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Life Science Journal 
 (Life Sci J)
 
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 9 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 28), March 25, 2012. life0901 
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0901
To get Microsoft Document (doc file): After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc or .docx
 

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Total stress tensors and heat fluxes of single flow through a porous viscoelastic medium

 

Tshepo O Tong and Matthew T Kambule

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, South Africa.

e-mail: matthew.kambule@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Using the second law of thermodynamics, we examine the macroscopic equations for mass, momentum, energy and entropy for a biphasic system whose interface has thermodynamic properties. This system is made up of a mesoscopic particle and a fluid, including mass exchange and different phase temperatures. By exploiting the entropy inequality in terms of Coleman and Noll's method we obtain nonequilibrium and equilibrium results. We show how the solid phase stress tensor depends on the solid phase pressure, the Terzaghi stress, the hydration stress and the stress contributed by the interface properties, which is similar to the Terzaghi stress. We determine the heat fluxes. We further linearize the non-equilibrium parts of their constitutive forms in terms of heat conduction, fluid viscosity and viscoelasticity about the equilibrium. Finally we obtain expressions of the total stress and the total heat flux for a particle.

[Tshepo O Tong and Matthew T Kambule. Total stress tensors and heat fluxes of single flow through a porous viscoelastic medium. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):1-12] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.01

 

Keywords: Cauchy stress tensors; heat fluxes; Hybrid mixture Theory method; viscoelaticity.

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2

RFID Antenna Performance Evaluation for Library Inventory Management

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chin-Ming Hsu2, Chian-Yi Chao3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Three types of printed radio-frequency-identification (RFID) antennas with the characteristics of high gain, wide beam wave, and omnidirectional beam wave are constructed and evaluated in this study. The objective is to find out their best reading rates for providing effective wireless communications among RFID antenna readers during the library book inventory process. Three kinds of antenna readers have been fabricated on the printed circuit board (PCB) with the operating frequency at 915 MHz, which are tested by using vector network analyses device named Agilent PNA N5230A and simulated by using antenna design kit named ANSOFT HFSS. The fabricated antenna readers are embedded into different locations of bookshelves at the library of Cheng Shiu University in Taiwan. According to the experimental results, the designed prototypes of the antenna readers has the characteristics of the directional radiation pattern, wide beam wave, simple shape, good gain, low cost and easy to be integrated to the bookshelf. They can benefit administrating librarians with the capabilities of decreasing the library inventory processing time and reducing the possibility of the books being misplaced.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chin-Ming Hsu, Chian-Yi Chao. RFID Antenna Performance Evaluation for Library Inventory Management. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):13-19] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.02

 

Keywords: Library Inventory; radio frequency identification (RFID); Antenna

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Relationship between Serum Magnesium Levels With Incidence of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Non-diabetic and Type 2 Diabetes Patients Who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG)

 

 *Ahmad Ebadi1, Mohammad Ebadi², Saeid Ebadi², Shahram Baraz³, Firoozeh Karimi Pour 4 & Laleh barati5

 

1. Associate Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology, MD, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapour University, Ahvaz, Iran.

2. MD, PHD, Semmelweis University,Tomo u. 25-29, Budapest H-1083, Hungary

 3. PhD student at Ahvaz Jundishapour University, Ahvaz, Iran

4. Faculty at the University of Medicine Science Jahrom, Iran

5. The CVICU nurse at great hospital of oil

* Corresponding Author: Ebadi1959@ajums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Introduction: Magnesium (mg) depletion plays a key role in the path physiology of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia and cardiopulmonary bypass. ATRIAL and ventricular arrhythmias are among the most common complications after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Our objective was to detect the relationship between the level of magnesium and arrhythmia in non diabetic and diabetic patients who underwent CABG. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, the plasma level of magnesium was measured in 434 diabetic patients who underwent CABG in NAFT Hospital of Ahwaz. Spectrophotometer was used to measure the plasma level of magnesium. Glycosylated of hemoglobin was also measured as a glycemic control index. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. Results: The mean concentration of magnesium in type 2 diabetic patients in pre and post CABG was 1.68 ±.79 and 1.37 ±.26 (p = 000). The mean concentration of magnesium in non diabetic patients in pre and post CABG was 2.53 ±1.9 and 1.93 ±.6 (p = 0.39). There were significant negative correlation (p =0.037) between levels of Mg and arrhythmia, in other hand there was significant positive correlation between levels of Mg and HbA1c (p =. 004). Conclusion: According to the results of this and previous studies, we recommend routine serum Mg determination and more attention to hypomagnesaemia patients to prevent further complications.

[A. Ebadi, M. Ebadi, S. Ebadi, Sh. Baraz, F. Karimi Pour & L. barati. Relationship between Serum Magnesium Levels With Incidence of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Non-diabetic and Type 2 Diabetes Patients Who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG). Life Sci J 2012;9(1):20-24] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.03

 

Key word: magnesium, diabetic, arrhythmia, CABG

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Effect of Amount & Different Intravenous Tranexamic Acid on Postoperative Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

 

Ahmad Ebadi1, Mehdi Dehghani Firoozadadi2, Bandar Bramaki3 

 

1. Associate Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology MD, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University, Ahvaz, Iran

2. Assistant Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology MD, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur

3. Resident of Anesthesiology MD

Corresponding Author E-mail: Ebadi1959@ajums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: CABG is one of the most common major surgical procedures. The most important complication is bleeding in CABG under Cardio pulmonary bypass CPB﴿. Tranexamic Acid, an anti-fibrinolytic drug is hydrophilic and a competitive and reversible convert plasminogen to plasmin can be prevented. That can be administered orally or intravenously during certain procedures to reduce bleeding. The most important complication of CABG in patients undergoing Cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB) is bleeding, 15 to 20 percent of the consumption of blood products in cardiac surgery patients is about 5% of patients with excessive bleeding due to surgery needs to be re-operation that may increase morbidity and mortality. Various methods to reduce bleeding in CABG surgery around the infusion of blood products and injections of anti-fibrinolytic drugs (Tranexamic acid) are. In this study, treatment with different doses and different methods Tranexamic acid in order to find the minimum effective dose and the injection method in controlling bleeding and reducing the need for transfusion of blood products has been used.

[A. Ebadi, M. Dehghani Firoozadadi, B. Bramaki. Effect of Amount & Different Intravenous Tranexamic Acid on Postoperative Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). Life Sci J 2012;9(1):25-29] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.04

 

Key words: Intravenous, Tranexamic Acid, Bleeding, CABG

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5

A Comparative Approach to Performance Evaluation of University Professors

 

Dr. Bozorgmehr Ashrafi, Maryam Aliei, Mahmood Dabaghipour

 

Department of Management, Shahrood industrial University, Shahrood, Iran

Bozorgashrafi@ymail.com, Info@Aliei.com, dabaghipour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The following research investigates a comparative approach to performance appraisal of university professors, professors in compare with educators. In order to go on through this research, we have developed an instrument which is a questionnaire That includes 16 indicators of teaching performance. This questionnaire satisfies a reliability of %70 according to the Cronbach’s Alpha. Statistical population chosen for the research is B.S. students of the Shahrood University of Technology. In summary, this research indicated that from the point of view of the students, in 12 indicators, the university professors did make it better in compare with the educators. In 1 indicator, the educators were in higher rank and finally in 3 indicators, no meaningful differences were found.

[Bozorgmehr Ashrafi, Maryam Aliei, Mahmood Dabaghipour. A Comparative Approach to Performance Evaluation of University Professors. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):30-34] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.05

 

Keywords; Comparative Approach, Performance Appraisal, University Professors

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Investigate the Prevalence of TB Patients Referred to TB Healthcare Industry

 

*Sarami Abdollah1, Shahba Nariman2, Zahabi Alireza3, Salehi Seyedparviz4, Chehrazi Behnam5

 

1- Infection. Specialist1, 2-Dermatologist, 3-Occupational MedicineResident, 4-General Physician,5- Lab.Technologist5. *Corresponding Author: drsarami@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than one-third of the World's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Even in the developed world, TB rates are stable at best, and actually increasing in many areas. This is due to factors such as immigration, HIV and other immunosuppressive conditions. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is transmitted through the air. Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis are infected in this study (39.5%) people are included. This study was performed in since 2001-2006 years in patients referred to TB Ahwaz oil industry. The numbers of Patients were 48 with diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary that they were treated with drugs. 19 (39.5%) smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 6 cases of scrofula (12.5%), 4 TB neck and axillary lymph nodes (20.8%), 7 cases of renal tuberculosis (14.5% ) and 4 cases of TB in smear-negative patients were diagnosed.

[A. Sarami. Investigate the Prevalence of TB Patients Referred to TB Healthcare Industry. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):35-38] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6.

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.06

 

Key words: Tuberculosis, prevalence

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7

Amputation of the Foot in Diabetic Patients

 

Salmanzadeh Sh1, Marashi Seyedkamal2, Dehghan Bahram.3, Sarami Abdollah4, Zahabi Alireza5, Salehi Seyed parviz6, Rohanimanesh F7

 

1- Associate professor of infectious Diseases, 2- Pharmacist, 3- psychiatrist, 4- Infectious Specialist, 5- Occupational Medicine Resident, 6- General Physician, 7- Diabetes clinic Dr.

*Corresponding Author: drsarami@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An amputation usually refers to the removal of the whole or part of an arm/hand or a leg/foot. Amputations can occur after an injury (traumatic amputation) or deliberately at surgery. The populations covered by the oil-rich areas (99,062 people) about 5500 diabetic patients were identified. 2 years in 35 cases of amputation due to diabetes was reported that 9 of them did so were excluded. Amputations due to diabetes was 26 of 17 (65%) were related to Ahwaz, and only 12 (70%) of oil have been covered by large hospital diabetes clinic. 6 out of 12 patients (50%) patients had diabetes clinic regularly.

[Salmanzadeh Sh, Marashi Seyedkamal, Dehghan Bahram, Sarami Abdollah, Zahabi Alireza, Salehi Seyed parviz, Rohanimanesh F. Amputation of the foot in diabetic patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):39-41] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.07

 

Key words: Diabetic foot ulcer-Amputation

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8

Peripferal Nerve Regeneration in Response to Synthesized Nanofiber Scaffold Hydrogel

 

Hui Meng1*, Liyan Chen2, and Xiaojun Zhao2

 

1*Corresponding authorPathology Department, First-affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Institute for NanoBiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Science Park No 1, Ke Yuan 4th St, Gao Peng Road, Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China

2Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Science Park No 1, Ke Yuan 4th St, Gao Peng Road, Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China

E-mail: 1,* menghuidrch@163.com;

 

Abstract: Background: earlier studies have demonstrated that Peptide RADA16-I (AcN-RADARADARADARADA-CONH2 ) could repair spinal cord injury and optical pathway and restore visual function. The objective of the research is to investigate the role of RADA16-I in the regeneration of peripheral nerve injury in rats. Method: sciatic nerve injury was performed at female Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups were conducted: crush group and sever group. There were RADA16-I treatment and blank control in each group. Sense Nerve Conduction (SNCV) parameters were evaluated on day 30 in the injured sciatic nerve by means of electrophysiological recording. The results indicates that SNCV in test groups shows a faster healing rate than blank control. Conclusion: self-assembling peptide plays a effective role in the regeneration of sciatic nerve in rats.

[Hui Meng, Liyan Chen, and Xiaojun Zhao. Peripferal Nerve Regeneration in Response to Synthesized Nanofiber Scaffold Hydrogel. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):42-46] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.08

 

Keyword: Nanobiology; SAP; AtomicForce Microscopy; Peripheral nerve healing; Electrophysiological recording.

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9

An Effective and Efficient Class-Course-Faculty Timetabling Assignment for an Educational Institute

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chian-Yi Chao 2, Chin-Ming Hsu 3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a class-course-faculty timetabling assigning model for an educational institute to increase the overall departmental performance, including enhancing teaching quality, making good use of student time, saving college budgets, and sharing departmental resources effectively. To achieve these goals, both faculty and classes are classified into different groups based on teachers’ specialties and courses’ attributes; the classified data and allocating rules are processed by a heuristic driven process and two fitness functions. The proposed heuristic driven process coupled with two fitness functions is mainly used to satisfy students’ needs for taking or retaking certain courses without delaying their graduation where the class sizes are balanced and merged to decrease the number of elective courses opened to the students. Allocating rules applied in the classrooms and laboratories management are based on the attributes of the courses and the availabilities of the resources to ensure that the resources can be shared effectively. The proposed timetabling assigning model has been simulated in C programming codes and MS SQL server is used as backend database. It allows teachers to get on the Website to key in at least 7 different courses of their preferring teaching courses, where the keyed in courses should be either in the same attributes of the specific course group or in the general course group. From the experimental results, there are about 90% of 100 courses assigned to the specific professional teacher. The minimum and maximum average satisfaction for all students’ needs is 0.8 and 0.9, respectively, where the lowest index value is 0.7 and the highest index value is 1. These results show that the difference of each student’s satisfaction is small; and the teachers’ and students’ expectations on teaching specific subjects and taking specific courses can be satisfied as nearly as possible.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chian-Yi Chao, Chin-Ming Hsu. An Effective and Efficient Class-Course-Faculty Timetabling Assignment for an Educational Institute. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):47-55] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.09

 

Keywords: Class-course-faculty timetabling, heuristic driven and fitness function.

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10

A Talent Laboratory Resource Supply Chain Model Based on Fuzzy Analytic Technology

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chian-Yi Chao 2, Chin-Ming Hsu 3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a talent laboratory resource supply chain model for an educational institution to increase the integration, visibility and flexibility of the laboratory resource management. The proposed model utilizes a reasoning engine with fuzzy, parallel fuzzy rules, and de-fuzzy processes to decide the optimal purchase ordering quantity and the best constant stocks in the laboratory resource supply system. The fuzzy process takes the crisp input data through the characteristic function and maps the input data into its corresponding membership degree. The fuzzy rules are processed with different degree of membership and all rules in the system are processed before triggering an action. The de-fuzzy process takes each item’s purchase ordering membership through the singleton output function and generates the corresponding crisp data. The proposed model allows users keying in their required experimental materials via the Web Site, uses the database management system to integrate all related information, and applies the fuzzy reasoning engine to generate the final purchase order reports to support the executor making the optimal decisions.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chian-Yi Chao, Chin-Ming Hsu. A Talent Laboratory Resource Supply Chain Model Based on Fuzzy Analytic Technology. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):56-63] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.10

 

Keywords: Laboratory resource, supply chain, reasoning engine, and fuzzy

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Intracranial Stent Placement for Recanalization of Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion

 

Shilei Sun1, Tan Song1; Xu Haowen2; Chandra Avinash 1, Xu Yuming1

 

1. Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

2 Department of Interventional Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

Co-first author: Tan Song; Corresponding author: Xu Yuming, xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of intracranial artery recanalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) using a self-expandable stent. All patients treated with an intracranial stent for acute cerebral artery occlusion were included. Treatment comprised intraarterial thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty and stent placement. Recanalization result was assessed by follow-up angiography immediately after stent placement. Complications related to the procedure and outcome at 3 months were assessed. Twelve patients (median NIHSS 14, mean age 63 years) were treated with intracranial stents for AIS. Occlusions were located in the posterior vertebrobasilar circulation (n=6) and in the anterior circulation (n=6). Stent placement was feasible in all procedures and resulted in partial or complete recanalization (TIMI 2/3) in 92%. No vessel perforations, subarachnoid, or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages occurred. Three patients (25%) had a good outcome (mRS 0 to 2), 3 (25%) a moderate outcome (mRS 3), and 6 (50%) a poor outcome (mRS 4 to 6). Mortality was 33.3%. Intracranial stent placement for AIS management has an excellent recanalization rate. However, it is associated with high complication risks as our series showed. We believe that the decision to treat acute ischemic stroke with intracranial stent placement should be made after careful consideration of potential benefits and risks

[Shilei Sun,Tan Song; Xu Haowen; Chandra Avinash, Xu Yuming. Intracranial Stent Placement for Recanalization of Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):64-66] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11.

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.11

 

Keywords: Intracranial stent; Recanalization

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Investigating the Relationship between Resiliency, Spiritual Intelligence and Mental Health of a group of undergraduate Students

 

Abbas Ebrahimi*1, Moloud Keykhosrovani2, Mostafa Dehghani2 and Moosa Javdan3

 

1. Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3. Minab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Minab, Iran

*ebrahemiabbas29@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Psychological assessment has tended to focus on the identification of attitudes that contribute to, and are symptomatic of, mental and physical disorders. This focus is most useful when clinicians and researchers seek to identify the degree to which individuals are impaired or at-risk. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between resiliency, spiritual intelligence and mental health among male and female students of Hormozgan University. Statistical sample of the study consists of male and female students of Hormozgan University, among which 100 were selected by random sampling. In this research Resiliency Questionnaire of Connor & Davidson, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire of Abdollah-Zadeh were used. The results indicated that there was a positive meaningful relationship (p<0.01) between resiliency and mental health, and also between spiritual intelligence and resiliency (p<0.01). Based on the results of T-test, there is no meaningful resiliency difference between male and female students. On the other hand, results of multiple regressions analysis indicated that mental health and spiritual intelligence meaningfully explain resiliency. Mental health has more significant role in predicting and explaining resiliency. Mental health and spiritual Intelligence had a significant role in explaining resiliency. Due to the fact that people with higher resiliency represent higher degree of mental health, we can conclude that providing vital factors (religion, spirit) to enhance resiliency can strengthen people in the face of mental stresses, tension and depression.

[Abbas Ebrahimi, Moloud Keykhosrovani, Mostafa Dehghani, Moosa Javdan. Investigating the Relationship between Resiliency, Spiritual Intelligence and Mental Health of a group of undergraduate Students. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):67-70] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12.

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.12

 

Keywords: Resiliency, Spirituality and Mental Health.

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Metiram-induced histological and histochemical alterations in Liver and kidney of pregnant mice

 

Saber A. Sakr and Somya Y. Shalaby

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt

Sabsak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Metiram is a non-systemically acting fungicide of dithiocarbamate group. It is used on food and ornamental crops to prevent crop damage in the field and to protect harvested crops from deterioration in storage or transport. The present work was conducted to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of miteram in pregnant albino mice. Oral treatment of metiram to pregnant mice from the 2nd day to 19th day of gestation induced many histological and histochemical alterations in the hepatic tissue and kidney cortex. The liver tissue showed congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes and fatty degeneration. The kidney cortex showed degeneration of renal tubules, atrophy of glomeruli and intertubular leucocytic infiltrations. Moreover, histochemical observations revealed reduction of total carbohydrates and total proteins in the hepatocytes and renal tubules. It is suggested that the histological and histochemical alterations observed in liver and kidney of pregnant mice by metiram may be mediated by depletion of antioxidants and elevation of lipid peroxidation.

[Saber A. Sakr, Somya Y. Shalaby. Metiram-induced histological and histochemical alterations in Liver and kidney of pregnant mice. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):71-76] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.13

 

Key words: Metiram, pregnant mice, Liver- kidney, Histology, Histochemistry.

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Effect of nursing intervention on the Quality of life of children undergoing hemodialysis

 

Ebtisam Elsayed*1, Wafaa El-Soreety1, Thanaa Elawany1 and Faten Nasar2

 

1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

 2 Pediatric Nursing Departments, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

drfaten_shafik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Renal failure is a major health problem all over the world that significantly lessens Children' s quality of life. Their care is a complex process requires multi disciplinary systems and urgent attention when it is diagnosed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nursing intervention on the Quality of life of children undergoing hemodialysis. The study was conducted at pediatrics heamodialysis units of Tanta and Benha University hospitals. A convenient sample of 70 children with chronic renal failure was included in the study (30 of them from Tanta University hospital and 40 from Benha University hospital). Their ages ranged from 8-18 years, with mean age 12.80 years±3.43. Interviewing questionnaire sheet and quality of life inventory scales were used to collect the required data. Data were collected in four phases(Initial phase, developmental phase, implementation phase and evaluation phase). The results of the current study revealed that, most of children were males (56%). A significant improvement in psychological domain score was found post intervention, in comparison to that pre intervention with significant decrease in categories of very poor quality of life (P=0.0001) and the percentage increased with the average and high quality of life (P=0.008 and 0.061 respectively). There was no significant improvement in physical social and school attendance domain score of quality of life post intervention in comparison to that pre intervention with significant improvement only in high quality of life score of physical domain (P= 0.002). Regarding to total score of quality of life, significant improvement was found regarding very poor, average and high quality of life post intervention (p=0.0001.0.010 and 0.005) respectively. Conclusion: Nursing intervention had positive effect on all domains of quality of life, specially psychological domain, which showed significant improvement. So it was recommended that, health education sessions should be conducted in heamodialysis units to all nursing staff as care providers, mothers and children to improve the compliance to the prescribed treatment as well as to help them to adapt with their limitation of the disease and its management.

