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 Life Science Journal 
 Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1097-8135, Quarterly
 
Volume 10 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 32), March 25, 2013. life1001
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1001

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 (Correction note: Article #306 should be from page 2169, but it is mistakenly made from 2619. 
There is a skip for 450 pages between article #305 and #306 and there is no paper for pages 2169-2618 for this issue.)

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Job Satisfaction as a Mediator in Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Commitment in Employees’ Kerman Universities

 

Hamid Taboli

 

Department of Management studies, Payam-E Noor University, I.R. Iran & Payam-E Noor University Kerman. htaboli@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main purposes of the current study were (a) to examine the degree to which job satisfaction mediates the association between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment. Data from 132 participants (65 male and 65 female) were examined using measures of emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The results of present study indicated that job satisfaction mediate relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment. Also, results of the study revealed that emotional intelligence has positive significant relationship with organizational commitment. Implications for future research are discussed.

[Hamid Taboli. Job Satisfaction as a Mediator in Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Commitment in Employees’ Kerman Universities. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):1-8] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.01

 

Keywords: Job satisfaction; Emotional intelligence; Organizational commitment; Employee

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2

Determining and evaluating the requirements of ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) implementation in Iran road transport

 

Mahdi Ahmadipanah1, Omid Jalilian2 (Corresponding Author), Seyed Reza Hasani3, Hamid Jalilian4, Hossein Jalilian4

 

1- Department of Business Management, payamenoor University, P.O. box 19395-3697 Tehran, i. r of Iran

2- Department of Accounting, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

3- Department of Business Management, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

 

4- Department of Business Management, Eslamabad-E-Gharb Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eslamabad-E-Gharb, Iran

 

Abstract: Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a collection of amazing achievement of information technology in transportation which has transformed quality of people’s lives as well as transportation management. Its use is essential given the increasing population and traffic increase. To take advantage of it is necessary to identify the main requirements of this system as its first architecture level given the area and location of its implementation and then the implementation conditions of next architecture levels is provided by determining the importance of each requirement and their components. This paper aims to determine and prioritize the requirements of architecture deployment of intelligent Transportation System in Iran and from the perspective of exports of this system in organizations in charge; thus, the statistical population is all export and specialists of ITS in seven organizations and companies involved and responsible in this field. For this purpose, 3 types of requirements have been introduced according to the research model: 1. the managerial structure; 2. Necessary contexts; 3. Technological requirements, and several indices have been proposed for each factor. The research method is descriptive-applied; and questionnaire and paired comparisons matrix have been used for collecting the required data, and SPSS software has been used for statistical analysis of information. The indices weights have been obtained using AHP method. In this study five research hypotheses have been proposed to investigate the existing and optimal conditions for deploying it; after the investigation, it was indicated that among the three introduced requirements in the model, the first and important priority in its implementation is managerial structure. It is worth mentioning that all three types of requirements are needed for implementing this project.

[Mahdi Ahmadipanah, Omid Jalilian, Seyed Reza Hasani, Hamid Jalilian, Hossein Jalilian. Determining and evaluating the requirements of ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) implementation in Iran road transport. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):9-18] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.02

 

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, system requirements, system architecture

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3

Medical Care in Islamic Tradition during the middle Ages (Historical Review)

 

Esmaeilzadeh Mahdi1 and Kazemzadeh Fariba2

 

  1. Department of Basic Science, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

Email: mehdi_dna@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author); Phone: +98 (0) 935 979 3491

2. Department of Basic Science, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

 

Abstract: The present paper is an endeavor to study some issues related to medical care and hospital during the middle Ages. Promotion of Medical Care and; the contribution of eminent Physicians during the middle ages; Muslim Views on Seeking Medical Treatment; Examination of Patient by Member of Opposite Sex in Islam; and Al-Bimarsitan (Hospital) As a Centre for Medical Care and Education; are among the major themes in this paper.

 [Esmaeilzadeh M, Kazemzadeh F. Medical Care in Islamic Tradition during the middle Ages (Historical Review). Life Sci J 2013;10(1):19-28] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.03

 

Keywords: Historical Review, Medical Care, Islamic Tradition, Middle ages

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4

New Developments In Tuberculosis Control And The Issue Of Integration

 

Esmaeilzadeh Mahdi1 and Kazemzadeh Fariba2

 

  1. Department of Basic Science, Nikshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Nikshar,Iran

Email: mehdi_dna@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author); Phone: +98 (0) 935 979 3491

2. Department of Basic Science, Nikshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Nikshar,Iran

 

Abstrac: The purpose of this paper is to review new developments in tuberculosis control; i.e. the National Tuberculosis Control Program technology, its application, acceptability and accessibility at various levels and the issue of integration of the activities into the general health services in accordance with concepts of PHC.

 [Esmaeilzadeh M, Kazemzadeh F. New Developments In Tuberculosis Control And The Issue Of Integration. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):29-31] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.04

 

Keywords: Tuberculosis Control, Integration

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The study of nursing students views regarding patients' rights protection (advocacy)and its effective factors

 

Daryosh Rokhafroz1, Shayeste Haghighi1, Somaye Ansari2, Neda Sayadi 1

 

1MSc in nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

2MSc in midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Saed_sayadi_neda@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the key concepts of nursing is ethics. Nursing students need the opportunity to experience, share and clarify thoughts, feelings and values related to protection of patient. However many challenges were for nursing education to prepare nurses to accept the supportive role of faces. Therefore this study designed to survey of the knowledge nursing student about the rights of patients and patient’s advocacy. Methods: This study is a descriptive-cross-correlation which conducted on nursing students. For data collection a questionnaire was designed, including Ingram’s questionnaire and Demographic questionnaire. Sample size of study based on pilot sampling and sample size estimation was 120 students. For analysis the data used pass statistic software edition 18 descriptive statistic of frequency, and inferential statistics chi-square and variance analysis. Results: The findings of this study showed that the mean score of student’s knowledge about patient’s rights is (54.019.59). Also going obtained between scores and course grades (p=0.01) and environment (p=0.01) had a significant relationship, this means that a supportive environment has important effects on patient. Also with increasing semester students were increasing awareness students about patient rights. Conclusion: considering the average score obtained. The student awareness about the rights of patients had moderate. Therefore measures must be thought about more important to teach students.

[Daryosh Rokhafroz,Shayeste Haghighi, Somaye Ansari, Neda Sayadi. The study of nursing students views regarding patients' rights protection (advocacy) and its effective factors. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):32-36](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.05

 

Keywords: Nursing students, advocacy, patient rights

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Solving N-Queen problem using Gravitational Search Algorithm

 

1Homayun Motameni, 2Seyyed Hossein bozorgi, 2mohammad ali shaban nezhad, 3Golnaz Berenjian, 4Behnam Barzegar*

 

1Department of Computer Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

2Young Researchers Club, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran

3Department of Computer Engineering, Tabari Institute of Higher Education, Babol, Iran

4Department of Computer Engineering, Nowshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Nowshahr, Iran

 *Corresponding author: Behnam Barzegar

behnam.barzegar@yahoo.com or barzegar@iauns.ac.ir

Abstract: The N-queens problem aims at placing N queens on an NxN chessboard, in such a way that no queen could capture any of the others. This problem is considered as one of the hard problem to be solved. Many researches have been interested to solve it with different Heuristic methods. In this paper, a new heuristic method, called the Gravitational Search algorithm or GSA will be shown in solving of the N-queens problem. The offered algorithm is named Gravitational Search algorithm N-queens or GSA-NQ and so as to confirm it, the algorithm should be implemented and compared with GA. The experimental results with proposed method gives the best results compare genetics algorithm.

[Homayun Motameni, Seyyed Hossein bozorgi, mohammad ali shaban nezhad, Golnaz Berenjian, Behnam Barzegar. Solving N-Queen problem using Gravitational Search Algorithm. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):37-44](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.06

 

Key words: N-queen problem, Gravitational search algorithm, combinatorial optimization.

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Risk factors and specialized contact lens fitting for post Lasik corneal ectasia

 

Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang1, David Chao-Kai Chang2, John Ching-Jen Hsiao3,4,*

 

1 The Vision Care Institute of Johnson & Johnson, Taipei City, Taiwan

2 Nobel Eye Clinic, Taipei City, Taiwan

3 School of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan

4 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan

johncjhsiao@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: Corneal ectasia following Lasik is a devastating complication of laser in keratomileusis (Lasik). The classic clinical sign of the condition is a progressive steepening and thinning of the cornea after excimer laser refractive surgery that reduces both uncorrected visual acuity and corrected visual acuity with spectacle. Risk factors for the development of ectasia after Lasik include high myopia prior to surgery, low residual stromal bed thickness, low preoperative corneal thickness, forme fruste keratoconus and multiple laser enhancements. Management of postoperative ectasia with specialized contact lens remains the main course of treatment for patients who do not wish to go through other surgical options or corneal transplantation. [Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang, David Chao-Kai Chang, John Ching-Jen Hsiao. Risk factors and specialized contact lens fitting for post Lasik corneal ectasia. Life Sci J 2013;10(1): 45-48] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.07

 

Keywords: Corneal ectasia, Laser in keratomileusis(Lasik), Residual stromal bed thickness, Specialized contact lens

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8

Effects of fin per inch on heat transfer and pressure drop of an air cooler with circular and hexagonal fins

 

Ali Falavand Jozaei1, Mehdi Mosavi Navaei2, Alireza Baheri3,

1Department of Mechanics, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2Arvand Petrochemical Co., Iran

3Engineering Group, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran

Corresponding author email: falavand@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Operation enhancement in an air cooler (heat exchanger) depends on rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (fin per inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on two parameters mentioned above is considered in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ softwares are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, rating, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI (fin per inch) steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI=12 (for circular fins about 47% and for hexagonal fins about 69%) and then decreased gradually to FPI=15 (for circular fins about 5% and for hexagonal fins about 8%), and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI=12. The FPI value selction between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI).

[Falavand Jozaei A, Navaei MM, Baheri A. Effects of fin per inch on heat transfer and pressure drop of an air cooler with circular and hexagonal fins. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):49-56] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.08

 

Keywords: air cooler; fin per inch; heat transfer; pressure drop; circular and hexagonal fins

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9

Product Design Variables Optimization using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

Mirza Jahanzaib1, Syed Athar Masood2, Umer Jamil1, Khalid Akhtar1

 

1Industrial Engineering Department, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila, Pakistan

2Department of Engineering Management, E&ME College, National University of Science & Technology, Islamabad

jahan.zaib@uettaxial.edu.pk

 

Abstract: To achieve customer satisfaction and product excellence many quality programs such as quality circles, Kaizen, TQM, Design for Six Sigma have been developed & practiced. Most of quality techniques are focused on production and shop floor related activities. It is now realized that improving a product in design phase is much easier and controllable than attempting to make improvements after it is in production phase. This paper explores the opportunities of optimizing Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach in product development particularly to product design at early stage of the design process. A mechanical product (bolted joint) has been selected to carryout analysis and seeking optimum design values. Once the controllable variables are established, then the process of optimum seeking is carried out using Monte Carlo Simulation. It is found that there is no need to tighten the tolerances of inputs as conventional method practiced is worst case which resulted in tighter tolerances causing additional costs with no value addition to the product. The key input means and standard deviations have been optimized to obtain critical to quality (CTQ) characteristic mean, close to target values and its variation within acceptable limits. The decision variables with optimization runs resulted optimize decision variables that improve the proposed design CP & CPK.

[Mirza Jahanzaib, Syed Athar Masood, Omer Jamil, Khalid Akhtar. Product Design Variables Optimization using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):57-63] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.09

 

Keywords: Critical to Quality; Design for Six Sigma; Improved Design Process; Optimum seeking in design

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Performance Analysis of Process Parameters Effecting the Automated Assembly System

 

Mirza Jahanzaib1, Syed Athar Masood2, Khalid Akhtar1, Fahad Al Mufadi3

 

1Industrial Engineering Department, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila, Pakistan

2Department of Engineering Management, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering,

National University of Science & Technology, Islamabad

3College of Engineering Qassim University, Qassim Saudi Arabia

Email: jahan.zaib@uettaxila.edu.pk

 

Abstract: The automated assembly systems are designed to perform the assembly operations in a fixed sequence to assemble products. Four types of system/operational planning issues are significant which are: delivery of parts at workstations; single station system; multi-station automated systems; and partial automation. This paper is focused on multi station automated system which is employed for operational performance of the assembly operations. Standard mathematical routines have been modeled and analyzed using real life industrial data engaged in assembling of products in high technology industry. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to observe the impact of process parameters on the performance of system. A comparison of these functions allowed users to identify sensitive process parameters affecting the system. It has been learnt that yield related parameters are the most sensitive in the automated system followed by the cost and process cycle time.

[Mirza Jahanzaib, Syed Athar Masood, Khalid Akhtar, Fahad Al Mufadi. Performance Analysis of Process Parameters Effecting the Automated Assembly System. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):64-68] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.10

 

Keywords: Automated assembly systems; High Tech Assembly; Process Yield; Performance Analysis

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Pregnancy complicated by heart disease: Clinical analysis of 116 patients

 

Wei Miao1, Qing Miao2*

 

1.Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China; 2.Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital Of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. qing_miao@sina.com

 

Abstract: To investigate the incidence of pregnancy complicated by various forms of heart diseases and to analyze the effect of cardiac function on pregnant women and perinatal infants,the clinical data of 116 women were retrospectively analyzed whose pregnancy was complicated by heart diseases admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between January 2006 and December 2011. The results show that Congenital heart disease (CHD, 52 patients, 44.83%) accounted for complications in arrhythmia (16 patients, 13.79%), hypertensive heart disease (7 patients, 6.03%), and myocarditis 5 patients, 4.31%). A significant difference was observed in gestation length and the average newborn weight between the patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I/II and those with NYHA class III/IV (P < 0.05). The rate patients who underwent caesarean delivery was 72.22%, and no perinatal mortality was observed in cases of pregnancies complicated by heart diseases.The results indicate that while CHD ranks first among heart diseases complicating pregnancy, RHD continues to be a complication in a large number of pregnancies in rural areas. Different cardiac functions affect gestation and newborn weight, and caesarean delivery at appropriate time may improve pregnancy outcomes.

[Wei Miao, Qing Miao. Pregnancy complicated by heart disease: Clinical analysis of 116 patients. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):69-72] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.11

 

Keywords: Pregnancy; Heart disease; cardiac function

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The Outcome of Two Teaching Methods on Creating Awareness for Hepatitis C Patients Adherent to Therapeutic Regimen

 

1Soad M. Hegazy, 2Mimi M. Mekkawy, 3Marwa M. Ragheb, 4Hyam R. Tantawi and 5Ashraf M. Osman

 

Medical- Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, 1Ain Shams University, 2 Assuit University, 3 Benha University,4Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, 5Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University

Soadmahmoud43@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepatitis C represents a challenge to the health and well being of the patients and to health care system. In recent years remarkable progress has been made in hepatitis management and peg interferon/ribavirin combination therapy has become the slandered of care. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of two teaching methods on creating awareness for hepatitis C patients adherent to therapeutic regimen namely interferon and ribavirin therapy. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was utilized to conduct this study, the study was carried out at Assuite health population, and treatments unite of viral hepatitis and National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute at Cairo. Sample: A purposive sample included 110 patients, 80 were adults and the rest of them 30 were adolescents from the previously mentioned settings. Tools:1) Patients’ interviewing sheet to assess their knowledge about therapeutic regimen (pre / post tests), 2) An observation checklist to evaluate patients’ practices regarding therapeutic regimen (pre / post tests), 3) Psychomotor assessment to determine patients’ levels of anxiety and fatigue (pre / post test), 4) Patients condition assessment sheet (pre / post tests) and 5) Self-report weekly diary. Results: Showed that nearly two thirds of studied patients had poor knowledge and practices as regards their therapeutic regimen in pre / test compared to post/ tests. In addition, majority of them had sever anxiety and fatigue in pre - test compared to post tests. Moreover, significant reduction was indicated on treatment side effects in post tests. There are statistically significant differences between the effects of two teaching methods on the studied patients. Conclusion: The two teaching methods (educational program and instructional Booklet) were helpful in creating awareness for hepatitis C patients adherent to therapeutic regimen namely interferon and ribavirin therapy and reduction of treatment side – effects, added to educational program was more better and assistance for the studied patients compared to instructional Booklet. Recommendations: Further studies should be carried out on a large number of hepatitis C patients for evidence of the results and generalization.

[Soad M. Hegazy, Mimi M. Mekkawy, Marwa M. Ragheb, Hyam R. Tantawi and Ashraf M. Osman. The Outcome of Two Teaching Methods on Creating Awareness for Hepatitis C Patients Adherent to Therapeutic Regimen. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):73-81] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.12

 

Key words: Therapeutic regimen (interferon and ribavirin) - treatment adherence - teaching methods.

