sana98saudi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Blended learning is a student centered flexible, self-paced multi model approach to learning. WebCT provides a secured location where faculty can place course materials, including syllabus, assignments, lectures, and presentations. The aim of this study was to compare between students achievement & satisfaction in classical and blended course format. The participants in this study were 158 Saudi female Students who enrolled in information technology for nurses' course. Six tools were used in this study: 1) 2 quizzes included 30 multiple-choice questions each, 2) midterm exam included 40 multiple-choice questions, 3) final exam included 60 multiple-choice questions, 4) assignments included different assignments related to the course, 5) Student Satisfaction Survey, 6) Teacher/Course Evaluations, University of Dammam. The results of this study indicated that students in blended course format have a higher achievement and satisfaction than student in classical course format.

[Hoda A. Elebiary and Sana Al Mahmoud Enhancing Blended Courses to Facilitate Student Achievement of Learning Outcomes. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):401-407]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.61

 

Key words: Student achievement and satisfaction, Blended learning.

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Successful research project supervision in science and agriculture: attitude of students and supervisor

 

1Oladele O. Idowu and 2Babalola O. Olubukola

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za; 2Department of Biological Sciences, olubukola.babalola@nwu.ac.za. Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.

 

ABSTRACT: This descriptive research uses a questionnaire to determine supervisors and students attitude towards research project supervision in two different tertiary institutions in Southern Africa. A systematic sampling technique using a sampling interval of 3 with replacement was used to select 53 students. Simple random sampling was used to select 38 supervisors. A structured questionnaire which was subjected to face validity and reliability test was used to collect data. Data collected was analyzed with SPSS using means and standard deviations. Analysis confirmed matching academic interest, expertise, resources, matching expectations, mutual understanding, and stimulated and maintained student interest and motivation play vital role in successful supervision. Significant determinants of students attitude towards research supervision are gender (t = 1.95), age (t = 2.83), residences (t = -2.02), marital status (t = -3.89), weekly supervisor contact (t = 2.33), fortnight supervisor contact (t = 2.49).

[Oladele O. Idowu and Babalola O. Olubukola. Successful research project supervision in science and agriculture: attitude of students and supervisor. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):408-414]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.62

 

Keywords: research, supervision, students, supervisors, science, agriculture.

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Epidemiology and Clinical Outcome of ICU-Acquired Dysnatremia in critically ill Medical patients, a Single Center Study

 

Medhat I. Mahmoud, Osama A. Khalil, Walid M. Afifi, and Fayroz M. Osman

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

ibrahim_medhat_73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Dysnatremias (hyponatremia and hypernatremia) are commonly encountered in ICU patients and are associated with adverse outcomes including mortality and prolonged LOS, but few studies have specifically investigated the epidemiology of dysnatremia in ICU, especially its association with mortality. Aim: to assess the prevalence of ICU-acquired dysnatremia in medical ICU patients, and to find out risk factors of dysnatremia and whether it contributes to the risk of mortality and clinical outcome of medical ICU patients. Methods: We identified 600 consecutive adults (18 years of age or older) admitted to medical ICU between March 2011 to August 2011 who were documented to have normal serum sodium levels (135 to 145 mmol/L) during the first day of ICU admission. ICU acquired hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia were respectively defined as a change in serum sodium concentration to below 135 mmol/L or above 145 mmol/L following day one in the ICU. Results: 132 patients (22 %) acquired dysnatremia of them, 111 patients (18.5 %) acquired hyponatremia, and 21 patients (3.5 %) acquired hypernatremia.. Also, the risk of developing hyponatremia is increased with increasing age more than 50 years, presence of fever, administration of hypotonic fluid therapy, use of diuretics, presence of renal impairment and advanced liver disease (RR 2, 2.7, 2.4, 4.8, 2.9, and 2.3 folds; respectively), and that for hypernatremia is increased only with increasing age more than 50 years, presence of fever, and presence of renal impairement (RR 3.23, 1.7, and 1.6 folds; respectively),whereas the use of diuretics, fluid therapy and advanced liver disease had protective effects (RR.2,.6, and.13, respectively). Compared with normonatremic patients, hyponatremia and hypernatremia in general were associated with increased ICU-mortality (RR 2.52, 3.1 folds, respectively),and with increased ICU-LOS (RR 1.8 and 2.1 folds, respectively). Conclusions: ICU acquired dysnatremia is a common problem in medical ICU with higher prevalence of hyponatremia compared with hypernatremia, and is associated with increased LOS and of ICU mortality.

[Medhat I. Mahmoud, Osama A. Khalil, Walid M. Afifi, and Fayroz M. Osman. Epidemiology and Clinical Outcome of ICU-Acquired Dysnatremia in critically ill Medical patients, a Single Center Study. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):415-420]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.63

 

Key Words: dysnatremia, length of stay (LOS), hyponatremia,hypernatremia, ICU, mortality.

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Patients' Satisfaction Regarding Nursing Care Provided in Different Hospitals in Makkah AL Mukramah

 

Nahed S. El-Nagger1,4 Sahar M. A. Ahmed 2,4 Lamiaa A. Elsayed1,4Hamdia M. A. Khamis3,4

 

1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Nursing Management, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

3Maternity, obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

4Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al- Mukramah, Saudi Arabia

nahidalngar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Patients’ satisfaction has been used as a significant indicator of quality services provided by health care personnel. Consequently, the most important predictor of patients’ overall satisfaction with hospital care is particularly related to their satisfaction with nursing care. Patient’s satisfaction with nursing care is important for any health care agency because nurses comprise the majority of health care providers and they provide care for patients 24 hours a day. Aim: The aim of the current study was to measure the patients’ satisfaction regarding nursing care provided in different hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukrama. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive study design, it represented in a convenient sample consisted of 150 patients, the study was carried out at three different hospitals affiliated to King Faisal, Al Noor Specialist and Al Ahly Hospitals, whereas50 patients were taken from each hospital, the study was conducted at Medical & Surgical Wards and Hemodialysis Unit. Tool of Data Collection: It was an Interviewing Patients’ Satisfaction Questionnaire (IPSQ), it was used to measure the patients’ satisfaction regarding nursing care provided in different hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukramah. Results: The results of the current study revealed that more than half of patients in King Faisal Hospital were male and their age was 35 years and above, in comparison to Al- Ahly Hospital the majority of patients were female. The majority of patients were satisfied with nurses communication except for patients’ participation in decision making regarding their treatment additionally, there was no statistical significant differences regarding nursing care provided among the three different hospitals. Conclusion: There was no statistical significant differences regarding nursing care provided among the three different hospitals in Makkah Al – Mukramah,. Recommendations: Further studies should be conducted concerning patients’ satisfaction with nursing care provided in all hospitals.

[Nahed S. El-Nagger, Sahar M. A. Ahmed, Lamiaa A. Elsayed and Hamdia M. A. Khamis. Patients' Satisfaction Regarding Nursing Care Provided in Different Hospitals in Makkah AL Mukramah. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):421-429]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.64

 

Key words: Patient’s Satisfaction, Quality of nursing care provided.

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HER-2/neu in Human Breast Cancer By Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and Immunohistochemistry

 

Mona F. Youssef1, Ghada S.Sabbour1, Mervat S. M.Yousef1, Faten A. Ghazal2, and Amro Abdel-Raouf Abdel- Nasser3

 

Clinical Pathology1,Pathology 2, and General Surgery departments3, Faculty of Medicine,Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. shafikm3@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is a complex genetic disease characterized by the accumulation of multiple molecular alterations. Metastatic spreading through blood vessels is the most important factor affecting the prognosis of patients with primary carcinomas. In this regard, detection of carcinoma cells in the blood could be important to identify carcinoma patients at high risk of relapse. Thus, the development of a molecular diagnostic assay capable of detecting breast cancer-associated gene expression in the peripheral blood has the potential to vastly improve breast cancer staging and treatment. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) is an oncogene which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Amplification of the HER-2 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) may be used for this purpose. Other approaches have been proposed for the assessment of HER-2 status in peripheral blood, including evaluating either circulating HER-2 extracellular domain (ECD) by ELISA or nucleated cell-associated HER-2 mRNA recently by quantitative PCR-based methods, either conventional competitive PCR and competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods or more advanced, quantitative real-time PCR methods. For this purpose, this study assessed HER-2/neu-mRNA, CA 15-3 and CEA in peripheral blood samples of 32 newly diagnosed breast cancer female patients presenting to the Surgery Department, Ain Shams University, and eight healthy female subjects as a control group. Our study found that the assayed serum CA15-3 and CEA did not achieve statistical significance between patients and controls and did not correlate with the circulating HER-2/neu. The quantified HER-2/neu in peripheral blood by real time PCR compared favorably with tissue IHC in breast cancer samples. HER-2 assessment by IHC has major disadvantages; it is a semi-quantitative method with considerable inter-observer variations and that IHC HER-2 score at the +2 level is an equivocal score that needs to be confirmed with another technique such as real-time PCR. Comparisons of our data with important clinical prognostic indices yielded several associations. The present study found an association between the level of circulating HER-2/neu gene and hormone receptor negativity, presence of circulating micro-metastases and the clinical stage. On the other hand, HER2/neu amplification was not associated with the size of the primary tumor, the status of lymph nodes, high grade tumors and tumor type. In Conclusion: Measurement of circulating HER2/neu by real time PCR in patients with breast cancer is useful for several clinical applications. These include: identification and monitoring of women with metastatic breast cancer to aid in patient management; prediction of the response to hormonal therapy; and the selection patients for trastuzumab therapy. This would improve clinical outcome and five-year survival.

 [Mona F. Youssef, Ghada S. Sabbour, Mervat S. M. Yousef, Faten A. Ghazal, and Amro Abdel-Raouf Abdel- Nasser. HER-2/neu in Human Breast Cancer By Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and Immunohistochemistry. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):430-443]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.65

 

Keywords: HER-2/neu; Breast; Cancer; RT-PCR; Immunohistochemistry.

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Low Dose Docetaxel Combined With Low Dose Capecitabine in Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Anthracycline

 

Rabab Mahmoud and Omnia Abd-elfattah

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

Rabab_ms@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is the leading cause of death from cancer among women worldwide, accounting for more than 400,000 death per year. Given the generally unfavorable prognosis of MBC and the modest improvements in survival with active treatment, quality of life (QOL) and palliation of symptoms are important treatment goals. For this reason, preferred Successful therapeutic regimens in MBC must balance efficacy and tolerability. This phase II study investigated whether low dose docetaxel in combination with low dose capecitabine could improve the therapeutic index of this regimen. Patients and Methods: Patients with anthracycline-pretreated metastatic breast cancer were eligible. Treatment consisted of docetaxel 30 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 in combination with capecitabine 825 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-14 of a 3-week cycle. Forty two women were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range, 28-66 years). 35 patients had a performance status of 0-1. Twenty eight patients had triple-negative disease, 13 patients had ER and/PR positive disease Sites of metastasis were as follows: visceral metastasis (n = 14); non visceral (n=8) and both (n = 20). No patients had only bone disease. Eighteen patients had presented with metastasis at initial presentation. Results: Of 42 patients who received study treatment two had a complete response, 19 had a partial response, 6 had stable disease and 15 had progressive disease. Overall response rate was 50%. The overall clinical benefit rate was 64, 2%. With a median follow-up of 13 months, median overall and progressive disease survival was 19.3and 10 months respectively. Toxicity was acceptable: 8 patients (19 %) had grade 3/4 adverse events. Conclusion: Split low dose docetaxel with low dose capecitabine is an effective combination in the treatment of patients with MBC with manageable toxicity profile, making it an attractive regimen for further larger studies.

[Rabab Mahmoud and Omnia Abd-elfattah. Low Dose Docetaxel Combined With Low Dose Capecitabine In Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Anthracycline. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):444-449]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.66

 

Keyword: Metastatic Breast Cancer, Docetaxel, Capecitabine.

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Effect of Motivation Versus De- motivation on Job Satisfaction among the Nurses Working in Hera General Hospital at Makkah Al-Mukramh

 

Sahar M. M. Aly Ahmed 1,3 Lamiaa A. Elsayed2,3 Nahed S. El-Nagger2,3

 

1Nursing Management, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

2Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

3Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al- Mukramah, Saudi Arabia

saharaly23@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The word "motivation" is derived from the Latin "mover" which means "to move". Motivation refers to psychological forces which move people, bring them into action and keep them going. Motivational psychology is about covert psychological processes that are assumed to explain which behavior or action an individual performs at each moment in time. Motivation explains the degree of effort that is spent while performing an activity, the level of performance in achievement tasks and the satisfaction and well-being that is derived from an activity and/or its outcome(s). Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of motivation versus de-motivation on job satisfaction among the nurses working in Hera General Hospital. Study design: It was a descriptive correlational design. Subjects and Methods: A convenient sample composed of 70 nurses who were working in Hera General Hospital at Makkah Al-Mukramh, affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tools of data collection: A Self –Administered Questionnaire, it was` consisted of four parts, the first part was concerned with the demographic data of the nurses, the second part about job satisfaction related to administrative policies, supervision, working condition and doing enjoy job, the third part about motivation and de-motivation,the fourth part was related to job satisfaction and its effect on job. Results: The current study indicated that the majority of nurses were female and nearly half of them were single and their ages were ranged from 20-< 25 years old, and they had 2- < 5 years of experience. The majority of nurses were satisfied with their jobs. Conclusion: Motivation is considered to be the best way to achieve job satisfaction and to reduce de-motivation. Whereas, the more nurses were motivated, the more they were satisfied with their jobs. Recommendations: Financial incentives will increase the levels of job satisfaction among nurses. Also, the hospitals and other institutions are need to know how to motivate their nurses to keep them from burning out or being de-motivated.

[Sahar M. M. Aly Ahmed, Lamiaa A. Elsayed and Nahed S. El-Nagger. Effect of Motivation Versus De- motivation on Job Satisfaction among the Nurses Working in Hera General Hospital at Makkah Al-Mukramh. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):450-457]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.67

 

Keyword: Motivation, de-motivation, job satisfaction.

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A study of physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene Nano composites/modified Nano clay

 

Naser Gharehbash1, Alireza Shakeri2, Djurabay Khalikov3

 

1 PhD Student, Academy sciences of Tajikistan

2Faculty of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Chemistry Institute, Professor of Academy Sciences of Tajikistan

Corresponding Author: 1Naser Gharehbash, E-mail: d.gha.5na@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study; physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene Nano composites have been examined using modified Nano clay fillers (Cloisite15A brand) and a ompratiblizer called Maleic Anhydride (MA). In order to 3 levels of %1; %3; and %5 and using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); it was examined. Results of (XRD) showed that the structure of Nano composites results from an intercalation structure. (SEM) images showed that added PP-g-ma improves the diffusion capability of modified clay in polypropylene matrix and creates a homogenous structure. Testing the mechanical properties showed that tensile and bending strength increased from 1 to 3 percent modified Nano clay by weight; and with an increase in modified Nano clay; the properties decrease. In these Nano composites; the resistance to shock decreases as the amount of modified Nano clay increases.

[Naser Gharehbash, Alireza Shakeri, Djurabay Khalikov. A study of physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene Nano composites/modified Nano clay Sector. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):458-463] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.68

 

Key words: Nano composite; polypropylene; maleic anhydride; modified Nano clay; bending and tensile strength.

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Dissolved solids adsorption of freshwater using synthesized bio-foam composite

 

Saud A. Gutub 1, M. Bassyouni 2,3, S. M.-S. Abdel-hamid 4,5

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589 Saudi Arabia

2. Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911 Saudi Arabia.

3. Department of Chemical Engineering, Higher Technological Institute, Tenth of Ramadan 11111 Egypt.

4. Department of Chemistry, Science and Art College, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh, 21911 Saudi Arabia

5. Department of Chemical Engineering, Higher Technical Institute, Tenth of Ramadan, 11111 Egypt

sgutub@kau.edu.sa.com

 

Abstract: In this study, samples of freshwater from the river Nile in Egypt were collected and treated using foamed polyurethane (PU)-ground natural fiber bio-composites. This work aims to measure the effectiveness of total dissolved solids and organic contaminates removal using foamed polyurethane /ground coconut fibers, palm fibers, rice and wheat straw bio-composites. Adsorption process in addition to simulate the batch adsorption data were carried out. Effect of bioadsobent dose at contestant pH was investigated. The results of contaminates removals using bio-composites were compared with the commercial powdered activated carbon adsorbent. It is found that low removal efficiency of TDS using PU-ground rice straw bio-composite. Slight removal of total dissolved solids has been recorded using PU-ground coconut fibers and wheat straw bio-composites. PU/ground palm fibers bio-composites adsorbent shows a significant improvement in TDS removal. It is able to remove up to 37% of total dissolved solids contents. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied using adsorption test data and evaluated. The thermal adsorption of total dissolved solids using ground palm fibers was verified using Langmuir model.