[Ebtisam Elsayed, Wafaa El-Soreety, Thanaa Elawany and Faten Nasar. Effect of nursing intervention on the Quality of life of children undergoing hemodialysis. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):77-86] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.14

 

Keywords: Nursing intervention, Quality of life, Hemodialysis, chronic kidney disease

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Application of PICC Health Education Album to Patients in the Catheterization Period

 

Zhang Zhenxiang1, Wang Yanli2, Zheng Wei2, Li Junling2, Xu Hui1, Zhao Yanli1, Wang Xueying1, Huang Caihui1, Chen Jing1, Zhang Weihong1

 

1The Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

2 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Zhangzx6666@126.com

 

Abstract Objective: To popularize the related knowledge of PICC and improve self-care abilities of patients in the catheterization period. Methods: 256 patients received health education by three-day training, questionnaire and follow-up consultation. The patients were randomly divided into the experimental group (n=128) and the control group (n=128). Health education album was used in the experimental group, while common PICC publicity materials were used in the control group. The incidence of PICC complications and indwelling time were analyzed. Results: The complications incidence of the experimental group is 11.72%which is significantly lower that 24.22% of the control group (P<0.01).The average service time of the catheter of the experimental group is longer than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Application of PICC health education album in patients can reduce the incidence of complications significantly and prolong the indwelling time of the catheter.

[Zhang Zhenxiang, Wang Yanli, Zheng Wei, Li Junling, Xu Hui, Zhao Yanli, Wang Xueying, Huang Caihui, Chen Jing, Zhang Weihong. Application of PICC Health Education Album to Patients in the Catheterization Period. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):87-90] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.15

 

Key words: Catheterization; Central Venous; Health Education; Complication

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Effect of E. coli 0H157 on Baladi Broiler Chicken and some Biochemical studies

 

1Mona S. Zaki, 2Olfat Fawzy and M. H. Osfor

 

1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Nutrition, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Forty Chicken 4 weeks old and 800 - 1000 g average body weight were used. They kept in a balanced diet to study some performance, and clinicopathological changes under E.coli 0157:H7 infection. Ten chickens kept as control and 30 were infected with E. coli 015,: H7 by dose 0.05m1 (x 107 CFU) inoculated intramuscularly. Body weight were recorded, blood samples were collected at 7, 15, 30 days post infection, serum was separated for determination of AST, ALT, Total protein. Albumin, urea, creatinine, calcium phosphorous, sodium, potassium and cortisol hormone. The biochemical analysis showed increase in AST and ALT and a significant change in protein. Hypoalbuminemia, was observed, increase of serum urea, creatinine, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and decrease in level of potassium, sodium and cortisol hormone in areas. Blood examination revealed pancytopenia. This indicates that E. coli 0157: H7 causes deleterious effect on the Hematopoietic system.

 [Mona S. Zaki and Olfat Fawzy. Effect of E. coli 0157 on Baladi Broiler Chicken and some Biochemical studies. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):91-94] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.16

 

Key words: E. coli; Baladi Broiler Chicken; AST, ALT; Biochemical analysis.

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Impact of Flood Disaster on the Mental Health of Residents in the Eastern Region of Jeddah Governorate, 2010: A Study in Medical geography

 

Katibah Maghrabi

 

Department of Geography, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

katibah@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The impact of natural disasters over the last decade has resulted in many lives lost and livelihoods destroyed. Recent disasters, such as the earthquakes, the drought in the Horn of Africa, and landslides in Yemen have tested the capacities of Member States as well as national and international humanitarian agencies to provide quick and effective assistance. Flood disaster constitutes the most costly natural as well as technology-induced disaster, in terms of both human suffering and financial loss. Natural disaster risk assessment is a complex task, involving a wide variety of processes which require large amounts of spatial and temporal thematic data and information coming from disparate sources. In conjunction with the natural disaster risk assessment, medical geography aims at explaining the distribution of health status and disease. It identifies efficient ways to intervene and distribute trained personal and technology and has a crucial role in assessing and managing the consequences of disasters.Aim of the study: Exploring the impact of the floods on the mental health of the residents in the Eastern region of Jeddah Governorate, Locate neighbourhoods affected by the flood disaster in the city of Jeddah; Identify the natural factors causing the disaster; Human impact and negative role in the disaster; Measuring the psychological impact on the population in the affected place; Estimate the prevalence of PTSD among residents in the eastern region of Jeddah, as well as the residents who were shifted to the lodging houses; Describe the potential and exacerbating factors associated with occurrence of PTSD among residents exposed to the flood disaster and finally develop plans and recommendations that would reduce the recurrence of the disaster in the future. Methods and subjects: The study depends on the objective approach using many methods in analyzing the information such as the descriptive, analytical and interpretative in addition to field studies. Through a cross sectional community based on a design sample of 450 individuals, who were selected randomly from an estimated 336000 residents who were living along the stream courses of the flood. Cluster sampling using ArcGis 9.1 was made to assign 40 random clusters distributed proportionally according to the expected severity of exposure and from each cluster 10 households were selected by systematic random sampling plus 50 individuals who were selected randomly from those who were evacuated to lodging houses. PTSS-10 questionnaire was used to discover PTSD among people exposed to disasters. The results obtained from this study are explained and illustrated in tables and figures, in addition the study covering the following topics: Re-experiencing symptoms (Flashbacks— reliving the trauma over and over, including physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating, bad dreams and frightening thoughts); Avoidance symptoms (e.g. Staying away from places, events, or objects that remind of the experience, feeling emotionally numb, feeling strong guilt, depression, worry, losing interest in activities that were enjoyable in the past and having trouble remembering the dangerous event) and Hyper-arousal symptoms (Being easily startled, feeling tense or “on edge”, having difficulty sleeping, and/or having angry outbursts). Conclusion and Recommendations: While it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to predict the occurrence of most natural hazards; it is possible to take action before emergency events happen to plan for their occurrence when possible and to mitigate their potential effects putting into consideration the expected scenario of the event. Our study revealed two important issues that would help in the preparedness plan for flood disaster in Jeddah Governorate, first, the anatomy of the expected flood that could be modified through establishment of properly designed underground drainage tunnels leading to the red sea on the western border of the city. Secondly, in addition to the direct effect of the disaster represented by loss of properties and morbidities that could be ameliorated by compensations and concurrent health services, an overlooked post disaster impact shown as Post Traumatic Stress Disorders should be put in consideration in planning for the comprehensive health services provided to the victims of the flood. Thirdly, the authorities must prevent the establishment of any buildings, roads or infra-structure along the courses of dry valleys.

[Katibah Maghrabi. Impact of Flood Disaster on the Mental Health of Residents in the Eastern Region of Jeddah Governorate, 2010: A Study in Medical geography. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):95-110] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.17

 

Keyword: Flood Disaster, Mental Health, Jeddah, Governorate, geography.

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Molecular studies on some barley genotypes in relation to salt stress tolerance

 

Metwali E. M. R.

 

Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt. Ehab_25 @hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Environmental stress, especially saline soils and saline water, are one of the most important limiting factors for agricultural crops in particular all around the world. Thus, yield enhancement in agricultural crops such as barley under saline conditions is a major goal of plant breeding. Leaf Sample from five barley genotypes and their F1 offspring were collected at 30 days old seedlings growth under three treatments (control, 7000 and 14000 ppm) of NaCl to develop initial material for salinity tolerance breeding program using biochemical and molecular tools. These genotypes differ genetically in their salt tolerance potentiality and classified to salinity stress tolerant (Arar, Giza 123 and Giza 124), moderate (Mari) and susceptible (Beecher). Based on SDS-PAGE of water soluble protein for all genotypes under study newly synthesized protein bands of salt treated parents observed at molecular weight (102, 96, 67 and 23) KDa and (28 and 87 KDa) for treated parents and hybrids, respectively. Also Native PAGE was carried out in this experiment to study six isozymes (EST, SKD, FDH, GDH. MDH and PER) patterns. In general theses isozymes patterns were reliable system for discriminating between tolerant and sensitive salinity genotypes under salt stress. Using RAPD-PCR with 5 primer arbitrary oligonucleotide (P18, P86, P24, P92 and P93), the results showed that all barley genotypes are not always identical in their DNA ability to be amplified and the total of amplified bands is 352 PCR bands. On the contrary, primers P18, P86 and P24 were able to generate positive marker, P92 was able to generate negative marker and 93 was able to generate positive and negative marker for salt tolerance. The phylogentic tree succeeded in clustering together the three tolerant parents and moderate parent while sensitive parents in another cluster. These results indicated that protein, isozyme and RAPD analysis are useful molecular tools to indicate genetic polymorphism between the barley genotypes under salt stress.

[Metwali E. M. R. Molecular studies on some barley genotypes in relation to salt stress tolerance. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):111-123] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.18

 

Key words: Barley, salt stress, molecular marker, protein, isozyme, RAPD-PCR, cluster analysis

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Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values with Applications to Air Pollution

 

H. M. Barakat1, E. M. Nigm1 and O. M. Khaled2

 

1Department of Mathematics Faculty of Science Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2Department of Basic Science Faculty of Engineering, Sinai University, El-Arish, Egypt Email

hbarakat2@hotmail.com, s_nigm@yahoo.com, osam87@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper the Block Maxima and the Peak Over Threshold methods are used to model the air pollution in two cities in Egypt. A simulation technique is suggested to choose a suitable threshold value. The validity of full bootstrapping technique for improving the estimation parameters in extreme value models has been checked by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. A new efficiency approach for modeling extreme values is suggested. This approach can convert any ordered data to enlarged block data by using sup-sample bootstrap. Although, this study is applied on three pollutants in two cities in Egypt, but the suggested approaches may be applied on other pollutants in other regions in any country.

[H. M. Barakat, E. M. Nigm and O. M. Khaled. Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values with Applications to Air Pollution. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):124-132] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.19

 

Key words: Air pollution; Generalized extreme value model; Generalized Pareto distribution; Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; Bootstrap technique.

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The role of Chorioptic mange infestation in aggravating the infection rates of Staphylococcal dermatitis and Edematous skin disease in Egyptian buffaloes

 

Amir Hamed Abd-Elrahman1 and Mahmoud Tanekhy*2

 

1Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Department of Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. *amirhamed22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chorioptes mange is a skin disease affects both domestic and wild ruminants. A total of 341 Egyptian buffaloes, aged from 2 to 10 years old were examined clinically to determine incidence rate, clinical finding, age susceptibility of Chorioptic mange besides measuring cell mediated immune response of Chorioptic mite infested buffaloes. Incidence of Chorioptic mange was recorded in 252 out of 341 (73.9 %) Egyptian buffaloes raised in Alexandria city, Egypt. With higher incidence at age group 6-9 years old. Microscopic examinations of skin scraping revealed chorioptic mite at all stages. Chorioptic mange infestation reduced the milk yield. Infested buffaloes with Chorioptic mange had lower lymphocyte transformation index which were 22.52±6.77 as compared with non-infested buffaloes 32.45 ± 4.49. Chorioptes pruritus and injury in lower leg region found to be in concurrent with staphylococcal dermatitis and edematous skin disease infection. 252 infested buffaloes with Chorioptes, 92 and 71 of them suffered from Staphylococcal dermatitis and edematous skin diseases, respectively, 53 buffaloes showed both infections. 89 non-infested buffaloes with Chorioptes, 8 of them showed edematous skin disease and no staphylococcal dermatitis infection. This confirms our hypothesis that Chorioptic mite plays an important role in initiating staphylococcal dermatitis and edematous skin disease infection.

[Amir Hamed Abd-Elrahman and Mahmoud Tanekhy. The role of Chorioptic mange infestation in aggravating the infection rates of Staphylococcal dermatitis and Edematous skin disease in Egyptian buffaloes. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):133-141] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.20

 

Keywords: Chorioptic mite, Staphylococcal dermatitis, Edematous skin disease, Egyptian buffalo.

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Factors Modulating School Myopia

 

Hong-Ming Cheng1,2, Han-Hsin Chang3, Han-Yin Sun1,2, Pei-Cheng Lin4, Mei-Ling Peng2, Ching-Ying Cheng1,2

 

1 School of Optometry, Chung Shun Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

2 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shun Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

3 Department of Nutrition, College of Health Care and Management, Chung Shun Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

4 Department of Medical Technology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shun Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

ldiioul@csmu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: To examine the correlation between visual acuity and refractive error of elementary school students with (1) parental vision status; (2) dietary history; (3) visual habits; and (4)in- and out-door activities. 694 (of 731) students from one urban elementary school participated in the study. They underwent visual acuity test and distance retinoscopy together with completion of a multi-item questionnaire with the help of their parents and teachers. There was a decrease in the number of students with 1.0 or better vision from over 50% in Grade 1 to around 20% in Grade 6. At the same time, those with 0.2 or worse vision increased from Grades 1 to 6. No difference was noted between males and females in refractive error. And in parallel to the change in visual acuity, there was a decrease in students with -1D or less and an increase in students with -1D or more of refractive error from Grades 1 to 6. These visual parameters were also associated with mother’s (but not father’s) refractive error, ingestion of table grapes, near work, and indoor exercises, but not with outdoor activities on weekdays, weekends, or during vacation time. In the absence of efficacious myopia control at present, progression of school myopia maybe minimized through practice of visual hygiene and reduction of indoor hours.

[Hong-Ming Cheng, Han-Hsin Chang, Han-Yin Sun, Pei-Cheng Lin, Mei-Ling Peng, Ching-Ying Cheng. Factors Modulating School Myopia. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):142-147] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.21

 

Keywords: school myopia, parental vision, visual hygiene, nutrition

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Expression Changes of Genes Related to Chromosome Remodeling Caused by Implantation with Low-energy N+ Beam in Rice

 

ZHOU Xiao-jun1, LING Na2, Zhang Long1, LI Yong-hui1, YA Hui-yuan1*

 

1.Department of Life Sciences, Luoyang Normal University, Henan 471022, RP China

2. Life Science and Environment Science Research Center, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150076, RP China

* Lynubio@126.com, yahuiyuan@yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract: In order to investigate expression changes of genes related to chromosome remodeling induced by implantation with low-energy N+ beam in rice, the differentially expressed genes related to chromosome remodeling in treated samples (6×1017 N+/cm2), were screened using Agilent gene chip. The results showed that, in the treated samples, 1 out of 30 genes related to histone deacetylase was up-regulated. Expressions of 48 genes related to histone acetyltransferases (HATs), two SNF2-related domain containing proteins and one SWIM Zn-finger domain containing protein were up-regulated, one SWIB/MDM2 domain containing protein and one TAFII55 protein conserved region domain containing protein were down-regulated, expression of 3 GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase domain containing proteins were significantly different, in which one was up-regulated and two down-regulated. There are several conserved protein domains related to chromosome remodeling on the Microarray, Expressions of 2 of 38 bromodomain related genes were changed of which one is up-regulated and the other down-regulated. Expressions of 2 of 7 chromodomain related genes and 8 of 36 SET related genes were up-regulated. Besides, one expression of 14 LSD1 type domain containing protein was significantly up-regulated. These findings suggest that the expression changes of genes related to chromosome remodeling may regulate the expression of certain genes responding to ion implantation, and induce the biological effect of the rice implanted by ion beam.

[ZHOU Xiao-jun, LING Na, Zhang Long, LI Yong-hui, YA Hui-yuan. Expression Changes of Genes Related to Chromosome Remodeling Caused by Implantation with Low-energy N+ Beam in Rice. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):148-153] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.22

 

Key words: Nitrogen ion beam; Rice; Chromosome remodeling; Genechip

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Genetic Variation among Nine Egyptian Gecko Species (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) Based on RAPD-PCR

 

Ramadan A. M. Ali

 

Zoology Dept., College for Girls for Science, Arts and Education, Ain-Shams Univ., Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The RAPD-PCR in the present study was used to determine the genetic variation among nine Egyptian gekkonid species; Tropiocolotes tripolitanus, Tropiocolotes nattererii, Hemidactylus turcicus, Cyrtopodion scaber, Stenodactylus petrii, Ptyodactylus guttatus, Ptyodactylus hasselquistii, Tarentola mauritanica and Tarentola annularis. The animals were captured from several localities from Egypt (Giza, Sinai and Matruh governorates). A total of 94 bands were amplified by the four primers OPAO4, OPBO3, OPB18 and OPCO1 with an average of 23.5 bands per primer at molecular weights ranged from 1267 to 112 bp. The polymorphic loci between species were 91 with percentage 96.8 %. The similarity coefficients value between the nine gekkonid species are ranged from 0.313(31.3%) to 0.576 (57.6%) with an average of 0.42 (42%). The genetic distance between the nine species was ranged from 0.424 (42.4%) to 0.687 (68.7%) with an average of 0.58 (58 %). The dendrogram showed that, the nine gekkonid species separated from each other into two clusters. The first cluster includes Tropiocolotes tripolitanus; Tropiocolotes nattererii; Hemidactylus turcicus; Cyrtopodion scaber; Stenodactylus petrii. The second cluster includes the rest of gekkonid species. The clade Tarentola annularis is sister taxon to T. mauritanica and the clade Ptyodactylus guttatus is sister taxon to P. hasselquistii. It is also noted that, the genus Tropiocolotes is closer to the genus Cyrtopodion than the other genera and the genus Tarentola is closer to the genus Ptyodactylus than the other genera. It is concluded that, the less similarity coefficient and the high genetic distance value between the 9 gekkonid species indicates that, the nine gekkonid species are not identical and separated from each other.

[Ramadan A. M. Ali. Genetic Variation among Nine Egyptian Gecko Species (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) Based On RAPD-PCR. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):154-162]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.23

 

Key Words: Gekkonidae, RAPD-PCR, Phylogenetic Relationship, Dendrogram

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Role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Characterization and Preoperative Planning of Brain Neoplasms

 

Mohsen Gomaa and Yosra abdel zaher

 

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Ain Shams University. mostafa_redio@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: DTI is an MR imaging measure of brain tissue integrity. It gives precise information about the involvement and integrity of the white matter tracts in the immediate region surrounding tumors. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the role of DTI in characterization and preoperative assessment of brain neoplasm. Materials and methods: 32 patients with intracranial neoplasm were included in this study which was conducted during a 2 years period. Conventional MRI before and after IV Gadolinium administration was done followed by DTI and diffusion tensor tractography, with FA and ADC values measurements of different white matter tracts in direct relation to the tumor. The values obtained were compared to the normal unaffected tract in the contralateral side. Results: White matter involvement by a tumor was classified according to the criteria of displacement, infiltration, disruption or edema. Patients were classified into two main groups according to the tumor type: Benign and Malignant groups. Prevalence of tract displacement was higher among benign group in comparison to malignant group with significant difference in between by using chi-square test (P value<0.05). While prevalence of disruption was higher among malignant group, in comparison to benign group with significant difference in between by using chi-square test. (P value<0.05). Conclusion: The information provided by DT imaging further defined precise relationships between the sub cortical white matter structures and the cerebral neoplasm. This potentially has a role in tumor characterization, and more importantly in surgical planning.

[Mohsen Gomaa and Yosra abdel zaher. Role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Characterization and Preoperative Planning of Brain Neoplasms. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):163-176] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.24

 

Key words: diffusion tensor imaging. Brain tumor. Preoperative planning. Glioma.

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Detection of Genotoxicity of Phenolic Antioxidants, Butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinonein Multiple Mouse Organs by the Alkaline Comet Assay

 

Ramadan, A.M. Ali1, 2, *, Takayoshi Suzuki2

 

1Zoology Dept., College for Girls for Science, Arts and Education, Ain-Shams Univ., Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt; 2Division of Genetics and Mutagenesis, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158, Japan. ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study we tested the genotoxicity of three widely used phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ) in multiple mouse organs using the alkaline comet assay. Tissue samples from four organs (stomach, liver, kidney and bone marrow) were collected from mice at 3 and 24 hrs post treatment with BHA (800 mg/kg) or t-BHQ (400 mg/kg) and examined for genotoxicity. The two compounds induced significant increase in DNA migration in a time dependant manner in specific organs. Extensive DNA damage was observed in stomach cells at 24 hrs post treatment in treatment groups. In addition to stomach, t-BHQ treatment induced significant increase in DNA migration in liver and kidney cells also. Although increased DNA damage was found in kidney cells of treatment groups at 3 hrs time point, at later time point it was persistent only in mice treated with tBHQ and in other treatment group (BHA) it appeared to be recovered with time. Evidently, bone marrow cells did not show genotoxicity in response to treatment with t-BHQ and BHA.