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Intended, implemented and experiential null curriculum

 

Arezoo Assemi1, Mostafa Sheikhzade2*

 

1. Research Deputy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran / PhD Candidate, English Language and Literature Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey

2. Department of Education, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran

m.sheikhzade@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Curriculum development is one of the main parts of learning and teaching process in education. Curriculum development includes overt, hidden, and null curriculum. In fact, null curriculum refers to the omitted and neglected parts of a curriculum. This paper presents null curriculum as consisting of intended, implemented, and experiential parts. The intended null curriculum is that authors of school textbooks or politicians exclude some parts of the content and curriculum because of its incongruence with the needs of students and society. The implemented null curriculum is that teachers ignore or exclude some parts of the content and curriculum that is not fit to students' needs and interests in the course of instruction. In experiential null curriculum, students neglect or pay little attention to some contents because these materials do not relate to their life or it is incongruous with their needs. The main purpose of this research is to present theoretical views about three kinds of intended, implemented and experiential null curriculum. Finally suggest some ways to avoid content loss in curriculum planning or implementing.

[Assemi A, Sheikhzade M. Intended, implemented and experiential null curriculum. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):82-85] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.13

 

Keywords: Intended; implemented and experiential null curriculum; hidden and overt curriculum

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Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution and Microbial Contamination in Water, Sediments and Fish of Lake Manzala, Egypt

 

Hamed Y. A.1&2, Abdelmoneim T. S. 3&4*, ElKiki M. H.1,5, Hassan M. A.4, Berndtsson R.6

 

1.Faculty of Engineering, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt

2.Faculty of Engineering, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

3Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4.Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

5.Fauclty of Engineering, Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia

6. Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Sweden

tmabrouk@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess the heavy metals pollution and microbial contamination in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala and study the direct and indirect effect for disposal of waste water, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. Samples were collected from four different sites in the lake and one site in the drain. The selected sites are exposed to direct and indirect industrial, municipal waste water and agricultural drainage disposals. A site near the connection between the lake and the sea was chosen as a possible unpolluted site to compare. Three water samples and one sediment sample were collected monthly from each site for thirteen months. Fish samples (Oreochromis niloticus) were collected randomly for eight months from different sites of the lake. Water salinity and pH values were measured to each site. Water, sediment and fish samples were analyzed for the concentration of five major heavy metals (Mn, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu), and two groups of bacteria (Total viable bacteria TVB - faecal coliform bacteria FCB). Results show that all the water and sediment samples were collected from five sites contain different concentration of the five tested heavy metals. The highly polluted site with Zn, Pb, Cu in sediment was found in the drain as a result of the industrial disposal. The highly polluted site with Zn and Cu in water and Cd in sediment was found in site near the industrial area as a result of direct disposal of factories nearby. Although the site near the connection between the sea and the lake was assumed to be the purest site, It was found contained a maximum concentration of Pb in water. It is possibly due to the disposal from a new natural gas factories located near this area. All the five sites were contaminated with high rate of TVB and FCB in water which is an indicator of untreated waste water which spilled directly or indirectly to the lake. The most alarming result was found when analyzing fish; all the fish samples were contaminated on surface and internally with very high amounts of TVB and FCB at gill and intestine. Fish samples also had high concentrations of analyzed heavy metals at their flesh. The mean calculated value of Pb was high up to 38 times than the allowed permissible concentration. This confirms that lake fish is highly polluted and dangerous for human health.

[Hamed Y. A., Abdelmoneim T. S., ElKiki M. H., Hassan M. A., Berndtsson R. Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution and Microbial Contamination in Water, Sediments and Fish of Lake Manzala, Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):86-99] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.14

 

Key words: Water, Heavy metals, Lake Manzala, Fish, Microbial contamination

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Sampling Frequency determination in water quality monitoring stations with attitude to consumption patterns reform to reduce costs

 

Mohammad Abdollahzadeh1*, Noushin Osouleddini2

1Water and Wastewater Engineering, Maintenance and Operation of Water Treatment Plant No:5, ”Sohanak” Tehran, Iran

2Chemistry Department, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil, Iran

m_abdollahzadeh@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Consumption patterns reform means applying correct way of using resources. Due to the excessive use of chemicals for measurement of physicochemical parameters of water, the high volume of wastewater, environmental pollutions, Selection of quality parameters and the sampling frequency for water quality analysis are important for the reform of consumption. A large amount of water quality monitoring network costs is due to sampling sequence. Also usability of the collected data are depends on the sampling frequency. In water resource monitoring programs, the number of hourly and seasonal sampling are determined according to qualitative and quantity parameter type, characteristics of water source and sampling frequency. The number of parameters and sampling at each station was determined using the formulas presented. Given the above analysis of the physicochemical parameters significantly reduced, which reduces costs and less time to spend.

[Mohammad Abdollahzadeh, Noushin Osouleddini. Sampling Frequency determination in water quality monitoring stations with attitude to consumption patterns reform to reduce costs. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):100-107] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.15

 

Keywords:Water source, Monitoring programs, Consumption patterns reform, Sampling frequency, Reduces costs

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A Study of Yarn Breaks on Warping Machines

 

Alsaid Ahmed Almetwally1, M. M. Mourad2 and Abeer Ebraheem Eldsoky Mohammed3

 

1 Textile Eng. Dpt, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2Faculty of Education, Helwan Univ., Helwan, Egypt.

3 Faculty of Specific Education, Mansoura Univ., Home Economics Dpt, Mansoura, Egypt.

draeldsoky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the impact of cotton / polyester blending ratio, cotton type, yarn twist and yarn count on yarn breaks on warping machine. Two-way ANOVA technique was used to detect the significant effects of these variables on yarn breaks. Regression analysis was used to predict the number of yarn breaks at different levels of each independent variable. The findings of this study revealed that Blending ratio of polyester in cotton:polyester blended yarns has a significant effect on yarn breaks and the breaks associated with carded yarns were more than that accompanied the combed ones. The number of yarn breaks varies directly with single and plied yarn counts. Whereas twist multipliers inversely affect the number of yarn breaks. For warp yarns of count 20 Ne, Yarns spun from Giza 70 exhibited higher breaks number, while for yarns of count 40 Ne, Giza 83 showed higher yarn breaks. Singeing process enhanced warp yarn breaks on warping machine by approximately 25%.

[Alsaid Ahmed Almetwally, M. M. Mourad and Abeer Ebraheem Eldsoky Mohammed. A Study of Yarn Breaks on Warping Machine. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):108-114] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.16

 

Key words: blending techniques; cotton/polyester ratio, yarn count, yarn twist, combed yarn, carded yarn, warping process.

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Neonatal care and breastfeeding in medieval Persian literature: Hakim Esmail Jorjani (1042-1137AD) and the Treasure of King Khwarazm: A Review

 

Mohammad Yazdchi 1, Seyed Fazel Hosseini 2, Kamyar Ghabili 3, Samad EJ Golzari 4, Leila Valizadeh 5, Vahid Zamanzadeh 5, Bahareh Akbarzadeh 5, Amir Mohammad Bazzazi 6, Haleh Mikaeili 7

 

1. Neuroscience Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2. Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4. Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

5. Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

6. Department of Neurosurgery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

7. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

valizadehl@tbzmed.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Exploring the realm of sciences and challenging the ideas, traditional medicine has always been a medium for developing medical purposes, relieving illnesses and improving quality of life. Hakim Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) compiled his comprehensive 750,000-word textbook of medicine, Zakhireyei Khwarazmshahi (The Treasure of Khwarazm Shah) which is considered as the oldest medical encyclopedia written in Persian. Written in circa 1112 AD, the Treasure has been ranked along with Avicenna’s the Canon of Medicine and Haly Abbas’s the Liber Regalis. Six chapters of the Treasure (third book) include notes on neonatal care and breastfeeding. The present article is a review of the Jorjani’s teachings on the neonatal care, breastfeeding, weaning and teething along with comparisons between the Treasure and modern medicine in this regard.

[Yazdchi M, Hosseini SF, Ghabili K, Golzari SE, Valizadeh L, Zamanzadeh V, Akbarzadeh B, Bazzazi AM, Mikaeili H. Neonatal care and breastfeeding in medieval Persian literature: Hakim Esmail Jorjani (1042-1137AD) and the Treasure of King Khwarazm: A Review. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):115-120] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.17

 

Keywords: Jorjani; the Treasure of King Khwarazm; neonatal care; breastfeeding

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Measurements of the Natural Radioactivity along Red Sea Coast (South Beach of Jeddah Saudi Arabia)

 

Safia H.Q. Hamidalddin*

 

King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

safiahqh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Twenty marine sediment samples were collected (from the ground surface down to depth of 0.50 m) from the south beach located on the western part of Jeddah. The samples were analyzed by XRD spectroscopy for the chemical and mineral compositions, results show that the major concentrations for the samples are ALBITE, ARAGONITE, MICROLINE, AUGITE, and QUARTZ, with minor and trace concentrations. The samples were also analyzed for concentrations of 238U, 232Th series, 235U, and 40K by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The activity concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U, and 40K for ten samples from the ground surface are found in the range of 09.43 to 18.32, 20.26  to 31.21 , 10.32 0 to 20.33 , 0.783  to 0.990 , and 562.04 to 1804.63  with mean values of 14.22 , 23.77 , 14.00 0.45, 0.763, and 968.19  Bq/kg respectively. Also, for ten samples at 0.50 m depth, the activity concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight ranged from 10.27  to 25.31 , 17.96  to 30.78 , 10.74  to 28.02 , 0.570  to 1.320 , and 367.45 0.65 to 1855.72  with mean values of 17.01 , 24.34 , 17.30 , 0.911 , 934.45  Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity Bq/kg varied from 081.60 to182.29 Bq/kg with mean values 118.33 Bq/kg for the samples on the ground surface, and from 071.77 to 196.96 Bq/kg with mean value 120.40 Bq/kg, for the samples at o.50m depth. The Absorbed Dose Rate (nGy/h), Annual Effective Dose (mSvy/h), External Hazard Index for the ground surface samples ranged from 40.06 to 93.15, 0.049 to 0.114, and 0.220 to 0.492 with mean values 59.13, 0.073, and 0.320, while for the samples at o.50m depth the values ranged from 34.75 to 99.85, 0.043 to 0.123, and 0.194 to 0.532 with mean values 59.67, 0.073, and 0.325. These calculated values were lower than the estimated world –averaged values.

[Safia H.Q. Hamidalddin. Measurements of the Natural Radioactivity along Red Sea Coast (South Beach of Jeddah Saudi Arabia). Life Sci J 2013;10(1):121-128] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.18

 

Key words: marine sediment- south beach of Jeddah-235U- mean values- gamma spectrometer

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CD 160 molecules and IL28 B genotypes in diabetic and non diabetic chronic hepatitis C patients

 

Nahla M Abd-Elaziz1 and Karima Y Ahmed2

 

Department of Clinical Pathology1 and Internal Medicine2, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Alazhar University, Egypt. nahlashankeer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract Background and Aim: Despite the close relationship between hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), the underlying mechanism that links diabetes and HCV infection remain conjectural. During chronic hepatitis C disease, key inhibitory molecules including CD160 are up-regulated with different kinetics on CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes. There are two different opinions regarding the function of CD160 molecules, the first opinion suggested that the expression of CD160 on CD8 cytotoxic T cell contribute to the exhaustion and failure of immune responses, whereas the other opinion defined CD160 molecule as modulators and regulators of immune responses. Thus, We aimed to assess the pattern of expression and the role of CD160 molecules in the development and controlling of HCV associated diabetes. Also, a little of known about the genetic control of CD160 signaling pathway between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells. Recently, IL-28B gene polymorphisms was identified as a genetic predictor for progression of HCV and the effectiveness of antiviral therapy. IL28B polymorphisms include C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes, C/C genotype is considered as a good predictor of disease progression and therapy responses while T alleles groups were associated with bad prognosis and less response to therapy. We aimed to clarify the link between a triad, CD160 molecules, T lymphocytes immune responses and IL28B genotypes during HCV associated diabetes. Patients & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Al-Zahraa University Hospital from June 2011 to March 2012. An informed consent was obtained from patients. The study included twenty diabetic chronic hepatitis C (HCV) patients, twenty non-diabetic HCV patients (without decompensated liver or hepatocellular carcinoma) and twenty healthy control subjects. The selection of HCV patients depends upon seropositive anti-HCV confirmed by positive HCV-RNA-PCR. Also, the exclusion of patients with decompensated liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma was achieved via questionnaire, clinical examination, pelviabdominal ultrasonography and routine laboratory investigations. The diabetic HCV patients were identified in the presence of documented hypoglycemic medications or fasting blood sugar greater than 140 mg/dL on two occasions. Using flow cytometry, the patients and control groups were investigated for the expression of CD160 molecules on CD8 T lymphocytes. Using real time PCR, the diabetic and non-diabetic HCV patients were evaluated for the frequency of IL-28B genotypes. In addition, the diabetic HCV patients were estimated for glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The diabetic and non-diabetic HCV patients showed statistically significant increase in CD160% as matched to control group. Importantly, theCD8 cytotoxic T cells of diabetic HCV group displayed higher expression of CD160% as compared to non-diabetic group. Also, we observed significant negative correlation between the frequency of CD160 molecules and the mean value of HbA1C in diabetic HCV group. As regard IL-28B polymorphisms, our result showed higher frequency of C/C genotype in diabetic HCV patients, whereas non-diabetic HCV group showed higher frequency of C/T genotype. Interestingly, our data showed an association of favorable genotype C/C with higher frequency of CD160 molecules as matched to both T alleles genotypes groups. Conclusion: we concluded that CD 160 molecules up regulation on cytotoxic CD8 T cells occur as a consequence of exaggerated immune responses and vigorous secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Also, we clarified that the over expression of CD160 in tandem with IL28B C/C genotype is considered as a good predictor of disease progression and antiviral treatment response. In addition,we suggested the involvement of IL28 B gene in controlling T cell immune responses including CD160 signaling via HLA class-1 gene. Importantly, we confirmed the modulatory and regulatory role of CD160 molecules in controlling of HCV associated diabetes.

[Nahla M Abd-Elaziz and Karima Y Ahmed. CD 160 molecules and IL28 B genotypes in diabetic and non diabetic chronic hepatitis C. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):129-137] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.19

 

Keywords: CD160, IL28B, HCV, diabetes

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Surgical Procedures and Postoperative Complications in Patients with Giant and Non-giant Pulmonary Hydatid Cysts

 

Mohsen Sokouti 1, Masoud Pezeshkian 2, Kamyar Ghabili 3, Samad EJ Golzari 4

 

1. Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2. Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

dr.golzari@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: There is a challenge over treatment of giant pulmonary hydatid cysts. Therefore, we aimed at comparing the surgical procedures and postoperative complications between patients with giant and non-giant hydatid cysts. In a retrospective clinical study, patients operated for hydatid lung cysts were divided into giant pulmonary hydatid cysts (size>10 cm) and non-giant hydatid cysts groups. Patients were treated surgically using lung preservation (capitonnage, uncapitonnage and segmentectomy) and lobectomy procedures. A total of 612 patients, 59 (9.6%) in the giant and 553 (90.4%) in the non-giant pulmonary hydatid cysts, were recruited. The most common symptoms in the giant group were cough (100%) and dyspnea (71.2%). These symptoms along with the systemic symptoms and ruptured hydatid cysts were more observed in the giant group (P<0.001). The lung preservation procedures and cyst delivery were more performed in the non-giant group (P<0.001), while lobectomy, needle aspiration and bronchial opening closure procedures were more applied to the giant group (P<0.05). The postoperative pulmonary complications, excluding empyema and anaphylaxis, were more observed in the non-giant group (P<0.001). The patients undergoing the surgery of giant pulmonary hydatid cysts, using lobectomy in comparison with the lung preserving procedures experience lesser postoperative pulmonary complications and total length of hospitalization.

[Sokouti M, Pezeshkian M, Ghabili K, Golzari SE. Surgical Procedures and Postoperative Complications in Patients with Giant and Non-giant Pulmonary Hydatid Cysts. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):138-142] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.20

 

Keywords: Giant hydatid cyst; lung; parenchymal preservation; lobectomy

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Fertility awareness and family planning use among post abortion women in Egypt

 

Ghadah A. Mahmoud1* and Soad S. Byomy2

 

1* Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt.

2 Community Health Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt.

*Ghadah_omar2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The annual number of unsafe abortions is increasing due to the growing number of women of reproductive age globally, according to the World Health Organization. The WHO estimated 21.6 million unsafe abortions in 2008. The aim of the study was to assess the hospital rate of abortion for one year at the Woman’s Health Hospital, Assiut University, Egypt and to assess the knowledge of post abortion women about the timing of fertility return and their intention for using post abortion family planning methods. Subjects and methods: A Cross Sectional study was used in carrying out this study. The following tool was used in the current study: Structured interviewing questionnaire which included the following data: Data related to fertility return awareness and the intention of these women for the future use of family planning methods. Results: The hospital based rate of abortion is 9.4% according to the hospital statistical based data, 2011. More than half of women (56.7%) didn’t know any type of post abortion family planning methods, nearly two thirds of them (61.4%) didn’t know the time of fertility return after abortion, three quarters of women (78.6%) want to postponing childbearing and nearly two thirds of them (62.9%) had no intention for using post abortion family planning methods. Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that there is a lack of knowledge of these women about the time of fertility return after abortion and the family planning methods should be used after abortion. Recommendations: In Upper Egypt, there is a need of postabotion family planning counseling programs as an essential part of postabortion care.