[M. Bassyouni, Saud A. Gutub, S. M.-S. Abdel-hamid. Dissolved solids adsorption of freshwater using synthesized bio-foam composite Taxonomic. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):464-471] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.69

 

Keywords: Bio-composites; fresh water; bioadsorbent; foam.

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A combined Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Detect Environmental Degradation in the Jeddah coastal zone, Saudi Arabia

 

Amal Yahya Alshaikh

 

King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA

amal99sh@yahoo.com

Abstract: The main objectives of the work are to Identify the environmental degradation factors and their role in the destruction and creation of environmental problems of Jeddah marine coast. In order to develop a sustainable tourism strategic plan to reduce the depletion of natural resources of the marine environment of the study area. TM and ETM landsat images acquired in 1986 and 2003 of the study area were used. Manuscripts and topographic maps of scale of 1: 4000,000 for Jeddah governorate, in addition to data and information obtain from different institutions were also employed. ERDAS Imagine 8.5 software was used for image processing (i.e. Export function, layers tacking, geometric correction...etc.). Results showed that the negative changes in the coast exhibit 84 km as it record a length of 111 km compared to 195 km in 2003. This change leads to the depletion of natural environmental marine resources and erosion of the recreational areas at the coast line. Absence of a proper sustainable planning strategy and management of coastal natural resources, cause improper human pressures and disorders in the natural balance of the marine environment. The study has suggested a strategy for sustainable touristic development, represented in building systems and developing laws with continuous work to revise procedures and update the standard limits.

[Amal Yahya Alshaikh. A combined Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Detect Environmental Degradation in the Jeddah coastal zone, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):472-478]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.70

 

Key words: Environmental Degradation, Coastal area, Remote sensing, GIS, Jeddah.

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Histological Observations on the Proventriculus and Duodenum of African Ostrich (Struthio Camelus) in Relation to Dietary Vitamin A.

 

Fatimah A. Alhomaid1 and Hoda A. Ali2

 

 1Dept. of Biology, Collage of Science and Arts, Qassim University, KSA

2Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, Collage of Designs and Home Economy, Qassim University, KSA. Email: fh.3@windowslive.com; drhodaali@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Research problem: The fine structure of the gut in different avian species in relation to dietary vitamins status have widely been studied with the exception of ostriches. Objectives: To study the histological structure of the African ostrich proventriculus and duodenum in relation to two levels of vitamin A (7500 and 9000) IU/kg diet using light microscope. Methods: Twenty male African ostriches with average age 65-67 weeks and apparently healthy were used. They were divided into two equal groups, the first one received diet adjusted to supply 7500 IU/kg diet vitamin A. The second group fed diet formulated to furnished 9000 IU/Kg diet vitamin A. Both diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were calculated. At the end of four weeks, pieces from the different parts of proventriculus and duodenum were taken for light microscopic examinations. Result: Body weight gain and feed conversion rate were improved in group received 9000IU of vitamin A comparable to group fed 7500IU. Histological structure of proventriculus of birds receiving 7500 IU/Kg vitamin A showing vascular congestion, thinning connective tissue and sloughing of the columnar epithelia lining the central collecting duct. The duodenum sinus showing shrinking of muscular layer with bleeding in the core layer and widening of the blood vessels in the outer layer. Conclusion: microscopic structure of proventriculus and duodenum indicated that there was a tendency for improvement in histomorphometry, as the level of vitamin A supplement increased from 7500IU to 9000IU. Except for few abnormality recorded in group fed high level of vitamin A, we suggested that 9000IU used in the present study was not yet enough to cover African ostriches requirement and excess vitamin is needed for that species.

 [Fatimah A. Alhomaid and Hoda A. Ali. Histological Observations on the Proventriculus and Duodenum of African Ostrich (Struthio Camelus) in Relation to Dietary Vitamin A. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):479-486]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 71

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.71

 

Key words: Histology, Proventriculus, Duodenum, African Ostrich, Struthio Camelus,Vitamin A.

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In Vitro Regeneration and Genetic Transformation of Peach (Prunus Persica L.) Plants

 

Hemaid I. A. Soliman

 

Tissue Culture Unit, Plant Genetic Resources Department, Ecology and Dry Land Agriculture

Division, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. hahemaid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is one of the most important stone fruits in different parts of the world. Local peach trees located in North Sinai Governorate, Egypt are essentially infected by many different pests and diseases. Regeneration of adult plant material is one of the main limitations for successful peach (Prunus persica L.) transformation. Plant regeneration protocol was developed for direct organogenesis, using peach young leaf segments as explants, and accomplished by studying the influence of different concentrations and types of cytokinin and auxin hormones. The best regeneration for peach (64.8 %) was observed on WP medium with 3 mg/l TDZ and 1.0 mg/l NAA in darkness for two weeks, followed by transfer to the light for three weeks. The highest mean length of shoots (1.35 cm) was obtained on medium containing 3 mg/l TDZ + 0.5 mg/l NAA. Adventitious shoots were rooted (92%) and rooted plantlets survived after acclimatization to the greenhouse (91%) on liquid MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 100 mg/L myoinsitol, 2 mg/l IBA, 0.5 mg/l NAA and 162 mg/l phloroglucinol. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system was developed for peach. The binary vector pISV2678 with the bar and the gus-intron genes was transferred into young leaf segments of peach. The obtained putative transgenic plantlets were able to grow under medium containing 3 mg/l bialaphos. Transformation efficiency was 26.7% by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. The presence of gus-intron (2070 bp) and bar (540 bp) genes was confirmed via polymerase chain reaction while their expressions were detected by histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting with 2 mg/L Basta herbicide. Southern blotting technique was carried out to confirm the integration of bar gene in the transformed tissues.

[Hemaid I. A. Soliman. In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation of peach (Prunus persica L.) plants. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):487-496]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.72

 

Keywords: peach (Prunus persica L.), regeneration, genetic transformation, gene expression.

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Predicting Consumer Attitude to Use On-line Shopping: Context of Malaysia

 

Marzieh Zendehdel, Laily Hj Paim (Corresponding author)

 

Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor Tel: 006-03-89467051. niaz_z7@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, the Internet has become an essential part of our lives. It has entered all sectors of our daily activities: business, communication, Shopping, and personal life. This study, based on the diffusion of innovations (DOI) theory investigates factors that influence adoption and usage of e-shopping, especially, in Malaysia. Factors were empirically tested against data collected from 375 participants using survey questionnaires. Perceived Relative advantage was found to be the most significantly related factor affecting e-shopping adoption in Malaysia, followed in turn by Privacy and Compatibility. Security of the Internet had a notable effect on e-shopping and adoption in Malaysia. However there is no significant in consumers’ attitude towards online shopping based on complexity. The results show that if students worry about whether their information due to the process of online shopping will be used for other purposes, it will reduce their purchase attitude. In other words, students will evaluate online shopping based on such perceptions as whether the purchase through online will bring additional advantages, and, at the same time, be compatible with their current life style. Customers shop online to save time and effort.

[Zendehdel M, Paim L. Predicting consumer attitude to use on-line shopping: context of Malaysia. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):497-501] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.73

 

Key words: Online shopping; privacy; security; compatibility; relative advantage; complexity; attitude.

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Non -agricultural information services provided by extension agents in Oyo state, Nigeria

 

Kolawole A.E and Oladele O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North West University Mafikeng Campus Mmabatho 2735. oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This paper examined non -agricultural information services provided by extension agents in Oyo state, Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that increasing responsibility of the responsiveness to rural needs has given extension services a broader concept and that and rural non-farm income account for considerable share of rural household income. A simple random sampling was used to select 100 extension agents from a population of 170. Data were collected from the respondents sampled for the study using interview schedule based on a structured questionnaire. The results show that majority (69.2%) are male, belonging to 40-45 years age group (54%), married (85%), Christians (60%), had BSc (65%), studying for higher degrees (48%) and with 6-10 years of working experience (57%). About 55% of the extension officers reside within the job location. They provide non-agricultural information on areas such as non-farm income generating activities, governance, legal, health and education. Significant determinants of provision of non-agricultural information by extension agents are age (t=2.33), gender (t=1.80), working experience (t= 2.06), residing within job location (t=2.29), and studying for higher degree (t=2.38). The study concludes by advocating that the extension messages should be formally expanded to cover the non-agricultural income generating activities in order to enhance the livelihoods of rural people engaged in it

[Kolawole A.E and Oladele O.I. Non -agricultural information services provided by extension agents in Oyo state, Nigeria. Life Sci J 2013; 10(2):502-506] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 74

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.74

 

Keywords: Non- agricultural information, livelihoods, extension agent, non-farm income rural dwellers, Oyo state, Nigeria.

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Direct staining for protein bound starch of potato granule- by using Ethidium Bromide dye

 

Hany Mohamed Yehia

 

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. hanyehia@ksu.edu.sa, hanyyehia43@yahoo.de.

 

Abstract: First attempt for direct staining of potato starch granule-associated protein (SGBP)by using ethidiun bromide dyes. Light microscopic examination of dye–treated granules showed fluorescence under U.V beam at 230 nm. Colorimetric determination of total proteins associated potato starch granules based on the principle of the Biuret reaction (copper salts in an alkaline medium) and were 0.035 g protein /10 ml (starch =10% g), as well as nitrogen contents (0.0672 g/100g) starch by Kjeldahl. Potato starch granule associated protein revealed as a band ~ 92 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate and analysis by gel electrophoresis (SDS page 12% acrylamide).

[Hany Mohamed Yehia. Direct staining for protein bound starch of potato granule- by using Ehidium Bromide dye. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):507-511]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.75

 

Key words: Potato starch; Protein; Ethidium bromide; SDS page.

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Cellular Changes in Muscles and Liver of Macrosomic Fetuses Born to Diabetes Rats; Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

 

Noor A. Ben Zakar1, Soad S. Ali2, Nasra N. Ayuob 2,3*and Saleh Karim4,

 

1 King Fahed Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

2Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

3 Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

4 Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

nasraayuob@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Macrosomia one of the commonest complications to which fetuses of diabetic mothers are exposed. This study aimed to describe the cellular changes of liver and skeletal muscles of macrosomic fetuses born to mildly diabetic rats in order to explain macrosomia at histological level. Material and Methods: This experimental study used 36 adult female rats divided into control (n=12) and experimental (n=24) groups. The latter were injected intra peritoneal with Alloxan (100 mg/kg) and animals with blood glucose (130-250 mg/ml) (n=16) were designated as diabetic group and were housed with known fertile males. On day 21 of gestation, pregnant females were sacrificed and fetuses were weighted and processed for histological and histochemical examination. Results: There was significant increase in body weight of macrosomic fetuses born to diabetic mothers (6.6 ± 0.37g). Skeletal muscle fibers of macrosomic fetuses were enlarged and widely separated. Both diameter of muscle fibers (11.77±7.56 µm) and hepatocytes circumferences (55.75±7.56 µm) were significantly increase of macrosomic fetuses. Lipid droplets and polysaccharides were also increased in these enlarged muscle fibers and hepatocytes. Numbers of proliferating muscle fibers and hepatocytes stained with Ki 67 were significantly increased in macrosomic fetuses. Conclusion: increased size of liver and skeletal muscle observed in macrosomia of fetuses of mild diabetic rats could be attributed to increase deposition of polysaccharides and lipids as well proliferation of their cells.

[Noor A. Ben Zakar, Soad S. Ali, Nasra N. Ayuob and Saleh Karim. Cellular Changes in Muscles and Liver of Macrosomic Fetuses Born to Diabetes Rats; Histological and Immunohistochemical Study. Life Science Journal 2013; 10(2):512-523]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.76

 

Keyword: Macrosomia, rat, diabetes, histology, alloxan.

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Assessment of compliance of Employees and Management to Occupational Health & Safety Act in the Department of Public Works, Roads Transport in the North West Province

 

1Seleka N P and 2 Oladele O I.

 

1Graduate School of Business and Leadership,2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. E-mail: oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The study was designed to determine the worker assessment of compliance to OHS act in the department of Public safety. One hundred and two employees were selected randomly using table of random numbers from different directorates such as Human resources, Finance, Road safety, Crime prevention and Traffic management. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire which was made of personal characteristics and sections on level of compliance with OHS act, employees’ attitude and constraints to OHS act employees. Data collected were coded and subjected to analysis using frequency count and percentages were used to describe the data. The results show that majority are male (63%) between 31 – 50 years (56.9%), single (52%) have between 1 – 4 dependants (52%) with working experience of between 1 – 15 years (92.2%), Christians (91.2%), with Diploma as educational level (40%). The results of the compliance on the OSHA act, employees indicated that the degree of compliance was high for provision and maintenance of systems of work, plant and machinery that, as far as is reasonably practicable, are safe and without risks to health (68%), Causing all employees to be informed regarding the scope of their authority as contemplated in section 37 (1) (b) (66.7%) and Every employer shall conduct his undertaking in such a manner as to ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, that persons other than those in his employment who may be directly affected by his activities are not thereby exposed to hazards to their health or safety (63.7%). The results of the attitudinal disposition of employees to level of compliance with OHS act show that employees were generally unfavourable to OHS act and its implementation in the Department of Public safety. Prominent constraints militating against compliance with the OHS act are lack of management buy-in and support in OHS issues (79.4%); lack of insight in OHS implications by management (80.2%); lack of control of human behaviour and attitude of employees towards OHS (84.3%); lack of training on new equipments and machines (94.2%); none awareness campaign on OHS policies (84.3%) and poor information sharing on OHS related aspects (90.2%). There is need to improve the compliance level with OHS act in order to protect the employees and enhance their productivity.

[Seleka N P and Oladele O I. Assessment of compliance of Employees and Management to Occupational Health & Safety Act in the Department of Public Works, Roads Transport in the North West Province. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):524-531]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.77

 

Keywords: compliance, employees, Occupational Health & Safety Act, job safety, injury.

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A Study on Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to plant

 

Abdulaziz Alharbi1 and A. El-Taher2,3

 

1 Plant production and Protection Department, Agricultural College, Qassim university, KSA

2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University KSA

3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt

atef_eltaher@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Knowledge of various radionuclides in soil plays an important role in health physics and geo-scientific research and monitoring of any release of radioactivity to the environment is important for environmental protection. The activity concentrations and distribution of natural radionuclides in soil and plants in addition to transfer factor from soil to plant from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia were determined. The measurements were carried out through gamma-ray spectrometry using NaI (Tl) detector. The mean and range of the concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th were 12.96 ± 3.4 (9.6–19.1) and 16.6 ± 7.1(9.2– 28.3) Bq kg-1.The range of the concentrations of 40K in soil samples was (542–773) Bq kg-1 with a mean value of 618 ± 82 Bq kg-1. These results were compared with reported ranges in the literature from other location in the world. The radium-equivalent, and total absorbed dose rate were evaluated and compared with internationally recommended values. The transfer factor for 226Ra and 40K to Alfalfa and wheat and Palm dates were measured. 226Ra TF values from soil to Alfalfa were found to be higher than wheat grains and Palm dates. 40K TF were lower than those values reported in other studies The results would be useful for establishing of the database in the area under consideration and represent a basis to assess any future changes in the radioactivity background levels due to various geological processes or any artificial influences around the area.

[Abdulaziz Alharbi and A. El-Taher. A Study on Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to plant. Life Sci. J 2013;10(2):532-539]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.78

 

Key Words: Natural radioactivity- Radiological hazards- Transfer Factor - Soil –Qassim.

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Technology - The Backbone of a Sustainable Growth (SG) & Competitive Integral System Model (CISM)

 

Nawar Khan1, Mushtaq Khan2

 

1. College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering (E&ME), National University of Science & Technology (NUST), Rawalpindi, 46000, Pakistan.