[Ramadan, A.M. Ali and Takayoshi Suzuki. Detection of Genotoxicity of Phenolic Antioxidants, Butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinonein Multiple Mouse Organs by the Alkaline Comet Assay. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):177-183]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.25

 

Key wards: BHA; t-BHQ; comet assay; mice; bone marrow; liver; kidney; stomach; ENU

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Natural Cases of Rickets in Baraki Goat Kids

 

Mona.S. Zaki1, Awadalla. I.M2, Mohamed. M.I2, Iman. M. Zytaun3, Sami Shalaby4, Nagwa Atta5, and Suzan.O. Mostafa6.

 

1 Hydrobiology of Department, National Research Center, Egypt.

2Animal Nutrition Department. National Research Center, Egypt.

3Department of Microbiology and Internal medicine. Central lab Zagazig University, Egypt.

4 Department of Reproduction, National Research Center, Egypt.

5 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Center, Egypt.

6 Department of Biochemistry, National Research Center, Egypt.

Dr_mona_zaki@yaoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Rickets was evaluated in 6 kids out 100 from different farms in Monofia Governorate of both sex, under 8 months of age. Clinical signs included anorexia stunded growth arched back, joint enlargement and abnormal, curvature of fore limb bones of the kids. Fed consisted of yellow corn 60% and dried trifolium Alexandrun 22% they housed in door, the main biochemical serum analysis recorded were hyperphosphatemia hypoc-alcemia and decrease the activities of Alkaline phosphatase significant increase of cortisol hormone. Urea, creatinine, glucose. P.C.V, and hem­oglobin in blood. The results indicated that rations containing high level of com caused decreased digestion coefficient of all nutrients for both growing goat kids (healthy and Rickets). Also Rickets disease decreased digestibility, and nitrogen balance for kids fed two experimental rations. This study recommended that using balanced diets affect decreased significantly in digestion coefficient, feed intake and nitrogen balance.

[Mona.S. Zaki, Awadalla. I.M, Mohamed. M.I, Iman. M. Zytaun, Sami Shalaby, Nagwa Atta, and Suzan.O. Mostafa. Natural Cases of Rickets in Baraki Goat Kids. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):184-188] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.26

 

Keyword: Natural Cases, Rickets, Baraki, Goat Kids

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Clinical and laboratory approach for the identification of the risk for tumour lysis syndrome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

 

Hesham A. Abdel-Baset1, Eman Nasr Eldin1, Azza A. Eltayeb2, Almontaser M. Hussein2.

 

1.Clinical Pathology Department, 2. Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University- Egypt.

emannasr2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency characterized by metabolic abnormalities including hyperuricaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hyperkalaemia and hypocalcaemia. These metabolic complications predispose the cancer patient to clinical toxicities including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, neurological complications and potentially sudden death. TLS is a well-recognized complication of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ability to predict children at differing risk of TLS would be an early step toward risk-based approaches. However with the increased availability of newer therapeutic targeted agents, there are no published guidelines on the risk classification of TLS for individual patients at risk of developing this syndrome. Risk factors included biological evidence of laboratory TLS, proliferation, bulk and stage of malignant tumour and renal impairment at the time of TLS diagnosis. The objectives of the current study were to describe a sensitive prediction rule to identify patients at risk of TLS in childhood ALL. Sixty children aged ≤18 years who were diagnosed as ALL were studied. TLS was defined by the presence of ≥2 laboratory abnormalities occurring in the time of interest (before and 5 days after intiation of chemotherapy). From the total 60 patients include, 45% met criteria for TLS. TLS predictive factors were male sex (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; P = 0.08), age ≥10 years (OR, 1.3; P < 0.2), splenomegaly (OR, 4.2; P = 0.008), generalized lymphadenopathy (OR, 1.0; P =0.2), white blood count (WBC) ≥20 × 109/L (P= <.0001), T-cell phenotype (OR, 8.0; P= 0.002), and lactate dehydrogenase ≥1000 U/L (OR, 5.0; P.002). In conclusion, children with ALL who are at low risk for TLS can be identified early at the time of hospital presentation and may benefit from a risk-stratified approach directed at reduced intensity of laboratory monitoring and limited TLS prophylactic measures.

[Hesham A. Abdel-Baset, Eman Nasr Eldin, Azza A. Eltayeb, Almontaser M. Hussein. Clinical and laboratory approach for the identification of the risk for tumour lysis syndrome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):189-195] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.27

 

Key words: Tumour lysis syndrome; hyperuricaemia; hyperphosphataemia; hyperkalaemia; hypocalcaemia.

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Application of chitosan for wound repair in dogs.

 

Inas, N.El-Husseiny1 and Kawkab, A. Ahmed2

Departments of 1Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology and 2Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. drinasnabil@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This experimental work was applied to study the effect of topical application of chitosan powder on the stimulation of healing of full thickness skin wounds. Experimental surgical wounds were done in 12 apparently healthy male Mongrel dogs of nearly the same age and weight. Experimental animals were classified into 4 groups each consisted of 3 dogs according to time of euthanasia. Surgical full thicknessfull-thickness equal longitudinal skin incisional wounds were created on each dog's both side at the dorsal aspect of the animal. A comparative study was applied between wounds treated with chitosan powder and control wounds washed only by saline solution. Wound healing was clinically evaluated during the period of the experiment. Euthanasia was done at different period intervals, one week, two weeks, three weeks and four weeks after incisions. Specimen was taken for histopathological investigations. Results proved rapid regeneration and reepithelialization of the wounds treated with chitosan powder compared with those of the control group. Complete healing was achieved after 3 weeks in the chitosan treated wounds which delayed to 4 weeks in the control ones. Histopatholgical investigations proved presence of more pronounced granulation tissues in the chitosan treated wounds than in the control ones.In the treated wounds healing started at 3 weeks post- incision and complete healing was achieved at four weeks.Complete regeneration of epidermal cells with keratin layer similar to the normal skin associated with dermal connective tissue proliferation were seen. The fibroblast cells laid down a network of collagen fibers which appeared as wavy collagen bundles surrounding the neovasculature of the wounds, whereas, in control group, hyalinosis of subcutaneous granulation tissue and haphazardly arranged collagen fibers were observed. In conclusion, chitosan proved to be a suitable agent for the acceleration of wound repair due to its biocompatibility, easy application and high effectiveness..

[Inas, N.El-Husseiny and Kawkab, A. Ahmed. Application of chitosan for wound repair in dogs. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):196-203] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.28

 

Keywords: chitosan chitin, shell products, biomaterials.

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Detection of Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

 

Samy A Khodeir 1, Y M Abd El Raouf 1, Gihan Farouk2 and Mohammed EL-Bradey3

 

Departments of 1Internal Medicine 2Clinical Pathology and 3Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. masyasser@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The development of vasculopathies in diabetes involves multifactorial processes including pathological activation of vascular cells. Release of microparticles by activated cells has been reported in diseases associated with thrombotic risk, but few data are available in diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with increased local activation or apoptosis of retinal, neural, and vascular `endothelial cells in the eye which indicate that microparticles (MPs) of different cellular origin might be locally generated in the eye of diabetic patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of endothelial, platelet, and retinal-derived microparticles both in the vitreous and in the plasma of diabetic patients compared with that of non diabetic ones. Subjects and methods: In a case-control study, this study included 45 patients: 25 diabetic patients with non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 20 diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) compared with control group consists of non diabetic 10 subjects. Blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. Microparticles present in plasma and vitreous were analyzed according to their parameters of size and fluorescence. Results: As regard plasma samples, there was significant increase in CD144 and CD41 in groups II, III as compared with control group (p = 0.001). Peanut agglutinin PNA was not detected in plasma sample among all studied groups. Whereas, as regard to the vitreous sample, there was significant increase in CD144, CD41 and PNA in groups II,III as compared with control group (p= 0.048, 0.009, 0.048 ), (P = 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: microparticles appear as a new prognostic potential of type 2 diabetes in the early detection of vascular complications. Moreover significant increase of different types of microparticles in vitreous fluid of membrane in patients with PDR, may contribute to disease progression.

[Samy A, Khodeir Y M, Abd El Raouf, Gihan Farouk and Mohammed EL-Bradey. Detection of Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):204-209] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.29

 

Key words: Microparticles, diabetic retinopathy, endothelial cell dysfunction.

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Effect of the Strengthened Ribs in Hybrid Toughened Kenaf/ Glass Epoxy Composite Bumper Beam

 

M.M. Davoodi 1, S.M. Sapuan 1, Aidy Ali 1, D. Ahmad 2

 

1. Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2. Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; makinejadm2@asme.org

 

Abstract: The growth of car production governs new environmental regulations “End-of Life Vehicles” (ELV) to enforce car manufacturer to substitute synthetic material to bio based materials. Low mechanical properties of natural fibre composite confine their application in automotive non-structural components. Hybridizations of kenaf with glass fibre along with epoxy PBT toughening did not completely fulfill the required impact property of the developed bio-composite bumper beam to substitute with typical material of the bumper beam glass mat thermoplastic (GMT). Therefore, in the first stage of the geometrical improvement “concept selection” concluded that the double hat profile (DHP) is the most suitable concept out of eight bumper beam concepts when six parameters with different weight are determined. In second trial, the usage of strengthen rib is employed to improve the impact property and performance of the bumper beam for utilization of hybrid kenaf/glass fibre as a car bumper beam.

[Majid Davoodi Makinejad, Mohammad Sapuan Salit, Aidy Ali, Desa Ahmad. Effect of the Strengthen Ribs in Hybrid Toughened Kenaf/ Glass Epoxy Composite Bumper Beam. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):210-213]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.30

 

Keywords: Bumper beam; Finite element analysis; Hybrid material; Natural fibre composite

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Impact of Orlistat on Body Weight and Lipid Profile of Adult Population

 

Randa M Shams1, Medhat A Saleh1, Mohamed E Abdelrahim2. Asmaa S M Mohamed2

 

1.Public Health and Community Medicine Department - Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University.

2.Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni – Suef University.

medhatelaraby75@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Orlistat is currently the best available form of prescribed obesity medication which acts on the gastrointestinal system and works by reducing fat absorption in the gut which is eliminated in bowel movements. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Orlistat on weight reduction, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile of the Egyptian peoples. Methodology We recruit 55 healthy obese persons (BMI more than 30) and the same number of normal weight act as a control; both groups completed a questionnaire for demographic data and risk factors of obesity and the obese group takes Orlistat for 2 months while the control group take placebo tablet containing vitamins and both groups adheres to 1200 Calories diet. Weight and lipid profile (Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL and HDL) were measured before and after orlistat administration in both groups. By the end of two months only 35 obese and 38 none obese complete the study and the remaining were drouped out from the study. Results: The results showed that there is a statistical significant difference in BMI before and after orlistat (P > 0.001) as it decreased from 37.08 ± 4.67 before to 35.40 ± 4.60 after, the same occurred in weight reduction as it decreased from 95.3 ± 12.6 kg before orilstat to 91.1 ± 12.9 after, Waist circumference decreased from 113.0 ± 11.2 to 109.6 ± 11.7 and this difference was statistically significant also. there is a statistical significant difference in all parameters of lipid profile before and after orlistat traetement as total cholesterol decreased from 199.9 ± 29.5 to 173.7 ± 27 and. Triglycerides from 199.4 ± 54.6 to 174.3 ± 50.7, LDL cholesterols decreased from 120.7 ± 24.8 to 102.4 ± 25.1, while HDL cholesterols increased from 38.3 ± 4.6 to 42.5 ± 5.5 and p value was <0.001. We conclude that Orlistat is one of the best prescribed obesity medications available for obese patients. Although research indicates that it can promote weight loss, there remain problems with adherence and much variability in patient outcomes.

[Randa M Shams, Medhat A Saleh, Mohamed E Abdelrahim; Asmaa S M Mohamed. Impact of Orlistat on Body Weight and Lipid Profile of Adult Population. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):214-219] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.31

 

Keywords: obesity, Orlistat, body weight, Lipid profile.

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Synthesis of Some Aryl Thienopyridine, Pyridothienopyrimidine, and Pyridothienotriazolopyrimidine Derivatives

 

Ali Khader El-Louh1, Shadia Mahmoud Abdallah2* and Emtithal Ahmed El-Sawi2

 

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University-Gaza, Gaza, Palestine

2 Department of Chemistry, University College of Women for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo-Egypt. shadiamabdallah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Synthesis of 2-thioxopyridine-3-carbonitriles 3a-d and their reaction with chloroacetonitrile 4a or chloroacetamide 4b afforded pyridin-2-ylthioacetonitriles 5a-d and pyridin-2-ylthioacetamides 6a-d, respectively, which on cyclization gave the corresponding 3-aminothienopyridine derivatives 7a-d and 8a-d. Reaction of triethyl orthoformate in acetic anhydride gave with 7a-d 3-ethoxymethylenethienopyridine derivatives 9a-d which on their reaction with hydrazine hydrate yielded 3-amino-4-imino-3,4-dihydropyridothienopyrimidine derivatives 10a-d. Reaction of with triethyl orthoformate with 10a-d produced pyridothienotriazolopyrimidine derivatives 11a-d, where Dimroth rearrangement yielded 4-hydrazinopyridothienopyrimidine derivatives 12a-d. On the other hand reaction of 8a-d with triethyl orthoformate in acetic anhydride gave pyridothienopyrimidine-4-one derivatives 13a-d, which on their chlorination produced 4-chloropyridothienopyrimidine derivatives 14a-d, and treatment with hydrazine hydrate authenticated 12a-d. Reaction of compounds 8a-d with nitrous acid afforded 3,4-dihydropyridothienotriazin-4-ones 15a,b,d. Compounds 12a-d reacted with benzaldehyde, diethylmalonate, and acetylacetone, to give 4-benzylidinehydrazinopyridopyrimidines 16a-d, ethyl 1,2,4-triazolopyridothienopyrimidin-3-ylacetates 17a-d, and 4-(3,5-dimethylpyrazolo)pyridothienopyrimidines 18a-d, respectively.

[Ali Khader El-Louh, Shadia Mahmoud Abdallah and Emtithal Ahmed El-Sawi. Synthesis of Some Aryl Thienopyridine, Pyridothienopyrimidine, and Pyridothienotriazolopyrimidine Derivatives. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):220-230]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.32

 

Keywords: Thioxopyridine; carbonitrile; thienopyridine; pyridothienopyrimidine; triazolopyridothienopyrimidine; pyridothienopyrazolopyrimidine

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Designing A Model For Quality of Employee-Organization Relationships (EORs) Based On Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP)

 

PH.D. Professor Ali Akbar Farhangi *, Sara moazen **, Maryam Aliei ***

 

* Tehran university International campus Kish Island. Email: dr-aafarhangi@yahoo.com

** Tehran university International campus_Kish Island. Email: S.moazen@yahoo.com

*** Department of Management, Shahrood industrial University, Shahrood, Iran. Email: info@aliei.com

 

Abstract: Interpersonal relationships created a scale that consists of three components: personal relationship, community relationship, and professional relationship Research in interpersonal Relationships and the psychology of interpersonal relationships shows that the following four outcomes are good indicator s of successful interpersonal relationships. In this survey we show a model for Quality of employee–organization relationships (EORs) and evaluation interpersonal Relationships by this model. an EOR is dynamic and can be measured using perceptions of either or both parties regarding four “indicators representing the quality relationships or relationship outcomes: satisfaction, trust, commitment, and control mutuality. by this model and use AHP model for analysis this paper we evaluation type of interpersonal relationships finally we found that to each Specific dimension of quality can be follow a particular interpersonal relationships, but the best approach is professional relationship.

[Ali Akbar Farhangi, Sara moazen, Maryam Aliei. Designing A Model For Quality of Employee-Organization Relationships (EORs) Based On Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP). Life Sci J 2012;9(1):231-241]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.33

 

Keywords: Employee-Organization Relationships (EORs), Quality, Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP)

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Upper Cretaceous Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of East Dorfak Area (Guilan – North of Iran)

 

Mohammad Modaresnia1*, Khosro Khosrotehrani2, Iraj Momeni3, Seyed Ahmad Babazadeh4.

 

1*Islamic Azad University – Science and Reserch Branch,Geology. department, Tehran, Iran. 2Islamic Azad University – Science and Reserch Branch,Geology.department, Tehran, Iran. 3Shahid Beheshti University– Geology department, Tehran, Iran.4Tehran Payamenour University–Geology department, Tehran, Iran. Email: Modaresiraza@Yahoo.Com

 

Abstract: East Dorfak (studied area) are located in Nothern Iran (within Gorgan-Rasht region). The Upper Cretaceous sequence in this region comprises three lithostratigraphic unites (K2SLm, K21, K2mL ). Two stratigraphic sections have been investigated in this area and outcrope samples collected in the measured sections. Previous studies have been very sparse and general. Consider of prepared thin sections and analysis the Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera content have presented detailed data. Identification of fifty-two index species belonging to the genera Dicarinella, Whtienella, Gansserina, Globotruncana, Globotruncanita, Globotruncanella, Contusotruncana, Macroglobigerinelloides, Marginotruncana, Radotruncana, Rugoglobigerina, Racemiguembelina, Heterohelix, Abathamphalus and Kuglerina has led to the recognition of nine (eight in Gurag section) biostratigraphic zones in this study. The biozones ranged in age from Coniacian to Late Maastrichtian.The Campanian and Early Maastrichtain demonstrated the largest diversity faunal. Sedimentary characteristics and planktonic foraminiferal content illustrated that deposition is done in deep marine environment. Moreover the study showed a little difference in the two sections under study.

[Mohammad Modaresnia, Khosro Khosrotehrani, Iraj Momeni, Seyed Ahmad Babazadeh. Upper Cretaceous Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of East Dorfak Area (Guilan – North of Iran). Life Sci J 2012;9(1):242-253] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.34

 

Keywords: Planktonic foraminifera; Biozone; Coniacian; Campanian; Maastrichtian; Cretaceous; Biostratigraphy; Iran.

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Multifunctionality of the Iranian Agriculture Sector in a Partial Equilibrium Framework

 

Zahra Kiani-Feyzabad 1, Seyed-Ali Hosseini-Yekani 2, Seyed-Mojtaba Mojaverian 2

 

1. MS Student, Department of Agricultural Economics, Sari Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran; 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Sari Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran. s.a.hosseiniyekani@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One of the magnificent issues related to the trade liberalization and globalization is to consider this point that whether the governmental support, such as paying agricultural subsidy are definitely of deviated effects on the trade or these paying are necessarily categorized out of the alluded policies in the green-box.in this case-study, taking a multifunctional role for the Iranian agriculture sector in the realm of the partial equilibrium model in mind, this issue that the supporting such as granting subsidy to the agricultural sector can not at all be categorized among the policies of the green-box is evaluated, besides, without taking these roles, the positive effects at supporting such as granting subsidy to the agriculture sector, justify the utility. On the basis of the results of this research, it is possible to simulate the consequences of joining to the world trade organization quantitatively.

[Zahra Kiani-Feyzabad, Seyed-Ali Hosseini-Yekani, Seyed-Mojtaba Mojaverian. Multifunctionality of the Iranian Agriculture Sector in a Partial Equilibrium Framework. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):254-264] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.35

 

Keywords: Multifunctionality of Agriculture; Liberalization; Subsidy; Partial Equilibrium Model; Iran

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 Association between CC16 Polymorphism and Bronchial Asthma

 

Nisreen M.El Abiad1, Hisham Waheed2, William M. Morcos2, Samar M. Salem2, and Hala Ataa3, Olfat G. Shaker4

 

Departments of: 1Pediatric, 4Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2Child Health, NRC. And 3Al Galaa Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. hishamwb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic pediatric diseases, and is responsible for a significant proportion of school day losses. Asthma is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The inheritance pattern of asthma demonstrates that it is a complex genetic disorder. Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is an ideal candiadate for involvement in an inherited predisposition to asthma owing to its chromosomal location, nature and function. Objective: to screen exons of CC16 gene on chromosome 11 for detection of sequence variation in families to determine whether these allelic polymorphism are associated with clinical asthma or not and to detect the relation between type of genetic polymorphism and asthma severity. Patients and Methods: This study included 20 stable asthmatic children with 21 of their atopic family members, also 11 healthy non atopic subjects were included as control group, all cases were subjected to genetic study methods including pedegree construction, PCR and detection of allelic polymorphism. Results: Significant correlation (90%) between homozygous CC16, 38 (AA) (75%) and 38 (AG) (15%) allelic polymorphism and increased prevalence of asthma was detected in families but there was no correlation between CC16 allelic polymorphism and asthma severity. Conclusion: There was a correlation between CC16 allelic polymorphism and increased prevalence of asthma and this gene is present also in normal subjects who are not triggered by environmental factors.