[Ghadah A. Mahmoud and Soad S. Byomy. Fertility awareness and family planning use among post abortion women in Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):143-150] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.21

 

Key wards: Unsafe abortion, postabortion, fertility return, family planning.

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The Protective Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Brain Tissue of Adult Male Albino Rats

 

Sahar M. Mahmoud1 and Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim2

 

1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.

2 Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt.

sahar_nyas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum, P.g.) juice on the oxidation state of the brain tissue of adult male albino rats and whether P.g. juice administration improves the activity of the antioxidant enzymes after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment as an oxidative stress agent. Rats were divided into four groups, Group I (control) was received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 300l saline solution (0.9% NaCl) for 12 weeks; Group II (CCl4 group) was injected i.p. once per week for 10 weeks with CCl4 (2ml/kg body weight); Group III (P.g. group) was administered P.g. juice orally for 12 weeks and Group IV (P.g. + CCl4) was received P.g. 2 weeks before CCl4 injection and continued for 10 weeks; CCl4 was administered as shown in group II, decapitation of all groups were carried out one week after the last dose. Determination of glutathione (GSH) content and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), also malonaldhyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were carried out. The present results demonstrate that treatment with CCl4 induced biochemical changes in brain tissue as induction of (MDA) and nitrite/nitrate level accompanied with significant decrease in GSH content, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST activities. Administration of P.g. juice alone enhanced the activities of enzymes under investigation and decreased the level of NO. P.g. Juice administration before and during CCl4 treatment attenuated the decrease in the enzymes activities and GSH content of the brain, if compared to CCl4 group. The present study suggest that P.g. juice has a potential protective effect as it can elevate antioxidant defense system, clean up free radicals, lessens oxidative damages and protect the brain tissue against CCl4-induced toxicity.

[Sahar M. Mahmoud and Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim. The Protective Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Brain Tissue of Adult Male Albino Rats. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):151-158] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.22

 

Keywords: pomegranate (Punica granatum); carbon tetrachloride; oxidative stress; brain; rats.

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Study of Coumarin Content of Pelargonium fragrans - Willd. Root Grown in Egypt

 

K.M. Meselhy

 

Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr international and Cairo Universities, Cairo, Egypt. kmeselhy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Three coumarins viz; C1 (Umbelliferone), C2 (Umckalin) and novel coumarin glycoside C3, were isolated from Pelargonium fragrans Willd root. Isolated compounds were identified on the basis of their physico-chemical, UV spectral data, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS. These compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. Significant antiwormal effect on fresh earthworms (Allolobophora caliginosa), remarkable antioxidant activities and strong antifungal activity were recorded on the extract, fractions and isolated compounds.

[K.M. Meselhy. Study of Coumarin Content of Pelargonium fragrans - Willd. Root Grown in Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):159-164] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.23

 

Keywords: Coumarin, Pelargonium fragrans, antioxidant activities, antiwormal, antifungal.

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Use of oligomer modifier to enhance the fracture characteristics of glass reinforced composites for civil and medicine

 

Fakhrodin Alimoradi1*, Mohammad R. Aabaadiaan2, Ali Heidari1

 

1 Engineering Group, Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran

2 Engineering Group, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

Corresponding author email: f_a_moradi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Glass reinforced composite materials are used in civil engineering and medical applications. This material is one of the conventional constitutive materials which present good mechanical properties with low price. Herein we enhance the impact resistance of the glass-reinforced composite using oligomer modification agent. Mechanical fracture toughness tests have been conducted using standard test samples. The obtained test results show that the fracture toughness of Oligomer modified glass-reinforced composite is enhanced by addition of the Oligomer to the glass reinforced composite. Moreover the damaged surfaces of fractured samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.

[Alimoradi F, Aabaadiaan M R, Heidari A. Use of oligomer modifier to enhance the fracture characteristics of glass reinforced composites for civil and medicine. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):165-169] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.24

 

Keywords: Glass reinforced composite, Oligomer modifier, Fracture toughness properties.

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Effect of reactive vinyl-based modifier on thermal and failure resistance of reinforced epoxy used in pipelines

 

Ahmad Fakhar1*, Mohammad Aabaadiaan2, Mohamad Farhat3

 

1 Department of mechanics, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran

2 Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Department of engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

Corresponding author: E-mail address: a.fakhar@iaukashan.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In recent years, epoxy is used as the matrix for manufacturing composites that are used in medical and mechanical applications. For examples reinforced epoxy is applied in manufacturing human prostheses, scaffolds, fiberglass pipelines and other applications. In this work, we have applied a vinyl butadiene reactive modifier to systematically improve the failure resistance of an epoxy resin and its reinforcing composite. Vinyl-based modifier is known as a powerful toughening agent for epoxy-based thermoset polymers. Several mechanical tests including Impact resistance test and compression test has been performed. In order to evaluate the effect of rubber toughening on thermal resistance of reinforced epoxy, the dynamical scanning calorimeter has been utilized. In addition, damaged surfaces of fractured samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy techniques. It is found that vinyl modifier improve the failure resistance of the reinforced epoxy resin. This can be attributed to the high cavitations of oligomer particles. However this improvement is accompanied with decreasing the thermal resistance of the material. This is the result of solving vinyl-based oligomer in the matrix during the mixing.

[Fakhar A, Aabaadiaan M, Farhat M. Effect of reactive vinyl-based modifier on thermal and failure resistance of reinforced epoxy used in pipelines and medicine. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):170-174] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.25

 

Key words: Epoxy resin, Vinyl butadiene (VTB), Mechanical properties.

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Comparison between methods used for manufacturing of aluminum foam

 

Beigi kheradmand1, S. Otroj2, Z. Soleimanpour1, M. Beigyfar1

 

1Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord branch, Iran

2Faculty of Material Engineering, Shahrekord University, Iran

Corresponding author email: kheradmand@iaush.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Metal foams with porosities exceeding 50% are used for production of advanced light-weight structures. In this study, the manufacturing methods of aluminum foam were reviewed and were compared with each other.There are number of processing methods that are currently used to manufacture Al foams (Krner and Singer, 2000; Banhart et al., 1999). These methods can be categorized into foaming liquid melts, gasar, infiltration, casting, foaming of powder compacts and sintering-dissolution process (SDP). Furthermore, microstructure and properties of the final product were addressed for each manufacturing method. All these manufacturing routes have their own relative densities and cell structures. Open and closed pore morphologies and relative densities ranging from 50 to 98% can be achieved based on the applied method.

[kheradmand A B, Otroj S, Soleimanpour Z, Beigyfar M. Comparison between methods used for manufacturing of aluminum foam. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):175-185] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.26

 

Keywords: Aluminum foam, Manufacturing, Properties, Applications, Blowing agent

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Simulating the buckling deflection of carbon nanotube-made detectors used in medical detections by applying a continuum mechanics model

 

Alireza Vahdati*1, Mehdi Vahdati1,2, R. A. Mahdavinejad2

 

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Naein Branch, Islamic Azad University, Naein, Iran

2Department of Mechanical engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding author: Vahdati@naeiniau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Carbon nanotubes are increasingly used in fabrication of nano-detectors and other nano devices. Herein, the buckling of a carbon nano-tube made detector is simulated. In order to obtain nonlinear constitutive equation of the detectors we assume the distributed electrostatic and Van der Waals attractions along the CNT length. By considering the nano forces in a continuum mechanics model we were able to achieve the differential equation of the CNT. In the next step by applying Adomian series solution, we provided an analytical closed-form solution of CNTs. The deflection and the buckling parameters are determined and discussed in detail. The analytical obtained results are compared with those of literature as well as numerical solution. The obtained results revealed that the presented continuum based model is in good agreement with experimental result. Moreover it is found that the analytical solution can be considered as a reliable approach to study the buckling stability of detectors in nanoscales where the presence of van der Waals force is important.

[Vahdati A, Vahdati M, Mahdavinejad R A. Simulating the buckling deflection of carbon nanotube-made detectors used in medical detections by applying a continuum mechanics model. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):186-191] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.27

 

Key words: Carbon nanotube (CNT), Buckling, Continuum model, Nano-detector, Electrostatic, Modified Adomian method (MAD).

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Protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on blue light-induced damage in retinoblastoma Y79 cells by activating estrogen receptor pathway

 

Mei-Ling Peng1, 2#, Ching-Ju Lee3#, Chung-Liang Chien4, Chun-Lan Liu5, Cheng-Yu Tsai6, Yang-Cheng Wen6, Kuang-Wen Tseng1, 6*

 

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

2 Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

3Internal Medicine, Taipei Hospital, Department of Health, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

4 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

5Department of Anatomy, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

6School of Optometry, College of Medical Sciences and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

#Contributed equally. kuangwen@csmu.edu.tw

Abstract: Light-induced photoreceptor cell death can be caused by a variety of cellular mechanisms that involve oxidative stress. Therefore, the eye depends on the presence of antioxidants to protect the retina from light-induced damage. Visible light is generated by the sun as well as by a wide variety of artificial illumination sources such as light emitting diodes (LED). Excessive exposure to light would be damaging to the eye. The short-wavelength visible light between 430 nm to 500 nm (blue light) is especially associated with retina damage as evidenced by photoreceptor degeneration. Recent investigations demonstrated that estrogen receptors (ERs) have antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects on neuronal cells in brain. However, estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated effects of the (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), extracted from green tea, have not been examined extensively in photoreceptors of the eyeball. EGCG were examined for the ability to elicit ERs and ER-mediated gene expression in vitro. Our studies were demonstrated that the cell degeneration of retinoblastoma Y79 cells was observed after blue light exposure. Apoptosis related proteins, p53 and caspase-3, increased the expression after blue light illumination. After EGCG treatment, increased ER proteins production and inhibited the blue light-induced retinoblastoma Y79 cells death were investigated. These results indicated the short-wavelength visible light, such as white LED exposure, leads to retinoblastoma Y79 damage. EGCG regulates the expression of neuroprotective proteins, ER, and modulates degeneration responses in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells.

[Mei-Ling Peng, Ching-Ju Lee, Chung-Liang Chien, Chun-Lan Liu, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Yang-Cheng Wen, Kuang-Wen Tseng. Protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on blue light-induced damage in retinoblastoma Y79 cells by activating estrogen receptor pathway. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):192-198] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.28

 

Keywords: Green tea, Estrogen receptor, Photoreceptor, Retinoblastoma Y79, Blue light

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Biomass-density relationships and self-thinning of shell and tissue in marine intertidal barnacles

 

Claver Sibomana and Gen-Xuan Wang

 

College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

fzstsys2@zju.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Although self-thinning exponent in barnacles was assumed to be close to -3/2 widely acknowledged for space-limited plants, steeper slopes have been observed as a result of allometric growth. There is a trade-off between shell and tissue growth in barnacles and self-thinning lines for these individual parts would differ as a result of different biomass allocation. We quantified biomass-density relationships for shell and tissue in self-thinning population of Tetraclita squamosa in two intertidal levels to determine the corresponding scaling exponents to see whether they are close to each other and to the “-3/2 power law”. The self-thinning slope for tissue in low interidal was steeper than the shell one in mid-intertidal and all slopes were higher than -3/2. In higher heights, individuals are subject to more desiccation stress and would allocate more biomass to shell than their counterparts in lower heights which allocate more biomass to tissue, thus self-thinning slope for tissue in low intertidal would be steeper. Our results suggested that self-thinning exponent for barnacle individual parts is not invariant and these different exponents would be explained by different biomass allocation to shell and tissue in response to environmental conditions.

[Sibomana C, Wang GX. Biomass-density relationships and self-thinning of shell and tissue in marine intertidal barnacles. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):199-203] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.29

 

Key-words: barnacle, biomass-density relationship, biomass allocation, self-thinning, Tetraclita squamosa

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Assessment of Zinc and Copper Contents in the Hair and Serum and Also Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathion Peroxidase and Malondi Aldehyde in Serum in Androgenetic Alopecia and Alopecia Areata

 

Mehdi Amirnia1, Sima Sinafar2, Hassan Sinafar3, Mohammad Nuri4, Abdoreza Taban Sadeghi5

 

1. Associated professor of Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2. General physician, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3. Dermatologist, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4. Associated professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

5- Pathologist, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Mehamir46@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Alopecia areata (AA) is a recurrent nonscarring type of hair loss that can affect any hair-bearing area. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss is a very common condition that has a significant psychosocial impact for patients. There are claims that imbalance of trace elements may trigger the onset of alopecia. The aim of this research was to assess the level of zinc, copper contents in the hair and level of lipid peroxidation as super oxide dismutase, Glutathion peroxidase and malon di aldehyde in serum in androgenic and areata alpecia. The prospective study was conducted in department of Dermatology of Sina Hospital and Biochemistry department of Tabriz University of medical science. The study population consists of 27 patients with alopecia areata and 27 patients with androgenetic alopecia. 27 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were studied. The level of zinc, copper contents in the hair and serum and level of lipid peroxidation as super oxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathion peroxidase (GPX-Px) and malon di aldehyde (MDA) in serum in androgenetic, areata alpecia and healthy control subjects were measured in all samples. The collected data were statistically analyzed, using SPSS. The duration of hair loss varied between 1-240 month among patients with alopecia areata and 6-180 month among patients with androgenetic alopecia. The mean of hair zinc level in AA patients, AGA patients and controls were 98.33 g/dl, 105.35 g/dl and 129.52 g/dl. The mean level of hair copper level in study and control groups were, 7.91, 7.25 and 10.34. The mean of serum level of SOD, MDA and GPX-Px in study and control groups were (1945.25, 1861.57 and 2296.77), (3.64, 3.49 and 1.62) and (129.11, 118.84 and 138.74). Zinc and copper contents of hair and serum were significantly lower among patients with alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia compared to controls (P<0.05). The serum level of SOD, GPX-Px were significantly lower and level of MDA were higher among patients with alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia compared to controls (P<0.05). These results suggest that low levels of zinc and copper of hair and serum and lipid peroxidation and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant enzymatic system (SOD, GPX-Px) with high level of MDA at serum may play a role in the pathogenesis of AA and AGA.

[Amirnia M, Sinafar S, Sinafar H, Nuri M, Taban Sadeghi A. Assessment of Zinc and Copper Contents in the Hair and Serum and Also Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathion Peroxidase and Malondi Aldehyde in Serum in Androgenetic Alopecia and Alopecia Areata. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):204-209] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.30

 

Keywords: Alopecia; Zinc; Copper

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Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and immunologic Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine

 

Mojtaba Varshochi and Sepehr Taghizadeh

 

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Faculty of medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. varshochim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Problem statement: To evaluation the Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and immunologic Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine. Methods: In a cross sectional descriptive analytic study carried out on the health care Workers (HCWs) of Tabriz Shahid Madani Hospital in 2010-2011, we evaluated the immunologic response of the staff to vaccination against Hepatitis B and correlation by body mass index (BMI). Results and Conclusion: Results: 122 people (36.8%) from the studied HCWs were male and 209 people (63.2%) female. The mean Primary and secondary antibody titer in the studied HCWs were 304.07199.98 and 369.13 169.78 IU/L. From 331 studied people, 31 (9.4%) showed no response to vaccination, 52 (15.7%) low response and 248 (74.9%) good response and after one booster dose, 7 (2.1%) showed no response to vaccination, 5 (1.5%) low response and 319 (96.4%) good response. In our study, the response rate to the vaccine has been reduced by increased weight and BMI, although this reduction was not statistically significant. Mean of Primary response antibody titer in male was significantly higher than female HCWs(P=0.011).Significant liner correlation was not found between HBsAb level and HCWs weight and BMI.

[Varshochi M, Taghizadeh S. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and immunologic Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):210-213] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.31

 

Keywords: Hepatitis B Vaccines; Occupational Diseases; BMI; Immunologic Response

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Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon excreta in Qazvin

 

Fatemeh Samiee Rad

 

Assistant professor of Pathology, Qazvin Metabolic Disease Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

fsamieerad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Cryptococcus neoformans is a major pathogen in patient's immunocompromised, ubiquitous fungi that can live free from dust, bird droppings and plant materials are separated. Objective: purpose of this study was isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon excreta in Qazvin. Methods: The total of 50 pigeon excreta were collected and cultured on the brain heart infusion agar and Saboured dextrose agar with Chloramphenicol media, to isolate Cryptococcus neoformans at the 25 degrees centigrade and 37 degrees centigrade. Identification was performed by direct examination and by means of the urease test and Carbohydrate assimilation. Finding: From 50 pigeon excreta 2 cases (4%) Cryptococcus neoformans were detected. Besides the Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated 10 species of Cryptococcus Candida unigattulatus 4 cases (5.72%), Candida laurentii 3 cases (4.28%), Candida albidus 2 cases (2.86%) and Candida humicola 1 cases (1.43). Conclusion: Immunosuppressed individuals, especially HIV infected persons (AIDS patients) should avoid contact with pigeons and AIDS patients should avoid contact with pigeons and pet birds.