2. School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

nwr_khan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to highlight the important role of technology component in a sustainable growth and competitive position integral system model. The sustainable growth and competitive position can be achieved very efficiently and effectively if the three major components; Technology, Human Resource (HR) and Protocols / Documentation are strongly linked to work together in an integral system. All these three components of a system get their essence of power from a drive engine of TQM philosophy of continual quality improvement at the hub of the model. Optimization of these three components; periodic calibration, modification and up-gradation of technology, effective education, training and re-training of HR to make them competent and proficient in their skills and review / revision of protocols and updating documentation, are inbuilt characteristics of the system to attain higher growth and gain new competitive position with completion of each cycle of the transformation process. However, the role of technology to act as a leverage and catalyst for priming the system performance is outstanding. National and international businesses can be benchmarked to reach the world class position.

[Khan N, Khan M. Technology - The Backbone of a Sustainable Growth (SG) & Competitive Integral System Model (CISM). Life Sci J 2013;10(2):540-547] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 79

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.79

 

Key words: Technology, Human resource (HR), Protocols, Sustainable Growth (SG), Competitive Integral System Model (CISM), Benchmark.

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Market Analysis: The Case of Mahikeng Forestry Nursery and Vegetable Project

 

Lekunze J N Antwi, M.A Oladele O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural economics and Extension, North-West University Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This paper examines the market analysis of Mahikeng Forestry, Nursery and Vegetable project. A total of 150 respondents were visited and interviewed using a well structured questionnaire aimed at acquiring market information. The study found that spinach topped the list of vegetables produce for consumption (38%), followed by cabbage, carrot, potato and tomato in that order. Twenty four percent of producer’s intend to produce spinach for sale confirming it the most popular vegetable in the project area. In choosing crops for production either for consumption or for sale by households, potato top the list with 27%, followed by cabbage (21%), spinach (19%), carrot (18%) and tomato (16%). The study found that seedlings productions are the main activity currently at the site but these seedlings are provided to the community free of charge. If the project were to go commercial, this services cannot continue to be provided free of charge. The study revealed that vegetables were mostly demanded by the people in the area and most of the top ten vegetables consumed in this area come from Lichenburg, Klerksdorp and South Rand.

[Lekunze J N Antwi, M.A Oladele O.I. Market Analysis: The Case of Mahikeng Forestry Nursery and Vegetable Project. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):548-554]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 80

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.80

 

Keywords: market analysis, Forestry, Nursery, Vegetables, Project, South Africa.

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Central and Peripheral Changes in Anterior Corneal Topography after Orthokeratology and Laser in situ Keratomileusis

 

Han-Yin Sun1, 2, 3, Hsiu-Wan Yang4, I-Tsung Wu4, Jung-Kai Tseng2, 3 and Shun-Fa Yang1, 5*

 

1Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

2Department of Optometry, Chung Shun Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

3Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shun Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

4 Department of Optometry, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

5Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

Tel: +886-4-24730022 Fax: +886-4-23248131 *e-mail: ysf@csmu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: To compare the values of the data on the central and peripheral curvature of the cornea in order to determine the differences between the overall corneal curvature after custom laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and orthokeratology procedures in correcting refractive error. We evaluated 12 patients undergoing orthokeratology for the correction of myopia spherical equivalent (OD, mean±SD = -3.67 ± 2.16D; OS, mean±SD = -4.02 ± 2.21D), 10 patients undergoing custom LASIK surgery (OD, mean±SD = -4.25 ± 2.43D; OS, mean±SD = -4.41 ± 3.01D). The values of the front corneal surfaces were derived using Medmont E300 corneal topographer Version 4.9.0.0 (Medmont, Camberwell, Victoria, Australia) prior to and at least 3 months after each treatment with samples taken from the center of the cornea and 4 points to each side of the horizontal meridian at intervals of 1 mm. Among the two clinical groups, no statistically significant differences on OD and OS were found for the spherical equivalent (p = 0.756 and p = 0.423). The refractive power of elevation became positive in the central nasal (4 mm) and temporal regions (4 mm). The changes in OD were statistically significant (p<0.001) in nasal 2 mm after orthokeratology compared to the value for the case of LASIK. The OS date of post- minus pre-orthokeratology compared with that of LASIK exhibited significant differences on the nasal region (2-3 mm) and temporal region (2-3 mm) (p<0.001). The differences in the changes in the front corneal curvature between LASIK and orthokeratology reveal a much different mechanism for alternating corneal power. The changes in the corneal surface refractive power are 2 to 3 times greater in LASIK procedures than in orthokeratology for both central and peripheral regions.

[Han-Yin Sun, Hsiu-Wan Yang, I-Tsung Wu, Jung-Kai Tseng and Shun-Fa Yang. Central and Peripheral Changes in Anterior Corneal Topography after Orthokeratology and Laser in situ keratomileusis. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):555-559] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 81

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.81

 

Keywords: orthokeratology; laser in situ keratomileusis, corneal curvature, refractive power.

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Extensive Post Treatment Using Constructed Wetland

 

M.A. El-Khateeb*1,2 and A.Z. El-Bahrawy1

 

1 Faculty of Science, Environmental Sciences Department, Al Jouf University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2 National Research Center, Water Pollution Control Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

elkhateebcairo@yahoo.com, maelkhateeb@ju.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The feasibility of using treatment scheme consists of an ubflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by subsurface follow constructed (SSF) wetland for the treatment of sewage water has been studied. The results showed that the efficiency of the UASB reactor (as a primary treatment step) for the removal of COD, BOD and TSS was found to be 67.7, 71.4 and 65.5% with corresponding residual concentration of 197, 120 and 79.3 mg/l, respectively. The FC count reduced by one or two log units in most cases. The residual count was 1.6x106 MPN/100 ml. The anaerobically treated effluent was subjected to post treatment step using SSF wetland. The residual concentration of COD, BOD and TSS was reduced greatly to 56.7, 20.6 and 5 mg/l, respectively. Fecal coliform (FC) count was reduced to 1.1x103 MPN/100ml. The quality of the finally treated effluent was found to be complying with the WHO Standards for irrigation. It therefore, recommended that the combination of UASB and SSF is an effective system for the treatment of sewage water in Skaka City.

[M.A. El-Khateeb and A. Z. El-Bahrawy. Extensive Post treatment Using Constructed Wetland. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):560-568]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.82

 

Key words: Sewage water, UASB, constructed wetland, extensive post treatment

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Redo Inguinal Orchiopexy is a safe option for still high testis.

 

Osama M. Rayes.

 

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

orayes@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Undescended testis is the most common genitourinary surgical pathology seen in males. The main objective of the surgery is to provide a normally palpable testis in the scrotum. Occasionally if the testis after long enough follow up is still not lying comfortably in scrotum then it needs a redo orchiopexy which requires an experienced pediatric subspecialty surgeon, detailed anatomy knowledge, meticulous operative technique, injury-free cord dissection, full proximal retroperitoneal cord mobilization, and tension-free intra scrotal fixation. A retrospective was review performed on patients that had repeated redo orchiopexy, between January 2000 and December 2010, in King Abdulaziz University hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to study the final post-operative size and location. A total of 43 testes (of 37 patients) had a grand total of 50 redo inguinal orchiopexy. The follow up period ranged from 2 to 12 years results were analyzed in terms of final testicular location and its size and conclusions are mentioned.

[Osama M. Rayes. Redo Inguinal Orchiopexy is a safe option for still high testis. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):569-572] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.83

 

Key words: Cryptorchidism, inguinal, redo orchiopexy, undescended testis.

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In Vitro Clonal Propagation and Molecular Characterization of Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.)

 

Hemaid Ibrahim Soliman and Ghada Abd El-Moneim Hegazi*

 

Tissue Culture Unit, Genetic Resources Department, Ecology and Dry Land Agriculture Division, Desert Research Center, P.O. box 11753 El-Matarya, 1 Mathaf El-Matarya St., El-Matarya, Cairo, Egypt

*hegazighada@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The in vitro propagation of three Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) cultivars was investigated in this study. Nodal segments of Z. jujuba were collected from mature plants of Comethry, Balahy and Balady cultivars cultivated in Mariyut Research Station of Desert Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed that the best medium for the in vitro establishment of Comethry and Balady cv. was Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.05 mg l-1 β-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) + 2 mg l-1 N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), but for Balahy cv. this medium was optimum with respect to all parameters, except the growth percentage, which was 100% on MS medium containing 0.05 mg l-1 NAA + 1 mg l-1 thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoot multiplication rates were significantly affected by the concentration of benzyl adenine (BA), as 4 shoots explant-1 were recorded for the Comethry cv. and 4.6 shoots for cultivars Balahy and Balady using MS medium containing 4 mg l-1 BA, 4 mg l-1 BA + 0.5 mg l-1 2iP and 3 mg l-1 BA + 0.5 mg l-1 2iP, respectively. Rooting rates of 78-80% could be produced from shoots cultured on MS medium containing 2 mg l-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for cultivars Comethry and Balahy, and on MS medium containing 2 mg l-1 IBA + 0.5 mg l-1 NAA for the Balady cv. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized, with 68% survival rate for Comethry cv., 53% for Balahy cv. and 70% for Balady cv., in simple plastic pots containing garden soil, sand and peat moss (1:1:1 v:v:v) in the greenhouse conditions. Genetic diversity among the three studied Jujube cultivars was evaluated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 62.16% of polymorphism was detected between them.

[Hemaid Ibrahim Soliman and Ghada Abd El-Moneim Hegazi. In Vitro Clonal Propagation and Molecular Characterization of Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill). Life Sci J 2013;10(2):573-582]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.84

 

Key Words: Jujube, micropropagation, nodal segments, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic markers, polymorphism.

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HPLC- fluorescence determination of valsartan in human volunteers and its application in bioequivalence study of two valsartan tablets

 

Ola M. Abdallah1* and Khalid Abu Zeid2

 

1 Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), 6th October City, Egypt.

olamody@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the estimation of valsartan in human plasma was developed and validated. Lozartan was used as internal standard. Valsartan and losartan were isolated from plasma by non-extractive procedure; simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Separations were performed in low pressure isocratic mode on Zorbax Extend-C18 (4.6 x 150 mm) column, using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer - acetonitrile mixture in the ratio of (50:50 v/v) pH 3.0 was adjusted by orthophosphoric acid) at a flow rate of 1 mL min-111. The detection of valsartan and losartan was carried out at 230 nm (for excitation) and 370 nm (for emission) 253 nm (for excitation) and 374 nm (for emission). The response was linear over a range of 0.2-12 μg ml-1. The limit of detection was 0.2 μg ml-1. The same method was used for the bioequivalence study of two valsartan tablets in 12 healthy, human, Egyptian, male volunteers.

[Ola M. Abdallah and Khalid Abu Zeid. HPLC- fluorescence determination of valsartan in human volunteers and its application in bioequivalence study of two valsartan tablets. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):583-590]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.85

 

Key words: Valsrtan; Pharmacokinetic; HPLC; Bioequivalence.

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The commitment of Saudi nursing students to nursing as a profession and as a career

 

Sana Al-Mahmoud

 

Nursing Management & Leadership, College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

sana98saudi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The dependency in Saudi Arabian hospitals on expatriate nurses from various nationalities can create barriers between patients and nurses because of differences in religion, culture, social values and relatively short-term commitments. Objectives: It is important to explore the motivation of Sadui nationals for entering nurse training and the attractiveness of nursing as a career for them. Method: In order to study potential barriers to achieving the Saudisation goal of increasing the number of Saudi nurses, a survey of first-year nursing students was carried out to explore their motivation for entering nurse training, their perceptions of the attractiveness of nursing as a career for Saudi nationals, their future aspirations and the reasons they considered might cause students to drop out of training. Results: It was found that training to be a nurse was the first choice for over 60% of the sample. Overall, the students in the survey were very positive about nursing with the vast majority claiming to have chosen it because they wanted to become a health professional. The statement that the Saudi community view nursing negatively as a low job elicited strong agreement from many respondents. Many responding students considered the heavy workload facing students, the theory part of the study and the difficulty of studying in English language, as important contributing factors in student dropout. Conclusions & Recommendations: It is concluded that students are generally positive about their commitment to become nursing students. It would be worth carrying out a similar study with school leavers in general. It is important to recognise that the Saudisation process needs to address attitudes in society to help remove barriers to nursing. Further study to determine actual career patterns and impact on Saudisation would be useful.

[Sana Al-Mahmoud and Penelope M Mullen. The commitment of Saudi nursing students to nursing as a profession and as a career. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):591-603] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 86

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.86

 

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, nursing profession, nurse training, nurse planning, nurse workforce

 

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Member Trust’s impact on Member Satisfaction and Organizational Performance: Development of a Conceptual Model

 

Jacob George1, Roji George2, V. Kulandaiswamy3

 

1Saintgits Institute of Management, Saintgits College of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala 686532, India.

2Saintgits Institute of Management, Saintgits College of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala 686532, India.

3Coimbatore Education Foundation, Coimbatore, India

 jacob.george@saintgits.org

 

Abstract: Here an attempt is made to develop a conceptual model for identifying positive cooperative behavior in member organizations, especially cooperatives, leading to successful organizational performance. The recognition of member satisfaction as a crucial parameter to be strategically evaluated in improving the organizational performance is emphasized in this paper. The researchers attempt to determine the influence of member behaviour, specifically member trust, on organizational performance and, in turn, the influence of organizational performance on member satisfaction. The influence of member satisfaction, in return, on the member trust as a feedback is also discussed. The feedback loop, it is then theorized, can improve organizational performance as part of a virtuous cycle or lead to a decline in organizational performance as part of a vicious cycle. The moderating influences of member participation, member attributes and member attitudes on member satisfaction are discussed as these can determine whether the organizational performance improves or declines over a period of time.

[Jacob George, Roji George, V. Kulandaiswamy. Member Trust’s impact on Member Satisfaction and Organizational Performance: Development of a Conceptual Model. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):604-609]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 87

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.87

 

Keywords: Member Trust, Member Satisfaction, Organizational Performance, Member Organizations, Co-operatives.

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Hepatitis C Virus Reactivation in Patients with Heamatological Malignancies, Single Egyptian Center Study

 

Emad Emam1, Emad F. Hamed1, Ehab F. Mostafa1, Hesham Attia1, Ashraf M. ElHefni2 and Manal M. El Gaerby3

 

Gasrtroentrology, Hepatology unit1, Hematology and Medical Oncology unit2 Internal Medicine Department, Clinical Pathology Department3, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

hobanoh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In Egypt, hepatitis C is highly endemic (up to 15% of the population are chronic infected), in which hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) is the most common type, where HCV is a risk factor for diffuse large B cell, marginal zone, and follicular lymphomas. Hepatitis flare up was defined as three fold or greater increase in serum ALT level, this flaring up may be attributed to reactivation of viral hepatitis, drug hepatotoxicity and or malignant infiltration. Viral reactivation is a well-recognized complication in patients with chronic HCV infection, who received cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunotherapy for cancer. Hepatitis flare up in patients undergoing chemotherapy may jeopardize chemotherapy schedule or even cause lethal hepatic failure of the patients. Aim of work: Our study was aiming to assess the possible causes of hepatitis flare up in patients with hematologic malignancies during chemotherapy, to evaluate the possible impact of chemotherapeutic agents on hepatitis C reactivation and to identify risk factors that may promote viral reactivation in those patients. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out in Gasrtroentrology and Hepatology, Hematology and Medical Oncology Units, Internal Medicine Department in collaboration with Clinical Pathology Department, Zagazig University Hospital during period between June 2011 and December 2012. A total of 60 consecutive patients with different types of hematological malignancies,16 patients had NHL, 5 patients had HD, 15 patients had ALL, 5 patients had AML, 10 patients had CML, 4 patients had CLL and 5 patients had MM were included in this study. Based on serum markers testing for HCV, patients were classified into two groups: Group (A): included 29 patients who had HCV infection. Group (B): included 31 patients in whom viral markers tests were negative. All patients were subjected to a complete history and physical examination, routine laboratory investigations including: Complete blood picture, Liver function tests (ALT, AST, S. Albumin, S. Bilirubin and INR), Blood urea and serum creatinine, random blood glucose, E.S.R., L.D.H, Serum Uric acid, viral hepatitis and radiological studies. Complete blood picture, liver function tests (ALT, AST, S. Albumin, S.Bilirubin and INR), blood urea and serum creatinine were reevaluated after every chemotherapy cycle. All patients had HBsAg and HBc Ab negative tests. Result: Eight patients had hepatitis flare up in group A four of them were due to HCV reactivation (4/8 patient 50%) and three patients due to hepatotoxicity (3/8 patient 37.5 %) of chemotherapy and only one patient (1/8) about 12.5% due to malignant infiltration. Our study recorded that only 4 patients in group A out of 29 (13.7%) developed HCV reactivation. In group B hepatitis flare up due to hepatotoxicity of chemotherapy (2/4 patients 50 %) and malignant infiltration (2/4 patients 50%). Hepatitis flare up were noticed frequently in NHL patients subjected to CHOP regimen of chemotherapy. Conclusion: We concluded that hepatitis C virus reactivation was a well recognized complication in patients with hematological malignancies who received cytotoxic that may result in poor outcome.