[Nisreen M.El Abiad, Hisham Waheed, William M. Morcos, Samar M. Salem, and Hala Ataa, Olfat G. Shaker. Association between CC16 Polymorphism and Bronchial Asthma. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):265-270]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.36

 

Key words: CC16- Gene polymorphism – PCR- Asthma

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 Laparoscopic / Thoracoscopic Ivor Lewis Esophageal Resection for Cancer

(Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature)

 

Saleh M. Aldaqal

 

Department of Surgery; Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Arabia. sdaqal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Open esophagectomy may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. With the increasing experiences in laparoscopic and thoracoscopic techniques, minimal invasive approaches to esophagectomy are being explored to determine the feasibility, results, and potential advantages. We will present our experience in two cases of laparoscopic / thoracoscopic Ivor Lewis esophageal resection for carcinoma of the lower esophagus. The presentation of the two cases, their surgical approach and postoperative course will be discussed in addition to literature review of similar cases.

[Saleh M. Aldaqal. Laparoscopic / Thoracoscopic Ivor Lewis Esophageal Resection for Cancer (Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature). Life Sci J 2012;9(1):271-276]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.37

 

Keywords: Laparoscopic, Thoracoscopic, Ivor Lewis, Esophageal

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Determinants of Patient Satisfaction in the Surgical ward at a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia

 

Saleh M. Aldaqal1; Hattan Alghamdi1; Hassan AlTurki1; Basem S. El-deek2 and Ahmed A. Kensarah1

 

1Department of Surgery; Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. sdaqal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives, to determine the factors that affect patient satisfaction in the surgical ward of a university hospital and provide useful information for the hospital management, wishing to improve patient satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2011 till to August 2011 in the surgical ward at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.. A patient satisfaction questionnaire was administered to the first 95 patients ready for discharge from the hospital during the study period, and we obtained data from patients who rated their satisfaction with care provided. We analyzed the data to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with dissatisfaction. Results: The patients included 55 males (58.5%) and 39 females (41.5%). The average age of patients was 45.9 years (range 15-83 years) and the average length of stay was 6.43 days (range 1–50 days). The overall satisfaction rate was 89.6%. The level of satisfaction was high regarding the explanation of the on call doctor about the operation in the emergency department (75.5%), Doctor's reception in the clinic (81.25%), surgical team reception in the ward (79.75%), Response of the team about the patient's questions (71.75%), and Safety level in the hospital (74.75%). The lowest level of satisfaction was for the waiting time in the emergency (40%), the waiting time in the clinic (62%), the response of consulting doctors of the other departments (60.75%), the explanation of the surgical team about the life style after operation (53%), and the quality of food in the hospital (56.75%). There was a strong relation between the patient dissatisfaction and patient’s age (P value: 0.003), gender (P value: 0.001, with more female satisfaction), and duration of hospital stay (P value: 0). Conclusion: In a studied area, the factors that influence patient satisfaction are old age ( > 50 years old), male gender, waiting time in emergency department and out-patient department (clinic), quality of food, quick response of consulting doctors of other departments, explanation of surgical team about lifestyle after surgery (eating habits, wound management, having shower and exercise), and length of hospital stay. We recommend the hospital management to address these factors to improve patient satisfaction.

[Saleh M. Aldaqal; Hattan Alghamdi; Hassan AlTurki; Basem S. El-deek and Ahmed A. Kensarah. Determinants of Patient Satisfaction in the Surgical ward at a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):277-280]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.38

 

Key Words: Patient satisfaction, Questionnaire, Surgical ward, Hospital management

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Transformational Leadership Role of Principals in Implementing Informational and Communication Technologies in Schools

 

Mojgan Afshari*, Simin Ghavifekr Saedah Siraj and Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad

 

Department of Educational Management, Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya

mojganafshari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The implementation of information and communication technologies is very important to schools. Transformational leaders provide greater contributions to implement technology in education. This paper examines the relationship between two independent variables (computer competence and computer use) and transformational leadership role of principals in implementing ICT in schools. This paper based on responses from 320 school leaders in Iran, reports that computer competence and ICT usage are key factors that influence technology leadership behaviors. It is suggested that decision makers should provide professional development for principals to become proficient in all the competency areas.

[Mojgan Afshari, Simin Ghavifekr, Saedah Siraj, & Rahmad Sukor Ab.Samad. Transformational Leadership Role of Principals in Implementing Informational and Communication Technologies in Schools. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):281-284]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.39

 

Keywords: ICT competence, ICT use, transformational leadership, school principals

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 Effect of the Strengthened Ribs in Hybrid Toughened Kenaf/ Glass Epoxy Composite Bumper Beam

 

M.M. Davoodi 1, S.M. Sapuan 1, Aidy Ali 1, D. Ahmad 2

 

1. Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2. Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. makinejadm2@asme.org

 

Abstract: The growth of car production governs new environmental regulations “End-of Life Vehicles” (ELV) to enforce car manufacturer to substitute synthetic material to bio based materials. Low mechanical properties of natural fibre composite confine their application in automotive non-structural components. Hybridizations of kenaf with glass fibre along with epoxy PBT toughening did not completely fulfill the required impact property of the developed bio-composite bumper beam to substitute with typical material of the bumper beam glass mat thermoplastic (GMT). Therefore, in the first stage of the geometrical improvement “concept selection” concluded that the double hat profile (DHP) is the most suitable concept out of eight bumper beam concepts when six parameters with different weight (strain energy, deflection, weight, cost, manufacturing and rib possibility) are determined. In second trial, the usage of strengthen rib is employed to improve the impact property and performance of the bumper beam for utilization of hybrid kenaf/glass fibre as a car bumper beam. The low-speed impact test based on the (ECE R42) regulation is modeled. Eight vertical ribs with thickness 4 mm are located along the bumper beam. The pendulum hit to the middle of the bumper, while it is fixed to the vehicle chassis through two energy absorbers. The strain energy and deflection were determined and compared with the same profile, but in un-ribbed condition. It is concluded that the ribbed bumper beam decrease the deflection of the bumper beam by 11% and strain energy by 11.3%. The ribbed bumper beam increases the structural safety factor and its reliability for utilization in automotive structural components.

[Majid Davoodi Makinejad, Mohammad Sapuan Salit, Aidy Ali, Desa Ahmad. Effect of the Strengthen Ribs in Hybrid Toughened Kenaf/ Glass Epoxy Composite Bumper Beam. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):285-289] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.40

 

Keywords: Bumper beam; Finite element analysis; Hybrid material; Natural fibre composite

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 Investigation of the Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) Thin Films

 

F. S. Bahabri

 

Physics. Department, Science of Faculty for Girls, King AbdulAziz University- KSA

f_s_bahabri@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In the preparation of Bismuth Telluride thin films are reported in the present work. Measurements of the structural and optical properties of Bi2Te3thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscope and electron diffraction techniques. Bi2Te3 thin films were "polycrystalline" Hexagonal form. The crystallite size was determine. The optical energy gap was evaluated. The study was carried out under vacuum., These properties has been reported to date. It was found from the optical properties studies that the type of transition of Bi2Te3 is an indirect transition.

[F. S. Bahabri. Investigation of the Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) Thin Films. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):290-294]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.americanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.41

 

Key wards: Thermal evaporation, Structure, Bismuth Telluride – Thin Films

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Molecular characterization of Cotugnia polycantha (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Davaineidae) infecting doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) and pigeons (Columba livia Domestica) from Egypt

 

Sabry E. Ahmed

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University.

 

Abstract: The genomic DNA was extracted from cestode parasites, Cotugnia polycantha from two different hosts, doves (Streptoplia senegalensis) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica). The random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was applied to differentiate between C. polycantha infecting doves and pigeons. Eight primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the PCR reactions. The eight primers screened gave total amplified fragment markers 133. The total number of unique bands was 25 and the highest polymorphism percentage (63.63%) was obtained among the two specimens. Molecular analysis of the present data, showed that C. polycantha infecting doves (S. senegalensis) differs from that infecting pigeons (C. livia domestica). So, C. polycantha infecting doves could be named C. polycantha streptopeli and C. polycantha infecting pigeons, C. polycantha columbi.

[Sabry E. Ahmed. Molecular Characterization of Cotugnia polycantha (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Davaineidae) Infecting Doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) and Pigeons (Columba livia Domestica) from Egypt. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):295-301]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.42

 

Key Words: Doves – Pigeons – Cestode- Genomic DNA – DNA fragments.

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Risk Factors for the Development of Ventilator – Associated Pneumonia in Critically-Ill Neonates

 

Mona Afify*, Salha AI-Zahrani* and Maha A Nouh**

 

Department of Biology and Microbiology, Science College for Girls, King Abd-Elaziz University* and Pediatrics Department, Royal Commission Hospital in Yunbu**- Kingdom of Saudia Arabia.

drmonaafify@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), viewed as an inevitable consequence of critical illness, is increasingly accepted as an avoidable adverse health care incident. Whereas morbidity and mortality from VAP is well-documented in adults, it is poorly studied in children.This investigation was conducted to determine characteristics and possible risk factors for VAP, in critically ill neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). According to clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS), 33 neonates were selected as having VAP and 24 neonates who did not develop VAP were assigned as non-VAP group. All neonates were subjected to case history, clinical examination, ABG, chest X-ray, and laboratory investigations (CBC, serum albumin, serum CRP, and blood culture). Neonates with VAP were subjected to broncheo-alveolar lavage (BAL) sampling. The BAL samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination, as well as quantitative cultures. Obtained results revealed that indications for mechanical ventilation (MV) included respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), congenital pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), with nonsignificant differences between VAP group and non-VAP group. VAP rates were significantly increased with decreased body weight and gestational age and with increased duration of NICU admission, duration of MV and use of invasive maneuvers. VAP was significantly associated with hypothermia, mucopurulent endotracheal tube (ETT) secretions, and radiological findings. The use of inotrops and corticosteroids was significantly noted among neonates with VAP than that among non-VAP neonates. Raised serum C-reactive protein (CRP), hypoalbuminemia and positive blood cultures were significantly associated with increased VAP rates. Cultures of BAL samples revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae (in 33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (in 21%), Staphylococcus aureus (in 15%), Escherichia coli (in 15%), Pneumococci (in 6%) and Candida albicans (in 9%). There was nonsignificant similarity in the type of organisms cultivated from either blood or BAL. In conclusion risk factors for the development of VAP include; 1) decreased body weight and gestational age, 2) increased duration of NICU admission, MV, and use of invasive maneuvers, 3) hypothermia, mucopurulent ETT secretions and the use of inotrops/ corticosteroids, 4) raised serum CRP, hypoalbuminemia and positive blood cultures and 5) nosocomial infection by Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Staph aureus, E coli and Candida.

[Mona Afify, Salha AI-Zahrani and Maha A Nouh. Risk Factors for the Development of Ventilator – Associated Pneumonia in Critically-Ill Neonates. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):302-307] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.43

 

Key words: nosocomial infection-neonatal pneumonia-mechanical ventilation.

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Cancer Diagnosis Using Data Mining Technology

 

Muhammad Shahbaz1, Muhammad Shaheen1, Syed Ather Masood2

 

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UET, Lahore, Pakistan

2 Department of Engineering Management, EME College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

athermasood2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Cancer is a set of diseases in which some cells of the body grow abnormally. These cells then destroy other surrounding cells and their normal functions. Cancer can spread throughout the human body. Since it is a very treacherous disease its diagnosis is very important. In some forms it spreads within days. So the diagnosis of cancer at early stages is very important. The challenge is to first diagnose the main type and then its subtypes. This research uses data mining classification tools to make a decision support system to identify different types of cancer on the Genes dataset. Data mining technology helps in classifying cancer patients and this technique helps to identify potential cancer patients by simply analyzing the data.

[Muhammad Shahbazl, Muhammad Shaheen, Syed Ather Masood. Cancer Diagnosis Using Data Mining Technology. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):308-313] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44m

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.44

 

Keywords: Data Mining; K-Nearest Neighbors; Naïve Bayesian; SVM, Classification; Cancer

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INTEGRATED DATA MINING FRAMEWORK FOR NATURAL RESOURCE EXPLORATION

 

Muhammad Shaheen1, Muhammad Shahbaz1, Syed Muhammad Ahsan1, Syed Athar Masood2

 

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UET, Lahore, Pakistan. shaheentanoli@gmail.com

2 Department of Engineering Management, EME College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. athermasood2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The study is aimed at developing spatio temporal data mining framework for natural resource exploration. A framework will be said as spatio temporal if it deals with changes in space over time. The study revealed different applications of existing and newly proposed spatio temporal data mining techniques on huge databases collected from diverse sources. The work is integrated on the basis of different proposed Techniques in a unified framework which could serve as a basic skeleton for hydrocarbon prospection.

[Muhammad Shaheen], Muhammad Shahbaz, Syed Muhammad Ahsan, Syed Ather Masood. Integrated Data Mining Framework for Natural Resource Exploration. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):314-316] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.45

 

Keywords: Data Mining; Classification; Hydrocarbon, Clustering, Decision Tree 

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Transformational Leadership and Attribution Theory: The Situational Strength Perspective.

 

Syed Athar Masood1, Muhammad Shahbaz2, Muhammad Shaheen3

 

1Department of Engineering Management, EME College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. athermasood2000@hotmail.com

2,3Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. Muhammad.Shahbaz@gmail.com, M.Shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, Shaheen@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to study transformational leaders behaviour in manufacturing organisations with respect to situational strength and attribution theory. The methodology employed for this research was the “Concurrent nested strategy”, a mixed method approach. The mixed approach included a quantitative stage as the first phase for this study. This stage utilised a questionnaire based on the transformational leadership questionnaire developed by Podsakoff, et. al.[1], which segregated a sample of transformational leaders and qualitative interviews. The qualitative interviews were conducted to obtain an insight into the concepts of situational strength and attribution made by manufacturing leaders for the causes of poor performance. The second phase of the research involved a questionnaire using Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. Results from the research show that transformational leaders tends to make weak situational strength to their followers and tend to make external attributions for the causes of poor performance in their organisations, and assume that follower’s mistake as a learning experience.

[Syed Athar Masood, Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Shaheen. Transformational Leadership and Attribution Theory. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):317-329] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.46

 

Key Words: Transformational leadership, manufacturing organisations, situational strength, attribution theory.

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Potato Chips and Roasted Bread Induced Chromosomal Aberrations and Micronuclei Formation in Albino Rats

 

Ramadan A.M. Ali, Nadia H.M. Sayed and Dalia D. Abd El-Monem

 

Zoology Dept, Girls Collage for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams Univ. Egypt

ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Detection of high concentrations of acrylamide (AA) in heated starch rich foodstuffs raises health concerns, particularly for children, because AA is relatively high in child-favored foods such as potato chips, French fries, roasted bread and cereals. So, we investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of potato chips (FP) and roasted bread (RB) and the possible protective effect of curcumin (Cur) in albino rat bone-marrow cells, using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (Mn-PCEs) assays. 90 adult female rats were divided into15 groups 6 animals each. Rats feed on diet contained 15 % or 30 % of fried potato chips and/or fried bread and supplemented with/without 1%curcumin addition for 2 months. Results showed that, treatment with Cur alone did not induce significant increases in CAs and Mn-PCEs in comparison to the control level. Meanwhile, diet supplemented with 30 % of FP and/or RB induced highly significant increases in CAs and Mn-PCEs frequencies (P<0.001). Moreover, fried potato chips and/or fried bread caused cytotoxic action in the form of a significant reduction in the proportion between polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes. Meanwhile, addition of 1% Cur powder induced significant decrease in CAs and Mn-PCEs frequencies in comparison to those induced by FP and/or RB alone. Such increases were dose dependent. On conclusion, curcumin exhibited antimutagenic properties against the mutagenicity induced by FP and/or RB which make it a promising chemopreventive agent.

[Ramadan A.M. Ali Nadia H.M. Sayed and Dalia D. Abd El-Monem. Potato Chips and Roasted Bread Induced Chromosomal Aberrations and Micronuclei Formation in Albino Rats] Journal of American Science 2012;9(1):330-336]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.americanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.47

 

Key wards: Acrylamide, Curcumin, Chromosomes, Micronucleus, Rat, Potatoes chips, Roaster bread

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Image Denoising based on Sparse Representation and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

 

R. M. Farouk and H. A. Khalil*

 

 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig Egypt, P.O. Box 44519. *khalil_h_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Image denoising problem can be addressed as an inverse problem. One of the most recent approaches to solve this problem is sparse decomposition over redundant dictionaries. In sparse representation we represent signals as a linear combination of a redundant dictionary atoms. In this paper we propose an algorithm for image denoising based on Non Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) and sparse representation over redundant dictionary. It trains the initialized dictionary based on training samples constructed from noised image, then it search for the best representation for the source by using the approximate matching pursuit (AMP) which uses the nearest neighbor search to get the best atom to represent that source. During that it alternates between the dictionary update and the sparse coding. We use this algorithm to reconstruct image from denoised one. We will call our algorithm N-NMF.

[R. M. Farouk and H.A.Khalil. Image Denoising based on Sparse Representation and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):337-341]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.48

 

Keywords: Sparse Representation, Image Denosing, Non-Negative Matrix Factorization, Dictionary Learning, Matching Pursuit

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Gut Histology of Malaysian River Catfish, Mystus nemurus (C&V) Larvae

 

Ghada Ahmed El Hag1, Mohd Salleh Kamarudin2, Che Roos Saad2 and Siti Khalijah Daud3

 

1Department of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Agricultura Technology and Fisheries Science, University of Alneelain, Khartoum, Sudan.P.O.Box:12702.

2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Aquaculture, University Putra Malaysia,

3Faculty of Sciences Universitiy Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia

ghahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: For the successful weaning of M. nemurus larvae, the development of gut histology was observed. The eggs hatched two days after firtelization (2 daf) and most of the larvae hatched within 2-4 daf. The commencement of external feeding start on the 4 days post-hatch (dph). Fish larvae are charactrized by digestive system and diets that differ from adults. Larvae undergo a pattern of trophic ontogeny, changing with inceasung size, and these changes result in differences in digestive requierments. The histological development of the gut of M. nemurus larvae were investigated from hatching untile 21dph using a compound microscopy. During the yolk sac period, the gut is a simple, straight, undifferntiated tube thrghout its length.by 4-5 dph the gut differentiated to the oesophgus, stomach, and intestine. At first feeding, the larval gut is functional, but is structurally and functionally less complex than that of adults.By the 13 dph the larvae attained four tissue layers arrangement.

[Ghada Ahmed El Hag, Mohd Salleh Kamarudin, Che Roos Saad and Siti Khalijah Daud. Gut Histology of Malaysian. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):342-347]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.49

 

Key words: Malaysian river catfish; larvae; gut histology; Mystus nemerus.

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Epidemiology of Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Students in Assiut City, Egypt

 

Eman M. Mohamed

 

Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University

emanmma@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Dysmenorrhea is the most common gynecologic complaint among adolescent females. It is the leading cause of recurrent short-term school absenteeism among them. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence, determinants, impact and treatment practices of dysmenorrhea among adolescent secondary school girls in Assiut city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools for girls in Assiut city, that were chosen randomly from a listing frame. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire about the presence, duration, severity, treatment, and impact of dysmenorrhea. To be eligible for study participation, female students must have had a period in the previous three months. A total of 845 adolescent school girls completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 76.1% (n = 643) (mild 26.6%, moderate 32.0%, and severe 41.4%). Dysmenorrhea was found to be significantly associated with: older age, earlier menarche, irregular or long cycle, and heavy bleeding. No limitation of activities was reported by 43% of participants with dysmenorrhea. About 39% reported missing school days due to dysmenorrhea during the 3 months prior to the survey and 30% reported missing individual classes. Activities affected by dysmenorrhea included class concentration (53.5%), sports participation (50.9%), class participation (49.9%), socializing with friends (45.3%), test-taking skills (35.6%), and homework tasks performance (35.6%). Nine percent consulted a physician and 42% saw a school nurse for help with their symptoms. Dysmenorrhea was significantly associated with school absenteeism and decreased academic performance, sports participation, and socialization with peers. In conclusion, dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent among adolescent secondary school girls and is related to school absenteeism and limitations on social, academic, and sports activities. Given that most adolescents don't seek medical advice for dysmenorrhea, health care providers should screen routinely for dysmenorrhea and offer treatment. As dysmenorrhea reportedly affects school performance, school administrators may have a vested interest in providing health education on this topic to their students.