[Samiee Rad F. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon excreta in Qazvin. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):214-219] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.32

 

Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans; Pigeons excreta; AIDS

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Hypodense area within epidural hematoma in brain CT scan; Prediction of active bleeding in epidural hematoma

 

Mahboub Pouraghaei1, Payman Moharamzadeh1, Sima Dibazar2, Ali Taghizadieh1, Alireza Ala1, Parham Maroufi3, Reza Rikhtegar Ghiasi4

 

1- Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2- General Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3- Department of Orthopedic, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4- Neuroscience research center (NSRC), Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. research_team_iran@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: One of the most important factors in management of patients with epidural hematoma is the existence of hypodense area within the hematoma (SWIRL sign) in brain CT scan. This finding can be the sign of active bleeding and developing the hematoma. Purpose: Study the value of brain CT scan of the patients with epidural hematoma in order to predict the possibility of expansion of the hematoma because of active bleeding. Method: 49 patients with traumatic epidural hematoma entered the study and divided in to 2 groups. Group A was those with epidural hematoma who had indications for immediate craniotomy such as significant midline shift, large size of hematoma, epidural hematoma due to hydrocephalus and etc, and group B was that small or moderate size of epidural hematomas that were kept under close observation without surgery.

[Pouraghaei M, Moharamzadeh P, Dibazar S, Taghizadieh A, Ala A, Maroufi P, Rikhtegar Ghiasi R. Hypodense area within epidural hematoma in brain CT scan; Prediction of active bleeding in epidural hematoma. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):220-222] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.33

 

Keywords: Hypodense Area; Epidural Hematoma; Brain CT Scan

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Time Frequency of Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Northwest of Iran

 

Mehdi Farhoudi 1, Hormoz Ayromlou 1, Amir Mohammad Bazzazi 2, Farrokh Bakht Shadi 3, Samad EJ Golzari 4,5, Kamyar Ghabili 6,7, Marjan Dehdilani 8

 

1. Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2. Department of Neurosurgery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3. Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4. Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

5. Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

6. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

7. Young Researchers Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

8. Medical Education Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran

dr_amir_bazzazi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune mediated polyradiculoneuropathy usually proceeded with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections 3 to 5 days prior to neurologic signs appearance. It seems that GBS seasonally outbreaks in our region. This study was aimed to evaluate seasonal relationship of clinical and epidemiological findings of GBS in hospitalized patients in Imam Khomeini hospital in the period of 1992-2004. One hundred and seventy five cases of hospitalized patients diagnosed with GBS were studied considering following factors: age, sex, events prior to the onset, seasonal incidence, clinical patterns, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein, electrodiagnosis and mortality rate in patients. The age distribution was in the range of 2-83 years with the mean age of 38 years and male to female ratio was 1 to 2.3. Seasonal onset was spring in 21.1% of the cases, summer in 26.6%, fall in 28% and winter in 24.6%. There was no significant epidemic relation with the seasons of the year. The mortality rate was 8.6% during admission time. There was no significant relation between the season of onset of the disease and mortality rate.

[Farhoudi M, Ayromlou H, Bazzazi AM, Shadi FB, Golzari SE, Ghabili K, Dehdilani M. Time Frequency of Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Northwest of Iran. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):223-225] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.34

 

Keywords: Guillain-Barre syndrome; seasonal incidence; electrodiagnosis

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Analysis of Various Anti-Windup Schemes used to Control PMDC Motors employed in Orthopedic Surgical Simulators

G. Murugananth1, S. Vijayan 2, S. Muthukrishnan3

1 Department of EEE, Pollachi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi, India.
E-mail: gmurugananth@gmail.com
2 Principal, Surya Engineering College, Erode, India
3 Department of ECE, Sri Eshwar College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India


Abstract: Orthopedic surgical simulators are used by the trainee surgeons to drill the bones and place the screws. These simulators use PMDC motors for bone drilling. In this paper a closed loop chopper controlled drive is proposed and evaluated. The chopper controlled drive has an inner current control loop and an outer speed control loop. The outer control loop employs a conventional PI controller for the speed control of the PMDC motor. The anti-windup PI controller based system is proposed in order to enhance the performance of the system. The system is simulated using Matlab / Simulink and the performances of various anti-windup schemes are analysed. The properties of these controllers were measured and tabulated. The simulation results inferred that the proposed closed loop system with tracking anti-windup schemes can be used for the effective control of the PMDC motor in orthopedic surgeries.
[G. Murugananth, S. Vijayan, S. Muthukrishnan. Analysis of Various Anti-Windup Schemes used to Control PMDC Motors employed in Orthopedic Surgical Simulators. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):226-230] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.35



Keywords: Anti-windup, chopper, maximum peak overshoot, orthopedic surgical simulator, PI controller, PMDC Motor

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Knowledge and Practice of Female Employee About Premenstrual Syndrome and its Effect on Daily Life Activities in EL-Minia University

 

Mona A.Abd EL-Hamid., Diaa Ahmed El Moghazy, Manal F..Moustafa and. 4Ekbal A. Emam.

 

,4 Women Health & Obstetrics Nursing Faculty of Nursing, El-Minia University, Egypt

Obstetrics and Gynecological Faculty of Medicine El-Minia University, Egypt

Obstetrics& Gynecological Nursing Faculty of Nursing Assuit University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Premenstrual syndrome is a common health problem affecting females and because of its cyclic occurrence it is postulated to have different effects on quality of life. Aim of this study was to assess the female employee knowledge and practice about premenstrual syndrome and its effect on daily life activities. Method and materials: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on one hundred and thirteen women. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was developed which included socio-demographic data, obstetrical history, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), source of information about PMS, its effect on daily life activities and work and management of premenstrual syndrome. Results: The study revealed that the mean age SD of the studied sample was (31.7 9) years, (84.96%) of the studied samples were normal age of menarche, (61.95%) of the females were taken information about PMS from mothers, (63.72%) of the studied samples were had an effect on work. The most common reported physical symptom of PMS (79.64%) was backache while the most common reported Psychiatric symptom (76.99%) was worry. The measures practiced by the studied sample to overcome symptoms of PMS were (warm drinks, warm bathing, sports and activities, comfortable and rest period and medications).PMS symptoms was significantly more intense in the single female participants. Conclusion, PMS had an effect on work and daily life activities of female employee working in El- Minia University. Health education, appropriate medical treatment and counseling services, as part and parcel of the overall health service, should be provided to the affected female.

[Mona A.Abd EL-Hamid;.Diaa Ahmed El Moghazy; Manal F.Moustafa and. Ekbal A. Emam. Knowledge and Practice of Female Employee About Premenstrual Syndrome and its Effect on Daily Life Activities in EL-Minia University. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):231-243] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.36

 

Keywords: premenstrual syndrome, physical, psychological, daily life activities.

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An Outlier Based Bi-Level Neural Network Classification System for Improved Classification of Cardiotocogram Data

 

Sundar Chinnasamy1’*, Chitradevi Muthusamy2 and Geetharamani Gopal3

 

1Christian College of Engineering and Technology, Oddanchatram – 624619, Tamil Nadu, India.

2PRIST University, Trichy Campus – Tamilnadu, Trichiy – 620009, Tamil Nadu, India.

3Anna University Chennai, BIT Camps, Trichy – 620024, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Corresponding Author. E-Mail: sundarc007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting of fetal heart rate (FHR) and tocographic (TOCO) measurements, is used to evaluate fetal well-being. It is one of the most common diagnostic techniques to evaluate maternal and fetal well-being during pregnancy and before delivery. By observing the Cardiotocography trace patterns doctors can understand the state of the fetus. Even few decades after the introduction of cardiotocography into clinical practice, the predictive capacity of the existing methods remains inaccurate. In a previous work (Sundar.C and et al, 2012), we showed that a model based CTG data classification system using a supervised artificial neural network (ANN) can classify the CTG data better than most of the other methods. But, the performance of the normal neural network based classifier was limited because of the presence of potential outliers in the training data. The presence of outliers in training data affects the neural network training as well as testing. In this work, we present improved classification models which will consider outliers in the data and eliminate them from training phase of the classification process. We used Precision, Recall, F-Score and Rand Index as the metric to evaluate the performance. The proposed idea considerably improved the performance in classifying Normal, Suspicious and Pathologic CTG patterns. It was found that, the improved classifier was capable of identifying Normal, Suspicious and Pathologic condition with very good accuracy than normal methods.

 [Sundar C, Chitradevi M, Geetharamani G. An Outlier Based Bi-Level Neural Network Classification System for Improved Classification of Cardiotocogram Data. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):244-251] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.37

 

Keywords: Outlier Detection; CTG; BPN; Dimensionality Reduction; RBF

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The impact of descriptive evaluation on knowledge and achievement of Meta cognitive of the elementary students of Boushehr city

 

Fatemeh Mahzounzadeh

 

E-mail: MahzounzadehF@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The current research has been done with the purpose of impact of reviewing of descriptive evaluation on met cognitive knowledge of the elementary students. The process of this research is over- comparative. Its statistic society includes the students of four ranks of elementary students of Bousheshr city in 2009-2010. Due to the fact that the evaluation is done only in two schools and includes 180 students, due to being small society, the entire students were used as sample. The statistic sample includes girl students and boy students of fourth rank. In this direction there was used of the Panaura & Filipoo met cognitive knowledge questionnaires (2005) of students. The conclusion of the regression analysis test implies of significant impact of descriptive evaluation into the traditional evaluation on the level of the Meta cognitive knowledge.

[Fatemeh Mahzounzadeh. The impact of descriptive evaluation on knowledge and achievement of Meta cognitive of the elementary students of Boushehr city. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):252-255] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.38

 

Keywords: Descriptive evaluation, Meta cognitive knowledge, achievement, Boushehr, elementary course

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Consistency of linguistic domain of the Quran of Quds with Dehei dialect in central plateau of Iran

 

Ali Akbar Nargesian

 

Natanz branch, Islamic Azad University,Natanz, Iran

 

Abstract: Translation of Quds Quran is of special value from the perspective of Persian language history. This valuable work has also allocated a special position to itself from the view of translating Quran to Persian language, since some existing documents indicate that the creation of this valuable work belongs to the time of language separation between Middle Persian and New Persian. The history of Persian language during the early centuries after Islam is an aura of mystery. And the Persian written inheritance in Arabic script which has remained from the language separation era or silence period is very little. Dr. Ravaghi, the hardworking editor and introducer of Quds Quran says: “Quds Quran is worth of profound historical social research; and as a historical document of Persian language, it must be studied and researched by Persian language researchers and linguists.” In this paper, the author has analyzed Quds Quran by studying the language domain of translation of Quds Quran and its similarities with Dehei dialect (Boreh and Bashe.

[Ali Akbar Nargesian. Consistency of linguistic domain of the Quran of Quds with Dehei dialect in central plateau of Iran. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):256-261] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.39

 

Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

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Heat Shock Protein-70 and -27 Expressions as Parameters of Early Diagnosis and Disease Progression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Amal Fawzy1, Hatem Attia2, Fatma A Khalaf3, Eman Abd El Sameea4, Mahmoud A El Tahawy4, Mohamed Farag4 and Fatma Younis5

 

Departments of Clinical Pathology1, National Cancer Institute-Cairo University

Clinical Pathology2, Biochemistry3 & Hepatology4, National Liver Institute-Menoufyia University & Tropical Medicine5, Faculty of Medicine- Al Azhar University

amalfawzy69@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Despite remarkable advances in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, the incidence of HCC is still on the increase. The role of liver biopsy in diagnosis of HCC has declined. However, with recent advances in genomics and proteomics a great number of potential serum and tissue markers have been identified and are being developed as new candidate markers for both diagnosis and prognosis of HCC, and may increase the need for liver biopsy. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of HSP70 and HSP27 expressions in early detection of HCC and to find their relation to parameters of disease progression. The study was conducted on 76 patients, 42 have proved HCC and 34 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) without HCC. Routine laboratory investigations were done including: liver function tests, complete blood counts, serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP), hepatitis B and HCV hepatitis markers, and HCV-RNA levels. HSP70 and 27 expressions were determined in liver sampling by Real-Time PCR. Overexpression of HSP70 was detected in 92.86% of HCC which is statistically significantly higher compared to LC (2.94%) cases, and overexpression of HSP27 was significantly increased in HCC cases (57.14%) as compared to LC patients (8.82%). The overexpression of HSP70 was associated with early HCC diagnostic parameters (tumour size) and prognostic criteria (vascular invasion and tumour grade, Overexpression of HSP27 was associated with tumor size and tumor number, but not associated with each of AFP, vascular invasion and tumor grade. Conclusion: From the above results, we conclude that, found expressions of HSP70 and HSP27 may play an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis, and especially HSP70 can contribute tumor progression. We thus suggest that HSP70 may represent a good molecular target for treatment of HCV-related HCC.

[Amal Fawzy, Hatem Attia, Fatma A Khalaf, Eman Abd El Sameea, Mahmoud A El Tahawy, Mohamed Farag and Fatma Younis. Heat Shock Protein-70 and -27 Expressions as Parameters of Early Diagnosis and Disease Progression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):262-268] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.40

 

Key Words: Hepatocellular carcinoma, HSP70, HSP27, Expression, RT-PCR.

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Use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Cadmium-Induced Changes in Strongylocentrotus nudus gonad

 

ZhenlinWei

 

Biology Science Department, Dezhou University, Dezhou, Shandong, 253023, CHINA; wzl19741028@163.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, the effects of 0.1 and 0.01 mM cadmium on Strongylocentrotus nudus gonad were studied by means of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The second derivative spectra and curve-fitting analysis revealed adverse effects of cadmium stress on the metabolism of lipids and proteins in gonad. For lipids, cadmium treatment shifted bands position to higher wavenumer and decreased bands area, especially those bands contributed from CH2 stretching vibration group, suggesting that the structure of lipids constituents were disordered and the contents decreased. Taken account to proteins, cadmium resulted in increasing fraction of β sheet structure and decreasing fraction of α helix, as well as declining protein contents. Compared with 0.01 mM treatment, the higher concentration showed more significant effects, such as bands position shifting to a larger extent and formation of 1692 cm-1 band within Amide I regions. The results demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy is a promising tool for detection of cadmium induced changes in the context of molecular structure observation in urchin gonad.

[Weil ZL. Use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Cadmium-Induced Changes in Strongylocentrotus nudus gonad. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):269-276] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 41

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.41

 

Keywords: Cadmium stress; Strongylocentrotus nudus; Gonad; Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

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An Epidemiological Study of Nosocomial Infections in Tabriz Children’s Hospital Based on National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNIS)

 

Shahram Abdoli Oskouie 1, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee 1, Kamyar Ghabili 2, Farahnaz Firoozi 3

 

1. Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3. Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

kghabili@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nosocomial infections are major public health problems particularly in developing countries. These are one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in hospitals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the epidemiology of NIs in a university-affiliated pediatric hospital in Northwest of Iran. The epidemiology of nosocomial infections were evaluated in Tabriz children hospital during a 12 month period from May 2008 to May 2009 using national nosocomial infections surveillance system definitions. One hundred and three patients (56.3% males and 43.7% females) were diagnosed with nosocomial infections. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 1.33 per 100 hospital discharges and 0.34 days per 100 hospital days. Frequencies of nosocomial infections by type were as follows bacteremia (68.9%), urinary tract infection (13.6), lower respiratory tract infection (9.7%), and wound infection (7.8%). Neonates ward was the highest portion of nosocomial infections followed by NICU and hematology wards. The most common pathogenic organisms were Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (35%), Klebsiella (20.4%), Serattia (9.7%), E. coli (6.8%), and Pseudomonas (5.8%). The mean hospital stay was 25.5417.64 days. The difference in the mean stay days for patients with nosocomial infection and non-infected patients (3.91.5 days) was statistically significant (P<0.0001). More than one-fourth of these patients expired. Our study emphasizes the need for implementing further health associated infections surveillance systems with proper methods to prevent and manage infections in hospitalized patients.

[Oskouie SA, Ahangarzadeh Rezaee M, Ghabili K, Firoozi F. An Epidemiological Study of Nosocomial Infections in Tabriz Children’s Hospital Based on National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNIS). Life Sci J 2013;10(1):277-279] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.42

 

Keywords: Nosocomial infection; children; national nosocomial infection surveillance system

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Promoting the recovery of neurologic function and antagonizing cell apoptosis in ICH model rats by Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Transplantation*

 

Jing Qi1#, Jie Qin1#, Guangming Gong2,Bo Song1, Huili Zhang1, Yanlin Wang1, Haiyun Qi1, Bo Yang3, Yi Zhang4, Yuming Xu1*, Shilei Sun1*

 

1. The Third Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Basic Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

3.Neurosurgery Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou Henan 450052, China

4.Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

sunshilei@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major disease that seriously threatens human health; it features high fatality rate and disability rate and often leaves severe neurologic dysfunction even after recovery. The effect of induced pluripotentstem cells (iPSCs) transplantation on the recovery of the neurologic dysfunction of ICH is still uncertain. We prepared ICH rat models by injecting collagenase to the striatum of rats through stereotaxic apparatus, injected derived from ICH patients around the hematoma to evaluate the dynamic changes of neurologic function on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after ICH treatment by iPSCs transplantation with modified neurological severity score (mNSS) table, and studied the cell apoptosis changes around the hematoma. We found out that the neurological scores of rats were obviously improved and the apoptotic cells were significantly reduced compared with the model group. Our research results showed that iPSCs transplantation can effectively promote the recovery of neurologic function of ICH rats and antagonize cell apoptosis induced by encephalorrhagia.