[Emad Emam, Emad F. Hamed, Ehab F. Mostafa, Hesham Attia,Ashraf M. ElHefni and Manal M. El Gaerby. Hepatitis C Virus Reactivation in Patients with Heamatological Malignancies, Single Egyptian Center Study. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):610-615]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 88

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.88

 

Key words: HCV, Hepatitis flare up, Hematologic malignancies & chemotherapy.

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Analysis of the role of tear substitutes in the eye relieve in chronic seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

 

Mohamed Iqbal H, MD.

 

Department Of Ophthalmology, Sohag University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University.

dr_m_iqbal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of tear substitute in achieving the eye relieve and comfortability in patients with chronic seasonal allergic conjunctivitis i.e. Spring catarrh and analysis of the outcome results. Design: Prospective randomized study. Patients and method: 240 patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis complicating with dry eye are randomized in 3 groups. Group I received antihistaminic in the form of Epinastine hydrochloride 0.5 mg per mL (Relestat®, Allergan®) twice daily in between the attacks while group II received tear substitutes in the form of Carboxymethylcellulose and glycerin (Optive®, Allergan®) twice daily, while group III received combination of the two drugs. All patients gave complete history and examined as regard visual acuity, refraction, IOP, slit lamp examination, tear film break up time (BUT) and Schirmer test. The outcome measures were the eye comfortability and relieve in the form of relieve of eye burning and blurring, reduction in signs of the allergic conjunctivitis especially the eye redness. Results: 240 patients with mean age 16.3±2.4 years. Female to male ratio was 1:1. 40 patients were excluded from the study mainly due to non compliance. Complete patient comfortability in 46.5% of patients and partial comfortability in 33.8% of patients. These percent to 60.6% and 21.3% respectively if antihistaminic were added to tear substitutes. Relieve of burning sensation, tear substitutes alone can achieve this in 53 (74.6 %) patients and in 52 (85.2%) of patients if antihistaminic was added. Conclusion: Chronic allergy and dry eye are two faces of the same coin. At a time, allergy may fade away but dry eye persists.The patient with chronic allergy will never feel complete eye relieve except with addition of tear substitutes. Patients should continue tear substitutes during the attack. It is advised that if the ophthalmologists wants to prescribe a single drug for follow up use to the chronic allergic patient, the drug of choice is tear substitutes. Dry eye disease is the missing already present disease in chronic allergy. This study advisd that patients with chronic allergy should avoid exposure to sun, wind, dust or smoke in order not to aggrevate dry eye. This study proved that tear substitutes perscription in chronic allergy not only achieve eye relieve but also improve the quality of vision. Till now, the chronic allergy-dry eye complex is still unfinished business and further studies are needed to solve the chronic allergy-dry eye puzzple.

[Mohamed Iqbal H. Analysis of the role of tear substitutes in the eye relieve in chronic seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):616-620]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 89

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.89

 

Key Words: Allergy, tear substitutes, eye relieve.

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Comparison between Highway Codes for Traffic Loads on Bridges

 

Medhat Kamal Abdullah

 

Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University.Cairo, Egypt

infra@infraconsultants.org

 

Abstract: A comparison between the highway live loads specified by major international codes is presented. The straining actions obtained as a result of solving a typical bridge deck under the effect of live loads specified by the different codes are presented. Design aids that correlate the design values based on the different codes to the Egyptian code, EC45-1993, are presented to introduce a normalization procedure between these codes and to enable the designers to determine the design values required for the preliminary design of the deck according to any of the chosen codes. Major observations on the differences between the major codes are illustrated.

[Medhat Kamal Abdullah. Comparison between Highway Codes for Traffic Loads on Bridges. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):621-627]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 90

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.90

 

Keywords Design of Bridges, Highway traffic loads, AASHTO, EC 45-1993, EC 201-2012, BD 37/01, EN-1991-2: 2003.

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Non -agricultural information services provided by extension agents in Oyo state, Nigeria

 

Kolawole A.E and Oladele O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North West University Mafikeng Campus Mmabatho 2735. oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This paper examined non -agricultural information services provided by extension agents in Oyo state, Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that increasing responsibility of the responsiveness to rural needs has given extension services a broader concept and that and rural non-farm income account for considerable share of rural household income. A simple random sampling was used to select 100 extension agents from a population of 170. Data were collected from the respondents sampled for the study using interview schedule based on a structured questionnaire. The results show that majority (69.2%) are male, belonging to 40-45 years age group (54%), married (85%), Christians (60%), had BSc (65%), studying for higher degrees (48%) and with 6-10 years of working experience (57%). About 55% of the extension officers reside within the job location. They provide non-agricultural information on areas such as non-farm income generating activities, governance, legal, health and education. Significant determinants of provision of non-agricultural information by extension agents are age (t=2.33), gender (t=1.80), working experience (t= 2.06), residing within job location (t=2.29), and studying for higher degree (t=2.38). The study concludes by advocating that the extension messages should be formally expanded to cover the non-agricultural income generating activities in order to enhance the livelihoods of rural people engaged in it.

[Kolawole A.E and Oladele O.I. Non -agricultural information services provided by extension agents in Oyo state, Nigeria. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):628-632]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 91

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.91

 

Keywords: Non- agricultural information, livelihoods, extension agent, non-farm income rural dwellers, Oyo state, Nigeria.

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Comparative Histological Studies on the Tongue of Three Species of Egyptian Bats

 

Fatma M.A. Taki-El-Deen, Samia M.I. Sakr and Mohamed A. Shahin

 

Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University – Egypt

Dr.fatma.bio@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aims to describe the histological structure of the tongues of three species of bats which having different diets and live in different habitates in Egypt. This work was done on three species of bats; the frugivorous bat Rousettus aegyptiacus, the insectivorous bat Rhinopoma hardwickie and the tomb-inhabiting bat Taphozous perforatus. These animals were caught from their natural habitats in Egypt; dissected and their tongues were fixed in the appropriate fixatives for light microscopical investigations. The histological results revealed that the dorsal surface of the tongue of the three bats is formed of three consecutive layers; mucosa, submucosa and muscularis. The mucosal layer is similar in the three bats. It consists of stratified squamous epithelium and contains three types of papillae but this layer is very thick in both insectivorous and tomb-inhabiting bats. The submucosa also appears thicker in the frugivorous bat than that in both the insectivorous and tomb-inhabiting bats. It is built up of loose connective tissue, small blood vessels and lymphatics. The muscularis is formed of an outer thin layer of circular muscle fibers and an inner thick layer of longitudinal muscle fibers in both the frugivorous and tomb-inhabiting bats but this layer is constructed of circular muscle fibers arranged in different directions in the insectivorous bat. The histochemical results showed differences in the stainability and distribution of neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides in the lingual glands of the three species of Egyptian bats.

Fatma M.A. Taki-El-Deen, Samia M. I. Sakr and Mohamed. A. Shahin. Comparative Histological Studies on the Tongue of Three Species of Egyptian Bats. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):633-640]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.92

 

Keywords: comparative - frugivorous bat - histology - insectivorous bat - tongue - tomb-inhabiting bat.

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Concentrations of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Waste Samples from Iron Production, the Carbon Filters used in Saudi Arabia

 

Zain M. ALamoudi, Fatimah G. ALmehmadi

 

1Physics Department, Faculty of Science Faculty for Girls, king AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

zalamoudi@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: Industrial activities as mineral production, water filtration produce a huge amounts of radioactive industrial wastes, some of them have low radioactive levels others have high radioactive level. As these wastes are produced with huge amounts, where they are used in other industrial production, such as cement production (iron slag), and bricks production. So, the natural radioactivities of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th and the fallout of 137Cs present in various samples of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector. Samples were collected from different locations in Saudi Arabia, samples of carbon filters used for drinking water filtration from Jazan city, iron slag samples from factories of Saber company in AI-Jubail city and iron scrap samples from workshops of iron manufacturing and recycled in iron industry. In order to assess the radiological hazards to human health, radium equivalent and the exposure dose were calculated The specific effective radioactivity of raw material is calculated. It is shown that, the raw material has no restrictions on use in manufacture welding materials under the radiating factor. Also, the samples were analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrometer to determine concentrations of elements of Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe) Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Bismuth (Bi), Lead (Bp) and Thorium (Th). The results were compared with limits given by United Nations Scientific Committee for the effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR).

[Zain M. ALamoudi, Fatimah G. ALmehmadi. Concentrations of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Waste Samples from Iron Production, the Carbon Filters used in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):641-647] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 93

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.93

 

Key Word: waste iron production, Carbon filters, Natural radioactivity, gamma spectrometry, total dose rate.

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Determination of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd) and some Trace Elements in Milk and Milk Products Collected from Najran Region in K.S.A.

 

Khalil H.M. and Seliem A.F.

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Najran University, Saudi Arabia

dr_hawaa2_online@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Milk and milk products are a very important human nutrient since their consumption has increased in recent years. Good quality measurements are essential to control and maintain milkand its products and processes quality, both in manufacturing trade and in research. The presence of toxic elements in milk and its products may create significant health problems for people. The aim of this paper was to determine the content of toxic and trace elements in different milk and milk products samples, sold in major supermarkets chains in Najran. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for the quantitative determination of elements in this matrix.Analysis were performed after the chemical mineralization of the samples with nitrogen acid.

[Khalil H.M. and Seliem A.F. Determination of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd) and some Trace Elements in Milk and Milk Products Collected from Najran Region in K.S.A. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):648-652] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 94

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.94

 

Keywords: Milk, Milk products, ICP-AES, heavy and trace elements.

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Factors Associated with Delayed Entry into Medical Care among HIV Positive People who are aware of their Status in Bulawayo Zimbabwe

 

 T. Makasi, MPH

 

Modiba Lebitsi Maud, PhD

Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, 0003, South Africa

modiblm@unisa.ac.za

 

Abstract: Using non-experimental descriptive exploratory survey, this study sought to find out factors associated with delayed entry into HIV medical care among HIV positive people who are aware of their status. The study focused on measurable variables such as age, income levels, marital status, and knowledge of anti-retroviral treatment among HIV/AIDS positive people. The researcher sought to describe the socio-economic characteristics of those who delaying entering into medical treatment among HIV/AIDS positive people. A quantitative design was used and a structured questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. Respondents were patients in a hospital’s Opportunistic Infection Department whose hospital records indicated that they were HIV positive during the time of the study. The study found out that as much as 71.6% (n =43) first entered HIV care more than 12 months after testing HIV positive while 40% (n = 24) did so as a result of illness. Low education levels, unemployment and being single are associated with delayed entry into HIV medical care. A percentage of the population uses and trusts non-biomedical approaches to dealing with HIV/AIDS. Being diagnosed HIV positive is therefore not necessarily a strong reason enough for one to immediately enter into medical care. Intensive health education needs to be done at work places, health facilities, schools, through print and electronic media, churches and other community settings to equip the population with knowledge of the advantages of early entry into HIV care.

[Makasi T & Modiba LM. Factors Associated with Delayed Entry into Medical Care among HIV Positive People who are aware of their Status in Bulawayo Zimbabwe. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):653-658] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 95

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.95

 

Keywords: Delayed presentation, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, antiretroviral therapy, HIV sero-positive, predictors of delayed presentation, delayed treatment, Zimbabwe.

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Habitats and plant diversity of Al Mansora and Jarjr-oma regions in Al- Jabal Al- Akhdar- Libya

 

Abusaief, H. M. A.

 

Agron. Depar. Fac. Agric., Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ.

Bossef_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Study conducted in two areas of Al Mansora and Jarjr-oma regions in Al- Jabal Al- Akhdar on the coast. The Rocky habitat Al Mansora 6.5 km of the Mediterranean Sea with altitude at 309.4 m, distance Jarjr-oma 300 m of the sea with altitude 1 m and distance. Vegetation study was undertaken during the autumn 2010 and winter, spring and summer 2011. The applied classification technique was the TWINSPAN, Divided ecologically into six main habitats to the vegetation in Rocky habitat of Al Mansora and five habitats in Jarjr oma into groups depending on the average number of species in habitats and community: In Rocky habitat Al Mansora community vegetation type Cistus parviflorus, Erica multiflora, Teucrium apollinis, Thymus capitatus, Micromeria Juliana, Colchium palaestinum and Arisarum vulgare. In Jarjr oma existed five habitat Salt march habitat Community dominant species by Suaeda vera, Saline habitat species Onopordum cyrenaicum, Rocky coastal habitat species Rumex bucephalophorus, Sandy beach habitat species Tamarix tetragyna and Sand formation habitat dominant by Retama raetem. The number of species in the Rocky habitat Al Mansora 175 species while in Jarjr oma reached 19 species of Salt march habitat and Saline habitat 111 species and 153 of the Rocky coastal habitat and reached to 33 species in Sandy beach and 8 species of Sand formations habitat. Species richness increased in the spring and winter, and say in summer and autumn and decreased index diversity in the spring and winter, note that the greater the diversity index is less diversity. Highest species richness in Rocky coastal habitat followed Saline habitat, but low species richness Sand formation, Sandy beach and Salt march habitats, respectively in all seasons especially summer and autumn season. Increased species richness and Shannon index during spring and winter. The highest value of 18.9 D and 18.2 C, Saline and Rocky coastal habitats respectively during spring season in Jarjr oma. Found an inverse relationship between species richness and diversity the more richness low diversity index and the correlation is weak and significant and gave Simpson and Shannon index a strong correlation and an inverse but not significant in autumn season, whiles in winter, there is a weak correlation and significant inverse relationship between species richness and diversity and a strong correlation significant and positive relationship between species richness and Shannon index and vice between Shannon index and diversity. In spring season a significant positive correlation between diversity index and Simpson, inverse a strong correlation between richness and Simpson. Gave the highest similarity coefficient Jaccard᾿s in Jarjr-oma between Rocky coastal and Saline by 39%, while the Rocky habitat in Al-Mansora which altitude 309.4 meters and Jarjr-oma altitude 1 meter gave Jaccard᾿s coefficient of 22.6%, while given lower coefficient Jaccard᾿s Jarjr-oma between Sand formation, Sandy Beach and Rocky Coastal habitats and there is no common types between Sand formation and both Rocky coastal and Salt march. In communityThymus capitatus gave highest silt, sand, EC, NaCl, Cl and Ca of Rocky habitat Al-Mansora. While, in Salt march and Rocky coastal gave Suaeda vera highest Clay. Salt march gave highest EC, NaCl, Na and Ca.

 [Abusaief, H. M. A. Habitats and plant diversity of Al Mansora and Jarjr-oma regions in Al- Jabal Al- Akhdar- Libya. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):659-692] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 96

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.96

 

Key words: plant diversity, Species richness, Habitats, Rocky, Salt march, Saline, Sandy beach and Sand formation.

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Thyme and Thymol Effects on Induced Bronchial Asthma in Mice

 

Maha I. Al-Khalaf

 

1-. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2- College of Sciences, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia

maha_omadee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Asthma is very common in Saudi Arabia. It is characterized by sporadic occurrence of inflammation and swelling of the inner lining of the lung with an increase in the secretion of sticky mucus, cough and muscle contraction of the chest. Under normal circumstances, the defense system of the body has the balance between the production of oxidizing substances and antioxidant. However, under increased exposure to oxidizing materials the body is unable to cope and this results in an oxidative stress causing many aliment including asthma. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the state of oxidative stress in bronchial asthma induced mice as well as a comparative estimation of the antioxidant effect of thyme and thymol. The study included the induction of bronchial asthma using ova albumin followed by the treatment with thyme and thymol. Estimation of two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition the concentration of lipid peroxidation products of binary malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α were also investigated. Total protein, carbonyl protein and hemoglobin level were also assessed. The results of the biochemical indicators obtained from groups of mice treated were compared the results of asthmatics group. The results showed that samples of asthmatics group had high rates of oxidative stress, accompanied by a major imbalance in the amount of antioxidants. In addition, high levels of lipid peroxidation products and carbonyl protein, was also associated with a reduction in the rates of total protein and blood content of hemoglobin. The results also showed groups of mice treated with thyme and thymol showed a significant improvement in the level of all the studied parameters. It was accompanied by apparent decline in the rates of free radicals and oxidative agent and lipid peroxidation products compared to the control groups. In conclusion, the study indicates that thyme and thymol increased the rates of antioxidants in the body, and the ability to get rid of oxidative agent and free radicals that are generated inside the body, or due pollution environment. Hence, this study confirms the potential effect of both thyme and thymol as possible means to treat asthma.