[Eman M. Mohamed. Epidemiology of Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Students in Assiut City, Egypt. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):348-353]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.50

 

Key words: dysmenorrhea, adolescent girls, prevalence, impact, Egypt

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Ameliorative Effects of Sildenafil in Acetic Acid-Induced Chronic Colitis in Rats

 

Osama M. Ahmed1*, Alaa Afifi2, Tarek M. Ali3, Shimaa A. Ramadan3 and Ayman M. Mahmoud1

 

1Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

2Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

3Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

* Corresponding author: osamamoha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aims to assess the effect of sildenafil citrate, a potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5, on the colon histological integrity, oxidant-antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of acetic acid-induced colitis. Chronic colitis was induced under light ether anesthesia by intrarectal administration of 1 ml of 5% (v/v) acetic acid (AA) in male albino rats, with a second intrarectal administration of the same dose after 16 days. Control rats received an equal volume of saline intrarectally. Experimental rats were treated orally with either sildenafil citrate (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) or saline for 3 days. Tissue samples were used for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Blood was collected for the assessment of serum AST, ALT, creatinine, urea, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. Obtained results revealed that in colitis group, the colonic tissue was characterized by lesions such as cystic dilatation, hemorrhage, and leukocytic infilterations, increased lipid peroxidation with a concomitant reduction in GSH content, and decreased GPx and SOD activities. Serum hepatic and renal function parameters, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were higher in the colitis group compared to control values. Sildenafil, in a dose dependent manner, reversed these parameters nearly back to control values. In conclusion, sildenafil citrate administration to rats with chronic AA-induced colitis seems to be beneficial via prevention of inflammatory processes, lipid peroxidation, cytokine production and alleviation of the anti-oxidant defense system.

[Osama M. Ahmed, Alaa Afifi, Tarek M. Ali, Shimaa A. Ramadan and Ayman M. Mahmoud. Ameliorative Effects of Sildenafil in Acetic Acid-Induced Chronic Colitis in Rats. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):354-361]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.51

 

Key Words: Sildenafil, Acetic acid-induced colitis, Oxidative stress, Pro-inflammatroy cytokines

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Problems of housing environment for the elderly

 

Sakeena Mohamed Abdel-Rahman Basabrain

 

Internal design Dept., Faculty of Arts and Designs, King Abdul- Aziz University, Jeddah 21412, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dr.sakeena@live.com

 

Abstract: The aging is a growing concern in Saudi Arabia, as is the case in other countries, where Saudi culture is based on the close relationship between the elderly and their families. So, there is an urgent need to to understand the cultural viewpoints of the people of Saudi Arabia's elderly to assess the extent of adaptation of the elderly with housing environment in the family, to stay at home independently as national policies should for housing, municipal and household application of the conditions that must be taken into account when discussing the housing needs of people with disabilities, elderly people and a commitment to the principles of the design world to the seventh Assistant elderly to continue to live in their own homes as long as possible and provide a better living environment for them. Furthermore, is to facilitate their movement and ensure their integration in society and consolidate this culture in society.

[Sakeena Mohamed Abdel-Rahman Basabrain. Problems of housing environment for the elderly. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):362-366]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.52

 

Keyword: Problems; housing environment; elderly

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Factors Affecting Public Sector Investment in Agriculture in Iran: The Usage of Unrestricted Error Correction Model 

 

 Seyed Nemat Allah Mousavi, Azadeh Dogani and Javad Torkamani

Department Of Agricultural Economics, Marvdasht Branch,Islamic Azad University,Marvdasht,Iran

*Corresponding author:

 

Abstract: Agriculture in Iran is the greatest economical sector after petroleum and services sectors which has devoted about 20 percent of national gross production and main share of non- petroleum exports, so that, this section development has determinate role in economical growth. Investment in agriculture section is one of factors which due to increase in demand for food and other agriculture products can cause to develop production and more employment in agriculture section. Therefore, in this section, it has been tried that Long- term effect of parameters such as petroleum incomes, investment stock, value-added, national income and inflation rate on state or governmental investment by use of conditional ARDL pattern is in frame of Pesaran and Shin (It applies for time series and variables can be I (0) or I (1)), this is studied for 1356-1386 periods. The results of this study showed that there is Long-term relation between governmental investment, petroleum incomes, investment stock, value-added, national income and inflation rate. On the other hand, governmental investment has the most and least sensitive to Value-added and petroleum income, respectively.

[Seyed Nemat Allah Mousavi, Azadeh Dogani and Javad Torkamani. Factors Affecting Public Sector Investment in Agriculture in Iran: The Usage of Unrestricted Error Correction Mode. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):367-373]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.53

 

Key words: Governmental investment, ARDL model, error correction model, elasticity.

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Effect factors on meat imports to Iran

 

Seyed Nemat allah Mousavi, Mohammad reza Rezaei, Seyed Mohammad Reza Akbari

 

Department Of Agricultural Economics Marvdasht Branch,Islamic Azad University,Marvdasht,Iran

*Corresponding author:

Abstract: Foreign trade has always been an issue as important in the economies of the world that Iran was no exception. The import of meat in foreign countries to study the factors affecting the balance paid. Changes in short-and long-term study of factors affecting meat imports from Iran, with its pattern of regression with distributed lags (ARDL) Examined Information and statistical data base needed groceries and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Customs Organization and Central Bank of Iran, for the period 2008-1986 has been collected the results showed that changes. The results showed that the adjusted rate changes that support the policies of the Government in the short term and long term is the most important factor affecting the importation of meat.

[Seyed Nemat allah Mousavi, Mohammad reza Rezaei, Seyed Mohammad Reza Akbari. Effect factors on meat imports to Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):374-377]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.54

 

Keyword: Meat imports, supporting the delivery rate (APR), to explain the pattern of interruptions, (ARDL)

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Peripheral Blood Expression of Angiotensin II type 1- Receptor (AT1- R) as A Non Invasive Marker of Liver Disease Progression in Patients with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

 

Mohammed A Rady1, Elhamy Abd Al Monem2, Mona A Shafie3, Maha Sabawy1, Nashwa Sheble1 and Mona M Hassouna2

 

Departments of Hepatology1, Clinical Pathology2, National Liver Institute-Menoufyia University, Clinical Pathology3, Menoufyia Faculty of Medicine. aklrady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Angiotensin-II (AT-II) has been suggested to play an important role in liver fibrogenesis. It induces hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and up-regulates the transforming growth factor beta expression via AT-II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) in vitro. There is accumulating evidence that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) does not only play an important role in the regulation of systemic hemodynamics but is also involved in hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Aim of the study: is to evaluate the efficacy of AT1-R as a non-invasive marker of liver disease progression in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 62 NAFLD patients (33 with pure steatosis and 29 with non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). All evidenced by the liver biopsy histopathological features of NAFLD. Twenty potential liver transplant donors were selected as a control group. All patients and control group were subjected to the following:- fasting insulin, HOMA index of insulin resistance, and serum Angiotensin II (AG II). Serum AT1R mRNA AT receptor was measured by Real-Time PCR. Results: a positive correlation was found between AT1R mRNA with fasting insulin, HOMA index of insulin resistance and serum AG-II levels in NAFLD patients. While a negative correlation was found between AT1R mRNA and ALT or AST in NAFLD patients. No significant differences between the two subgroups of steatosis and NASH for the all tested parameters except for AG-II and AT1 R mRNA that show a significant increase in NASH patients (p<0.01) for each. Conclusion: Increased expression of AT1R on circulating leukocyte subsets of NAFLD patients, suggesting its possible role in disease progression, and it could be used as a non invasive marker for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In the future, AT1R expression may be used as a follow up marker for monitoring of therapeutic efficacy of currently available agents.

[Mohammed A Rady, Elhamy Abd Al Monem, Mona A Shafie, Maha Sabaw, Nashwa Sheble and Mona M Hassouna. Peripheral Blood Expression of Angiotensin II type 1- Receptor (AT1- R) as A Non Invasive Marker of Liver Disease Progression in Patients with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):378-386]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.55

 

Key words: NAFLD, NASH, Angiotensin II type I receptor,antifibrotioc therapy.

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Power output and Efficiency of internal combustion engine based on the FTT theory

 

Reza Masoudi Nejad

 

Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran

Reza.masoudinejad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Typically, in an internal combustion engine, thousands of cycles are performed in a minute. In this sequence of cycles many physical and chemical quantities change from cycle to cycle. For example, the combustion heat changes due to residual gases, imperfect combustion and other reasons. In this work, we present two finite-time thermodynamics models for both an Otto and a Diesel cycle, in which the cyclic variability is studied as occurring in the heat capacities of the working fluid. The fluctuations considered are of the uncorrelated type (uniform and gaussian) and one correlated case (logistic map distribution). We find that in the correlated fluctuations case, the power output and the efficiency of both cycles reach bigger fluctuations than in the uncorrelated cases. This result can provide insights over the performance of internal combustion engines.

[Reza Masoudi Nejad. Power output and Efficiency of internal combustion engine based on the FTT theory. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):387-390] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.56

 

Keywords: internal combustion engine; cyclic variability; fluctuations

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Relationship between Family Environment and Emotional Intelligence:Examination of the Moderating Factor

 

Fataneh Naghavi1, Marof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

 2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com, 2E-mail: Marof@putra.upm.edu.my

 

 Abstract: Although a bulk of literature indicates that family environment influence emotional intelligence, the level of education as one of the important determinants which buffers this effect received little empirical attention. The current study investigated the moderating role of father’s education on the relationships between family environment and emotional intelligence among 234 early adolescents (girls and boys) in grades 2 and 3 of guidance schools of Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using the Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (Bar- on EQ-i; YV, 2000) and the Moos and Moos Family Environment Scale. Results revealed that family environment fostered emotional intelligence in their early adolescents. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that father’s education moderated the relationship between family environment and emotional intelligence. Specifically, early adolescents tended to indicate more emotional intelligence at higher levels of family environment when fathers have high level of education. These findings underscore the need for continued focus on the role of parent’s education when assessing the links between family environment and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence.

 [Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. Relationships between Family Environment and Emotional Intelligence: Examination of the Moderating Factor. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):391-395]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.57

 

Key Words: Early Adolescent; Family environment; Emotional intelligence; Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version; Father’s education; Education moderated; Moderating factor

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Relationships between Family Functioning, Alexithymia and Emotional Intelligence among Early Adolescents in Tehran-Iran

 

Fataneh Naghavi1, Marof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com, 2E-mail: Marof@putra.upm.edu.my

 

 Abstract: With respect to the relationship between family functioning, alexithymia, and the early adolescent’s emotional intelligence construct is still being developed with empirical support. Hence, this research follows a specific objective for determination of the relationship between family functioning, alexithymia, and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence (EQ). EQ is a set of abilities such as conception, emotion appraisal and expression, emotion management and regulation, and emotion utilization of emotion. The present study was carried out among 234 Iranian students in the second and grades of guidance schools (age 12-15) in Tehran, Iran. The students (girls and boys) were clustered through random and multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Schutte’s (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale and Rieffe’s Children’s Alexithymia Scale (2006), which are consistent with the original adult questionnaire for alexithymia (TAS-20) in the first stage and Family Assessment Device (FAD), based on McMaster’s model in the second stage. Pearson correlation between subscales of total family functioning and alexithymia and emotional intelligence was statistically significant. Results of the multiple regression analysis, together with independent variables entered, simultaneously indicate that as a group, the independent variables significantly contributed to the prediction of emotional intelligence.

[Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. Relationships between Family Functioning, Alexithymia and Emotional Intelligence among Early Adolescents in Tehran-Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):396-401].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.58

 

Keywords: Family Functioning, Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence, Family Assessment Device, Alexithymia, Children’s Alexithymia, Emotional Quotient.

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Relationship between nitrogenous pollution of borehole waters and distances separating them from pit latrines and fertilized fields

 

Basie Vinger 1, *Mbhuti Hlophe2 and Mailoo Selvaratnam2.

 

1Department of Chemistry, University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus), Sovenga 0711, Republic of South Africa.

2Department of Chemistry, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Mmabatho, 2735, Republic of South Africa. mbhuti.hlophe@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract:The occurrence of the following nitrogenous pollutants, namely ammonium, nitrite and nitrate ions, was investigated in groundwater (borehole) sources of two villages in North West Province of South Africa. The study was carried out for two reasons. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) in Mmabatho had expressed anxiety over anomalous levels of nitrate ion (which can be reduced to the toxic nitrite ion) in some groundwater sources in the province (and this included some groundwater sources in the two villages). The concentrations of the nitrogenous pollutants were monitored by differential pulse polarography (DPP). This electrochemical method was selected because it is fast, has low detection limits and is virtually free of interferences. The study indicated that the main pollutant in the groundwater sources was nitrate ions whose concentrations were higher than 25 ppm in some borehole waters. This is more than two times higher than the 10 ppm N specification recommended by the South African National Standard (SANS) for drinking water. The study also indicated that the concentrations of ammonium and nitrite ions in the borehole waters studied are not a health risk to the communities. Important sources of groundwater pollution are pit latrines and maize fields treated with nitrogen fertilizers. It was found that groundwaters (borehole water) were polluted with nitrate ions when the distances of the pit latrines and fertilized maize fields were respectively less than 18 m and 13 m from the boreholes. The pollution was more pronounced when the water table was shallow.

[Basie Vinger, Mbhuti Hlophe and Mailoo. Selvaratnam. Relationship between nitrogenous pollution of borehole waters and distances separating them from pit latrines and fertilized fields. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):402-407].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.59

 

Keywords: Nitrogenous pollution; methaemoglobinemia; and carcinogenesis; pit latrines; fertilized maize fields; boreholes; differential pulse polarography.

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The study of the difference between the melamine stone induced hydronephrosis and congenital hydronephrosis in infants: clinical features and their 24-month follow-up

 

Jian Guo Wen 1, 2, *, Yan Wang 1, 2, Rui Zhang 1, 2, Lu Xing 1, 2, Zhenzhen Li 1, Qing Wei Wang 1, An Feng Lou 1, Shengjun Zhang1, Jens Christian Djurhuus 2, Jørgen Frøkiær 2

 

1 Pediatric urodynamic Center, Department of Urology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou,Henan,450000, China

2 Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, 8200, Denmark

* jgwen@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To study the difference of clinical features in hydronephrosis induced by urinary melamine stone (HNMS) with that due to congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction (HNUPJO) in infants. Forty six infants (18.5±10.0 months) with HNMS and 85 infants (20.4±9.3 months) with HNUPJO were included. All HNMS and 30 HNUPJO infants with mild pelvic dilation similar to those of HNMS were followed up for 24 months. Renal ultrasonography, renal function and urinalysis were evaluated at admission and follow up. The clinical features of two groups were compared. At admission, unilateral hydronephrosis occurred in 35 (76%) HNMS and 77 (91%) HNUPJO. More bilateral hydronephrosis were found in HNMS than in HNUPJO (24% vs. 9%, P < 0.05). HNMS showed more symptomatic and less abdominal mass appeared comparing with those of HNUPJO. Five cases of acute renal failure were observed in HNMS and none in HNUPJO. The degree of hydronephrosis of HNMS was significantly smaller than those of HNUPJO (P < 0.05). At 24-month of follow-up hydronephrosis resolved in 93% HNMS whereas remained stable in 80% HNUPJO. While 5 cases with HNUPJO deteriorated and pyeloplasty had to be performed. Only one HNMS infant needs surgical treatment due to the radiolucent stone has changed to radio-opaque stone, which induced significant ureteral obstruction. Significant difference of clinical feature existed between HNMS and HNUPJO. HNMS appears to be relatively benign. Non-operative management with close follow-up is a reliable and efficacious method for these HNMS infants.

[Jian Guo Wen, Yan Wang, Rui Zhang, Lu Xing, Zhenzhen Li, Qing Wei Wang, An Feng Lou, Shengjun Zhang, Jens Christian Djurhuus, Jørgen Frøkiær. The study of the difference between the melamine stone induced hydronephrosis and congenital hydronephrosis in infants: clinical features and their 24-month follow-up. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):408-412] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.60

 

Keywords: Melamine; Hydronephrosis; Urolithiasis; Congenital

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The Expression and Regulation of GSK-3β, CDK-5 and PP2A in Differentiated Neural Stem Cells of Rats

 

ZHAO Qing-xia1,3, XU Yan2,3, YAN Wen-hai2,3, HAN Xue-fei3, XING Ying2,3

 

1. The Nursing College; 2. The Essential Medical School; 3. The Stem Cells Research Center

Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

zzuzhaoqingxia@126.com; xingy@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract Objective: To explore the expression of GSK-3β, CDK-5 and PP2A and the regulation of them by Aβ25~35 and ginsenoside Rb1 after NSCs are transformed into neurons. Methods Neural stem cells of the third passage were induced towards neurons; the expressions of GSK-3β (pTyr279, 216), PP2A and the regulation of them by Aβ25~35 and ginsenoside Rb1 were tested by the immunofluorescence cytochemical staining after NSCs had been induced for one week; The expressions of GSK-3β, CDK-5, PP2A and the regulation of them by Aβ25~35 and ginsenoside Rb1 were detected with RT-PCR. Results: Immunofluorescence cytochemisty showed that neural cells from NSCs which had been differentiated after one week can express GSK-3β (pTyr279, 216) and PP2A. 25~35 can enhance the expression of GSK-3β (pTyr279, 216), meanwhile it also restrained the expression of PP2A. Moreover ginsenoside Rb1 can lessen the affect of Aβ25~35. RT-PCR found that neural stem cells which had been differentiated after one week can express GSK-3β, CDK-5, PP2A. The expression of GSK-3β and CDK-5 rose up and the expression of PP2A weakened when they were treated by Aβ25~35. However, the effect of Aβ25~35 was restrained when they were pretreated by ginsenoside Rb1. Conclusions NSCs which were cultured and induced in vitro can express GSK-3β, CDK-5 and PP2A; moreover Aβ25~35 and ginsenoside Rb1 can regulate the expressions of GSK-3β, CDK-5 and PP2A. It hinted that cells which differentiated from neural stem cells in vitro have protein phosphorylation regulation system of normal cells.

[ZHAO Qing-xia, XU Yan, YAN Wen-hai, HAN Xue-fei, XING Ying. The Expression and Regulation of GSK-3β, CDK-5 and PP2A in Differentiated Neural Stem Cells of Rats. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):413-418] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.61

 

Key words: neural stem cells; GSK-3β; CDK-5; PP2A; ginsenoside Rb1; Aβ25~35

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Effect of Afla-Toxins B1 on Endocrine Status in Cat fish (Clarious lazera)

 

1Mona S. Zaki and 2Olfat Fawzy

 

1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The influence of dietary aflatoxins on body weight, immunity, and hormonal profile was studied in catfish. The results revealed that, administration of aflatoxins, and aflatoxins plus fax-A-toxin 0.1% in diet for 4 months decrease body weight, IgM, Insulin, Thyroxine however there were elevation in cortisol hormone level. Afla-toxins may induce an immunosuppressive effect on humoral immune response of tilapia Nilotica in which was suggested by reduction of immunoglobulin

[Mona S. Zaki and Olfat Fawzy. Effect of Afla-Toxins B1 on Endocrine Status In clriaus lazera. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):419-422] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.62

 

Key words: Afla-Toxins; Endocrine; Cat fish; tilapia Nilotica; mmunosuppressive.

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Genetic Diversity among Eight Egyptian Snakes (Squamata-Serpents: Colubridae) Using RAPD-PCR

 

Nadia H. M. Sayed

 

Zoology Dept., College for Women for Science, Arts and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. dr1nadiah@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Genetic variations between 8 Egyptian snake species, Psammophis sibilans sibilans, Psammophis Sudanensis, Psammophis Schokar Schokar, Psammophis Schokari aegyptiacus,Spalerosophis diadema, Lytorhynchus diadema,, Coluber rhodorhachis, Coluber nummifer were conducted using RAPD-PCR. Animals were captured from several locality of Egypt (Abu Rawash-Giza, Sinai and Faiyum). Obtained results revealed a total of 59 bands which were amplified by the five primers OPB-01, OPB-13, OPB-14, OPE-05 and OPO-03 with an average 11.8 bands per primer at molecular weights ranged from 3000-250 bp. The polymorphic loci between both species were 54 with percentage 91.5 %. The mean band frequency was 47% ranging from 39% to 62% per primer. The similarity matrix value between the 8 Snakes species was ranged from 0.35 (35%) to 0.71 (71%) with an average of 60%. The genetic distance between the 8 colubrid species was ranged from 0.29 (29%) to 0.65 (65%) with an average of 40 %. Dendrogram showed that, the 8 snake species are separated from each other into two clusters. The first cluster contain 4 species of the genus Psammophis. The second cluster include the 4 species of the genera, Spalerosophis; Coluber and Lytorhynchus.. Psammophis sibilans is sister to Psammophis Sudanensis with high genetic similarity (71%) and Psammophis Schokar Schokar is sister to Psammophis Schokari aegyptiacus with high genetic similarity (70%). The Coluber rhodorhachis are clustered and closer to Spalerosophis diadema (70%) than to Coluber nummifer (57%). Therefore, the evolutionary history of snakes still remains controversial. It is concluded that, the similarity coefficient and the genetic distance value between the 8 snake species indicates that, the 8 snake species are not identical and separated from each other.