[Qi J, Qin J, Song B, Zhang HL, Wang YL, Yang YK, Qi HY, Gong GM, Xu YM, Sun SL. Promoting the recovery of neurologic function and antagonizing cell apoptosis in ICH model rats by Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Transplantation. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):280-284] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.43

 

Key wordsinduced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), apoptosis

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Contact lens care and disease characteristics in keratoconus

 

John Ching-Jen Hsiao1,2,*, Shyan-Tarng Chen1,2

 

1 School of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan

2 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan

 johncjhsiao@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: Keratoconus is a noninfalmmatory, progressive corneal disorder characterized by localized conical protrusion, apical thinning, irregular astigmatism, and central corneal scarring. These changes in cornea often lead to some unique clinical symptoms and signs which usuallycan’t be seen in normal eyes. Contact lens care of keratoconus is more challenging than care of normal eyes because the need for special diagnostic trial lenses, experienced clinician and more professional chair time.In this article, we will focus on how to diagnose Keratoconus based on its disease characteristics and the complexity of contact lens care for it. The model of 3 point touch lens fittingwill also be discussed in detail.

[John Ching-Jen Hsiao, Shyan-Tarng Chen. Contact lens care and disease characteristics in keratoconus. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):285-287](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.44

 

Keywords: Keratoconus, Irregular astigmatism, Contact lens care

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The Influence of Fermentation by Different Lactobacillus on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Burdock and Variations of Its Active Components

 

Chi-Ting Horng1,2, Shih-Chiang Lee3, Rei-Chu Chang4, Wan-Ping Lee 5, Feng-Lang Lin2, Chin-Wen Hsu6, Fu-An Chen2,*

 

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

2 Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC.

3 Dong Yuan Biotech Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

4 Department of Food Science and Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC

5 Department of Nursing, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC

6 Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Armed Force General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

h56041@gmail.com

Abstract: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a nutritious plant which is commonly cultivated in Taiwan and Japan. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of fermentation by different lactobacillus on the free radical scavenging activity of burdock and variations of its active components. Four lactobacillus as Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (Orla-Jensen) Hansen and Lessel (BCRC No.10697), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Orla-Jensen) Weiss et al (BCRC No.10696), Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum (Orla-Jensen) Bergey et al (BCRC No.10069) and Streptococcus thermophilus (Orla-Jensen) (BCRC No.14086) were used to ferment burdock for 48 hours. The amount of lactic acid bacteria (LBA), sweetness, pH, total polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activity, using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were measured. The result showed Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (Orla-Jensen) Hansen and Lessel (BCRC No.10697) had better effect on LBA populations, total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activities compared with other three lactobacillus. This result provides important information on developing fermented burdock antioxidant dietary supplements.

[Chi-Ting Horng, Shih-Chiang Lee, Rei-Chu Chang, Wan-Ping Lee, Feng-Lang Lin, Chin-Wen Hsu, Fu-An Chen. The influence of fermentation by different lactobacillus on the free radical scavenging activity of burdock and variations of its active components. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):288-292] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.45

 

Keywords: BurdockLactobacillusFermentationFree radical scavenging activityTotal polyphenols

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Study the sources of mercury vapor in atmosphere as a threatening factor for human health and bio-filtering methods for removal of toxic pollution

 

Maryam K. Hafshejani1, Farzaneh Khandani2, Ramin Heidarpour3, Armin Arad*4, Sadegh Choopani5

 

1Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

3Department of applied chemistry & chemical engineering, Sofian branch, Islamic Azad University, Sofian, Iran

4North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran

5Faraiand Sanat Sharif Co, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding author email: aarad1384@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A global atmospheric transport model is used to calculate mercury concentrations in the atmosphere. In this study, a comprehensive analysis was made to describe the environmental behavior and pollution status of mercury (Hg). The most important aim in this study is to show mercury pollution sources and to introduce some new technologies for removing this dangerous material from air. In this paper, some bio technologies such as bio filtering method and bio adsorbent such as leaves of trees was introduced. The capacity and application of biotrickling filters for the removal of mercury vapor from simulated flue gases was expressed. It was resulted from paper that the most prominent source of mercury is the east of Asia and the southeast of Asia. The lowest source is concerned Australia. In this investigation it was found that activated carbon can be one of the best tools for removal of mercury vapor. The adsorbent uniquely combines a chelating ligand with an ionizing surface nano-layer on a mesoporous substrate was the other consequences of this study which can be as a suitable adsorbent for omitting this pollutant from atmosphere.

[Hafshejani MK, Khandani, F, Heidarpour R, Arad A. Study the sources of mercury vapor in atmosphere as a threatening factor for human health and bio-filtering methods for removal of toxic pollution. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):293-296] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.46

 

Key Words: Mercury, Atmosphere, Activated carbon, Biofiltering.

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The Age Effects of Traffic Signs on Visual Performance

 

Chun-Wen Chao 1,*, Cheng Hung Huang 2, Tienwei Tsai 3

 

1Ph.D. Program of Design Science, Tatung University, Taipei 106, Taiwan;

2Department of Industrial Design, Tatung University, Taipei 106, Taiwan;

3Department of Multimedia Design, Chihlee Institute of Technology, New Taipei City 220, Taiwan

Corresponding author email: joanne@mail.chihlee.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Since drivers aged 70-74 are twice as likely to die when involved in a crash compared to drivers aged 30-59 (for drivers aged 80 and older the risk is five times as high), their need when an accident occur differs from younger people, according to the study conducted by American Automobile Association (AAA, 2012). Other Researches also show senior drivers need significantly more light to see than young drivers. That’s because pupils get smaller and don’t widen as much in dark conditions and making senior harder to see. This diminished vision is a significant problem (Green, 2008). The goal of this paper is to identify the impact of legibility, luminance contrast of signs on driver’s ages. A series of experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of light and age on the threshold and the confident recognition of traffic signs. The experimental results have shown that subjects above the age of 65 have a decrease in visual search performance in the evening since the transmittance of short-wave region (blue lights) within visible range decreases with age because of the loss of luminance and color contrast. The nighttime, raining and evening tests revealed that the older group had significantly longer decision sight distance compared to the younger group (p <0.000, T-tests of 95% significance). The results indicate that observed age-related evening and raining legibility performance decreases visual acuity, which therefore significantly increase chances for an accident. This study helps highlight the fact that when people ignore visual performance in evening and raining conditions it may cause accidents. More importantly, our study has set up the foundation for future work with contributing a dedicated viewpoint for traffic signs and visual performance under evening and raining conditions.

[Chun-Wen Chao, Cheng Hung Huang, Tienwei Tsai. The Age Effects of Traffic Signs on Visual Performance. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):297-302] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 47

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.47

 

Keywords: Visual performance; luminance contrast; color temperature; age effects, traffic signs.

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[Life Sci J. 2013, 10(1):303-305] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48. doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.48. withdrawn

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The Influence of Fermentation by Different Lactobacillus on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Burdock and Variations of Its Active Components

 

Chi-Ting Horng1,2, Shih-Chiang Lee3, Rei-Chu Chang4, Wan-Ping Lee 5, Feng-Lang Lin2, Chin-Wen Hsu6, Fu-An Chen2,*

 

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

2 Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC.

3 Dong Yuan Biotech Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

4 Department of Food Science and Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC

5 Department of Nursing, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC

6 Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Armed Force General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

h56041@gmail.com

Abstract: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a nutritious plant which is commonly cultivated in Taiwan and Japan. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of fermentation by different lactobacillus on the free radical scavenging activity of burdock and variations of its active components. Four lactobacillus as Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (Orla-Jensen) Hansen and Lessel (BCRC No.10697), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Orla-Jensen) Weiss et al (BCRC No.10696), Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum (Orla-Jensen) Bergey et al (BCRC No.10069) and Streptococcus thermophilus (Orla-Jensen) (BCRC No.14086) were used to ferment burdock for 48 hours. The amount of lactic acid bacteria (LBA), sweetness, pH, total polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activity, using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were measured. The result showed Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (Orla-Jensen) Hansen and Lessel (BCRC No.10697) had better effect on LBA populations, total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activities compared with other three lactobacillus. This result provides important information on developing fermented burdock antioxidant dietary supplements.

 [Chi-Ting Horng, Shih-Chiang Lee, Rei-Chu Chang, Wan-Ping Lee, Feng-Lang Lin, Chin-Wen Hsu, Fu-An Chen. The influence of fermentation by different lactobacillus on the free radical scavenging activity of burdock and variations of its active components. Life Sci J. 2013;10(1):306-309] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.49

 

Keywords: BurdockLactobacillusFermentationFree radical scavenging activityTotal polyphenols.

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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus (I & II) in a Sample of Adults Population of Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia, within 2010-2011

 

Waleed Albakr1, Al-Shareef Mohammad2, Al-Mulhim Mohammed2, Amar H. Khamis2

 

1: Department of Medicine, College of Medicine University of Dammam3: Department of Family & Community Medicine, College of Medicine University of Dammam, 2: King Fahad University Hospital

dr_waleed99@hotmail.com

 

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of DM in the Saudi Eastern Province in 2005 (30 and above age-group) was 17.2%. Further and recent studies are needed. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and suggest possible risk factors of diabetes and their significant relationships in our city, Al-Khobar City, (a population of 578,500 according to 2010 Saudi CDSI survey) which considered one of the most urban-Industrial city with high Per capita income. Methodology: A cross-sectional community-based survey, among individuals of both sexes, aged 15 years and above was conducted during 2010-2011, in two places, Dhahran Mall, and King Fahad University Hospital. The study was carried out on 1552 Subjects (1206 Saudis’, 346 non-Saudis’, 879 males, 673 females), using their direct acceptance to participate of a quota of 2300 visitors. Data was collected by a personal face-to-face interview taking a short history and filling the check list for sociodemographic data, followed by estimation of random capillary blood glucose using a portable glucometer, and blood pressure using a manual sphygmomanometer. Our Standards were the WHO definition of high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and BMI. A Numerical descriptive analysis of frequencies and cross-tabulation was done by using SPSS. Results: The mean of overall prevalence of self-reported DM was: 18.9% (20.1% within the hospital sample and 17.7 within the mall sample). Prevalence of high RBS was 21.5% (5.1% of them were not a self-reported DM). Self-reported hyperlipidemia, and smoking were; 22.3%, and 15.7% respectively. Factors like; Age > 45 years, BMI ≥ 24.9kg/m(2), high blood pressure, Hyperlipidemia, Family history, and Low activity level were significantly associated with the presence of diabetes. Of all diabetic patients; 31.6% had 5 risk factors of DM, and 26.3% had 4 risk factors. Conclusion: The overall Prevalence of DM in this Eastern Saudi population is18.9%(4.6 type 1, and 14.3% type 2) that needs further evaluation and investigations with better tools, design, and sample size to overcome the disadvantages of this study. Health education Programs about DM risk factors and preventive measures are needed, since there is a high incidence of Adjustable risk factors and strong relation to the development and control of diabetes disease.

[Waleed Albakr, Al-Shareef Mohammad, Al-Mulhim Mohammed, Amar H. Khamis. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus (I & II) in a Sample of Adults Population of Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia, within 2010-2011. Life Sci J. 2013;10(1):310-314] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.50

 

Keywords: Prevalence, Diabetes mellitus, Saudi Arabia.

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Oil Estates, First Garden Estates Of Iran 

 

Masoud Jafari 

 

 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Rudehen branch, Islamic Azad University, Rudehen, Tehran, Iran. Corresponding Author: mjafari@riau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Discussion and exploration of oil extraction in Iran and Iran's major works and its dramatic social and political providence, of course a major issue that has broad research by the experts in various fields. What has been done so far, although many feature points made valuable and worthy of its place, there is still much neglected aspects and fields of study. This paper seeks to answer this question, which is partly designed and oil settlements established in the Iranian South Oil physical design terms of design and spatial extent of the organization to what extent the spatial organization of ideas impressed garden estates and new towns founded in England in the early years of the twentieth century. The towns near the cities of Abadan, Ahwaz and Mahshahr and several other provinces have made, in common with many designs of new towns and garden estates ‘Ebenezer Howard’ that answer the research question and provide the relevant sub-questions. Despite the many limitations of current research and the lack of information, budget constraints, the short time has managed to navigate, view and explore other resources available for review on the subject make clear. But this first step is considered to find accurate answers and detailed comprehensive research in this area.

 [Masoud Jafari. OIL ESTATES, FIRST GARDEN ESTATES OF IRAN. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):315-318]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.51

 

Keywords: Oil Estates_garden estate, company towns, physical design, regular texture, separation of organic tissue implantation

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Synthesis and study of complexes of tetradentate Schiff base and bridging ligand of thiocyanate

with transition metals of Ni and Co

 

Masoumeh Soleimani*1, Akram Adeli Gharahlar1and Mohammad Bagher Afghani Asl2

 

1- Department of Chemistry, Ardabil branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

2- Department of Biochemistry, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 *Corresponding Author: Masoumeh Soleimani, Email: MasoumehSoleimani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, Schiff base ligand was provided using the materials 2 and 3 - diaminophyridine and Salicylicaldehyde in absolute ethanol solvent with reflux method. Then, at first stage, the complexes of transition metals of Nickel (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) with ligand supplied, were studied with along thiocyanate synthesized and cyclic voltammeter (CV). Thiocyanate anion was demonstrated due to the presence of a sharp peak in the range of 2000cm-1 and displacements in the infrared spectrum compared to the ligand spectrum indicated kourdinating of oxygen and nitrogen to the central metal. Electron spectra in the complexes with axial ligand due to the nature of giving electron, central ligand reduce or increase the intensity of transitions which is confirmed in complex formation. Cyclic voltammeter (CV) also allowed that we can obtain other information of the electron character of the complexes besides the electron spectrum and evaluate the possibility of using them as a catalyst in oxidation - reduction reactions.

 [Masoumeh Soleimani, Akram Adeli Gharahlar and Mohammad Bagher Afghani Asl. Synthesis and study of complexes of tetradentate Schiff base and bridging ligand of thiocyanate with transition metals of Ni and Co. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):319-322]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.52

 

Keywords: Bridging thiocyanate, Schiff base, Transition metals, 2,3-Diaminopyridine and salicylaldehyde

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Magnetic field effects on seed germination and activities of some enzymes in cumin

 

Majid Asadi Samani1*, Latifeh Pourakbar2 and Nafiseh Azimi3

 

1 Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Sharekord, Iran.

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +983813349509; E-mail address: Biology_2011@yahoo.com,

PO Box 88155-137, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

 

Abstract: Failure of germination among Apiaceae family seeds, e.g. cumin (Cuminum cyminum), has been reported by many investigators. Until now few works have been done on seed germination and seedling growth of cumin. In this research the effects of the exposure of cumin seeds to magnetic fields on seed germination, early growth, and enzyme activity have been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were magnetically exposed to one of three magnetic field strengths, 25, 50 and 75 mT for different periods of time (15, 30, and 60 min). The germination test was performed according to the guidelines issued by the International Seed Testing Association. Enzymes related to the germination process in magnetically exposed and unexposed germinating cumin seeds were assayed after 24 hours of imbibitions in distilled water. Exposure of cumin seeds to different intensities of magnetic fields prior to germination significantly increased germination-related characters. The increase in germination, speed of germination, shoot length, root length, total seedling length, seedling fresh weight, and seedling dry weight was, respectively, 14–17%, 14–57%, 8–27%, 25–62%, 16–39%, 10–29%, and 17–49% compared to untreated control seeds. The calculated vigor indices I and II also increased by 33–73% and 38–72%, respectively. In germinating seeds, enzyme activities of α-amylase, dehydrogenase, and protease were significantly higher in treated seeds in contrast to controls and the maximum value was 50 mT for 60 min exposures. The higher enzyme activity in magnetic-field-treated cumin seeds could trigger fast germination and early vigor of seedlings.