 [Maha I. Al-Khalaf. Thyme and Thymol Effects on Induced Bronchial Asthma in Mice. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):693-699]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 97

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.97

 

Key words: Bronchial asthma; thyme; thymol; Oxidant; Antioxidant.

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The Rate of Dissolution and Crystallization of Kidney Stone in the Presence of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts

 

Dalia I. Saleh1, Samy F. Mahmoud*2,3, El-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed4,5

 

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

2Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

3Food Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

4Natural Products Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

5Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

*dmrasamy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three Hibiscus Sabdariffa flowers extracts namely; chloroform, ethanol and aqueous were investigated for its ability to inhibit crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM) which is the major constituents of kidney stones. The results obtained showed that the different extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa have biological properties that act by inhibition rate of melting of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones. The effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa seeks to discourage the rate of melting of crystals of calcium oxalate from the top of the ethanol extract followed by chloroform extract. The same extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa also, act as inhibitors of calcium oxalate stones crystallization. The effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the rate of crystallization of calcium oxalate crystals was higher than the ethanol extract followed by chloroform extract. In conclusion, these results have been proved the folk medicine use of Hibiscus Sabdariffa for kidney stones and the extracts of it may be beneficial for the treatment of nephrolithiasis but a detailed preclinical and clinical study is required.

 [Dalia I. Saleh, Samy F. Mahmoud, El-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed. The Rate of Dissolution and Crystallization of Kidney Stone in the Presence of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):700-710]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 98

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.98

 

Key words: Nephrolithiasis, Hibiscus, Crystallization, Dissolution, Crystal growth.

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Integration of Standards of Accreditation Bodies as a Mean to Continuous Quality Improvement of Healthcare Education

 

1Omayma Hamed, 2Adnan Almazrooa, 3Mahmoud Shaheen, 4Omar Saadah, and 5Ayman Ghanim

 

1Quality & Academic Accreditation Unit, Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz & Cairo University, KSA & Egypt

2Anesthesia Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

3Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

4Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

5Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

dr.omayma.aly@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Problem Background: Medical schools face external and internal challenges, of which is the condition required by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) of accepting foreign medical graduates from schools accredited by national accrediting bodies that use internationally equivalent standards; this condition would be valid by 2023. Hence graduates in the Middle East Region (MER) and Asia will not be certified by the ECFMG to attach to international training programs in the USA unless the accrediting bodies in MER and Asia are assessed against international standards. Research Objectives: 1.To assess the standards of various accreditation bodies as the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment (NCAAA) in KSA, National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education (NAQAAE) in Egypt and the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME) in North America and Canada; 2.To benchmark the (NCAAA) standards against (LCME) and (NAQAAE) standards; 3.To set the outline for an eclectic set of standards categorized into key standardized and modifiable context-wise standards aiming at improvement of performance; 4.To form an audit manual which translates each standard to a set of items of minimal requirements and a set of best practice followed by detailed sound processes which guide institutions to standardized ideal performance. Methods: 1. Qualitative analysis and assessment of the NCAAA standards and matching them with the (LCME) and the (NAQAAE) ones: a. The areas and sub-areas are rated on a three-point scale; b. Holistic rating scale for assessing the NCAAA standards. 2. Reviewing the literature and asking medical education experts about best practices and concluding the items of best practice for each educational process enlightened by the standards. Conclusion & Recommendations: 1. The matched sets of standards almost have the same approach and scope whatever the roots from which they sprang; 2. Processes based on the set of ideal practice allowed the ceiling for quality improvement to be infinite and secured transferability and provoked the capability of dissemination of best practice; 3. Standardization of processes guarantees good outcomes; 4. Coordination of educational process operations is recommended to allow for a comprehensive robust evaluation system which could judge performance with high reliability. 5. Standards of any accrediting body should be enlightened by the social accountability principles.

 [Omayma Hamed, Adnan Almazrooa, Mahmoud Shaheen, Omar Saadah, and Ayman Ghanim. Integration of Standards of Accreditation Bodies as a Mean to Continuous Quality Improvement of Healthcare Education. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):711-721] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 99

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.99

 

Key Words: Integration of standards, Accreditation, Continuous Quality Improvement, Healthcare educatio

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Neurobehavioral alterations in male rats exposed to Sodium Benzoate

 

Mervat M.Kamel* and Abeer H. Abd El Razek

 

Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. * mevy58@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The recent research studied the effect of different doses of exposure to sodium benzoate on levels of anxiety and fear, depression and anti- social behavior in male rats. Oral administration of 0%, 0.5% (low dose) and, 2% (high dose) sodium benzoate to 45 male Wistar rats randomly, allotted into three groups of 15, were performed daily for 12 weeks treatment period. The animals were observed for neurobehavioral disturbance. Anxiogenic effect of sodium benzoate was evidently observed during EPM (elevated plus maze) and dark light transition tests. Moreover, noticeable effect of sodium benzoate on depression is expressed by prolonged immobilization during forced swim test. Impairment of social interaction test was also detected in treated rats. Our results strongly provides sufficient scientific evidence that a causal link truly exists between sodium benzoate and inflection of anxiety, depression-like behaviors and anti- social behavior in rats and points to the hazardous impact of sodium benzoate on public health.

[Mervat M. Kamel and Abeer H. Abd El Razek. Neurobehavioral alterations in male rats exposed to Sodium Benzoate. Life Sci. J. 2013; 10(2):722-726]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 100

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.100

 

Key words: Food additives, sodium benzoate, anxiety and fear, depression, social interaction, Wistar rats.

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SCG-ICA algorithm for Blind Signal Separation

 

M. EL-Sayed Waheed 1, H. Ahmad Khalil 2,4, O. Farouk Hassan 3,4

 

1. Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers & Informatics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, P.O. Box 44519

3. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

4. Unaizah Community College, Qassim University, Unaizah, KSA, P.O. Box 51911-4394

3,4 ufarouk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The gradient based algorithms are the most basic independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms, used in Blind signal separation (BSS). Because these algorithms adopt fixed step size, the choice of step size affects the performance and the convergence speed of the algorithm. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm SCG-ICA for blind signal separation. The new algorithm significantly improves the convergence rate of gradient-based blind source separation. The proposed algorithm is based on the Scaled Conjugate Gradient method, which used to optimize the kurtosis contrast function in order to estimate the demixing matrix. The algorithm is robust to local extrema and shows a very high convergence speed in terms of the computational cost required to reach a given source extraction quality, particularly for short data records. The simulations have proved the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

 [M. El-Sayed Waheed, H. Ahmed Khalil and O. Farouk Hassan. SCG-ICA algorithm for Blind Signal Separation. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):727-733] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 101

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.101

 

Keywords: Blind Signal Separation (BSS), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Scaled Conjugated Gradient (SCG).

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102

Kimura disease: a clinical study of 7 cases and literature review

 

Rong Wang, Jingjing Wu, Ling Li, Zhaoming Li, Mingzhi Zhang

 

Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. E-mail: mingzhi_zhang1@163.com

 

Abstract: We report seven patients with Kimura disease (KD) whose diagnoses were based on histopathology. Serum IgE and eosinophil level were elevated. Three patients underwent the regimen of sequential medication of prednisone, cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine. Another three were mainly treated with prednisone and radiation. Treatments resulted in a regression of the masses. One patient recurred whose LDH level was high, eosinophil count was 66.8% in bone marrow and mass was as large as 18cm*18cm at the first diagnosis. We conclude that large mass, high LDH and eosinophil level may serve as risk factors of progression of KD.

[Rong Wang, Jingjing Wu, Ling Li, Zhaoming Li, Mingzhi Zhang. Kimura disease: a clinical study of 7 cases and literature review. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):734-738].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 102

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.102

 

Keywords: Kimura disease, treatment, prognosis

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Application of Selective Breeding Algorithm for One-Dimensional Bin Packing Problem with Precedence Constraints

 

P.Sriramya1, B. Parvathavarthini2

 

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119, Tamilnadu, India

2Department of Computer Application, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119, Tamilnadu, India

 Email: sriramya82@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The bin packing optimization problem packs a set of objects into a set of bins so that the amount of wasted space is minimized. The bin packing problem has many important applications. These include multiprocessor scheduling, resource allocation and real world planning, packing, routing and scheduling optimization problems. The bin packing problem is NP-hard. Since there is little hope in finding an efficient deterministic solution to the bin packing problem approximation methods have been developed. The advantage of these methods is that they have guaranteed packing performance bounds. In many practical applications of bin packing a small improvement in packing efficiency can result in great cost savings. In this paper, a new selective breeding algorithm (SBA) is proposed for solving the one dimensional bin packing problem with precedence constraints. The proposed algorithm made use of the trail information which is deposited between the item and the item selected position, and pheromone summation rules was adopted. The effectiveness of SBA algorithm is investigated through computational results for test instances. The performance of SBA algorithm is competent and efficient to that of other approaches reported in literature.

[P. Sriramya, B.Parvathavarthini. Application of Selective Breeding Algorithm for One-Dimensional Bin Packing Problem with Precedence Constraints. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):739-742]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 103

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.103

 

Keywords: Selective Breeding Algorithm, Bin Packing, Precedence Constraints

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Prediction Of Impact Energy Absorption Using Modified Regression Theory

 

S. Deepa Shri1, R. Thenmozhi2

 

1Department of Civil Engineering, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

2Department Of Civil Engineering, Thanthai Periyar Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India

Email: ais.deepa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study new mathematical models were proposed and developed by using a regression equation for the prediction of impact energy absorption of hybrid ferrocement slabs. Slabs were made up of self-compacting concrete (SCC) in order to minimize the external vibration work. Slabs of size 300 X 300 mm with varying parameters such as depth of slab (25 & 30 mm), number of layers of weld mesh (2 and 3 layers bundled), and wrapping with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer sheets (GFRP) (1 and 2 layers) along with a specified proportion (0 and 0.30%) of polypropylene fibers were cast. Impact load was applied by means of a hammer of weight 3.5 kg (34.335 N) and the initial and ultimate energy absorptions were evaluated. The variables used in the prediction models were the varying parameters such as number of layers of GFRP sheet, area of weld mesh and height of drop. According to the analysis, the models provide good estimation of impact energy absorption and yielded good correlations with the data used in this study.

[S. Deepa Shri, R. Thenmozhi. Prediction Of Impact Energy Absorption Using Modified Regression Theory. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):743-749]. (ISSN:1097-8035). http:www.lifesciencesite.com. 104

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.104

 

Key Words: mathematical model, statistical analysis, impact load, initial energy absorption, final energy absorption, self-compacting concrete, hybrid ferrocement slabs

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Function of autophagy on differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neurons

 

Guangyu Zhang, Yanjie Jia, Cuiqin Wang, Yue Peng, Tao Peng *

 

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

E-mail address: realptdq@126.com

 

ABSTRACT: Autophagy refers to an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process in which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are sequestered in double membrane vesicles and degraded upon fusion with lysosomal compartments.And cells can generate metabolic precursors for macromolecular biosynthesis or ATP generation by autophagy. Recent studies shows autophagy autophagy plays a critical role in a variety of cell differentiation processes, we found that autophagy activity was activated during the neural differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), autophagy activator Rapamycin could promote neural differentiation, and autophagy inhibitor inhibited neural differentiation. Our results indicate that autophagy may involved in the process of cell differentiation, and increased autophagic activity may improve neural differentiation efficiency of rat MSCs.

[Guangyu Zhang, Yanjie Jia, Cuiqin Wang, Yue Peng, PENG Tao. Function of autophagy on differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):750-752] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 105

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.105

 

Keywords: autophagy, MSCs, LC3, differentiation, Neuron.

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Indocyanine green-assistedmacular epiretinal membrane combined in ternal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane

 

WAN Wen-cui, DAI Fang-fang, JIN Xue-min*

 

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. E-mail address: jinxuemin@yahoo.com.cn

 

ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the effect of indocyanine green (ICG) assisted macular epiretinal membrane combined internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane (IMEM). Methods: Twenty nine cases (29 eyes) with IMEM were treated. A standard three-port pars planavitrectomy was done. After removal of posterior hyaloid, 0.25% ICG was used to assist IMEM and ILM peeling. The process and results were recored. Results: After staining, t he free boundary of the IMEM became obvious and IMEM was peeled directly in17 of The 29 Eyes (58%); Inthe others (4 2%), a free petal of ILM was made, IMEM and ILM were peeled together; In all the 29 eyes, the peeled zonecould be easily recognized. No serious intraoperative complication was found; Themean postoperative follow-upwas (9.65 ± 7.58) months (Range, 1 to 28 months). In 20 of the 29 eyes (69%) the visual acuity was improved.N o IM EM recurred. Conclusion: ICG-assisted ILM peeling could makethe surgery of IMEM safer and prevent recurrence.

[WAN Wen-cui, DAI Fang-fang, JIN Xue-min. Indocyanine green-assistedmacular epiretinal membrane combined in ternal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):753-756] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 106

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.106

 

Keywords: Macular epiretinal membrane (MEM); Internal limiting membrane (ILM); The Green indocyaine (ICG); Idiopathic; Staining.

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Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation among Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Osun State, Nigeria

 

Opeyemi Abimbola Longe and Abayomi Samuel Oyekale,

 

+ Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

++Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho 2735 South Africa. asoyekale@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Climate change is among the factors that pose serious threats to sustainable cocoa production in Nigeria. This paper analyzed farmers’ vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Osun state. A total of 125 cocoa farmers were sampled using multi-stage sampling method. Data were analyzed with Factor Analysis (FA), descriptive statistics and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. The results show that farmers in the oldest age group (≥ 70 years) have the highest average climate change vulnerability index (0.2790) and the youngest group (< 30 years) had the highest average climate change adaptation index (0.8378). Illiterate farmers and those that could not complete primary education had the highest vulnerability index (0.1504) and lowest average adaptation index (-0.3489). Households with less than 5 members had average vulnerability index of 0.2666 and average adaptation index of -0.3044. Farmers that planted cocoa as primary crop and those whose primary occupation was farming had low average vulnerability indices of -0.0389 and -0.0312, respectively. Cocoa farmers with extension contacts also had lower vulnerability to climate change. The regression results show that households’ dependency ratio significantly increased climate change vulnerability (p<0.05), while access to extension services and television significantly reduced it (p<0.01). Adaptation to climate change significantly reduced (p<0.05) with dependency ratio and sickness of household members. It was concluded that integration of adequate climate change information into the mechanisms of agricultural extension delivery systems will assist in reducing cocoa farmers’ vulnerability to climate change.

[Longe O, Oyekale, AS. Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation among Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Osun State, Nigeria Life Sci J 2013;10(2):757-763] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 107

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.107

 

Keywords: Climate change, vulnerability, adaptation, indices, Nigeria.

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Enhancement and Classification of Mammographic Images for Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Statistical Algorithms

 

Muhammad Talhaa, Abdulhameed Al-Elaiwi b

 

aDeanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University, Riyadh Saudi Araiba.

 bSoftware Engineering Department, College of Computer & Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

E-mail: aalelaiwi@KSU.EDU.SA

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is going to be a common health problem in the globe. Although high degree of accuracy is needed in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer as it is a serious and complicated issue. Apart from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most commonly identified cancer among women in the United States. It is also predicted that breast cancer may be the major source of mortality in upcoming decades. After lung cancer, it is the second leading cause of death through disease. Screening mammograms cannot stop or reduce breast cancer but are helpful in the early detection of breast cancer. Different research has proved that early detection and treatment of breast cancer can reduce mortality. The goal of image enhancement is to improve the image quality so that the processed image is better than the original image for a specific application or a set of objectives. In this paper, we have done the Image enhancement using Histogram Equalization (HE). Haralick Texture Features are used for feature extraction. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used for classification into benign and malignant. It has been observed that outcomes are enough promising. MIAS data set is used for experimentation purpose.