[Nadia H. M. Sayed. Genetic Diversity among Eight Egyptian Snakes (Squamata-Serpents: Colubridae) Using RAPD-PCR. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):423-430]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.63

 

Key Words: Colubridae, Serpents, RAPD-PCR, Phylogenetic Relationship, Egyptian snakes

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Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

 

Saleh M. Aldaqal1, Alia T. Albaghdadi1, Hanaa M.Tashkandi1, Basem S. El-deek2, Ghada A. Al-Malki1; Ali M. Turki1, and Ahmed M. Makki1

 

1 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Mansoura University, Egypt

sdaqal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes was found to be a risk factor for gallstone formation, and complications. Diabetic patients are generally more prone to operative and post-operative morbidities than their normal counterparts. This study aimed to find whether diabetes is an independent risk factor for morbidities associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our population. Material and Methods: This is a comparative cross-sectional study that was conducted at the Department of Surgery in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to December 2011. A total of 112 patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy at our hospital were randomly selected and retrieved from the medical records department. Ethical Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the local ethical committee of king Abdulaziz University Hospital. A Performa designed by the study team was used to collect the data. Results: A total of 112 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. 18 patients were male (16.1%) and 94 were female (83.9%) with a ratio of 1:5.2. The mean (±SD) age was 41.23 ± 13.82 years (range 15-75 years). Out of 112 patients, 18 were diabetics (16.1%) and 94 patients (83.9 %) were not diabetics. The operation was performed as an elective procedure in 104 patients (92.9%) and as an emergency in 8 patients (7.1%). Diabetics had a significantly higher rate of emergency admissions (22.2%) compared to non-diabetics (4.3%, p= 0.022). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was converted to open procedure in 5 patients (4.5%) of which 3 were diabetics (16.7%) and 2 non-diabetics (2.1%). This shows a statistically significant higher (p=0.029) rate of conversion to open of diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Diabetics had a significantly higher (p= 0.029) mean length of post-operative hospital stay (2.06 ±1.60) compared to non-diabetics (1.43 ± 0.96). The level of HbA1c and fasting glucose level showed no significant effect on conversion to open procedure. The factors that were associated with higher risk of conversion to open were older age (p=0.004), male gender (p=0.029), diabetes (p=0.029), and acute calcular cholecystitis. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is associated with more emergency admission due to complicated cholelithiasis, more conversion rate from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy and prolonged post-operative hospital stay. We found that neither fasting blood glucose level nor HbA1c level have any correlation with intraoperative or post-operative complication or conversion rate. We still however recommend a pre-operative control of blood glucose until we have a prospective randomized control trial comparing diabetic and non-diabetics patient going for laparoscopic cholecystectomy to know at which level of HbA1c or level of blood glucose should be achieved before surgery.

[Saleh M. Aldaqal, Alia T. Albaghdadi, Hanaa M. Tashkandi, Basem S. El-deek, Ghada A. Al-Malki; Ali M. Turki and Ahmed M. Makki Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):431-439]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.64

 

Key words: Diabetes mellitus, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, open cholecystectomy, gall bladder, gall stone.

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Spiritual Well-Being and Mental Health among Malaysian Adolescents

 

Nurizan Yahaya1, Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz 2, Mumtazah Othman1, Norhasmah Sulaiman 1, & Farhan Mat Arisah1

 

1-Department of Resource Management & Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2-Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

 

Background: Adolescents are vulnerable to various mental health problems. The existing body of knowledge on the role of spirituality on adolescents’ mental health status is limited and disjointed. The main aim of this study was to examine impact of spirituality on adolescents’ mental health problems, after controlling for possible sociodemographic factors. Method: A total of 1190 Malaysian adolescents selected through a multistage proportional stratified random technique from the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state filled out questionnaires including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the General Health Questionairre-28 (GHQ-28), and sociodemographic characteristics. A two step hierarchical multivariate logistic regression using SPSS software for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA) was employed to test hypothesis. Results: Using the recommended cut-off point of 6 or more for the total GHQ-28, the prevalence rate of possible mental health problems was calculated 54.6% (CI 95%: 51.8 to 57.4 ). The findings from hierarchical multivariate logistic regression showed existential well-being (OR =0.42, p≤.001, 95% CI: 0.32–0.54) and religious well-being (OR =0.63, p≤.01, 95% CI: 0.47–0.85) were statistically associated with 58% and 37% lower odds of mental health problem, respectively, over and above sex, living arrangements of adolescents, parental education and household income. Conclusion: The present study found noticeable rates of mental health problems among Malaysian adolescents and pointed out the importance of spirituality as a resilience factor might help children to cope with physiologic, physical and psychological changes through adolescence, successfully.

[Nurizan Yahaya, Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Mumtazah Othman, Norhasmah Sulaiman, & Farhan Mat Arisah. Spiritual Well-Being and Mental Health among Malaysian Adolescents. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):440-448] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.65

 

Key words: Adolescence; Coping, Malaysia; Mental health; Spirituality

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Evaluation of Water in Iran’s Agriculture: A case study of Dashtenaz of Sari-Iran

 

Foad Eshghi 1, Seyed-Ali Hosseini-Yekani 2

 

1. MS Student, Department of Agricultural Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Sari Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

s.a.hosseiniyekani@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Today's world faces serious population increase. On the other hand, limited available resources for the man have resulted in an intensive competition and challenge between various economical sections and parts. One of the main and limiting factors of the Iranian agriculture section development is the water entry. Thus, optimized exploitation management which is achieved through establishment of balance between supply and demand of this scare commodity is the only solution. There are factors in agriculture which may not be clarified with a potential distribution, though there have been made several efforts to consider risk in agriculture economical models, but it will be possible to do so when there is established is compiled mathematical relation. On the other hand, in many of the third world countries, the limited capital and available agriculture entries may limit the farmers available options. Hence, it is required in these countries to apply precise analytical tools, so that not only the plans made as per the current realities may be chosen, but also the policies which consider the recommended social objectives may become possible. In these countries, the general problem of lack of statistical data requires that the programming models are designed so that they are mean in using such data. This study tries to use a modern method for Dasht Naz of Sari in different states from the respective productivity (here normal linear programming program) to achieve the shadow price of water. The water economical value (water shadow price) in summer is Rls 1030. This parameter for spring and autumn becomes zero. The LIndo6 software package has been used for this study.

[Foad eshghi, Seyed-Ali Hosseini-Yekani. Evaluation of Water in Iran’s Agriculture: A case study of Dashtenaz of Sari-Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):449-452] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.66

 

Keywords: Water Evaluation; Agriculture; Linear Programming; DashteNaz of Sari; Iran

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The Muscular Function for Human Knee Movement Revealed from Electromyography: A Preliminary Study

 

Y.-P. Sun1*, K.-T. Yen1, H.-K. Kung1, Y.-C. Tsai1, K.-C. Lu1, C. M. Du1, Y. C. Liang2

 

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, TAIWAN, ROC

2Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, TAIWAN, ROC

*Corresponding author, E-mail: ypsun@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The electromyography (EMG) of a male teenager performing isokinetic exercise is conducted to realize the characteristics of femoral muscles in human knee movement. The raw EMG data of rectus femoris muscle and biceps femoris muscle are full-wave rectified to demonstrate the electromechanical delay that ranges from 50 to 100 ms. The mean of biceps femoris EMG in isokinetics knee flexion is approximately 3-4 times as much as that of rectus femoris EMG in isokinetics knee extension. The rectified EMG signals are smoothed by using moving average method to receive a linear envelope that outlines the mean trend of EMG signals. It gives a clear perspective to observe the relation between the micro-scale EMG signal and the macro-scale kinetic data. This paper presents an important basis to establish a mechanical model of muscle for human knee movement.

[Y.-P. Sun, K.-T. Yen, H.-K. Kung, Y.-C. Tsai, K.-C. Lu, C. M. Du, Y. C. Liang. The Muscular Function for Human Knee Movement Revealed from Electromyography: A Preliminary Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):453-456] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.67

 

Keywords: electromyography, isokinetic exercise, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, moving average

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Applications of Thermal Spray Coating in Artificial Knee Joints

 

J.-C. Hsiung*, H.-K. Kung*, H.-S. Chen*, Kuan-Yu Chang**

 

*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan, ROC

**Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taitung Branch, Taiwan, ROC

*E-mail: jchsiung@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: With remarkable medical advances, aging population makes the artificial knee joint replacement increasingly popular, and the quality of total knee replacement depends on materials selection and the application of surface coating. Titanium alloys have been widely used as artificial knee joint material due to their specific properties such as low density, toxicity and excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Thermal spray coating technology is used worldwide in many industrial applications, but the application of thermal spray biocompatible coatings on the titanium alloy surface in the biomedical field as to improve the knee's functions is a relatively new area. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive overview of applications and characterizations of titanium alloy surface coating in artificial knee joint by thermal spray coating technology.

[J.-C. Hsiung. H.-K. Kung, H.-S. Chen, Kuan-Yu Chang. Applications of Thermal Spray Coating in Artificial Knee Joints. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):457-463] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.68

 

Keywords: Thermal spray coating; Artificial knee joint; Titanium alloy

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On the Centrodes of Human Knee Joints using Photographic Method

 

Yingchien Tsai 1*, Chengfeng Lin2, Guangmiao. Huang2, Hsienyuan Lin1

 

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (R.O.C.), 2. Department of Mechanical & Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (R.O.C.). yctsai@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The kinematics characteristics of the human knee joint can be represented by its centrodes. The sequential X-ray radiographs of the moving knee can provide the basic data for constructing the centrodes if the cost and side effects of radiation are not in concern. This paper provides an alternative method to construct the centrodes by using commercial digital camera to take the sequential pictures. In order to eliminate the undesired movements, a testing chair and a brace are specially designed. Two types of curve fitting methods are introduced to smooth the measured data of marked points on the lower leg. The differential method is applied to construct the centrodes of knee joint from the measured data. This paper provides a non-expensive, non-invasion, and non-radiation way to study the centrodes of human knee joint.

[Yingchien Tsai, Chengfeng Lin, Guangmiao. Huang, Hsienyuan. Lin. On the Centrodes of Human Knee Joints using Photographic Method. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):464-468] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.69

 

Keywords: Human Knee Joint, Centrodes, Polodes, Curve fitting, Photograph

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Custom-made Biomechanical Model of the Knee Joints

 

 Chin-Yu Wang 1, Tsung-Lin Tsai2, Chien-Fen Huang3

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan, R.O.C., 2 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taitung Branch, Taiwan, R.O.C.

 

Abstract: This paper obtained the data of custom-made tibia, femoral joints and meniscus morphology by studying relating researches and constructed several sagittal section of the knee joint. Based on the 2D bone morphology of femoral condyle and the contact radius relationship of the tibial plateau, it created the design of the sphere curvature of femoral condyle to conform to the demands of the patients. To simulate the various meshing curved surface between bones, this paper considered using sphere to fit femoral condyle, using femur image data to fit the femur into spheres and using the Hertz’s elastic contact theory to construct a femur-tibia and femur-meniscus biomechanical model. Lastly, using the contact stress and contact deformation obtained by solving the numeric examples under specific cases can be used as a reference in the design and production of future prosthesis.

[Chin-Yu Wang, Tsung-Lin Tsai, Chien-Fen Huang. Custom-made Biomechanical Model of the Knee Joints. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):469-473] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.70

 

Keywords: Elastic Contact, Biomechanical Model, Femur, tibia

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Electrically-Controllable Fresnel Lens Based on Liquid Crystal

 

Chi-Ting Horng1, Mu-Hsin Chen2, Chung-Hsin Liao3 and Shuan-Yu Huang4,,5*

 

1Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

2 Department of Optometry,Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wunhua 1st St., Rende Township, Tainan County, Taiwan 717, ROC

3 Department of Electronics, Cheng Shiu University, No.840, Chengcing Rd, Niaosong Township, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan 83347, ROC

4School of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan 402, ROC

5Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan 402, ROC

syhuang@csmu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This study proposes an electrically-controllable Fresnel lens based on liquid crystals. A special design patterned electrode type and a homogeneous alignment sample cell has been fabricated to form a liquid crystals lens. The transmission light can be focused or defocused by varying the applied voltage. The focal length in this Fresnel lens is around 300 mm.

[Chi-Ting Horng, Mu-Hsin Chen, Chung-Hsin Liao, Shuan-Yu Huang. Electrically-Controllable Fresnel Lens Based on Liquid Crystal. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):474-476] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 71

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.71

 

Keywords: Fresnel lens, liquid crystals

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The Influence of Low-powered Family LED Lighting on Eyes in Mice Experimental Model

 

Mei-Lin Peng1#, Cheng-Yu Tsai2#, Chung-Liang Chien3, John Ching-Jen Hsiao2, Shuan-Yu Huang 2, Ching-Ju Lee4, Hsiang-Yin Lin 2, Yang-Cheng Wen2, Kuang-Wen Tseng1,2,*

 

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. ROC; 2School of Optometry, College of Medical Sciences and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. ROC; 3 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4 Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Hospital, Department of Health, Taiwan. ROC. #Contributed equally. kuangwen@csmu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Ocular tissue damage because of exposure to visible light has been demonstrated by the results of human and animal studies. The short-wavelength visible light between 430 nm to 500 nm (blue light) is especially associated with retina damage. Recently, new powerful sources and relatively inexpensive blue energy of LED (light emitting diodes) family lamps in home illumination are available. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of illumination source from the low-powered and the conscious spectrum source of LED family lamps on retina tissues. The illumination source of LED family lamps was analyzed from 300 nm to 800 nm using an UV-visible spectrophotometer. In animal experiments, young adult mice were assigned to expose to family LED light for 2h every day ranging 2 to 4 weeks or light environment using LED family lamps for 39 weeks. After LED light treatment, sections of eyes were stained with hematoxylin and examined using histopathology. The data clearly demonstrated irradiation of the white LED is above 400 nm and is not within the ultraviolet light region. However, the analysis of spectrum distribution demonstrated that the family LED lighting exhibited power-peak at 450 nm is within the blue light region. Histological results showed that the photoreceptor layer is significantly reduced in thickness after 4 weeks of LED exposure 2h every day or LED illuminated environment. This study provides important data regarding the efficacy and safety of LED light in family illumination. It is impossible to consider these degenerative changes are related unavoidably part of their mechanism of action or an avoidable toxic effect.

[Mei-Lin Peng, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Chung-Liang Chien, John Ching-Jen Hsiao, Shuan-Yu Huang, Ching-Ju Lee, Hsiang-Yin Lin, Yang-Cheng Wen, Kuang-Wen Tseng. The Influence of Low-powered Family LED Lighting on Eyes in Mice Experimental Model. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):477-482] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.72

 

Keywords: Light emitting diodes, Photoreceptor, Blue light

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The expression of plasma lysophosphatidic acid in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at advanced stage before and after interventional therapy

 

ZHANG Jian-hao11, LI Liu-xia 2

 

1.Department of Intervention, the first affiliated hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China; 2.Department of Obstetric and Gynecologic, the first affiliated hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. jh7402@126.com

 

Abstract: The objective is to evaluate the clinical effect of artery chemotherapy infusion and embolism in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at an advanced stage by investigating the expression of plasma lysophosphatidic acid(LPA) and the tumor volume before and after the interventional therapy. Uterine artery and ovarian artery chemotherapy infusion and embolism were performed on 22 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at an advanced stage. The level of plasma LPA in patients with benign epithelial ovarian tumor (22 cases) and epithelial ovarian cancer (22 cases, before and after interventional therapy)was measured by biochemical method. At the same time, the tumor volume of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was observed both before and after interventional therapy. The Results were that the average levels of plasma LPA of 20 benign cases were within the normal range. The average levels of plasma LPA in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at an advanced stage were significantly higher than the levels in the benign cases (P0.05). Following interventional therapy, the levels of plasma LPA and the tumor volume both declined, albeit at different degrees. There was also a significant difference between the levels before and after interventional therapy (P0.05). So we found that the application of artery chemotherapy infusion and embolism can decrease the levels of plasma LPA, reduce the volume of the tumor, and improve the resection rate for the patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at an advanced stage. Interventional therapy is an effective method to treat epithelial ovarian cancer at an advanced stage.

[ZHANG Jian-hao1, LI Liu-xia. The expression of plasma lysophosphatidic acid in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at advanced stage before and after interventional therapy. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):483-488] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.73

 

Key wordsinterventional chemotherapy infusion and embolism; advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer; lysophosphatidic acid; tumor volume

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Studies on Hematological Parameters and DNA Structure in Newborn Rats Exposed to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

 

Nihal S. El-Bialy, Reem H. El-Gebaly* and Monira M. Rageh

 

Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt. r_elgebaly@msn.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of in vivo exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) on some hematological parameters, pathological variations and DNA structure in newborn rats. Six female pregnant Wistar rats were obtained from the National Research centre in Egypt and gave birth to 30 rats at the animal house of Cairo University. The newborn rats were divided into two separate groups: one exposed group (50 Hz, 0.5 mT, 30 days, 24 h/day) and one control (sham). Red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin and hematocrit levels decreased significantly (P< 0.02) while white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets levels significantly increased ( P< 0.04) in newborn rats that were exposed to ELF-MF. There was no significant difference in mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) levels and DNA structure between the exposed and sham-exposed groups. ELF-MF induced a marked necro-degenerative change in kidney tissue and peri-portal fibrosis in liver tissues. Our results indicate that the applied ELF-MF exposure may induce statistically significant alterations in some hematological parameters, kidney and liver tissues of newborn rats.

[Nihal S. El-Bialy, Reem H. El-Gebaly and Monira M. Rageh. Studies on Hematological Parameters and DNA Structure in Newborn Rats Exposed to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):489-495]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 74

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.74

 

Key Words: Electromagnetic field, hematological parameters, DNA, pathological tissues.

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Synergism Effect of Nisin Peptide in Reducing Chemical Preservatives in Food Industry

 

Hamed Haddad Kashani¹, Hosein Nikzad2, Saed Mobaseri*3, Elahe Seyed Hoseini4

 

Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran¹.

Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran2.

Department of Microbiology, Science Faculty, Azad University, Qom, Iran3.

Research Center for Sciences and Biotechnology, Lavizan, Tehran. Iran4

 

Abstract: Due to increasing interest to natural preservatives, many studies have been performed in recent years. Nisin peptide as a natural preservative is very interesting for the control of food pathogens and microorganisms of food spoilage. In this study antibacterial activity of nisin and its synergism in decreasing concentrations of common chemical preservatives like sodium nitrite and benzoic acid against standard bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Lysteria monocytogenes has been investigated. For this purpose, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of nisin peptide, sodium nitrite and benzoic acid were evaluated at different pH based on the dilution method. Results showed that these compounds have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Lysteria monocytogenes. MIC for nisin peptide, sodium nitrite and benzoic acid in Staphylococcus aureus, was 350, 200, 25 (ppm) respectively. These values were 100, 200, 10 (ppm) in Lysteria monocytogenes. It has been also shown that simultaneous use of nisin with chemical preservatives sodium nitrite and benzoic acid reduced MIC of these compounds against two strains of bacteria. This synergistic effect of nisin could reduce the use of chemical preservatives in food industry.

[Hamed Haddad Kashani, Hosein Nikzad, Saed Mobaseri, Elahe Seyed Hoseini. Synergism Effect of Nisin Peptide in Reducing Chemical Preservatives in Food Industry. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):496-501]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.75

 

Keywords: Nisin, Cancer, Sodium nitrite, Benzoic acid, Bacteria.