 [Majid Asadi Samani, Latifeh Pourakbar and Nafiseh Azimi. Magnetic field effects on seed germination and activities of some enzymes in cumin. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):323-328]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53. doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.53

 

Keywords: Magnetic Field, Cumin, Germination, Enzyme activity

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Pilot Studies on Rice Yield Enhancement with Foliar Application of SBAJA in Sungai Besar, Selangor, Malaysia

 

Mohd Izzat Shafiee a, Amru Nasrulhaq Boycea, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandakera, Johari M. Saadb, Tengku Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Shakirin Mispana, Mohd Suffian Mohd Anuara and Baki Hj Bakara

 

 aInstitute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

b iRX Sdn Bhd, 10 Jalan Nilam 1/1, Subang Hi-Tech, 47500, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

amru@um.edu.my

 

Abstract: Fertilizer application and inherent soil fertility are known to affect rice yields. We conducted large scale 12 ha multi-locations trial in the main- and off-seasons of 2007 through 2009 in Sungai Besar, Selangor’s North West Project, Malaysia to assess the enhancing effect of SBAJATM (formerly known as BIPOMIXTM) on the growth and yields of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. MR 220). The clonal growth of SBAJATM -treated rice crop based on plant height and tiller numbers plant-1, albeit temporal inconsistencies, did not register any significant difference from each other at p<0.05, save for those in the control plots at 45, 75 DAT, and at harvest with measurably lower tiller numbers plant-1. The mean panicle length plant-1 and mean number of panicles m-2 were significantly (p<0.05) longer and higher, respectively in plots treated with SBAJATM vis--vis the control. While no significant differences were recorded in the 1000 grain weight, the percentage of filled grains panicle-1 and the number of grains panicle-1 were higher among rice plants in plots receiving the SBAJATM treatments. Invariably, the Crop Cutting Tests (CCT) in plots subjected to foliar applications of SBAJATM registered measurable increase in rice yields from 15 to 29% vis--vis the equivalent foliar-applied fertilizer subsidy from the government, and the conventional NPK fertilizer applications of 100:30:20 (here served as the control), respectively. The SBAJATM treated plots registered a mean yield of 9.66 tons ha-1 compared with 7.49 tons ha-1 in the control plots. The parallel average yield from the equivalent foliar-applied fertilizer subsidy from the government was 8.38 tons ha-1. In monetary terms, a yield increase of 1 ton ha-1 is translated as an extra net profit of RM 1,000 ha-1 season-1. With the application of SBAJATM a farmer would boost his gross returns by a minimal extra of ca. RM 2,000 ha-1 season-1 from an extra investment of ca. RM200 ha-1 season-1 compared with the control.

[Shafiee MI, Boyce AN, Khandaker MM, Saad JM, Aziz TA, Mispan MS, Anuar MSM and Bakar BH. Pilot Studies on Rice.Yield Enhancement with Foliar Application of SBAJA in Sungai Besar, Selangor, Malaysia. Life Sci J 2013;10 (1):329-335] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.54

 

Keywords: SBAJATM, foliar fertilizer, rice growth and yields,

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Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Rate Pharmaceutical Companies; A case study of IRAN

 

Mohammd Jalili (phd) 1, Hassan Rangriz(phd) 2 and Samira Shabani*3

 

1Department of business management Abhar branch,Islamic Azad university, Abhar, Iran

Jalilo@irancreditscoring.com

2Department of business management Abhar branch,Islamic Azad university, Abhar, Iran

hassanrangriz@yahoo.com

3Department of business management Abhar branch,Islamic Azad university, Abhar, Iran

*corresponding author: Samira Shabani, Email: samirashabani12@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Efficiency analysis and performance comparison among homogeneous firms provides the field of using tools and economic indicators in financial management, allocation of resources and other managerial decisions. The aim of this research is measuring and identifying the productivity changes of some Pharmaceutical Companies. This research has done on the efficiency of 28 Companies, using DEA. In this study we used Total assets/ net working capital, Total assets/ net profit, Total Debt/ Cash Flow and profit margin and the Total assets/Total Debt as well as the Total assets/Long term debt as outputs and input variables. The findings show that which companies have efficiency and which companies need to change their processes.

 [Mohammd Jalili, Hassan Rangriz and Samira Shabani. Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Rate Pharmaceutical Companies; A case study of IRAN. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):336-341]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55. doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.55

 

Keywords: DEA, Efficiency, Financial performance measurement, Pharmaceutical Companies

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Achieving Optimum Scientific Standards for Producing Fabrics Suitable for Protecting Against Hazardous Chemical Liquids

 

Ibrahim, G. E.;1 Abdel-motaleb A.F 2 and Mahmoud, E.R3.

 

1 Faculty of Education – Zilfi, AL-Majma'ah University

2,3 Spinning, Weaving and Knitting Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Egypt

g.selem@mu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Occupational exposure of the skin to toxic chemicals is a recognized health problem so chemical protective clothing is considered the most important line of defense to the worker who is exposed to the hazardous chemicals. This research aims to produce fabrics suitable for protecting against hazardous liquids (accidental splashes of chemicals). All samples under study were produced cotton and cotton /polyester 50/50. Three weft sets were used 24, 27 and 30 picks /cm and three fabric structure (plain weave 1/1, twill 2/2 and satin 4). Samples were coated, on one face, with transol F L 20 to make the fabric repellent and a barrier to Protect against hazardous chemical liquids. Their influence on the performance of the end-use fabric and the achieved properties were studied. On the other hand physic-chemical properties including, studying the effect of some hazardous liquids chemicals using Gutter method, tensile strength and elongation, water absorption, roughness, thickness and weight were evaluated according to the final product needs. Some more results were reached concerning structures and materials. Most samples have achieved the expected results.

[Ibrahim, G. E.; Abdel-Motaleb A. F and Mahmoud E. R Achieving Optimum Scientific Standards for Producing Fabrics Suitable for Protecting Against Hazardous Chemical Liquids. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):342-353]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.56

 

Key Words: Protective textiles - chemical protective clothing (CPC) - coated fabrics - breathable coated fabrics

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The Risk Probability of Fasting Ramadan for Patients with CABG

 

Ahmed Samy1, Moshira H. Sabry 2, Abdelhady M. Hamada 2 and Osama Rifaie 3

 

1Cardiothoracic Surgery, 2Clinical and Chemical Pathology, 3Cardiology Cardiothoracic Surgery Department & Cardiology Department; Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

hady_hamada@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of Fasting Ramadan on high risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a difficult question to answer. Some doctors advise these patients to break fasting, but many patients keep fasting with no medical problems or if present not recorded. Patients with CABG who persist to fast Ramadan give us the opportunity to do our study. We studied 42 patients as regard the effect of Ramadan fast on their clinical status including chest pain (angina), blood pressure, cardiac enzymes, ECG and echocardiography. We also, study the effect of fasting on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and Malondialdehyde (MDA) as the end product of lipid peroxidation, Ultrasensitive CRP (Hs-CRP) as a predictive value of the inflammatory process and the osmolarity of the blood during fasting and compared to the non-fasting. The results showed three patients developed chest pain on day 17, 20, 24 of fasting due to chest infection and pleurisy with no other abnormalities detected. Two other patients developed elevated systolic blood pressure due to stoppage of diuretics without replacement with other drug during fasting. Two patients of the cigarette smokers were frequently complained of chest pain before fasting they become symptoms free during fasting which may be due to cessation of smoking which was of great benefit for these patients to release this risk factor. There was significant decrease of Hs-CRP during fasting which reflects improvement of the inflammatory process thus releasing one of the risk factors for CAD. There was no significant difference between fasting and non-fasting cholesterol and triglycerides levels. MDA showed significant increase during fasting reflecting increased lipid peroxidation. There was also sig increased osmolarity during fasting with hem concentration. We conclude that the patient can fast Ramadan safely with proper medical supervision for control of hypertension and if diuretic was withdrawn it must be replaced with other modality of treatment during fasting with proper hydration. Also, the patient must take anti-oxidant during fasting.

[Ahmed Samy, Moshira H. Sabry, Abdelhady M. Hamada and Osama Rifaie. The Risk Probability of Fasting Ramadan for Patients with CABG. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):354-359]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.57

 

Key Words: Malondialdehyde (MDA), CAPG, Hs-CRP, Ramadan fasting

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Mycobiota of Wheat Flour and Detection of α- Amylase and L-Asparaginase Enzymes

 

Mohammed S. Alhussaini

 

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia. malhussaini@su.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Infection of stored wheat flour with fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species, which contaminated the stored flour in Riyadh region in Saudi Arabia. The present results revealed that the total fungal counts which were recorded on three medium types were ranged from 33200 to 35300 per gram of wheat flour. The most predominant genus was Aspergillus with high frequency (85.7% - 89.3%). Aspergillus was represented by 8 species, A.flavus showed maximum frequency (60.7% - 71%) and minimum frequency exhibited by A.clavatus, A.terreus, A.ochraceous and A.tamarii (3.5%). Penicillium and Eurotium were the second dominant genera with frequency (50%). The results revealed that the Aspergillus genus was the most active producer of α- amylase (25-27mm). 12 fungal strains include (3 isolates) for both Aspergillus flavus and A. flavus var.columnaris, (1 isolate) for A.niger, Fusarium proliferatum, F.semitectum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P.crustosum and P.olsonii exhibited high activity in production of L- asparaginase. Three isolates of P.olsonii and one isolate for A.flavus var.columnaris, A.niger, Penicilliun aurantiogriseum,P.citrinum and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis showed moderate activity in production of L-asparaginase.

[Mohammed S. Alhussaini. Mycobiota of Wheat Flour and Detection of α-Amylase and L-Asparaginase Enzymes. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):360-371]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.58

 

Key Words: Wheat flour, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Enzymes, α-amylase, L-Asparaginase.

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The evaluation of the behavior of computer networks by NS simulator and the effect of queuing systems in the performance of especial networks

 

Saman Afrasiabi 1, Farzaneh Abazari2

 

1. Department of software computer, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2. Department of TEFL, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran.

1.safrasiabi4@gmail.com 2, farzanehabazari7@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current study aimed to evaluated the computer networks behavior by NS simulator version 2 (NS-2) and implementation of the network by this simulator and the investigation of the effect of queuing systems in the network performance. Thus, various queuing systems such as CBQ, SFQ, DRR, FQ, RED and Drop Tail are implemented by the purpose simulator. In an elementary scenario are compared with each other and throughput of the network is calculated for each of them. It can be said that the purpose of this paper is depicting the effect of queuing disciplines in the network and selecting a good system and as the selection of the type of optimized queue discipline depends upon the network topology, the results are dedicated for special topology of the network in this paper and is not generalized.

[Saman Afrasiabi, Farzaneh Abazari. The evaluation of the behavior of computer networks by NS simulator and the effect of queuing systems in the performance of especial networks. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):372-374]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.59

 

Keywords: Computer network; NS-2 simulator network; CBQ; SFQ; DRR; FQ; RED; Drop-Tail

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Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library from the Huoyan Goose

 

Peng Fei Hu†, Xiang Chen Li†, Xian Wei Chen, Wei Jun Guan, Yue Hui Ma

 

Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China

† These authors contributed equally to this work

weijunguan301@gmail.com & yuehui_ma@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Huoyan goose is a famous Chinese local breed for its egg productivity. In this study, a bacterial artificial chromosome library of the Huoyan goose was successfully established using the Hind III site of the vector pBeloBAC11, comprising of 115, 200 clones arrayed in 543, 384 well microplates, with an average insert size of 102 kb and the content of the library was 11.4 genome equivalents, which yielded a theoretical probability of 99.93% for isolating a particular DNA sequence. BAC clones of the library were stable in the bacterial host for at least 100 passages.

[Hu PF, Li XC, Chen XW, Guan WJ, Ma YH. Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library from the Huoyan Goose. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):375-378]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.60

 

Keywords: Bacterial artificial chromosome library; Huoyan goose; genomic DNA

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Probing the ways to search optimization concreting condition in cold weather

 

Mohammad Javad Arabpour Roghabadi 1, Najmeh Arabpour Roghabadi 2

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2. Department of Urban design, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

arabpour1367@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Concreting conditions was specific in cold air because in cold weather, concrete setting and coolness of concrete is delayed and it is possible that low amount of cement paste is broken due to the formation of ice and considering the above issue, determining the time to start concrete curing is very hard and determining the age of concrete in that age, the concrete is very resistant against freezing, is hard. Thus, it is required to do some cautious measurements during casting, finish, curing, operation and concrete fixation in cold weather. The contractor should consider the protection against cold weather before delivering his proposal. Because if it is not so, the costs of corrective methods and controlling regulation plans including modeling and re-calculation of the structure based on the existing resistance and using additives to achieve better results are the responsibility of contractor. In this study, the required strategies to cope with cold air to achieve the required results and optimized operation by considering ideal conditions of workers are required.

[Mohammad Javad Arabpour Roghabadi, Najmeh Arabpour Roghabadi. Probing the ways to search ptimization concreting condition in cold weather Life Sci J 2013;10(1):379-383]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.61

 

Keywords: Cold weather; concreting; additives; workers; operation.

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Effective components in evaluation of the performance of the managers of elementary schools

 

Mohammad Bakhshoodeh 1, Mehrnoosh Pazargadi 2, Parivash Jaffari 3

 

1. Ph. D Student. Department of Educational Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Associated Professor, Department of Educational Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Educational Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad, University, Tehran, Iran

Mehrnooshpazargadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effective components in evaluation of the performance of elementary school managers. This study was Research and Development in term of aim and was descriptive survey in terms of data collection. The statistical population of this study was the managers of elementary school of Kerman province and the sampling was of clustering type. As the statistical population was 3191 people, the sample volume was determined as 344 people based on Morgan table. Data collection method was determined by field study and the instrument was researcher-built questionnaire, the interview and documents of the evaluation of manager's performance. To determine the validity of the questionnaire, content validity and construct validity (explorative factor analysis) was use and to determine its reliability, Cronbach's alpha was applied. The calculated value for KMO test was 0.97 and showed that sampling of this research is adequate. Based on the results of factor analysis, the first factor is interpersonal relations determining about 0.18 of the variance. The flexibility more than 0.16 and customer about 0.8 determine the variance of important factors matrix. Among the required factors, the knowledge and skill and belief principle each determine less than 0.2 of the variance. Totally, 12 recognized factors determined a considerable percent of the variance (71%). Based on the results of factor analysis, we can say that the interpersonal relations, flexibility, customer based relations and continuous improvement are four important factors among the factors determining about 48.5% of the variance.

[Mohammad Bakhshoodeh, Mehrnoosh Pazargadi, Parivash Jaffari. Effective components in evaluation of the performance of the managers of elementary schools. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):384-392]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.62

 

Keywords: Performance; managers; elementary schools; Iran

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Spirituality in Tolkien’s Trilogy “The Lord of the Rings”

 

Sohrab Niyazi Mohseni 1, Omid Pourkalhor 2

 

1. M.A. in Language and English Literature (Corresponding Author), Guest Lecturer, Department of English, Chalus Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalus, Iran. snmohseni@yahoo.com

2. Assistant Professor Ph.D. in Language and English Literature Department of English, Chalus Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalus, Iran. pourkalhor@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision. The religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism. From an aesthetic standpoint, what gives The Lord of the Rings its narrative depth is Tolkien's other major creative work, the rich mythology of The Silmarillion that he had worked on throughout his life. This mythology provides a horizon and a texture for the story in a manner comparable, perhaps, to the role of the New Zealand landscape in Peter Jackson's films.

[Sohrab Niyazi Mohseni, Omid Pourkalhor. Spirituality in Tolkien’s Trilogy “The Lord of the Rings”. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):393-399]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.63

 

Keywords: Lord of the Rings, Spiritual, Truth, Reincarnation, Salvation.

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A review on factors affected Marital Adjustment among parents of autistic children and gender effects

 

 Ahmed Kamel AlHorany 1, *Siti Aishah Hassan, Marwan Zaid Bataineh2

 

1 Department of Counselor Education & Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Educational Studies,

 Universiti PutraMalaysia (UPM), 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

2 Department of Psychology, College of Education, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 

ah_horany2002@yahoo.com; * siti_aishahh@putra.upm.edu.my, marwanzaid76@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We aimed to systematically review studies that examine factors affecting marital adjustment among parents of children with disabilities, especially the autistic children. Besides, we emphasized the effects of gender on marital adjustments among the parents. There were at least 20 articles reviewed. The related journal articles on factor affecting marital adjustments were downloaded with cut off limit from 1992 to 2012. The articles were then analyzed and organized according to the definitions of marital adjustments and various factor affecting marital adjustments. We found there was no conclusive evidence regarding the factors affecting the marital among parents of autistics children. There was conclusive evidence from the reviewed literature regarding gender effect, yet the number of article supporting it was small. Mothers of autistics children were more affected in the marital adjustments as compared to fathers. Finally, with conclusion we then suggest for future interventional study.