[Muhammad Talha, Abdulhameed Al-Elaiwi. Enhancement and Classification of Mammographic Images for Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Statistical Algorithms. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):764-772] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 108

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.108

 

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Mammogram, Histogram Equalization, Enhancement, ANN, Classification.

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A Study on the Inhibitory Effect of Vaginal Lactobacilli on Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli

 

Mona Abdulwahab1, Azza Abdulazim2, Mona G. Nada1andNaglaa A. Radi2

 

1Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, BeniSuef University, Egypt

mona.nada@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Background: The appearance of multiresistant bacteria in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) calls for alternative and advanced medical solutions, one promising alternative is the therapeutic use of probiotics. Lactobacillus constitutes a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group, has a potent inhibitory effect on some harmful bacteria as uropathogenic E. coli, a property that would made it an effective probiotic in prevention and treatment of recurrent UTIs in women. Aim: to study the inhibitory effect of vaginal lactobacillus strains on the growth of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from cases of recurrent UTI. Methods: the study included 200 female patients who were put into two groups of 100: Group (1) patients, collected from the urology outpatient, were suffering from recurrent urinary tract infection, from whom the midstream urine samples were collected after taking the patient's consent. Group (2) patients, collected from the gynecology and obstetrics clinic and weren't having any symptoms of urinary tract infection, from whom the vaginal swab samples were taken after taking the patient's consent. Results: Staphylococcus saprophyticus and E. coli were the commonest organisms isolated from the urine samples of UTI patients (53% - 49% respectively). 64.7% of E. coliisolates produce complete hemolysis on blood agar, while Presence of mannose resistant haemagglutinating adhesins (MRHA) was detected in 82% of the studied urinary E. coli. All the vaginal lactobacilli strains and the standard strain (lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC L 1295) were inhibit E. coli seeded plate. While 3 strains (22.3%) failed to inhibit E. coli seeded plate when the supernatant culture was neutralized. It is concluded that vaginal Lactobacillus strains isolated from healthy women in the fertility age, are able to inhibit the growth of uropathogens especially E.coli by the effect of lactic acid with or without other inhibitory substances.

[Mona Abdulwahab, Azza Abdulazim, Mona G. Nadaand Naglaa A. Radi. A Study on the Inhibitory Effect of Vaginal Lactobacilli on Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):773-778] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 109

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.109

 

Key words: Escherichia Coli. lactobacillus acidophilus. urinary tract infections.

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Network Coding Based Broadcasting Using Directional Transmission

 

S.V.M.G. Bavithiraja1, Dr. R. Radhakrishnan2

 

1Assistant Professor, CSE Department, Hindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore-32, India.

2 Principal, Mahendra Institute of Engineering and Technology, Namakkal-03, India.

bavithra2000@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: In mobile ad hoc network, broadcasting is a common operation for route establishment and for sending control and emergency messages. Initiating multiple messages broadcasting from multiple sources is a challenging task which requires minimum number of retransmission by the forwarding nodes. Network coding-based broadcasting is proposed which focuses on reducing the number of transmissions each forwarding node performs in the multiple source/multiple message broadcast application, where each forwarding node combines some of the received messages for transmission. We exploit the usage of directional antennas to network coding-based broadcasting to further reduce energy consumption. A node equipped with directional antennas can divide the omni directional transmission range into several sectors and turns some of them on for transmission. In the proposed scheme using a directional antenna, forwarding nodes selected locally only need to transmit broadcast messages, original or coded, to restricted sectors. Simulation results show that the proposed method maximizes packet delivery ratio and throughput with reduced packet drop. The proposed network coding based broadcasting method reduces the total number of retransmissions made by the forwarding nodes compared to broadcasting using the same forwarding nodes without coding. Directional antennas are used to select the forwarding node set to maximize the throughput with minimal packet drop.

[S.V.M.G. Bavithiraja, R. Radhakrishnan. Network Coding Based Broadcasting Using Directional Transmission. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):779-786] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 110

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.110

 

Keywords: Retransmission, directional antennas, forward node selection, connected dominating set, static node selection and dynamic node selection.

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Anti-bacterial and Essential Oil Analysis of the Medicinal Plant Adhatoda vasica leaves

 

Riaz Ullah1, Iqbal Hussain2, Jameel A. Khader3, Naser M. AbdEIslam3, Shabir Ahmad2, Sadar Jan2, Kamin Khan1

 

1Department of Chemistry Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan

2Department of Chemistry, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat 26000, Kohat, KPK, Pakistan

3Arriyadh Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author Dr Riaz Ullah, Email: afridiriaz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to analyze the chemical constituents of the essential oil of the leaves of Adhatoda vasica using GC-MS spectrophotometer. From the GC-MS analysis of the leaves of A. vasica 11 different compounds were identified belonging to various functional groups. The concentration of five main volatile oil chemical components obtained from the leaves of A. vasica using GC-MS were o-Cymene 52.8%, Sabinene 23%, alpha-Citral 4%, beta-Pinene 3.97%, Cineole 3.4%. The rest of the analytes were 1% to2.95%. The anti-bacterial activity of essential oil extracted from A. vasica leaves were tested against four bacterial strains at a concentration of 10μL, 25μL and 50μL. High activity 13.7 mm and 9.5 mm of the essential oil was found against the E. coli thus indicating that the oil can be used for different health purposes by comparing with the standard. A relatively low zone of inhibition was recorded against B. cereus. The present study was therefore carried out to explore the chemical constituents and anti bacterial activity which may play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry and for the herbal practioners. [Riaz Ullah, Iqbal Hussain, Jameel A. Khader, Naser M. AbdEIslam, Shabir Ahmad, Sadar Jan, Kamin Khan; Anti-bacterial and Essential Oil Analysis of the Medicinal Plant Teucrium stocksianum. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):787-790] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 111

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.111

 

Keywords: Adhatoda vasica, antibacterial, essential oil, Analysis.

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Job-Burnout among Extension Agents in Oyo, Edo, Ogun and Lagos States Of Nigeria

 

Kolawole A.E and Oladele O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North West University Mafikeng Campus Mmabatho 2735. 24852902@nwu.ac.za, oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This paper examines job-burnout among extension agents in Oyo, Edo, Ogun and Lagos States Of Nigeria. Simple random sampling was used to select 50% of the extension agents form each of the state. The results show that in all the four states of the study there were more female extension officers than their male counterparts. It is also revealed in the findings that majority of the extension officer were married with 93.5% from Oyo; 87.9 from Edo, 80.6 from Ogun and 83.9 for Lagos. The results also show that the extension agents had an average of 5 years as working experience. The highest symptoms observed was weakness, headaches and pain (unexplained origin) with 25.8%, 22.6% and 19.4% respectively as low as 6.5% of insomnia and 9.7% for depression was observed. More than half of the extension agents in Oyo state did not observe easy – fatigability as a symptom i.e. 55.8%. Majority of the extension agents did not frequently experience physical burnout symptoms while out of assignments. Just (9.1%) experienced weakness on all assignments. Also, some extension agents indicated symptoms for some assignments. One way analysis variance results show difference in burnout and coping experience among EA in in Oyo, Edo, Ogun and Lagos States Of Nigeria. Primary data was used in this study and collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire containing open ended and close ended questions. The variables of the study include demographic characteristics where agents indicated the categories they belong. Job burnout was operationalized on a 3-point scale of all assignments (3 points), some assignments (2 points) and few assignments (1 point). The scale consisted of 30 burnout symptoms from which respondents were to indicate the ones they experience on their assignments in the work place. Data collected were subjected to frequency counts, percentages, and one way analysis of variance.

[Kolawole A.E and Oladele O.I. Job-Burnout among Extension Agents in Oyo, Edo, Ogun and Lagos States Of Nigeria. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):791-801]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 112

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.112

 

Keywords: Job-Burnout, Extension Agents, Nigeria, Agriculture, motivation, job performance, job satisfaction.

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Can Nigella Sativa Oil (NSO) Reverse Hypothyroid Status Induced by PTU in Rat? Biochemical and Histological Studies

 

Amel Ahmed Khalawi1, Ali Ahmed Al-Robai2, Sameer Mohamed Khoja3 and Soad shaker Ali4

 

Biochemistry 1,3,Biology2, Anatomy4 Departments, Faculty Of Science1,2,3 And Medicine 4 King Abdulaziz University. Jeddha, Saudi Arabia

soadshaker@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Nigella sativa Linn. or Black cumin was tested anti-oxidant effect including its anti thyroid effect. Material: Adult male Wister rats (200g) were divided into: control and experimental. Hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracil. Oil of Nigella Sativa was administrated to animal models of hypothyroidism in daily doses of 400 mg/ kg / BW via gastric intubation for 4 weeks. Body weight gain, food intake, % food conversion efficiency, water intake, blood thyroid hormones were determined. Histological study of the thyroid gland was carried out.Data were expressed as mean ± SEM and were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests. Results: Improvement in body weight, food and water intake in treated hypothyroid rats were observed. Nigella sativa increased serum triiodothyronine thyroxin and decreased TSH. No change in sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, for all treated hypothyroid rats. Histological examination of the treated hypothyroid rats showed improvement in the follicular cell height and colloid content. Conclusion: Nigella sativa oil has antioxidant effect that could ameliorate PTU induced oxidative stress and damage of thyroid follicles so could be considered to have a significant therapeutic role in hypothyroid disease. Studying the effect of Nigella sativa components on cells of thyroid could be tested in the future to identify which of them is involved in treatment.

[Amel Ahmed Khalawi, Ali Ahmed Al-Robai, Sameer Mohamed Khoja and Soad shaker Ali. Can Nigella Sativa Oil (NSO) Reverse Hypothyroid Status Induced by PTU in Rat? Biochemical and Histological Studies] Life Science Journal 2013;10(2):802-811]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 113

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.113

 

Key word: hypothyroidism - Nigella sativa oil – thyroid function tests- histology.

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Prevalence and Detection of Anemia (Iron Deficiency) in women Population in Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

 

Riaz Ullah1, Sultan Ayaz2, Jameel A. Khader3, Naser M. AbdEIslam3, Mohammad Anwar2, Kamin Khan1

 

1Department of Chemistry Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology Peshawar, KPK Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat 26000, KPK, Pakistan

3Arriyadh Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author Dr Riaz Ullah Email; afridiriaz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total 200 blood samples of women of different ages have taken. Amongst these 114(57%) women were found to have iron deficiency (anemia). Prevalence rate of anemia in married (pregnant) women 44(66.6%), married (non-pregnant) women 38(55.87%) and young married girl 32(48.4%) having the their age ranges from 20-40years, above 40 and 12-20yrs were recorded. Most of the patients were found to suffer from Mild type of anemia 155(77.7%). Moderate type of anemia 41(20.3%) and severe types of anemia 4(1.85%) which were based upon serum hemoglobin concentrations. Majority of the women belong to poor community which lacks to the access of balance diet and health facilities

[Riaz Ullah, Sultan Ayaz, Jameel A. Khader, Naser M. AbdEIslam, Mohammad Anwar, Kamin Khan. Prevalence and Detection of Anemia (Iron Deficiency) in women Population in Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):812-815] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 114

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.114

 

Keywords: Anemia, hemoglobin, Prevalence and women.

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Hemorrhagic Septicemia Outbreak as a Consequence to SAT2 FMD Infection in Buffalo and Cattle in Alexandria Province, Egypt

 

Elshemey, T.M. and Abd-Elrahman, A.H.

 

Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University.

amirhamed22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: 5630 fattening buffalo and cattle calves aged from 6 to 30 months belonging to 25 farms at Alexandria province, Egypt were included in this study. Morbidity and mortality rates of FMD and H.S were documented. Vesicular fluids were collected for virus isolation and serotyping. Lung, liver and heart blood were collected from died calves for isolation and serotyping of P. multocida. Cell mediated immune response was monitored by measuring Phagocytic activity (PA) and Phagocytic index (PI). Also antimicrobial sensitivity on P. multocida isolates was performed. FMD SAT2 and P. multocida B2 serotypes were isolated; PA and PI were 16, 1.5 and 20, 1.9 in FMD infected and non-infected ones respectively. Buffalo calves showed more susceptibility to HS and higher case fatality rates than cattle calves. Mortality rate among p. multocida infected fattening calves aged from 12-15 months was higher than older and younger ages. P. multocida isolates were highly susceptible to Ceftotaxime sodium and ceftifour sodium than other antimicrobials. It can be concluded that SAT 2 FMD infection played an important role in appearance of HS outbreak in buffalo and cattle in Alexandria province, Egypt causing high mortality rates especially in 6-15 months age buffalo and cattle calves respectively.

Elshemey, T.M. and Abd-Elrahman, A.H. Hemorrhagic Septicemia Outbreak as a Consequence to SAT2 FMD [Infection in Buffalo and Cattle in Alexandria Province, Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):816-822] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 115

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.115

 

Keywords: SAT 2 FMD, Haemorrhagic septicaemia and Ceftotaxime sodium.

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Central Venous Catheter-Related Infections in the Intensive Care Units in Egypt

 

Omran ME1, Gomma FM1, Hayder WA1, Ali NK2, Afifi SS1, Ashour MS3

 

1Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University,

2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University,

3 Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, MSA University.

meomran2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Central venous catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of central venous catheter-related infections (CRIs) according to different access sites, isolation, identification and determination of the predominant microorganisms involved and to determine the risk factors for infection by statistical analysis of the results to contribute the elaboration of actions to prevent and control blood stream infections and mortality among those patients. A total of 160 adult patients with indwelling central venous catheters hospitalized at intensive care units (ICUs) were enrolled in this study. A total of 640 clinical samples were collected from the patients; 4 different samples collected from each patient: 320 blood samples; 160 (pre-catheterized) and the other 160 (post-catheterization), 160 catheter tips and 160 swabs. The clinical samples were cultured on ordinary media for isolation and identification of the isolated microorganisms. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by disk diffusion method according to National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard 2007 (NCCLS). Microscan automated system was also used for both identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Statistical analysis used SPSS-10 version statistical software. One hundred forty two out of 160 patients (88.75%) suffered from CRIs. Catheter related infections were categorized according to CDC guidelines into Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infection (CR-BSI), Clinical Blood Stream Infection (C-BSI), Bloodstream Infection (BSI), Catheter bacteremia (CB) and Exit Site Infection (ESI), their rates were 23.2%, 8.5%, 47.9%, 2.8 % and 0.7% respectively and 16.9% were mixed infections. Semiquantitative culture was used for CRIs diagnosis. The total number of pathogens was 293 microorganisms were isolated from 261 positive cultures. Out of them 139 (47.4%) were Gram positive bacteria, 136 (46.4%) were Gram negative bacteria and 18 (6.1%) were Fungi. High frequency of microorganisms were isolated from post catheterization blood specimens (80.63%) followed by catheter tip samples (44.3%), swabs (29.4%) and the pre-catheterization blood specimens showed the lowest frequency of isolated microorganisms (6.88%). The isolated microorganisms identified by conventional and semiquantitative methods were belonging to 17 different species. The main etiological Gram positive bacteria was Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) representing (30.8%) and the main etiological Gram negative bacteria was Klebsiella pneumonia representing (10.6%). Pathogens isolated from CR-BSI were 42 isolates belonging to 13 different species; the most prevalent isolate was CoNS representing (42.9%). Pathogens isolated from C-BSI were 12 isolates belonging to 6 different species, the most prevalent isolate was S. aureus representing (41.7%) while 83 pathogens were isolated from BSI and they were belonging to 14 different species, the most prevalent isolates were CoNS representing (38.6%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism isolated from the single ESI detected in the study. The isolated pathogens from CRIs showed a wide range of antibiotic resistance. The emergence of multi-resistant pathogens in ICUs was highly detected in the present study. The most Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria causing CRIs were sensitive to imipenem and vancomycin. Proper insertion and care of catheters are essential to avoid infection. Education and training of health professionals on the practice of dealing with the CVC is an important tool in preventing and reducing CRIs.

[Omran ME, Gomma FM, Hayder WA, Ali NK, Afifi SS, Ashour MS. Central Venous Catheter-Related Infections in the Intensive Care Units in Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):823-834] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 116

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.116

 

Keyword: central venous catheters, CRIs, ICU, CoNS.