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Psychology of media and audience: "A survey on Psychological tendency and attitude of Ardabil people to media"

 

Mohammad Bagher Sepehri 1, َAli Khaleghkhah 2 and Habib Ebrahimpour 3

 

1, M.A in Media Management, Researcher and a teacher in the Ardabil News Faculty

2,3 Management Department, Faculty of Humanities, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

*Corresponding author:

 

Abstract: Today, in the era of vast media, attention to the characteristics, interests, demands and needs of the media audience is so important that the owners of the media must pay their special attention to. People in every area of human geography have special characteristics, behaviors and psychological states that attention to them can attract and keep audiences to be effective as a customer permanently otherwise people turn away from interior media and tend to Radio & TV channels of other countries. In Iran, local and national channels have been managed by government and therefore channels broadcast with a given policy from Iran government, also satellite use is prohibited under the constitution. However the use of satellite in Iran is growing and some statistics show that over 30 percent of people have satellite receivers. Iran is a multi-ethnic society with a variety of languages and religions. Indeed, Iran is a multicultural country, but anything e.g. media, education, schools, universities, offices, etc are in Persian language and other Iranian languages are not official. In this situation ethnics and their culture and languages are destroying. Government doesn’t pay attention to ethnics and it is a multifaceted problem and we try to look at it from psychological aspects. This paper strives to study trends and tendency of Ardabil people in the cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions to satellite channels, especially Turkey and Republic of Azerbaijan from the perspective of psychology and describes and explains its findings based on psychological approaches.

[Mohammad Bagher Sepehri, Ali Khaleghkhah and Habib Ebrahimpour. Psychology of media and audience. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):502-508]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.76

 

Key words: media, Ardabil province, satellite channels, media psychology, audience psychology, and media needs of audiences

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Pharmacological properties of medicinal herbs by focus on secondary metabolites

 

1. Hamed Haddad Kashani, 2. Elahe Seyed Hoseini, 3 Hosein Nikzad*, 4.Mohammadm Hossein Aarabi

 

Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran¹, 3; Research Center for Sciences and Biotechnology, Lavizan, Tehran. Iran; 2Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran4. * Nikzad_h@kaums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Use of herbs based drugs and chemicals for treating various diseases are as old as human civilization. Herbs have vast ability to synthesize aromatic materials mainly secondary metabolites. Herbs and herbs-based therapies are the source of various modern pharmaceuticals. In many cases, these herbal materials serve as defensive molecules against microorganisms, insects, and herbivores. Further, some of which may involve in plant aroma (terpenoids), pigmentation (tannins and quinines), and flavor (ginger). The aim of this review was to study of secondary metabolites and bioactive chemical constituents of medicinal herbs and their pharmacological activity. Regarding our purpose we searched at Pub Med, MEDLINE, CNKI, EMBASE, Wiley Inter Science, Elselvier databases without language limitation. In this sense we applied different words related to herbal therapy, pharmacology, secondary metabolites and phytochemistry.

[Hamed Haddad Kashani, Elahe Seyed Hoseini, Hosein Nikzad, Mohammad Hossein Aarabi. Pharmacological properties of medicinal herbs by focus on secondary metabolites. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):509-520]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.77

 

Keywords: Pharmacology; medicie; herb; metabolite

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Assessing the relation of selected mix marketing And brand equity of mobile phones among engineers society of consulting engineering company Mahab Ghods

 

Dr. Bozorgmehr Ashrafi, Delaram Keshvarian, Maryam Aliei

 

Department of Management, Shahrood Industrial University, Shahrood, Semnan, Iran

Bozorgashrafi@ymail.com, delaramkeshvarian@yahoo.com, Info@Aliei.com

 

Abstract:As for the power that the brand equity gives to its brand, in this research we tried to assess how it develops. A questionnaire including 8 variables of brand building activities to create brand equity for mobile phones has been proposed. These variables are: Perceived quality, price, advertisement, awareness and association of brand, mental image of store, brand loyalty, spread of distribution and promotion cost. Based on the results, it is better to more concentrate on the elements which affect on brand equity development such as Perceived quality, brand loyalty, awareness and association of brand that are influenced by factors such as mental image of supplier stores, spread of distribution, advertisement and promotion costs. Based on the regression model and obtained Coefficients, we can conclude that among all the factors, perceived quality, advertisement respectively have the most effect on brand equity. Organizations by investing on these factors can achieve to more Competitive advantages.

[Dr. Bozorgmehr Ashrafi, Delaram Keshvarian, Maryam Aliei. Assessing the relation of selected mix marketing And brand equity of mobile phones among engineers society of consulting engineering company Mahab Ghods. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):521-526]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.78

 

Keywords: market; mobile phone; engineer; society

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An innovative algorithm for code Obfuscation

Aslam Muhammad1, Zia-ul Qayyum2, Ahmad Ashfaq3, Waqar M. M.4, Martinez-Enriquez A. M5, Afraz Z. Syed6

 

1,3,4,6Department of Computer Science & Engineering, UET, Lahore Pakistan

 

Abstract: The cod obfuscation is a process of transforming any program into an incomprehensible form for protecting it from malicious attempts. To achieve this objective, many algorithms are found in the literature. Some of them based on program instructions reordering and block reordering which are difficult to implement as well as resource requirements are very high. In addition, some associated constructs are needed to run such applications and hence demand more user expertise. In this research paper, we propose a new user friendly obfuscation algorithm based on insertion of zero impact instructions and additional code insertion. Obfuscation can be carried out of any code however we choose assembly language programs as reverse engineers always translate high level language codes to it for stealing the intellectual properties. The algorithm is implemented in Microsoft visual basic for Intel machines.

[Aslam Muhammad, Zia-ul Qayyum, Ahmad Ashfaq, Waqar M. M., Martinez-Enriquez A. M., Afraz Z. Syed. An innovative algorithm for code Obfuscation. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):527-533] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.79

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.79

 

Keywords: Reverse engineering; Source code; Structural complexity; Insertion; Compilation; Obfuscation.

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E-Hafiz: Intelligent System to Help Muslims in Recitation and Memorization of Quran

 

Aslam Muhammad1, Zia ul Qayyum2, Waqar Mirza M.3 Saad Tanveer4, Martinez-Enriquez A.M.5, Afraz Z. Syed6

 

1,3,4,6 Dept. of CS & E, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore

4Department of Computing and Technology, IQRA University, Islamabad, Pakistan

5 Dept. of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. Mexico

(Corresponding author email: maslam@uet.edu.pk )

 

Abstract: Recitation of the Holy book of Muslims, The Holy Quran, is a regions duty and hence is done with utmost care such that no mistakes are made while reading it. These mistakes may include the wrong utterance of words, misreading words, and punctuation and pronunciation mistakes. Believers of Islam are spread all over the world and hence there also can be a difference in accent. To avoid this, tajweed rules are implemented to ensure that the utterance is done according to some rules. These rules ensure that there is no variance in the recitation of the Holy book for different reciters. For further improvements, the people are encouraged to memorize the whole book and the person who does that is called a Hafiz. Having known the whole book by heart down to every word with Tajweed rules he/she can a guide to correct other learners who intend to learn by listening to learners and correcting their recitation. But the availability of a Hafiz can be a problem where Islam is not a dominant religion. Furthermore the competency and level of expertise are of epic importance. To get around this problem we have designed and developed a system E-Hafiz. It is based on an idea that Tajweed rules are used to train learners how to recite Quran. To achieve this we used on Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) technique. We extract the features of recorded voices using MFCC and compared with experts’ voices stored in database. Any mismatch on word level is pointed out and ask the user to correct it.

[Aslam Muhammad, Zia ul Qayyum, Waqar Mirza M. Saad Tanveer, Martinez-Enriquez A.M., Afraz Z. Syed. E-Hafiz: Intelligent System to Help Muslims in Recitation and Memorization of Quran. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):534-541] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.80

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.80

 

Keywords: The Holy Quran, Islam, Muslims, Tajweed, Hafiz, Voice recognition, feature extraction, MFCC.

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Expert System to Diagnose Multiple Diseases using Association Factor

 

Imran M. R.1, Moez ur Rehman2, Zia-ul Qayyum3, Aslam Muhammad4, Martinez-Enriquez A. M.5, Afraz Z. Syed6

1,4,6Department of CS & E, UET, Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of CS, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan

3Department of Computing and Technology, IQRA University, Islamabad, Pakistan

5Department of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F., Mexico

(Corresponding author email: maslam@uet,edu,pk)

 

Abstract: Many learning algorithms exist that are routinely used as commercial system. However, given knowledge in health domain, it is difficult to train computers for the decision making and learning. The problem becomes complex when some common symptoms of multiple diseases are present. Some knowledge based systems are available to find a particular disease but cases exist where patient may have more than one illness. We focus on this issue and develop an expert system which not only finds certain disease specifically, but also diagnoses the probability of other diseases to support in prescribing enhanced treatment. The proposed system learns based on a given knowledge, creating rules for making probable decisions and finds association among symptoms occurred mutually in previous assessments. The tested results are quite satisfied and it works accordingly. The system is flexible for new rule generation and association symptoms.

[Imran M. R., Moez ur Rehman, Zia-ul Qayyum, Aslam Muhammad, Martinez-Enriquez A. M., Afraz Z. Syed. Expert System to Diagnose Multiple Diseases using Association Factor. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):542-547] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.81

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.81

 

Keywords: Rule based system, Disease diagnostic, Association factor

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Identification for the Specific Depression-like Behavior of 60-Minute Maternal Deprivation Rats in Early Life

 

Mu-Hsin Chen1, Jen-Haur Lin1, Chih-Hung Lin1,*

 

1Department of Optometry, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan City, Taiwan.

Earlylife555@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: In clinic, it is well known that maternal deprivation can lead to certain forms of depression. However, the evidence from basic researches on the relationship between maternal deprivation and depression is still inadequate, a major impediment in this research field is lack of validated animal models. In previous studies, most evidence showed that animals experienced maternal deprivation in early life would behave more anxiously, it means that maternal deprivation animals will form anxiety animal models. However, Just little evidence showed that maternal deprivation animals would express depression-like behavior. Therefore, it is so urgent to develop a steady and optimal maternal deprivation animal model for the research of depression. In this study, rats after parturition will submit to maternal deprivation process for 60 minutes a day from postnatal day 2 to 14. When the isolated rats wean, they will be separated from mother and raised independently. In addition to fundamental physiological condition measurements, 5-week-old maternal deprivation rats will proceed to forced swim test, spontaneous motor activity test, antidepressant treatments and active avoidance test. However, the results show that maternal deprivation rats experiencing all the tests will express depression-like behavior, but not anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, we find a novel depression animal model due to rats experiencing maternal deprivation for 60 minutes daily in early life. It is expected to offer more beneficial contributions to basic medical studies on the relations between maternal deprivation and depression by this animal model.

[Mu-Hsin Chen, Jen-Haur Lin, Chih-Hung Lin. Identification for the Specific Depression-like Behavior of 60-Minute Maternal Deprivation Rats in Early Life. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):548-553] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.82

 

Keywords: Maternal Deprivation, Depression, Forced Swim Test, Antidepressants, Active Avoidance Test

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EFFECT OF USING POZZOLANIC MATERIALS ON THE PROPERTIES OF EGYPTIAN SOILS

 

M. S. Ouf

 

Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

drmohamedouf@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The possibility to use a large amount of waste materials as a replacement for the imported virgin material in road construction has been recognized. RoadCem is a soil stabiliser provides cheap and more environmentally friendly source of materials for road construction to use with in-situ material. This results in reduction in the required thickness of the pavement consequently reducing costs and contributes to the solution of declining resource of imported materials. An extensive study was carried out on a sample of Egyptian soil. RoadCem as a primary stabiliser with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), lime and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) were employed. The results revealed that the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the modulus of elasticity (E40) of the test soil increased while the free swelling percent (FSP) decreased with an increase in the total stabiliser and the curing period.

[M. S. Ouf. EFFECT OF USING POZZOLANIC MATERIALS ON THE PROPERTIES OF EGYPTIAN SOILS. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):554-560]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.83

 

Keywords: Clay, RoadCem, slag, lime and swelling soil.

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Detection of CK19 mRNA in the blood of breast cancer Female Egyptian patients and its relation to established prognostic parameters

 

Amal F. M. Said1 ; Iman l. H. Abulkheir2; Amany Helal3 and Dalia B. Mohammad4

 

Departments of 1Clinical Pathology; 2Pathology; 3Cancer Oncology and 4Cancer Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

amalfawzy69@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women Worldwide. The clinical course of this disease is highly variable and clinicians continuously search for prognostic parameters that can accurately predict prognosis. peripheral blood cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA-positive cells and its correlation with well established prognostic factors including pathologic parameters, hormonal status and biologic marker; HER 2/ neu in breast female Egyptian cancer patients was studied. Patients and Methods A total of 60 peripheral blood specimens were collected for study. Patients were forty newly diagnosed breast cancer and 10 patients with benign breast lesions. The 10 apparently healthy donors and patients with benign lesions were used as the control group. They were analyzed for the presence of CK-19 mRNA-positive cells using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical staining for HER 2/neu, estrogen and progesterone receptors were carried out for all cases. The association with known prognostic factors and the effect of CK-19 mRNA-positive cells on patients' prognosis was investigated. Results CK-19 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the blood of 14 patients (35%) of the 40 patients. There was statistically significant association between the presence of CK19 mRNA-positive cells and the patients’ tumor size and histologic grade of the tumor, stage of disease and the involved lymph nodes P =<0.001, 0.006, 0.007 and 0.005 respectively. CK-19 mRNA-positive cell detection also showed high significance with HER2 expression receptor (p=0.001). None of the patients with CK 19 positive cells expressed dual ER & PR positivity being both negative and either negative. There was no statistically significantly association between the detection of CK19 mRNA-positive cells and patient’s age, menstrual status or pathologic type. Conclusion: Peripheral-blood CK-19 mRNA-positive cells might constitute a biologically active subset of breast cancer patients with high tumor burden and bad prognosis.

[Amal F. M. Said; Iman l. H. Abulkheir ; Amany Helaland Dalia B. Mohammad. Detection of CK19 mRNA in the blood of breast cancer Female Egyptian patients and its relation to established prognostic parameters. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):561-571]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.84

 

Keywords: Cancer breast, Peripheral-blood, CK-19, RT-PCR, Prognostic factors.

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Diastolic Dysfunction in Septic Patients in Correlation with Renal Function

 

Sabry A. Omar, Msc, Mohamed Elshafey, MD, Khalid Toema, MD, and Rania El-Hoseiny, MD

 

Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, CairoUniversity, Cairo, Egypt

raniaelhoseiny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:: Septic shock remains one of the most challenging medical conditions, with increasing incidence over the last years. One of the most important features of sepsis is myocardial dysfunction and renal impairment. Objective is to evaluate diastolic dysfunction in patient with septicemia and detect its relationto renal impairment in this subset of patients. Methods The study was conducted on 40 patients diagnosed to have various degrees of systemic sepsis admitted to Intensive Care Unit of Mansoura International Specialized Hospital. After exclusion of patients with structural heart diseases and renal impairment, each patient was subjected to the following: Full clinical evaluation, complete laboratory investigation -including serum troponin I & creatinine levels- and echocardiographic evaluation with measuring of left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), calculation of LVEF & assessment of diastolic function measuring mitral annulus E/A ratio, E deceleration time (DT) & isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT). Results: A non -randomized non-controlled prospective study done between July 2009 to August 2010. The study included 40 patients, 24 males & 16 females, with mean age of 62±12. Renal impairment (defined as serum creatinine > 1.4 mg/dl following a normal creatinine level on admission associated with oliguria <0.5 ml/kg/6hours) was present in 78% (31 pts). These pts had significantly shorter IVRT & shorter DT than those with normal renal function. LVEDD and LVESD were significantly larger & LVEF was significantly lower in pts with renal impairment. Renal impairment was associated with significantly lower hemoglobin, higher liver enzymes, higher bilirubin and higher troponin levels. Eighteen patients had SIRS & sepsis (group A, 45%) & 22 had septic shock (group B, 55%). Patients with septic shock showed significantly higher creatinine & significantly higher troponin level than pts with sepsis. Regarding ventricular functions, LVEDD and LVESD were significantly larger & LVEF was significantly lower in septic shock ptsthan pts with SIRS & sepsis. In group B, both DT and IVRT were significantly shorter than group A. Overallmortality was 55% (100% in septic shock versus 0% in pts with SIRS & sepsis). Conclusion: The presence of renal impairment was associated with a more severe form of diastolic & systolic dysfunction in septic patients. Septic shock patients, showed larger ventricular dimensions and significant systolic and diastolic dysfunctions than patients with sepsis. Higher evidence of myocardial injury in septic shock.

[Sabry A. Omar, Mohamed Elshafey; Khalid Toema and Rania El-Hoseiny. Diastolic Dysfunction in Septic Patients in Correlation with Renal Function. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):572-579]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.85

 

Key Words: Diastolic dysfunction, septic patients, renal function

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The Hydrology of Wadi Ibrahim Catchment in Makkah City, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: The Interplay of Urban Development and Flash Flood Hazards

 

Mohammed El bastawesy1, Khaled El Harby1,2, Turki Habeebullah2,3

 

1Geography Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

2 Centre of Research and Excellence in Hajj and Omrah (HajjCore), Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 3The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Institute for Hajj Research, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, KSA; mabastawesy@uqu.edu.sa; bastawesy_mmm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the development of a hydrological model for the dryland catchment of Wadi Ibrahim, which hosts the Holy Mosque of Makkah, in order to assess the interaction of urbanizing the alluvial channels and the flow discharges of occasional flash floods. The original landscape and landcover of the catchment have witnessed significant changes during the past few decades, where most of the alluvial channels and the mountain footslopes have been covered by urban. The infrequent threat of flash floods has prompted the development of a mitigation measure including; installation of rainfall-sewage system and subsurface culverts, in addition to the conveyance of flows from the upper sub-catchment into another drainage basin. However, the latest flash flood event of 30th of December 2010 has resulted in fatalities and demonstrated the insufficiency of the current mitigation system to control flash floods. The runoff coefficient was estimated from the opportunistic observations and measurements of the flow discharge parameters for the latest event, in addition to the recorded rainfall parameters. The digital elevation model (DEM) was analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine the spatially distributed time-areas zones of the catchment, which were used to simulate the runoff hydrographs under certain runoff coefficients and designed storms of long return periods. The development of urban areas on expense of the alluvial channels resulted in a significant surge of runoff discharge, and therefore increasing the threat of flash floods on urban areas downstream. As a result the transmission loss is diminishing; thus raising the alarm on the potential recharge to the underlying alluvial aquifer of the sacred well of Zamzam. Therefore, it is suggested that several small dams to be constructed at the fingertip drainage channels; to retain considerable amount of water and sediment within the catchment and to act as point-source recharge to the alluvial aquifer.

[Mohammed El bastawesy, Khaled El Harby and Turki Habeebullah. The Hydrology of Wadi Ibrahim Catchment in Makkah City, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: The Interplay of Urban Development and Flash Flood Hazards. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):580-589]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.86

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.86

 

Key Words: flash floods, Makkah, Kabaa, Wadi, Remote Sensing, GIS, Hydrology, Urban, Alluvial channels.

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Impact of Drought Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth Parameters of Some Wheat Cultivars

 

Omar A. Almaghrabi

 

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, North Jeddah, King Abdul-Aziz University, KSA

Omarmg07@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: With a view to understand the parameters which can be used as a quick criteria for drought tolerance, the present investigation has been performed to evaluate eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, four local cultivars (Madini, Kaseemi, Yamanei and Tabokei) and four introduced cultivars (Sakha 93, Giza 168, Seds 12 and Masr 1) from Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, to drought stress induced by polyethylene Glycol (PEG)6000 at different concentration 0.0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 g/l PEG during germination and seedling growth stage of plant development. Five germination parameters; finally germination percentage, mean daily germination, germination index, mean germination time and coefficient of velocity of germination and eight seedling growth parameters; shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, seedling length and root number were measured under experiment conditions. Experiment units were arranged factorial completely randomized design with three replications. Mean comparison showed that the highest value for most of parameters were recorded for Sakha 93 and Madini cultivars followed by Yamanei, Kaseemi and Tabokei. With due attention to interaction cultivars x drought levels, cultivars Masr 1, Giza 186, Seds 12 under 120, 180, 240 and 300 g/l PEG6000 had the lowest value of noted parameters than other cultivars. Results of variance analysis made clear that different osmotic potential had significant effect on all parameters except root dry weight. In contrast, using all germination and seedling growth parameters, except root number, under study can used as a selectable parameters to discrimination between tolerance and sensitive cultivars under drought stress in breeding programs and laboratory experiment would appear to be suitable for screening under drought stress.