[AlHorany, AK, Hassan. SA, Bataineh, MZ. Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):400-405]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.64

 

Keywords: systematic review, marital adjustment, autism, gender, parents of autistic children

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Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon Test (QFT) for detection of Latent TB infection among Health Care Workers (HCWs) in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

 

Nasser AE. AIHamdan1; Moustafa A.F. Abbas1,2, Mohamed S. AIQahtani3 Suhail Klantan3; Lamiaa A.Fiala2 and Gehad ElGhazali3,4

 

1 Community Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City, KSAU-HS, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2 Community Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

3 King Fahad Medical City, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

4 SEHA hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

mostafafouad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Latent TB Infection is a common finding among HCWs in the Middle East, that is usually discovered on routine pre-employment examination or during regular health check, it needs a course of anti-tuberculous drug medication for months with subsequent side effects. Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) is the traditional testing method for diagnosing LTBI, but it has a known high rate of false positive with subsequent needless loss of time, efforts, loss of productivity and side effects. QFT test has a higher sensitivity and specificity. Aim: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of TST versus QFT Test as a diagnostic tool for latent TB among new hires of health care workers at KFMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A descriptive study of 268 new HCWs agreed to participate, questionnaire with socio-demographic data and work history was filled, and both test were done TST and QFT test. Recent BCG vaccination and TST result of 5 mm or less were excluded, since there is a low positive rate. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of TST at standard 10mm or more to be positive, was 100 % and 53.4% as compared to QFT test. Using different cutoff measurements of size of TST indurations specificity was improved at the expense of sensitivity; at 13mm or more, sensitivity, specificity and κ were 95.5%; 73.2 and 0.611 respectively; while at 15mm or more it was 74.8%; 84.1% and 0.605 respectively. Frequency distribution of sizes of induration according to QFT test results and ROC curve showed that at 13 mm or more specificity would be improved to 70 percent approximately and sensitivity to be still at 90% approximately. Conclusion: When comparing TST and QFT, Rates of True negatives and Agreement were improved from (specificity = 53.4%) and (κ=0.536), to (Specificity=63.9%) and (κ=0.611) when using a different cut off point for induration sizes of 13 mm or more, rather than the traditional 10 mm or more cutoff point. Large scale study is required to confirm such findings in Middle Eastern health care settings.

[Nasser AE. AIHamdan; Moustafa A.F. Abbas, Mohamed S. AIQahtani. Suhail Klantan; Lamiaa A. Fiala and Gehad ElGhazali. Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon Test (QFT) for detection of Latent TB infection among Health Care Workers (HCWs) in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):406-411]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.65

 

Keywords: Latent TB Tuberculin Skin Test Quantiferon Health Care Workers

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Evaluation of Some Fibrinolytic Factors for Assessment of Lower Extremity Arterial Disease (LEAD) in Diabetic Patients

 

Mahmoud A. Ashour1; Hisham Mohamed Omar 2; Ola Aly Hussein2 and Nanis A. Salah 2

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. kamel_ashour2050@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out in the Clinical Pathology and Internal Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Hospitals. The study included 57 subjects classified into 3 groups. Group I: It included 13 apparently healthy subjects. Group II: It included 22 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. They were sub-classified into 15 NON Lower Extremity Arterial Disease (LEAD) and 7 LEAD. Group III: It included 22 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. They were sub-classified into 15 NON LEAD and 7 LEAD. All patients and control subjects were subjected to the followings: 1- Full history taking. 2-Complete clinical examination 3-Complete blood picture (CBC). 4-Prothrombin time (PT) and Partial thromboplastin (PTT). 5-C reactive protein (CRP).6-Liver and kidney functions tests fasting and two hours postprandial serum glucose.7-Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL- cholesterol). 8- Specific laboratory investigations: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Assay of fibrinogen. Assay of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). The results revealed the following: - There was no significant difference between all studied groups as regard age of subjects and duration of clinical diabetes. There was a significant increase in BMI in group III compared to groups I and II but no significant difference was found between group II and group I. t-PA was significantly increased in group II compared to group I but significantly decreased in group III compared to groups I and II. There was a significant increase in HbA1c in group II and group III compared to group I with no significant difference was found between group II and group III. There was a significant increase in fibrinogen in groups II and III compared to group I with no significant difference was found between group II and group III. There was a significant increase in CRP in in groups II and III compared to group I. CRP was also significantly increased in group III compared to group II. There was a significant decrease in the levels of cholesterol In groups II and III compared to group I and significantly lower in group II compared to group III. The level of triglyceride was significantly higher In groups II and III compared to group I, also triglyceride in group III was significantly higher compared to group II. The level of HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher in group II compared to group I and significantly lower in group III compared to groups I and II. There was no significant difference between NON LEAD and LEAD in group II as regards t-PA but in the group III, t-PA was significantly higher in LEAD compared to NON LEAD. There was statistically positive correlation between t-PA and age and diabetic duration in total, NON LEAD and LEAD group II. There were statistically positive correlations between t-PA and age in total, NON LEAD and LEAD group III. There was a statistically positive correlation between t-PA and HbA1c in total group III. There were statistically positive correlation between t-PA and diabetic duration in total, NON LEAD and LEAD group III.

[Mahmoud A. Ashour; Hisham Mohamed Omar; Ola Aly Hussein and Nanis A. Salah. Evaluation of Some Fibrinolytic Factors for Assessment of Lower Extremity Arterial Disease (LEAD) in Diabetic Patients. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):412-423]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.66

 

Keywords: Fibrinolytic Factors, Lower Extremity Arterial Disease (LEAD), Diabetes mellitus.

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Growth of TiO2 Nanorods by HFCVD

 

Roya Bakhshkandi1, Mahmood Ghoranneviss2

 

1 Institute of Physics, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, Tehran, Iran

 

2 Plasma physics Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

rbakhshkandi_physics@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this research is demonstrating the growth of titanium oxide Nano-rods. In our testing, growth of nano-rods was achieved using the Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) method. We studied the effects of temperature and time on the growth of nano-rods. We also investigated the effect of Co catalyst on the growth of nano-rods so that we would be able to measure the titanium content in different times and temperatures. Our samples were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman Spectroscopy, EDX, and Dot mapping, XRD.

[Roya Bakhshkandi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss. Growth of TiO2 Nanorods by HFCVD. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):424-430]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.67

 

Keywords: nanomaterials, titanium dioxide, nano-rods, TiO2, HFCVD,nano-rods.

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Indirect Vector Control of Induction Motor by Adjusting PI Parameter

 Using Genetic Algorithm

 

Mehdi Akbarpour1 (Corresponding author), Saeed Zakrei2, Mohammad Lohi3, Mohammad Amin Zakrei4, Mohammad Masoud Mirjalili5

 

1-Department of Electrical Engineering, Minab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Minab, Iran

2- Department of Electrical Engineering, Minab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Minab, Iran

3-Hormozgan Electrical Power Distribution Company Hormozgan, Iran

4- Electrical Power Distribution Company, Hormozgan, Iran

5-Hormozgan Electrical Power Distribution Company, Hormozgan, Iran

 

Abstract: Entering alternating rotary electrical machines such as induction motors, electrical drivers industry have changed. They changed so much that despite of DC motor drivers, they had low control. Complicated structures and were used for fixed speed uses. With development of engineering science and the theory of vector control in drive industry, the industry developed basically and gradually they were good substitutions for DC drivers in a wide range. In this paper, we’ll study indirect vector control ways. Here, we try to improve the function of this control method by an improving method so that by getting controlling coefficients of drive speed, better results will be got. Genetic which was figured based on the best factors and controlling coefficients of PI set using it, was used in this case which proves the better function of the system. Genetic algorithm considers the decrease of speed error integral and gets proper parameters for PI current controller in different loading conditions.

[Mehdi Akbarpour, Saeed Zakrei, Mohammad Lohi, Mohammad Amin Zakrei, Mohammad Masoud Mirjalili. Indirect Vector Control of Induction Motor by Adjusting PI Parameter Using Genetic Algorithm. Life Sci J. 2013;10(1):431-437] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.68

 

Keywords: PI current controller; induction motors; indirect vector control; genetic algorithm.

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Effects of cinnamon on glucose control in glucose intolerant patients

 

Moraveji M., MS.c, Sahebalzamani M., PhD (Corresponding author), Safaee M., MS. c

 

1. Dept of nursing, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran.

2. Assistant Professor of Islamic Azad University Medical branch, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran, Iran.

3. Islamic Azad University Tehran Medical branch, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: According to previous studies, cinnamon may have a positive effect on the glycaemic control and the lipid profile in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves fasting plasma glucose and blood sugar. Methods and Materials: We chose 50 volunteer glucose intolerance patients (28 female & 22male) as the study samples with cross sectional sampling method. The study samples were in 54.74 +_7.10 years age group (Mean+_ Standard deviation), underwent a three phase Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) supplemented with either a 5g placebo (control OGTT), 5g cinnamon (Cinnamon OGTT) in second phase, and 5g cinnamon 12 hours before OGTT (OGTT 12 hours before) in third phase. Findings: Cinnamon ingestion along with oral glucose solution and also 12 hours before the test, caused reduction in blood glucose level of the samples (p<0.001), but it had not any effect on their fasting blood sugar (p<0.831). Conclusion: This study revealed that cinnamon spices supplementation causes blood glucose control, and not only are its effects immediate, they also appear to be sustained for 12 h.

[Moraveji M., Sahebalzamani M., Safaee M. Effects of cinnamon on glucose control in glucose intolerant patients. Life Sci J 2013; 10(1):438-440] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.69

 

Keywords: Cinnamon, Blood sugar, Glucose intolerance

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A comparative evaluation of the perception of lecturers, employees and students about the organizational culture of Shiraz University

 

Homayoun Dadgar 1, Rahmatollah Marzooghi 2, Jafar Torkzadeh 3, Mehdi Mohammadi 3, Farideh Barahouei 1

 

1. M.A. of Educational Administration, Zahedan University of medical sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2. Ph.D. Associate professor, Department of educational administration and planning, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3. Ph.D. Assistant professor, Department of educational administration and planning, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

homayoundadgar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The general purpose of the study was comparative evaluation of the perception of lecturers, employees and students about the organizational culture of Shiraz University. The statistical population was including all the lecturers, staffs and students of Shiraz University at academic year 2010-2011 who were selected by stratified random sampling as 226 people of the lecturers, 261 staffs and 375 students. The research instrument was Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) of Cameron & Quinn (2006). Data analysis was done by Repeated Measures ANOVA and Two Way ANOVA methods. The results showed that dominant organizational culture from the view of lecturers, staffs and students is clan culture. The dominant culture from the view of lecturers and staffs was clan and from the view of students was hierarchical culture. In comparing the perception of this three groups based on gender of organization culture, the highest average of clan, hierarchical and market cultures was among women lecturers and the highest average of adhocracy culture was among men staffs of the university.

[Homayoun Dadgar, Rahmatollah Marzooghi, Jafar Torkzadeh, Mehdi Mohammadi, Farideh Barahouei. A comparative evaluation of the perception of lecturers, employees and students about the organizational culture of Shiraz University. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):441-448]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.70

 

Keywords: Organizational culture; lecturers; staffs; students; university.

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The Alteration of Farmanfarma Family Position after the Coup-d’tat of March 1920 During Seyed Zia’s Cabinet

 

Parham Hakimian 1, Dr. Ghobad Mansoorbakht 2

 

1. Ph.D Student, Department of History, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Teheran, Iran

2. Faculty Member of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

phakimian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: AbdolhosseinMirza Farmanfarma is amongst a few Qajar princes who could promote his political and financial position after his father and grandfather. While stabilizing the position of Farmanfarma family and establishing wide relations with England, he became one of the influential figures in Iran’s political arena. But by declining of Qajar Monarchy and central government and internal disorders after Constitutional Revolution along with Russian Communist Revolution in Russia, Iran confronted with several domestic and international problems. Since British Government was afraid of spreading Russia’s revolution to Iran and India, so it prepared the coup-d’tat of 1299 A.H. (1920 A.C.). But at the beginning of the coup, NosratoldollehFirooz the son of Farmanfarma was the main nominee as the head of coup. But suddenly Seyed Zia was selected for this purpose. Findings of this research indicate that by this event Farmanfarma Family completely lost its power and finally they lost their British supporters as well.

[Parham Hakimian, Ghobad Mansoorbakht. The Alteration of Farmanfarma Family Position after the Coup-d’tat of March 1920 During Seyed Zia’s Cabinet. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):449-456]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 71

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.71

 

Keywords: Seyed Ziaeddin Tabatabai; Abdolhossein Mirza Farmanfarma; Nosrat Oldoleh Firooz; 1919 Contract; Abbas Mirza Salarlashkar; Mohamad Vali Mirza.

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Iranian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis Struggle to Do Self-Care

 

N. Mohammadi 1, A. HassanpourDehkordi 2, A. NikbakhatNasrabadi 3

 

1. Assistant professor, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Centre for nursing Research, Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2. PhD candidate, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3. Associated professor, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

ali_2762002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis is a systemic infection which has many consequences on patients’ life because of its chronic nature. Patient involvement in doing self-care is crucial for patients with chronic hepatitis in order to change their behaviours towards a healthy life style and to increase the own quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how chronic hepatitis patients to do self-care activities. Methods/Design: This present study was designed as a qualitative method. It is undertaken with patients living with hepatitis in a metropolitan city in the Iran. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit 18 participants. The study participants were at least 18 year-old. Data was collected through a semi-structured interview. Data analysis process performed on the texts which generate from verbatim transcripts of the participants interviews by using thematic content analysis. Results: The core-theme for the study was struggling to do self-care activities. There were three themes derived from data including seeking information with difficulties, negative perspectives of hepatitis among people and insufficient resources. Conclusion: Chronic hepatitis presents major challenges for patients with chronic hepatitis to do self-care activities. Providing appropriate information, changing negative perspective of society on hepatitis and provision sufficient facilities help Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis to do self-care activities appropriately.

[N. Mohammadi, A. HassanpourDehkordi, A. Nikbakhat Nasrabadi. Iranian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis Struggle to Do Self-Care. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):457-462]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.72

 

Keywords: Chronic hepatitis, Struggle to do self-care

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A proposed Health Needs Assessment approach to breast cancer service development in Saudi Arabia: Preparation of a patient-centred tool.

 

Wafa Nichols1, Samia M. Al-Amoudi2 Hasna Banjar3 Shadia A. Yousuf3

 

1FAMS-MLT, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah Saudi Arabia

2Department of Obstetric and Gyecology, Faculty of Medicine King Abdulaziz University Jeddah Saudi Arabia

3Department of Public Health, Faculty of Nursing, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah Saudi Arabia

wnichols@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Background: Assessing the psychosocial, physical, and informational needs of any population of patients, and their perception on how these needs are being met, is an essential to planning an effective, comprehensive patient-centred cancer support program. However, to our knowledge, no patient-centered community health needs assessment of breast cancer patients has been performed in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to develop a culturally valid, health needs assessment tool for use with the local breast cancer community. Methods: Data driven inductive thematic analysis of recorded semi structured interviews of local breast cancer patients was performed. The resulting identified themes were compared to themes present in existing tools and the extent of congruency compared. Results: From the shortlist of published needs assessment tools, "Cancer Survivor Unmet Needs" and "Supportive Care Needs Survey- Short Form" have been demonstrated to have a highest degree (8/10) of congruency with the themes identified by the local study group; and the "Cancer Survivor Unmet Needs" assessment tool was the best suited in overall format. Conclusion: The selected tool, "Cancer Survivor Unmet Needs", with the suggested modifications, has the necessary overall congruency of content to be developed as a tool for the service needs assessment of Saudi Breast Cancer Patients; establishing content validity helps ensure that the final health needs assessment tool is both comprehensive and culturally appropriate. A large-scale survey, using such a tool, would facilitate a patient centered approach to service development and provide an operational blueprint for possible future breast cancer service development projects in Saudi Arabia.

 [Wafa Nichols, Samia M. Al-Amoudi Hasna Banjar Shadia Yousuf MN. A proposed Health Needs Assessment approach to breast cancer service development in Saudi Arabia: Preparation of a patient-centred tool. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):463-468] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.73

 

Keywords: breast cancer, needs assessment, patient centered, quality of life, inductive thematic analysis.

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Social Capital and its Impact on Job Satisfaction

 

Monireh Mohsenzadeh 1, Fereydoon Ahmadi 2

 

1. Social Philosophy PH.D Student, Azerbaijan National Sciences Academy, Azerbaijan

2. Public management Department, Payam Noor University, 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran

mohsenzadeh_monireh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims at finding the relationships between social capital and job satisfaction in private service organizations (hospitals). An experimental method is performed to study the relationship between social capital variables and job satisfaction in three private hospitals to analyze their direct/indirect relationships with job satisfaction. The present paper indicates that there is a direct, positive, and significant relationship between trust and job satisfaction. Trust will lead to more satisfaction. There is also an indirect, positive, and significant relationship between formal networks and job satisfaction but through trust variable. There is no direct/indirect relationship between action norms and job satisfaction. It has also been found that there is a direct, significant, but negative relationship between educational level and job satisfaction. This analysis had been performed in private organizations and further analysis shall be done in non-private organizations. Social capital is so tied to trust that in almost all organizations efforts have to be taken to promote trust among members and between members and organization. There is neither direct nor indirect relationship between action norms and job satisfaction, so social capital can either be supportive or not supportive.