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Antioxidant activity of different crude fractions of Sonchus eruca

 

Riaz Ullah1, Jameel A. Khader2, Naser M. AbdEIslam2, Farman Ullah3, Muhammad Ullah3, Kamin Khan1, Sultan Ayaz4

 

1Department of Chemistry Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology Peshawar, KPK Pakistan

2Arriyadh Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Environmental Sciences, Northern University Nowshera, KPK, Pakistan

4Department of Zoology, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat 26000, KPK, Pakistan

afridiriaz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, the antioxidant potential of different crude extracts of Sonchus eruca, was evaluated. The extracts were investigated for its antioxidant activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryal-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The crude fractions evaluated were n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl actate and water. The ethyl acetate extracts from S.eruca at 500µg/mL exhibited highest 79.11% DPPH activity fallowed by chloroform showing 67.19%. The other extracts of plants also showed significant antioxidant activity. [Riaz Ullah, Jameel A. Khader, Naser M. AbdEIslam, Farman Ullah, Muhammad Ullah, Kamin Khan, Sultan Ayaz. Antioxidant activities of different crude fractions of Sonchus eruca Life Sci J 2013;10(2):835-837] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 117

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.117

 

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Medicinal plants, sonchus eruca.

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Postpartum Traditional Beliefs and Practices among Women in Makkah Al Mukkaramah, KSA

 

Sahar Mansour Lamadah

 

1Lecturer of Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2 Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al Mukkaramah, KSA.

dr.saharlamadah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The postpartum period, or puerperium is the 6 weeks interval from childbirth to the return of the uterus and other organs to a prepregnant state. Post partum period has been influenced by multiple cultural beliefs and practices transmitted from generation to generation. Some traditional practices are beneficial to the mother and baby, whereas others are not. Therefore it is essential for planning and implementing health education programs for these women to be aware of beneficial and harmless practices and try to use scientific knowledge as a mean of eradication of the harmful one. Aim of the study: To assess postpartum traditional beliefs and practices among women in Makkah Al Mukkaramah, KSA. Subjects and methods: A descriptive study was carried out at Heraa General Hospital, sample of 120 post partum women were selected randomly from the previously mentioned setting. A structured interview data collection form was designed by the researcher to collect data. Results: The results of the present study revealed that about one half of the women (51.7%) had positive beliefs while 18.3% and 30.0% of them respectively had neutral and negative beliefs. Moreover, slightly less than one half of women (46.7%) performed right practices while 25.8% and 27.5% respectively performed neutral and wrong practices. In addition, there is statistical significant difference (X2 = 6.98, P=0.015 and X2 = 8.22, P =0.016 between the total score of women's beliefs and their ages and level of education respectively. Moreover, there is also a significant statistical difference between the women's total score of practices and their age, educational level and parity (X2=8.69, P =0.013, X2=9.11, P =0.017, X2=7.98, P =0.036) respectively. Conclusion: Traditional postpartum beliefs and practices are popular among the participants. Mothers and relatives play a major role about reinforcing these beliefs and practices. It can also be concluded that the age and level of education were the most positively influential factors towards these beliefs and practices. Identifying the factors associated with traditional postpartum beliefs and practices is critical to develop better targeting health education programs. Updated information regarding postpartum practices should be disseminated to women.

[Sahar Mansour Lamadah. Postpartum Traditional Beliefs and Practices among Women in Makkah Al Mukkaramah, KSA. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):838-847]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 118

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.118

 

Keywords: Postpartum, Traditional beliefs and practices.

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Coinfection of Rotavirus Group A, Norovirus and Adenovirus in Egyptian Children with Gastroenteritis

 

Mona Z. Zaghloul1, Samia F. El-Sahn2 and Zeinab A. Galal1

 

1Clinical Pathology and 2Pediatric Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

monazaki_810@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and aim: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common disorder that affects children worldwide. The aim of this work was determination of rotavirus A, norovirus, and adenovirus in stool samples of children with gastroenteritis by qualitative polymerase chain reaction and determination of coinfections between these viral agents. Subjects and methods: This study determined rotavirus A, norovirus subtypes I and II and adenovirus in 500 stool samples of children with gastroenteritis and 250 stool specimens from healthy control by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results: Rotavirus, norovirus and adenovirus were detected in 39%, 16.2% and 6.8% of the 500 stool specimens of the children with gastroenteritis. Regarding rotavirus, there were 155 (79.5%) cases with monoinfection and 40 (20.5%) with coinfection. For norovirus, there were 48 (59.3%) cases with monoinfection and 33 (40.7%) with coinfection. For adenovirus, there were 23 (67.6%) cases had monoinfection and 11(32.4%) cases with coinfection. Coinfection with rotavirus and norovirus was most common, and occurred in (5.6%) including coinfection with adenovirus. The detection rate of viral agents was most common in children aged from 1 to <3 years. Conclusion: Rotavirus A, norovirus and adenovirus could be diagnosed in stool samples of children with gastroenteritis by conventional polymerase chain reaction as a rapid technique. Rotavirus and norovirus were the most common coinfectious agents responsible for gastroenteritis.

[Mona Z. Zaghloul, Samia F. El-Sahn and Zeinab A. Galal. Coinfection of Rotavirus Group A, Norovirus and Adenovirus in Egyptian Children with Gastroenteritis. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):848-852]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 119

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.119

 

Keywords: coinfection- gastroenteritis- reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction - rotavirus.

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Wavelet Based Analysis in Bio-informatics

 

Bharat Bhosale1, Bouthina S. Ahmed2, Anjan Biswas3, 4*

 

1 S H Kelkar College of Arts, Commerce and Science, University of Mumbai, Devgad 416613 (M.S.), India

2 Department of Mathematics, Girls' College, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11757, Egypt

3 Department of Mathematical Sciences, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901-2277, USA

4 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

biswas.anjan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Many biological, biochemical and biomedical phenomena exhibit fractal patterns. Moreover, these phenomena can be modeled by treating them as multiplicative random processes. These features attribute to wavelet analysis, which is mainly based on scale invariance and self-similarity properties. Wavelet methods have unique ability to reveal structural properties of the multiplicative processes resulted in such biological phenomena; that makes the wavelets a versatile tool in analyzing the bio-informatics data. Among other biological branches, molecular biology alone contributes greatly to bioinformatics. Central to many problems in molecular biology is to understand the structural organization of genomic sequences. The genomic sequences are characterized by random processes and also exhibit fractal patterns. We therefore confine our discussion to genomic sequences treating them as random processes. In our present work, we propose a wavelet based mathematical tool to analyze genomic structures in stochastic framework laying emphasis on its randomized feature. The robustness of the method is justified due to the probabilistic approach adopted throughout in the formulation of the method.

[Bharat Bhosale, Bouthina S. Ahmed, Anjan Biswas. Wavelet Based Analysis in Bio-informatics. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):853-859] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 120

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.120

 

Keyword: Wavelets; solitons; fractals; bioinformatics.

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Knowledge about Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Medical Students in University of Dammam, Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia

 

Magdy A. Darwish 1 and Nuha M.Al Khaldi.2

 

1 Family & Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

2 Family Medicine Department, King Fahd Military Medical Complex Dhahran

magdar9123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: to assess the Knowledge related to hepatitis B among fourth year medical students, in University of Dammam. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in College of Medicine, University of Dammam; Eastern Saudi Arabia. A total of 139 students represented the sample of the study. Data were collected by using structured, self-administered questionnaire which was divided into two parts with a total of thirty four questions. The first part included socio-demographic data and other information as histories of hepatitis B vaccination status, needle stick injury and family history of hepatitis B family. The second part included second part included questions to assess the level student knowledge concerning hepatitis B infection. The data were entered and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16. Results: The mean age of participating students was 21.2 ± 0.72 years and the female participants constituted 52.5% of the study group. The mean knowledge score of all the students was 17.63 ± 4.8. Almost 50% of the students had good knowledge; 39.6% and 10.1% had average and poor knowledge respectively. The level of knowledge about hepatitis B infection among male and female students was not statistically significantly different. Also this knowledge was not significantly related to either vaccination or screening for hepatitis B or Needle stick exposure. There was a significant relationship between marital status and hepatitis B knowledge (p<0.01) with more knowledge among unmarried students. Level of hepatitis B knowledge was significantly (p<0.05) higher among students with negative family history for HBV infection. Conclusion: This study highlights the satisfactory knowledge of the fourth year medical students but there was a gap which needs to be corrected or modified regarding methods of transmission, prevention and post-exposure management of hepatitis B. Medical students should be well educated about counseling for accidental needle pricks and availability of post-exposure prophylaxis.

[Magdy A. Darwish and Nuha M.Al Khaldi. Knowledge about Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Medical Students in University of Dammam, Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):860-867] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 121

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.121

 

Key words: knowledge, hepatitis B infection, medical students.

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The proliferative effects of alfalfa polysaccharides on the mouse immune cells

 

Jingshuang Li, Yushun Tang, Xianhua Meng, Nan Guan, Haidi Xiao, Tianming Liu, Yang Yu

 

Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121001, China

lyyuyang863@163.com

 

Abstract: In order to investigate the proliferative effects of alfalfa polysaccharides on mouse immune cells, and to explore the proliferative effects mechanisms of alfalfa polysaccharides on immune cells, mouse immune cells and alfalfa polysaccharides was used as research material. The effects of alfalfa polysaccharides on the mouse immune cells were detected using MTT colorimetric assay, which proliferative effects of mouse spleen lymphocyte and mouse bone marrow dendritic cells, cytotoxic activity of NK cells against K562 cells, energy metabolism of mouse peritoneal macrophages. The results show that alfalfa polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes and bone marrow dendritic cellsand it has the function of regulate the body's cellular and humoral immune; Alfalfa polysaccharides can enhance the killing activity of NK cells against K562 target cells, and it has the function of enhance the body's non-specific immune; Alfalfa Polysaccharides can enhance the energy metabolism of mouse peritoneal macrophages, which can enhance antigen presentation accessory cells.

[Li JS, Tang YS, Meng XH. The proliferative effects of alfalfa polysaccharides on the mouse immune cells. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):868-873] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 122

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.122

 

Keywords: Alfalfa polysaccharides; immune cells; immunomodulatory; cell proliferation.

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Genetic Polymorphism of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and the Angiotensin II Type1 Receptor as Risk Factors in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

 

Amal M Abdel-Aal1, Elham O. Hamed 2, Sahar Abou el- Fetouh 2 Abeer Fakher El-Deen 2, Nayel A Zaky 3, Medhat M Ali 3 and Yasser M Kamal 3

 

1Clinical pathology Dep., Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University

2Clinical Pathology and 3Internal Medicine Departments., Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

elhamomar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The rennin angiotensin system (RAS) is central to the pathogenesis of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are two of the main components of the RAS. The genetic polymorphisms of these key components provide a basis for studying the relationship between genetic variants and the development of vascular or renal damage in individual subject. This work aimed to study the distribution of I/D polymorphism of ACE and AT1RA1166C polymorphism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their association with other clinical and laboratory variables in these patients. Methods: Gene polymorphisms were studied in 64 CKD patients (40 on hemodialysis "HD" & 24 on conservative treatment "CT") and 20 healthy controls using PCR amplification for ACE gene and PCR-RFLP technique for AT1R gene. Serum ACE activity, kidney functions and lipid profile were measured in all the studied groups. Results: Higher frequency of D allele of ACE gene was observed in CKD (both on HD or CT) patients than healthy controls (p<0.0001 & <0.01 respectively) with higher distribution in HD patients than those on CT (<0.05). HD group had higher frequency of DD genotype compared to controls (p <0.01). The I allele and II genotype showed higher distribution in healthy controls than CKD patients (p <0.001 and 0.01 respectively). Patients on CT had higher frequency of I allele and II genotype when compared to those on HD (p <0.05 for both). The C allele of AT1R showed higher frequency in HD group in comparison with controls (p <0.05) but the A allele showed lower frequency in the HD patients compared to controls (p <0.05). No significant difference was found in comparing the frequency of AA, AC or CC genotypes between the studied groups. The number of hypertensive patients was higher in patients carrying DD genotype than those carrying II or ID genotype (p <0.05) and in patients carrying AC or CC genotype than AA genotype carriers (p<0.05). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) was lower in AC and CC genotype carriers than AA genotype carriers (p <0.05). Study of the frequency of combined genotypes revealed that ACE-ID+AT1R-AA is the most frequent genotype combination in CKD patients (40.6%) and ACE-II+AT1R-AA is the most frequent combination in controls (60%). Conclusion: The D allele of ACE gene and the C allele of AT1R are important genetic determinants in CKD. They are more frequent in HD patients than those on CT. Patients carrying these alleles have higher ACE activity and more prone to hypertension. They also have more decline in kidney function as evidenced by lower values of e-GFR. They can be considered as risk alleles.

[Amal M Abdel-Aal, Elham O. Hamed, Sahar Abou el-Fetouh Abeer Fakher El-Deen, Nayel A Zaky, Medhat M Ali and Yasser M Kamal. Genetic Polymorphism of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and the Angiotensin II Type1 Receptor as Risk Factors in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):874-881] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 123

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.123

 

Keywords: Chronic renal failure, angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II type one receptor gene.

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Medical and Non-Medical Female Students' Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Psychiatric Patientsat Umm Al Qura University

 

Manal H Abo El magd1and Luma Al Zamil2

 

1Psychiatric & mental health nursing Faculty of Nursing – El Minia university – Egypt, Umm AL- Qura University K S A*

2Speech Language Pathologist,Bachelor's Degree Faculty of Nursing – Jordan University Scientific & technology –Jordan, Umm AL -Qura University K S A**

Manalh2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mental illness is a term used for a group of disorders causing severe disturbance in thinking, feeling and relating. Certainty, negative attitudes toward mental illness appear to worsen the overall quality of life of individuals with mental disorders. Aim: This study aimed to compare the attitudes of medical and nonmedical undergraduate female university students' toward mental illness and psychiatric patients. Subjects &Methods: this study was a descriptive comparative design. A convenient sample composed of 200 undergraduate female students from medical & nonmedical faculties at Umm Qura. University were selected and interviewed to collect the data through using the following two tools, a Structured Interviewing Questionnaire and Attitude Scale for mental illness. Results: The results revealed that, 39% & 38% of medical and non- medical undergraduate female students respectively, gained their information about mental illness through mass media. Most of medical students (81%) compared with 53% of non-medical students their attitudes toward psychiatric patients were trying to help them. While, 13% & 28% of medical and non- medical students respectively, consider psychiatric patients as a source of danger. There were a statistically significant differences between medical and non- medical students regarding attitude scale for mental illness domains; Separatism and Restrictiveness, at (p –value 0.013, and 0.017 respectively) the high mean score was reported by the medical students. Conclusion: The medical students had more positive attitude toward mental illness and psychiatric patients than non-medical students. Recommendation: Projects and programs for decreasing stigma include symposiums on mental health policy, mental health forums, and public outreach (Conversations) are recommended.

 [Manal Hassan Abo El magd. and Luma Al Zamil. Medical Non-Medical Female Students' Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Psychiatric Patientsat Umm Al Qura University. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):882-888] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 124

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.124

 

Key words: Attitudes - Mental illness -Psychiatric patients - Medical, non-medical students.

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The Relationship between Nurses’ Perceived Pay Equity and Organizational Commitment

 

Yaldez K. Zein ElDin, Reem Mabrouk Abd El Rahman

 

Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University. Egypt

Yaldez.zaineldeen@damanhour.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The concept of organizational commitment has raised high interest from the perspective of understanding the intensity and stability of the individual’s dedication to the organization. The question must be posed concerning the way commitment in the workplace links to feelings of equity. Attainment of equity is accomplished when the employee‘s outcomes to inputs are noted as being comparable to the referent ratios of other employees in their organization or work group. Aim: the current study aims to determine the relationship between nurses’ perceived pay equity and their organizational commitment. Subjects: 151nurses who are working in all units at Damanhour National Medical Institute. Instrument of the study: The research instrument is a self- administered questionnaire that consisted of three sections which are: section 1; demographic questions addressing items such as years of experience, Educational level and place of work, Section 2 asking about pay equity and finally section three that asked about the organizational commitment (OC). Results: The study findings showed a positive significant correlation between perceived pay equity and normative commitment where P=0.001. Another positive significant correlation was found between perceived pay equity and total level of commitment where P= 0.04. Nurses’ perceived pay equity and level of commitment differed according to their years of experience. Conclusion: A positive significant correlation between pay equity and normative commitment (NC), as well as, total commitment level. The majority of nurses perceived their pay as unfair, while they were nearly equal in their level of commitment. The more experienced nurses differed significantly in relation to their perceived pay and level of commitment than less experienced nurses. Recommendation: Link the nurses’ payment with the level of performance of nurses through the grade of performance appraisal. Head nurses should improve nurses’ working conditions especially newly recruited nurses to increase their commitment level.

[Yaldez K. Zein ElDin, and Reem Mabrouk Abd El Rahman. The Relationship between Nurses’ Perceived Pay Equity and Organizational Commitment. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):889-896] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 125

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.125

 

Keywords: Organizational Commitment, Pay equity, normative commitment, affective commitment, continuance commitment.

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A Class of Deformed Hyperbolic Secant Distributions Using Two Parametric Functions

 

S. A. El-Shehawy

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

shshehawy64@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper presents a novel class of deformed hyperbolic secant distributions. We apply the deformation technique by introducing two parametric functions under some certain appropriate assumptions. We discuss some important properties of this defined class of distributions. Some measures and functions of this new class of distributions are derived. A simple illustrative example is given.

[S. A. El-Shehawy. A Class of Deformed Hyperbolic Secant Distributions Using Two Parametric Functions] Life Sci J 2013; 10 (2):897-903] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 126

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.126

 

Key words: Generalized hyperbolic secant distribution, Hyperbolic secant distribution, q(t)-Hyperbolic function, p-DHS distribution, p-DHS distribution, pq-DHS distribution.

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Design and Synthesis of novel pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles and related fused ring systems and evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.

 

Afaf K. El-Ansary1, Azza T. Taher1*, Ahmed Abd El-Hamed El-Rahmany2, Wafaa El –Eraky3 and Sally A. El Awdan3

 

1Cairo university, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Egypt.

2Misr University for Science and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Organic Chemistry Department, 6-October, Egypt.

3National Research Centre, Pharmacology Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

azzataher2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A series of some new pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory as well as analgesic and antipyretic activities. The results showed that all compounds possessed promising anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 6a and 9b have shown a potent anti-inflammatory activity more than piroxicam reference drug. Whereas, compounds 6c, 8a, 9a and 10a,b exhibited equipotent analgesic activity compared to piroxicam and compound 10b showed excellent antipyretic activity more than piroxicam. None of the tested compounds showed an ulcerogenic effect.

[Afaf K. El-Ansary, Azza T. Taher, Ahmed Abd El-Hamed El-Rahmany, Wafaa El –Eraky and Sally A. El Awda. Design and Synthesis of novel pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles and related fused ring systems for the study of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):904-914] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 127

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.127

 

Keywords: Pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole; Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine; Synthesis; Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic; Antipyretic activities.

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Efficiency of Hydraulic Models for Flood Zoning Using GIS (Case Study: Ay-Doghmush River Basin)

 

Parviz Kardavani *, Mohammad Hossein Qalehe **

 

* Prof. in Geography, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

** The Ph.D. Graduate in Geomorphology, Department of Geography, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

(Corresponding Author: Mohammad Hossein Qalehe, The PhD Graduate in Geomorphology, Department of Geography, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Email: Qalehe@gmail.com)

 

Abstract: Zoning of flood in the rivers is one of the non-structural methods in flood management that cannot be achieved unless with hydraulic analysis. Using hydraulic models, we can determine the water surface profiles along the river. However, the most common disadvantage of these models is their disability in relating the information on the properties of the surface profile with their range on the earth. Via selecting a flood with specified return period, we can calculate the water levels in different cross sections of river and through connecting the points of corresponding levels on the topographic maps, flood zone and its spreading area can be obtained. In this study, we used HEC-RAS hydraulic model for hydraulic calculations of Ay-Doghmush River flooding, ARC GIS software to extract the cross sections using digital maps of river range toward river flood plains, and HEC-GEORAS to investigate the results of the model and flood zoning in GIS environment with of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years return periods. In order to do that, we first evaluated the flood for different return periods using Log Pearson Type III Distribution as the best statistical distribution with SMADA software. Then, we used 1:1000 scale digital maps and river’s hydrology data in order to simulate the geometry of river HEC-GEORAS in ARC GIS. The data was transferred to HEC-RAS software and after completion of the hydraulic flow conditions, the model was run and the output re-entered to ARC GIS via mediator files. After zoning flood for different return periods, the flood zoning map was drawn. The results indicated that, a combination of GIS and hydraulic models can be used for flood zoning of rivers and determining the levee areas.

[Parviz Kardavani, Mohammad Hossein Qalehe. Efficiency of Hydraulic Models for Flood Zoning Using GIS (Case Study: Ay-Doghmush River Basin). Life Sci J 2013;10(2):915-924] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 128

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.128

 

Keywords: zoning, flood, HEC-RAS model, ARC GIS, Ay-Doghmush River.

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Measuring the Financial Literacy of Real Investors of the Iran Stock Exchange and the Relationship of Financial Literacy with the Portfolio Diversification and their Investment Decisions

 

Mahmood Moein Addin (corresponding author)1, Shahnaz Nayebzadeh2, Zahra Yosefi3

 

1, 3. Department of Accounting, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran

2. Department of Management, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran

mahmoudmoein@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Diversified business activities require timely and intelligent decisions with specific information. Today, a wide range of factors is considered in making investment decisions. In other words, it seems essential to examine different factors for investing. Investors’ decisions are getting more and more complex and risk and the results of these investments might have significant effects on the people’s life especially in retired times. Those who enter business for the purpose of investment have different financial knowledge. This difference in financial literacy may influence their decisions. In the present study, the financial literacy concept is initially defined and the theoretical backgrounds are provided and literature reviews of this topic are also documented. The financial literacy is then assessed by a modified questionnaire and the relationship of financial literacy and investors’ decisions is also examined by 29 effective factors of their decisions. The findings confirm the lack of financial literacy in the sample. Additionally, the results show that there is no significant relationship between financial literacy and investor’s decisions measures.

[Moein Addin M, Nayebzadeh Sh, Yosefi, Z. Measuring the Financial Literacy of Real Investors of the Iran Stock Exchange and the Relationship of Financial Literacy with the Portfolio Diversification and their Investment Decisions. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):925-933] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 129

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.129

 

Keywords: Financial Literacy; Investment; Decision-making; Portfolio

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Effects of Educational Approach in Changing Public Stigma Related to Mental Illness among Chinese Diploma Nursing Students

 

Wang Jingjing, Pan Ling, Liu Guiping, Zhang Xiaoqing

 

School of Nursing, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

lgping@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Objective: To examine the effect of mental illness knowledge education on changing public stigma through school taught course among Chinese diploma nursing students. Methods: 130 second-year diploma nursing students who would learn the Psychiatric Nursing course were recruited. Outcomes were changes in attitudes (using the Stigma Subscale), and behaviors (using the Social Distance Scale, the Acceptance Subscale, and the Questionnaire of Willingness to Deliver Nursing Services to People with Mental Illness), immediately after the course study. Results: For all the participants, there was no statistically significant difference of stigmatizing attitudes after the course study. The post-test of acceptance, social distance, and willingness to deliver nursing services were better than pre-test. Conclusions: The mental illness knowledge education can promote diploma nursing students to accept people with mental illness, reduce social distance with them, as well as willingness to deliver nursing services to them. But it failed to make any change in students’ stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness in our study. The findings imply that nursing educators should explore more effective teaching strategies to promote students’ positive attitudes toward mental health. Effects of Educational Approach in Changing Public Stigma Related to Mental Illness among Chinese Diploma Nursing Students. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):934-938] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 130

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.130

 

Keywords: Public Stigma; nursing education; psychiatric nursing; diploma nursing students

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Hypolipidemic activity of Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata extract in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet

 

Ni-Na Chiang1, Chi-Ting Horng2, Stephen S. Chang3, Chiu-Fang Lee1, Chen-Ying Su4, Hui-Yun Wang3, Fu-An Chen3,*

 

1 Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital Pingtung Branch, Pingtung, Taiwan.

2 Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Armed Force General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

3 Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan.

4 Department of Nursing, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan.

contributed equally the work and therefore should be considered equivalent authors

h56041@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata extract (PAHE) in hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Experimentally induced hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding hamsters with HFD for 14 days. Hypercholesterolemic hamsters were administered gavagely with PAHE at the dose of 300 and 750 mg/kg bw along with HFD for 28 days in order to estimate their hypolipidemic activity. The lipid profile and histopathological studies were carried out at the end of experiment. Supplementation with PAHE resulted in hypolipidemic effect by lowering the serum lipid parameters such as significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Significant decrease of TC and triglyceride (TG) was also found in liver after administration of PAHE for 28 days. Histopathological findings in hamster liver supported the effect of PAHE on reduction of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. The consumption of P. alte-lobatum may act as a functional food with ameliorating hyperlipidemia.

[Ni-Na Chiang, Chi-Ting Horng, Stephen S. Chang, Chiu-Fang Lee, Chen-Ying Su, Hui-Yun Wang, Fu-An Chen. The influence of fermentation by different lactobacillus on the free radical scavenging activity of burdock and variations of its active components. Life Sci J. 2013;10(2):939-942] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 131

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.131

 

Keywords: Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, hyperlipidemia, hypolipidemic effect, Syrian hamsters

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Barriers to Youths’ Use of Reproductive Health Services in Iran

 

Afsaneh Keramat, PhD 1; Katayon Vakilian, Ph.D*1; Seyed Abbas Mousavi, MD1

 

1. Assistant professor, Shahroud University of Medical Science, Shahroud, Iran

swt_f@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Access to and obtaining youth reproductive health is a component of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Although many country are committed to provide reproductive health service for young people, numerous studies indicate youth dissatisfaction regarding access to information and health services. Iran is one of the countries that offer such services. This article intends to assess the barriers hindering access to reproductive health services from the viewpoint of university students. This qualitative research was conducted based on content analysis. Thirty eight female and male university students were enrolled. Semi-structured questions administered over 7 sessions were used to gather the required data. From this research four themes were extracted (subcategories are given in parentheses): individual issue (lack of skills in use of preventive health services for adolescents, shame and embarrassment), cultural issues (social stigma, gap between social norms and behaviors, diversity of views in society), institutional issues (inappropriate youth services in schools, inappropriate youth health services, youth information services), and parental involvement (parental shame, poor parenting skills). Since our country’s population is young and the Western culture gradually influences our culture through the mass media, the reproductive health programs should be developed properly and in accordance with the young’s needs and based on our Islamic-Iranian culture. [Keramat A, Vakilian K, Mousavi SA. Barriers to Youths’ Use of Reproductive Health Services in Iran Life Sci J 2013;10(2):943-949] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 132

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.132

 

Keywords: Health services, Student, Reproductive Health, Youth

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Electric Power Load Forecasting of Babol City Based on BP Neural Network

 

Seyed Ahmad Sheibat Alhamdy, Amir Pourghassem, Morteza Gholam Ahmadi, Milad Padidarfard

 

Department of industrial management, Firoozkooh branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh, Iran

sheibat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Modeling and predicting electricity consumption play a vital role both in developed and developing countries for policy makers and related organizations. Improve load forecasting technology level is not only beneficial to plan power management and make reasonable construction plan, but also good for saving energy and reducing power cost, and then, it can improve the economic benefits and social benefit for power system. BP neural network is one of the most widely used neural networks and it has many advantages in the power load forecasting. Matlab has become the best technology application software which has been internationally recognized, the software has many characteristics, such as data visualization function and neural network toolbox, for these, it is the essential software when we do some research on neural network.

[Seyed Ahmad Sheibat Alhamdy, Amir Pourghassem, Morteza Gholam Ahmadi, Milad Padidarfard. Electric Power Load Forecasting of Babol City Based on BP Neural Network. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):950-953] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 133

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.133

 

Keywords: Electric power load, Matlab, BP neural network, forecast.

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Analysis Of Crm Perspectives Toward Successful Implementation Model

 

Reza Hosseini

 

National Agrarian University of Armenia

Reza_hosseini143@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Regarding extensive competitive environment in any business, organizations must change their view to customers as the main assets in their businesses. So, they have to develop new strategies to retain profitable and loyal customers. In the recent years, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has been emerged from Marketing and Information Technology as the most efficient tool to make customers loyal by improving relationship between organizations and their customers. For organizations, it is vital that they realize CRM nature, definition, real objectives and different perspectives to implement CRM successfully, and the organizations which do not pay attention to CRM concepts will not be success to make strong and long-term relations with their customers. In this paper, it is tried to analyze CRM contents from different perspectives, propose a unified definition and develop a model to implement successful CRM with the consideration of different perspectives.

[Reza Hosseini. Analysis Of Crm Perspectives Toward Successful Implementation Model. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):954-962] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 134

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.134

 

Key words: Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Marketing Philosophy Perspective, Business Strategy Perspective, Technology Perspective, CRM Implementation Model

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The Comparison between the Results of Students’ Self-report and Teachers’ Rating of their Students’ Multiple Intelligences

 

Al-sabbah Saher

 

King Saud University, College of Education

Saher_usm@yahoo.com, salsabbah@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The main purpose of conducting this study was to make a comparison between the results of two modes of Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scale (MIDAS); the students’ self-report and teachers’ rating of their students’ Multiple Intelligence (MI). The MIDAS has being adapted and validated in this used. Two groups of sample were formed in this study; the first group consisted of 1,404 students for the purpose of validating the Arabic version of MIDAS. In addition, the second group involved of 32 teachers and their 96 students for the purpose of compare the results of the both modes of MIDAS. The research design of the current study involved three main phases: the first phase is the adaptation and validation of the Arabic MIDAS. The second phase is the comparison between the results of MIDAS’s subscales. The third phase involved the determination of Spearman's rho correlation between the results of the two modes for overall MIDAS. The results showed that the comparison between the Interpersonal subscales was negative and the correlation for Natural subscales was not significant, whereas the correlations for the rest of MIDAS’s subscales were significant. Beside that, the results of the Kappa Index between the teachers and students on the MI rating indicated that there is a good value of the indices, which mean that there is a moderate of correspondence between the students’ self-report and teachers’ rating.

[Al-sabbah Saher. The Comparison between the Results of Students’ Self-report and Teachers’ Rating of their Students’ Multiple Intelligences. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):963-971]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 135

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.135

 

Key words: assessment comparison, validation, multiple intelligence, and MIDAS

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Guidelines to supporting mothers with pregnancy loss at a public hospital in South Africa

 

Modiba Lebitsi Maud

 

Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, 0003, South Africa

modiblm@unisa.ac.za

 

Abstract: Although the general topic of death is receiving increasing attention from the medical community, little is known about the impact that pregnancy loss has on the lives experiencing it. The purpose of this study is to develop guidelines for mothers with pregnancy loss. This research is a qualitative research design that is exploratory, descriptive and it is contextual in nature. The guidelines was formulated from the information gathered from phases I; II; and III. The guidelines were validated and recommendations were made by experts. Phase I phenomenological interviews were conducted with ten mothers on how they experienced pregnancy loss and care. Phase II focused on semi-structured individual interviews which were conducted with seven medical doctors and ten midwives on their experience. Phase I and II were in this study and both were published in Health South African research journal: June 2007.

[Modiba LM. Guidelines to supporting mothers with pregnancy loss at a public hospital in South Africa.

Life Sci J 2013;10(2):972-977] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 136

doi:10.7537/marslsj100213.136

 

Keywords: Social support ; Pregnancy loss ; Teamwork; pregnancy loss; Midwives; An Advanced midwife; Grief.

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South African students' experiences on a Follow-up of women until six weeks after delivery

 

Modiba Lebitsi Maud

 

Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, 0003, South Africa

modiblm@unisa.ac.za

 

Abstract: At the department of nursing in this South African University of, one of the requirements for students to complete their Bachelor of Nursing Science degree is to choose a pregnant woman and follow her up from pregnancy, during birth, post-partum and 6 weeks after delivery. The aim of this study was to explore and describe student midwives' experiences on the follow-up of a woman from pregnancy, birth and post-partum until 6 weeks after delivery. The research design was qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual. A purposive sampling was used and 21 student midwives who enrolled for midwifery consented to be part of the study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with the student midwives after completing this project. These interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim by an independent transcribing service. The findings in relation to the research question were synthesized under three themes: building relationships with the follow-up women; challenges associated with the follow-up experience; and positive aspects of this experience. Conclusion: The follow-up experience provided midwifery students with unique and important learning opportunities that they would not experience in standard or hospital-based clinical placements alone.

[Modiba LM. South African students' experiences o