[Monireh Mohsenzadeh, Fereydoon Ahmadi. Social Capital and its Impact on Job Satisfaction. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):469-475]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 74

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.74

 

Keywords: Social capital; Job satisfaction

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The investigation of the influence of seed and weeds management on the performance and performance components of mungbean in Khoramabad

 

Hadis Zaremanesh

 

Department of agriculture, Payame Noor University of Iran, Iran

hadis_zaremanesh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Grain legumes are the most important protein resources in arid and semi-arid regions in the world and had important role in the economy of these regions (Tasfi etal.2006), mungbean was belonging to phaseolae, groupphaseolinae, the family of fabiacea and one of the important members of vigna. Vigna radiate is a fine grained legume, summer and short day that is cultivated as non-irrigated in central and south east centers of Asia (Dikasta et al., 1999). As Iran is located in arid and semi-arid regions and the shortage of water in these regions, there is the probability of dryness tension in all plants growth stages. The cultivation of plants with short growth as Vigna radiate can be useful in these regions. Vigna radiate due to the ability to fix nitrogen, short growth time and high performance potential is one of the most common plants that is used in cultivation systems of grains (Parsa and Baqeri, 2008). Vigna radiate is one of the valuable grains full of phosphor. Mungbeanis rich with protein and it has about 25% protein that is used as complete, divided or flour. Compared to new species (various kinds of beans) is digestible and delicious. Green sprouts of mungbean are full of vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and is used in providing most of the salads and foods. Cultivation of mungbean as green fertilizer is common and is legume has azoth fixation ability, it is useful in avoiding the soil erosion. Due to short growth period, it is useful for cultivation alternatives in compressive cultivations. In Iran, due to short growth period, mungbean is cultivated after harvesting wheat or barley. By applying cultivation managements we can change the morphological attributes of the plant. If these changes are related to the effective attributes on the performance and its optimization, the performance is increased. Determining the best cultivation density is of great importance in planning to achieve high performance and good quality. One of eh factors affecting the vegetation and attraction of sun is plant density. The distribution and density of the bushes affect the attraction of effective factors on the growth and inside and outside completion of the bush and it is one of the determining factors of seed performance. On the other hand, the competition of weeds is one of the factors reducing the production of cultivation plants. The increase of the cultivation density reduces the adverse effects of the completion of weeds. There is no information about the effect of cultivation density and the competition of weeds on the performance and performance components of mungbean in Khoram Abad condition. Thus, the current study is done to achieve these data and determining the best cultivation density in weeding and interference of weeds in climatic conditions of Khoramabad.

[Hadis Zaremanesh. The investigation of the influence of seed and weeds management on the performance and performance components of mungbean in Khoramabad. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):476-480]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.75

 

Keywords: Speed; Weeds; Management.

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Early Maladaptive Schemas versus Emotional Intelligence in Substance Addicts and Non-addicts Living in Tehran

 

Saeed Karimi

 

MS of faculty Psychology, Tehran university, Tehran, Iran

Skarimi242@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: he objective of this research was to compare early maladaptive schemas with emotional intelligence of substance addicts and non-addicts. This research was a descriptive study. The statistical population included all male and female substance addicts who reported to public rehabilitation centers in Tehran in Aban 1391 (November 2012). The statistical population included 750 individuals. Study sample was selected by simple random sampling. The study sample included 100 subjects consisting of 50 addicts and 50 non-addicts. This study used Bar-on Emotional Intelligence Inventory and Young Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire (YSQ). Data analysis was carried out by applying independent t-test and multivariate regression. The results showed that the average emotional intelligence in non-addict individuals was higher than the average emotional intelligence in substance addicts at 95% confidence level. The average score of early maladaptive schemas in substance addicts is higher than the average score of non-addicts. Statistical significance is skewed toward substance addicts. Regression analysis showed that emotional intelligence and maladaptive schemas could predict 0.581 of the total variance for the propensity to addiction in substance addicts. The comparison of standard regression coefficients showed that disconnection and rejection schemas have higher share in prediction of the propensity to addiction in substance addicts (b =-0.512). The relation of emotional intelligence and maladaptive schema subscales (self-discipline, vigilance, and inhibition) versus the propensity to addiction in substance addicts is negative. Consequently, the higher the propensity to addiction in substance addicts, the lower the frequency of emotional intelligence and maladaptive schema subscales (self-discipline, vigilance, and inhibition), or vise versa.

[Saeed Karimi. Early Maladaptive Schemas versus Emotional Intelligence in Substance Addicts and Non-addicts Living in Tehran. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):481-486] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.76

 

Keywords: Early Maladaptive Schemas, Emotional Intelligence, Substance Addicts.

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The application of Barvar 2- biological phosphate fertilizer in wheat cultivation a step to organic agriculture (green) and reduction of environmental pollution

 

Masumeh Ghanbari 1, Ahmad Janjan 2

 

1. Department of Agriculture, University of Malayer, Malayer, Iran

2. Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Applied Science and Technology, Hamedan, Iran

sahel_4255@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: According to Miller (1991) any change in climate, soil, water and food having adverse effect on environment, human activities and other animals is called pollution. Soil is an important part of environment as a geochemical resource for pollution and it is a natural buffer controlling the transfer of elements and chemical matter to atmosphere, hydrosphere and creatures. Today, excess use of chemical fertilizers is one of the environment pollution factors including soil. Some elements including chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic significantly are increased in soil. The plants can have considerable amount of heavy metals in their tissue and the plants can transfer the heavy metals from soil to water and human being and other live creatures. Some of the studies showed that excess use of chemical fertilizers cause different kinds of cancer in human being. Based on environmental and health pollution created of using chemical fertilizers, producing and consuming bio-fertilizers is the most important approach in soil improvement. Today, sustainable agriculture is important and one of the approaches is to choose bio-agriculture (organic). In organic agriculture instead of using chemical fertilizers, bio-fertilizers, compost, organic and farm yard manure are used. The current study was carried out in applied scientific center of Hamedan. In two sequential planting period of wheat, instead of using phosphorus chemical fertilizer, the equal bio-fertilizer- Barvar-2 Phosphate was used. Finally, sample plot experiment was compared with control plot in terms of grain protein percent and product performance and the results of the test were analyzed by Sas software. The comparison of the means based on Duncan’s test showed significant difference in increasing the performance and increasing grain protein due to the use of mentioned bio-fertilizers.

[Masumeh Ghanbari, Ahmad Janjan. The application of Barvar 2- biological phosphate fertilizer in wheat cultivation a step to organic agriculture (green) and reduction of environmental pollution. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):487-490]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.77

 

Keywords: Environment health, Organic agriculture, Biological fertilizers, Soil pollution

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A new approach for the facility layout design in manufacturing systems

 

G. R. Jahanshahloo, M. Zohrehbandian, H. Abbasian, S. Abbasian-Naghneh*

 

Department of Mathematics, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

Salman_abasian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Facility Layout Design (FLD) problems are concerned with the arrangement of a number of facilities in a given space to satisfy an objective function; for example, minimizing total interaction. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been used in order to extract the necessary information for selection the optimal layout and arrangement of a number of facilities. In order to eliminate the inconsistency caused by using different frontier facets to calculate efficiency, common set of weights' DEA models have been developed, under which a group of DMUs can be ranked for a specific period.A new approach to determine the optimal distribution of process facilities based on the common set of weights DEA model is presented in this paper.

[G. R. Jahanshahloo, M. Zohrehbandian, H. Abbasian, S. Abbasian-Naghneh. A new approach for the facility layout design in manufacturing systems. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):491-495]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.78

 

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; common set of weights; Facility Layout Design.

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The social life of the people in Safavid era of Taleb Amoli poems

 

Kobra Nodehi, Taghi Amini Mofrad, Zohreh Arab

 

Department of Persian Literature, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

E-mail: k_nodehi@gorganiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Literary works including poem and prose are the most important resources of identifying the social life of people and its various aspects including tradition, beliefs, attitudes, etc. Indeed, the literature of any country is a mirror by which the past and present life image of the people is seen clearly. By the exact investigation of literary works of each period, the history of the community of that era is reconstructed.such reconstruction is without any ambiguity and biases involving the history writing and its items are reliable compared to the historical books written in that era. Taleb Amoli is one of the famous poet of Isfahani style (Indian), tenth and eleventh century Hijri and experiencing in their personal life in his works and ups and downs of his life and achieved a clear image of the people life of that era. In other words, investigating the poems of Taleb Amoli present valuable information about various aspects of people of that era for the audience. As by studying it, we can find about the social structure of the era. In the current study, it is aimed to identify some parts of the traditions and beliefs of people of Safavid era of Taleb Amoli poems to the audience.

[Kobra Nodehi, Taghi Amini Mofrad, Zohreh Arab. The social life of the people in Safavid era of Taleb Amoli poems. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):496-499] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 79

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.79

 

Keywords: Taleb; Tradition; Poems; Society; People.

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The Significance of the Use of Viscoelastic Dampers in the Seismic Retrofitting

 

Ebrahim Farzaneh

 

PhD student in earthquake, Tajikistan Academy of Sciences

 

Abstract: Using the viscoelastic dampers has been considered as one of the seismic retrofitting techniques of the available structures as well as the seismic design of new buildings, for the past two decades. The studies done all indicate that these dampers are effective in reducing the structural response as well as reducing damages to the structures due to the earthquake. In this article, the effect of these dampers on the response of structures and other seismic needs created in them were studied by performing field tests on the steel structure models.

[Ebrahim Farzaneh. The Significance of the Use of Viscoelastic Dampers in the Seismic Retrofitting. Life Sci J 2013; 10(1):500-502] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 80

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.80

 

Keywords: dampers, viscoelastic, seismic retrofitting, retrofitting methods.

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Inflammation Growth in IRAN (Islamic Republic of): Causes and Treatments

 

* Mohammad Domehri, ** Davood Shams

 

* Ph.D, student, Department of Economics, Pune University, Pune, India

** Master Student, University Bharati MBA

 

Abstract: According to official reports, the average rate of inflation in the past 30 years has more than 15 percent annually. Inflation rate in April, 2012 rose 25 percent, and according to the experts is growing rapidly. The current paper investigates the factors impacting inflammation growth in Iran and the ways forward for better treatment. In this regard, factors such as: Supply deficit by borrowing from the central bank, increased liquidity, increased energy prices, subsidies, industrial and trade policies after adjustment, increased risk of productive economic activities, weaknesses in management, and the rise of world prices, are highlighted as the main causes of inflation were expressed. The treatments also are highlighted while discussing the causes.

[Mohammad Domehri and Davood Shams. Inflammation Growth in IRAN (Islamic Republic of): Causes and Treatments, Forests. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):503-505] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 81

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.81

 

Keywords: Inflammation Growth, Iran, Subside, Liquidity, Treatment

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Globalization: religious and ethnical training in modern world (threats and opportunities)

 

Mohmmad Masudiniya1, Ali Abbasi Aabkhare2

 

1Department of Law Payam Noor Universtiy, I.R. of IRAN Legal Advisor Payam Noor University of East Azerbaijan

2Department of Law Payam Noor Universtiy, I.R. of IRAN

*Pnu_zonoz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Growth and speed of changes in this century have changed the present life appearance. Societies encounter with some changes which are considered as main principles of globalization. Confusion in societies is the result of globalization in different and deep aspects. It forces the thinkers to study it in both optimistic and pessimistic aspects. In general, globalization, with all agreements and disagreements, is neither good nor bad. It can also be desirable or non desirable. In other words, globalization is both fatal and savior. One of globalization characteristics is increasing growth of science, technology and academic information production. This growth has affected the religious and academic institutions in different aspects. To do this, we focus on general procedures of globalization and then its process and effects on family, people’s characteristics in modern age. Islam globalization has acceptable intellectual foundations. It seems that in last 14 centuries, Islamic civilization has been maintained. It is a promising step towards Globalization of Islamic Civilization. In second part of this paper, we focus on Globalization of Islam, different opportunities in contemporary century, different kinds of religious training, family’s religious training, and social and individual aspect of religious training.

[Mohmmad Masudiniya, Ali Abbasi Aabkhare. Globalization: religious and ethnical training in modern world (threats and opportunities). Life Sci J 2013;10(1):506-510]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.82

 

Keywords: Globalization, ethnical and religious training, Globalization of Islam, individual and social aspects of religious training.

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Influential factors on export developing in Aras Free Zone

 

Seied Jamal Hosseini1*, Esa Abedini2, Adel Najafzadeh3

 

1*Department of Management, Economics, Accounting Payam Noor Universtiy, I.R. of IRAN, Organization Studies Center Director of Aras Free Trade-Industiral Zone, PHD. Candidat of Industiral Managementin. AMEA

2Department of Management, Economics, Accounting,payame noor unvierstiy, I.R. of IRAN.

3Deputy Director of Cuthural-Social&Tourism Aras Free Zone

* Pnu_zonoz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Economical development and self efficiency of our country needs empowerment of non oil experts. Through identifying ways of exchanging economical variables, we can offer a new strategy for developing the economy. This paper aims to focus on empowering Aras Free Zone and the influential factors on the exports of this zone. To do this, we identified ten independent variables which are as follows: export strategy, oversea services, marketing, advertisement, transportation, materials and equipments, export informing, business training, custom regulations, being familiar with monetary and bank system, being familiar with international environment. In order to study the relationship between these variables and export empowerment Aras Free Zone, we applied a survey study. The statistical population of this study includes the whole exporters of Aras Free Zone in first half of 1387. We choose 148 exporters as study sample through random sampling method. After interview and collecting the data, we analyzed them through SPSS software. The results of data analysis show that there is a significant correlation between service export strategies, oversea strategies, rate of materials and equipments, ways of marketing, exporting informing, advertisement, being familiar with monetary and bank system, custom regulations, being familiar with international environment (as independent variables) and empowering the exports in Aras Free Zone. But the results also show that there is not significant correlation between exporting informing, business training, transportation and empowering the export in Aras Free Zone.

[Seied Jamal Hosseini, Esa Abedini, Adel Najafzadeh. Influential factors on export developing in Aras Free Zone. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):511-519]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.83

 

Keywords: empowering the export, export strategy, oversea strategies, custom regulations

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Regression analysis empowering export in Araz Free Zone

 

Seied Jamal Hosseini1*, Esa Abedini2

 

1*Department of Management, Economics, Accounting Payam Noor University, I.R. of IRAN, Organiztion Studies Center Director of Aras Free Trade-Industiral Zone, PHD. Candidat of Industiral Managementin. AMEA

2Department of Management, Economics, Accounting, payame Noor Unvierstiy, I.R. of IRAN. PO Box19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

*Pnu_zonoz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main aim of this study is to empower the export in Free Aras Zone and identify the influential factors. In order to study the relationship between these variables and empowering the Free Aras Zone we did a survey study. The statistical population of this study includes the whole exporters of Free Aras Zone in 1387 from which we choose 148 people as samples. After interviewing and collecting the data, we analyzed them through SPSS software. The results of data analysis show that there is a significant correlation between strategies of service exports, overseas, amount of materials and equipments, ways of evaluation, export informing, advertisement, custom’s regulations, being aware of bank systems and the international rules(independent variables) and empowering Free Aras Zoneexports. Finally, after regression analysis of empowering the Free Aras Zone (as an index) with four variables was entered the regression model and could explain the 63% of changes in dependent variable empowering the exports in Aras Free Zone.

[Seied Jamal Hosseini, Esa Abedini. Regression analysis empowering export in Araz Free Zone. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):520-526]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.84

 

Keywords: empowering the exports, Aras Free Zone, regression model

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Studying the children’s rights with an emphasis on Street and Labor children

 

Ali Abbasi Aabkhare1*, Mohmmad Masudiniy2, Fatemeh Karimnejad

 

1*Department of Law Payam Noor Universtiy,I.R. of IRAN, Corresponding Author email

2Department of Law Payam Noor Universtiy, I.R. of IRAN Legal Advisor Payam Noor

 University of East Azerbaijan

* Aliabbasi42@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During the history, there has been child abuse in all societies. However, this issue has recently been considered as a serious problem in Iran. The first judicial step for supporting the child abuse was in 1924 after the First World War by Community of Nations in Geneva. It was done as the result of war consequences and damages on children. This program was about nutrition, health, housing for war-affected and homeless children and protecting them against psychological and physical damages of war. This paper aims to find out the influential factors and causes in observing the children’s rights with an emphasis on Street and Labor Children. Street children phenomenon in Iran, especially the metropolitans, is considerable as the result of these children’s presence all over the streets in different forms such as selling gum, newspaper, flower, tissue paper and shoe shiner. This phenomenon spiritually and mentally annoys and hurts the Iranian altruist people. We can fight against this phenomenon as one of the most important social pathologies which continues an increasing level and affected by social, cultural, political and economic situations and factors.

[Ali Abbasi Aabkhare, Mohmmad Masudiniy, Fatemeh Karimnejad. Studying the children’s rights with an emphasis on Street and Labor children. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):527-531]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

doi:10.7537/marslsj100113.85

 

Keywords: child rights, Street children phenomenon, reasons of children runaway.

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Mastitis in housed dairy buffaloes: incidence, etiology, clinical finding, antimicrobial sensitivity and different medical treatment against E. coli mastitis.

 

Amir Hamed Abd-Elrahman
 

Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

Amirhamed22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bovine mastitis is an important and a persistent infection in the buffalo population producing high economic losses. The study was conducted on 500 housed dairy buffaloes in El-Bahiera Governorate, Egypt. The purposes of study were to determine incidence of mastitis, bacterial isolates from mastitic milk, clinical findings of clinical mastitic buffaloes, antimicrobial sensitivity on bacterial isolates, monthly incidence of mastitis post calving and cure rate after different treatments of E. coli mastitis post calving. Incidence of subclinical mastitis more prevalent than clinical mastitis in housed buffaloes in percentages 18.5% and 9% respectively. S. aureus, E. col