[Omar A. Almaghrabi. Impact of Drought Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth Parameters of Some Wheat Cultivars. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):590-598]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 87

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.87

 

Key words: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Abiotic stress. Drought. Germination. Seedling growth parameters. Polyethylene glycol.

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A Path Towards IP-V6 Transition Strategies for Scientific Research: An Overview

 

M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, S. Ahsan, M. Shahbaz, M. Aslam

 

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

junaidarshad@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: This research work explores various aspects regarding the introduction and analysis of transition strategies to the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IP-v6). We firstly analyze the different ways of transition as of IP-v4 to IP-v6. These ways are not integral parts of IP-v6 itself, rather they have administrative nature or they reside on lower layers of ISO/OSI model. We give an overview of non-technical issues and layer-2 options (targeted to distinct types of organizations and networks) which will aid in implementing the transition strategies supporting the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IP-v6). We also present a transition roadmap for each of these strategies in terms of addressing scheme; layer-2 technologies; routing, application and tunneling protocols; security problems relevant to transition and network protocols. Moreover, a comparative analysis of these strategies are presented using different criteria such as scalability, methods used for transition to native IP-v6 connectivity, degree of deployment difficulty and others. We hope this work will be found useful by both network operators and designers, and will be used to design strategies for transition to IP-v6 protocol based on the presented strategies, or at least as a reference.

[M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, M. Aslam, S. Ahsan, M. Shahbaz. A Path Towards IP-V6 Transition Strategies: An Overview, Life Sci J 2012;9(1):599-602] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 88

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.88

 

Keywords: BGP-Border Gateway Protocol; IP-v6; QoS-Quality of Service; VPN-Virtual Private Network

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Cross-Platform Service for Nomadic Devices in Biodiversity Research

 

M. Aslam, Syed Ahsan, M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, M. Shahbaz

 

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UET, Lahore, Pakistan. maslam@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: The synergy between cloud and virtualization has become popular in the recent years. Different handheld devices come with versatile and heterogeneous hardware and operating systems, resulting in incompatibility issues for application users. We extend the concept of virtualization to provide a set of virtual machines capable of emulating major operating systems. These virtual machines run on a Virtual Box Web Services in a SOA and are designed to be tailored to meet the specific requirements of a user through which they can run any software on any handheld device. Our service provides the user with the ability to make and run major operating systems using cloud of virtual machines. This allows unlimited portability between different hardware and software architectures if some minor requirements are met. We present the result of initial testing of running Nokia Symbian application on an android device.

[M. Aslam, Syed Ahsan, M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, M. Shahbaz. Cross-Platform Service for Nomadic Devices, Life Sci J 2012;9(1):603-609] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 89

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.89

 

Keywords: Handheld Device, Cloud Computing and Virtual Machine

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Bond Strength of Poly (methyl methacrylate) Denture Base to cast Titanium and cobalt-chromium Frameworks of Different Designs

 

Fahad A. Al-Harbi and Mohamed Saber A

 

Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. falharbi@ud.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The lack of a chemical bond between conventional denture base materials and framework elements represents a significant problem in removable prosthodontics. Poor chemical bonding of a denture base resin to cast metal frameworks often introduces adhesive failure and increases microleakage. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of a denture base acrylic resin to commercially pure titanium alloy (CP Ti) and a cobalt-chromium alloy (Co-Cr) using a hybrid bonding system. Material And Methods. Square plates (of different designs) were cast from the 2 alloys. The plates were grit-blasted with 50 μm of alumina and treated with the Rocatec™ bonding system. A denture base heat-cured acrylic resin was then applied to the plates. Specimens without bonding were also prepared as controls. Both alloys were configured as frameworks with different retentive designs: flat plate, lattice retention, mesh retention and bead retention. Shear bond strength values were determined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results. For CP Ti plates, shear bond strength was the highest for acrylic resin adhered with Rocatec™ to flat plates, followed by the bead, lattice and mesh designs. The shear bond strength for different retentive Co-Cr frameworks, with or without Rocatec™, was the highest for bead retention, followed by mesh, flat plate and lattice. There was a statistically significant difference (P<.05) in bond strength between the 2 alloys for both flat plate and lattice retentive frameworks bonded with Rocatec™ to acrylic resin. Conclusion. The application of the Rocatec™ bonding system significantly improved the shear bond strength of denture base resin using both cast (CP Ti) and Co-Cr alloys.

[Fahad A. Al-Harbi and Mohamed Saber A. Bond Strength of Poly (methyl methacrylate) Denture Base to castTitanium and cobalt-chromium Frameworks of Different Designs. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):610-616]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 90

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.90

 

Key Words: Denture base, Framework, bond strength, Rocatec bonding, Titanium framework, Cobalt chromium

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Headache in School Age Children and Its Possible Related Expected Predisposing Factors: An Assessment Study

 

1Safaa Salah Ismail and 2Afaf Salah Abed El-Mohsen.

 

1Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University.

2Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University.

 

Abstract: Background: Headache is a common symptom with a high prevalence in most epidemiological studies. It is one of the 10 most common reasons for outpatient physician visits. Headaches are common in children and the prevalence increases with increasing age. The aim of the study: was to find out the prevalence of headache among school age children and study different attributes associated with headaches in Ain Helwan district. Method: Descriptive research design was carried out at primary, preparatory and secondary public schools in Ain Helwan district. Subjects: included 378 school age children 10-17 years, from both gender. Sample: A simple random sample was recruited, utilizing the non-probability sampling technique. Tool: The researchers utilized self-administered interview sheet to collect data in relation to personal information of the studied sample, their eating habits, and life style pattern. Data were collected in the period from beginning of March 2011 till the end of April 2011. Results: revealed that, out of 378, students 221 were complaining from headache (58.5%). No statistically significant differences were detected between middle childhood and late childhood students regarding dizziness during car riding, sensitivity to certain smile, extreme noise, in addition to intensity of headache that increases with climbing stairs, sport, cough, change body posture, activity, teeth or gums’ pain, ear problems, nervousness, vision problems and taking vitamins or drugs. Less than three quarters of sample had inadequate or irregular sleep (72.4%) and there were highly statistically significant differences between middle childhood and late childhood students regarding inadequate or irregular sleep and eating chocolate or cheese, skipping meals, drinking caffeine, staying long time in front of TV or computer, ingestion of cold drink or ice cream, smoking, and complying of any unhealthy condition. More than three quarters of the studied sample showed clinical manifestations of headache in stabbing pain followed by pressing headache (83.7% & 77.8 % respectively). Results revealed adverse effects of headache through scholastic achievement, school attendance and daily activity with no significant differences. Conclusion: Headache represents a common disabling health problem among school age children in Ain Helwan district with a prevalence rate of 58.4%. In general, the prevalence of headache increases with age and it is higher in males than females. Stress following staying long time in front of TV or computer was the most common precipitating factor for headache in the study. Recommendation: Health education of the parents and children about the precipitating factors which triggers for headache, and increasing awareness about healthy life style, and early diagnosis and treatment of headache are recommended to avoid its drawbacks on child health and school performance.

[Safaa Salah Ismail and Afaf Salah Abed El-Mohsen. Headache in School Age Children and Its Possible Related Expected Predisposing Factors: An Assessment Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):617-627]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 91

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.91

 

Key words: Headache, school age children

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Transport and Mechanical Properties of Silica Fume Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

 

Majid Matouq Assas

 

Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture, Umm al Qura University, Makkah, KSA. mmassas@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This paper describes the use of scoria, a natural lightweight aggregate in concrete. The purpose of this paper is to study the performance of a structural Light weight aggregate concrete up to 28 days in terms of permeability and compressive strength concrete. The concrete mixes contained silica fume at 10% replaced by weight of cementitious materials. Variables, which were taken into consideration, were the percentage of sand as a partial replacement for lightweight fine aggregate (0, 25, 50 and 75% by weight). The effect of sand replacement is considerable in terms of densities, strength-to-density ratio and chloride ion permeability. It was found that when the sand content in increased in the mixes, both the density and compressive strength were increased in value up to 30% and 27%, respectively. The resistance of scoria lightweight aggregate concrete to chloride ion penetration was increased when the silica fume was utilized in the mix. As per the assessment parameters, all the lightweight concrete containing silica fume exhibited much lower corrosion rates when compared to normal weight aggregate concrete.

[Majid Matouq Assas. Transport and Mechanical Properties of Silica Fume Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Life Sci J 2012;9(1):628-635]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.92

 

Keywords: Compressive strength; Lightweight aggregate; Permeability; Concrete; Silica fume.

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Dose Phenol Toxicity Affected Endocrine Status in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

 

Mona S. Zaki1, Nabila El-Batrawy2 and Nadia M. Taha3

 

1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology, Veterinary, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The influence of dietary phenol on immunity, and hormonal profile was studied in catfish. The results revealed that, treatment of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with 12mg/l phenol for 3 months decreased IgM, Insulin, Thyroxin, however there was elevation in cortisol hormone level. Phenol may induce an immunosuppressive effect on humoral immune response of African Catfish which was suggested by reduction of immunoglobulin.

[Mona S. Zaki, Nabila El-Batrawy and Nadia M. Taha. Dose Phenol Toxicity Affected Endocrine Status in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Life Sci J 2012;9(1):636-639] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 93

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.93

 

Key words: Phenol; Endocrine; African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

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Synergistic Effect of combined antioxidants on Noise-Induced Acoustic Trauma in Adult Guinea Pigs. Audiological and Histological Study

 

Nagwa Kostandy Kalleny1, Nevine Bahaa E. Soliman1 and Rasha Elkabarity2

 

Histology 1 and Audiology 2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo. Egypt

nbahaasoliman@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Cochlear noise injury is considered one of the most debilitating diseases worldwide. Numerous drug trials have been made for complete protection from this acoustic trauma, unfortunately with little success. Recently, drug combination has showed promising effects in treating this trauma; however, this has to be further documented by in-depth researches. Aim of the work: To estimate the effect of combination of the antioxidants; vitamins A, C and E, plus magnesium (A, C, E+ Mg) in either protection or treatment of noise-induced cochlear injury in adult guinea pigs. Materials and methods: Twenty five guinea pigs were used in this study and were divided equally into five groups. Group I served as a control group. Group II administered the drug combination for 5 successive days. Group III exposed once to 120 dBSPL octave band noise for 5 successive hours. Group IV pre-treated with vitamins A, C, E+ Mg for 5 successive days prior to noise exposure. Group V first exposed to same noise injury, and then same drug combination was administered for 5 successive days, starting one day after noise exposure. Results: Noise exposure resulted in profound cochlear damage. Prophylactic administration of the drug combination showed partial protection of the cochlea as detected audiologically and histologically. In contrast, significant improvement of both function and structure of the cochlea was revealed with post-treatment 1 day after noise- induced cochlear damage. Conclusion: Delayed treatment by this combination of drugs (vitamins A, C, E+ Mg) proved to be effective even if started one day after noise exposure. However, drug combination used as prophylactic treatment was not as effective.

[Nagwa Kostandy Kalleny, Nevine Bahaa E. Soliman and Rasha Elkabarity. Synergistic Effect of combined antioxidants on Noise-Induced Acoustic Trauma in Adult Guinea Pigs: Audiological and Histological Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):640-653]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 94

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.94

 

Key words: noise- cochlea- antioxidants- magnesium- guinea pigs.

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Effective Use of Technology to Convert Waste into Renewable Energy Source

 

Neeha Farouqe, Shafqat Hameed

 

National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Hameed.shafqat@yahoo.com, shafqat.hameed@ceme.nust.edu.pk

 

Abstract: As energy demand is increasing in the world, renewable energy sources are utilized. Biogas is a renewable energy source which helps us in conserving fossil fuel. There are favourable scenarios for using biogas energy in rural areas through an arrangement of community biogas plants. This technology is not only used in houses for lightening and cooking purposes but it also serves as a good fertilizer. It can also be used in various automotive applications. This study proposes the method to convert animal waste into biogas.

[Neeha Farouqe, Shafqat Hameed. Effective Use of Technology to Convert Waste into Renewable Energy Source. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):654-661] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 95

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.95

 

Keywords: Biogas, Waste, Renewable energy, technology

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Molecular Study on Relatedness between Clinical and Tap Water Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Two Burn Units

 

Mohammed S. Salama1 Hala M. Abu Shady1, Mohammed M. B. El-Gameal2, Mervat G. El Anany3 and Ghada M.Abd-El-Rehem1

 

1.Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, 2. El-Maadi Military Hospital

3.Clinical Pathology Department, Microbiology Laboratory, Kasr Alainy Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: The role of tap water as an environmental source of disease causing P. aeruginosa strains was established. Objective: to study the relatedness between clinical and tap water P. aeruginosa isolates in the burn units of two different hospitals. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty specimens were collected from two burn units of Cairo University Hospital and El Helmeya Military Hospital. These specimens included: 100 pus samples from infected wounds of burned patients, 25 water samples and 25 swabs were taken from hands of medical staff. The samples were cultured and P. aeruginosa isolates were identified as according to standards. The selected colonies were subjected to molecular identification as P. aeruginosa by PCR tesing using specific PAL1 andPAL2 primers, and tested for relatedness by plasmid profiling and protein electrophoresis. Results: All cultures from the hands of the medical personnel were negative for P. aeruginosa. The clinical and water samples yielded 52 P. aeruginosa isolates and only 19 isolates were confirmed by PCR. These isolates were from 16% of total water samples from 15% of total clinical swabs. Half of these isolates harbored plasmids. The phenotypic characteristics of isolates showed that 30% of isolates (from clinical and water specimens) were related. However, molecular studies did not prove any molecular evidence of relatedness between different clinical isolates or between clinical and environmental isolates. Conclusions: P. aeruginosa is the cause of 15% of infections in Egyptian burn units, and contaminates 16% of water samples of these units. The simple use of bacterial protein electrophoresis and plasmid profiling ruled out the relatedness between the clinical and the contaminated water samples.

[Mohammed S. Salama, Hala M. Abu Shady, Mohammed M. B. El-Gameal, Mervat G. El Anany and Ghada M.Abd-El-Rehem. Molecular Study on Relatedness between Clinical and Tap Water Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Two Burn Units. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):662-666] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 96

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.96

 

Keywords: burn, infections, water supply, plasmid profiling, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Detection of Serum Kl-6 as a Tumor Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

1Soha Z. El-Shenawy, 2Maha M El-Sabawy, 3Eman Abd El-Razik, 4Maha M Allam

 

Departments of 1Clinical Biochemistry, 2Hepatology and 4Clinical Pathology, National Liver Institute, Menofiya University, Department of 3Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Menofiya University, Egypt

E-mail: sohazaki69@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy affecting approximately one million of people around the world every year and represents the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Early detection of the onset of HCC would help to select more effective therapies for patients, leading to a better prognosis and longer life span. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of KL-6 as a diagnostic marker of HCC in Egyptian patients. Subjects & methods: this study was conducted on three groups. Group 1: included 57 patients (48 males and 9 females) were diagnosed as HCC by the presence of characteristic hepatic masses on abdominal MRI, CT and/or hepatic angiography. Group 2: included 46 patients (37 males and 9 females) hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus –related cirrhotic patients. Group 3: included 40 subjects (32 males and 8 females) apparently healthy as a control group with no evidence of liver disease and/or neoplasm. Serum levels of AFP and KL-6 were measured in all patients groups and control groups. Results: A highly statistically significant difference was found between the three groups regarding the mean serum levels of both AFP and KL-6 where the highest increase of both markers were found in the HCC group. When Spesrman,s correlation coefficient was done in the patients, a significant positive correlation (P value <0.001) of serum levels of AFP & KL-6 was found. When analysis of the results of AFP in the patients with HCC, this study found 39 patients (68.4%) having + ve AFP level (high AFP than its normal range), while 48 HCC patients (84.2%) are + ve for KL-6 level (high KL-6 than its normal range). In patients with liver cirrhosis, 19 (41.3%) patients have + ve AFP while 24 cirrhotic patients (52.2%) are + ve for KL-6 level. Results of ROC curves analysis show that the optimal cut-off values were 437 U/ml for KL-6 (sensitivity = 91.7% & specificity = 85.7%) and 102 IU/ml for AFP with sensitivity = 84.6% and specificity = 89.4%. Conclusion: These results suggest that KL-6 could be a promising tumor marker for early detection of HCC in Egyptian patients. A large scale study is needed to investigate its clinical usefulness in screening cirrhotic patient for HCC.

[Soha Z. El-Shenawy, Maha M El-Sabawy, Eman Abd El-Razik, Maha M Allam. Detection of Serum Kl-6 as a Tumor Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):667-673] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 97

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.97

 

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), tumor marker, KL-6

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The mechanisms by which Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage produces Male infertility

 

Magda M El-Tohamy

 

Department of Animal Reproduction & A.I., Veterinary Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Eltohamymagda@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species) and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species) and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants). ROS are a double-edged sword - they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes. The production of ROS is a normal physiological event in various organs including the testis. Overproduction of ROS can be detrimental to sperm and being associated with male infertilities. The excessive generation of ROS by abnormal spermatozoa, contaminating leukocytes and by a various type of pollutants has been identified as detrimental etiologies for male infertilities Free radicals are substances with one or more unpaired electrons, which are formed as a results of many physiological and pathological cellular metabolic processes, especially in mitochondria. Enzymatic (Catalase, superoxide dismutase) and non enzymatic (vitamins A and E) natural antioxidant defense mechanisms exist; however, these mechanisms may be overcome, causing lipid peroxidation to take place. For example, breakdown in the cells results in the formation of molecules whose further metabolism in the cell leads to ROS production. Thus increased OS stimulates the activity of enzymes called cytochrome P450, which contribute to ROS production. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated as ([TOS/TAS] x 100). TOS and OSI were significantly higher and PON-1 activity and TAS were significantly lower in subfertile male with abnormal semen parameters than in male with idiopathic subfertility and fertile donors. PON-1 activity was also strongly correlated with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in the overall group. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a high diagnostic value for PON-1 activity with respect to male-factor sub fertility. ROS may cause infertility by two principal mechanisms, first ROS damage the sperm membrane which in turn reduces the sperm motility and ability to fuse with the oocyte secondly, and ROS directly damage sperm DNA, compromising the paternal genomic contribution to the embryo. Oxidative stress due to excessive production of ROS, impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms, or both precipitates a range of pathologies that are currently believed to negatively affect the male reproductive function. Oxidative stress-induced damage to sperm may be mediated by lipid peroxidation of the sperm plasma membrane, reduction of sperm motility, and damage to the DNA in the sperm nucleus, as the production of ROS is one of the principal mechanisms by which neutrophils destroy pathogens, it is not surprising that seminal leukocytes have the potential to cause oxidative stress. Despite the established role of OS in the pathogenesis of male infertility, there is a lack of consensus as to the clinical utility of seminal OS testing in an infertility clinic. One important reason for the inability to utilize the OS test in clinical practice is related to the lack of a standard protocol for assessment of seminal OS. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in male reproduction. Several researches indicate that the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of the seminal OS test are beyond those of conventional tests of sperm quality and function. The OS test can accurately discriminate between fertile and infertile male and identify male with a clinical diagnosis of male-factor infertility that are likely to initiate a pregnancy when followed over a period of time. We strongly believe that incorporating such a test into the routine andrology workup is an important step for the future of the male infertility practice. The resulting state of the cell, known as (OS) can lead to cell injury. ROS production and Lipid peroxidation, free radical and oxidative stress in relation to fertility are the aim of this review.

[Magda M El-Tohamy. The mechanisms by which Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage produces Male infertility. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):674-688]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 98

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.98

 

Key Words: oxidative stress; free radicals; reactive oxygen species; proteins; DNA; lipids; glutathione peroxidase.

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Design and Optimisation of Low Noise Amplifier in Superhetrodyne GPS Receiver Front End

 

Shafqat Hameed1, Umar F. Khan2

 

1National University of Sciences and Technology(NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

2University of Bradford, Bradford, UK

shafqat.hameed@ceme.nust.edu.pk; hameed.shafqat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Global Positioning System (GPS) as it was developed for military purposes originally by the USA has become the most valuable tool for military purposes today. GPS can be used for different applications such as military, science, sports, transportation and many more. Each particular application needs a specific performance from GPS receiver. In this report the architecture of the Superhetrodyne GPS receiver front end will be discussed. The receiver includes all analogue signal paths including Low Noise Amplifier, Radio Frequency Filter, Mixer, Local Oscillator and IF Filter. Specific attention will be paid to the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). The design issues related to LNA will be discussed as well. These issues include gain, noise figure and linearity. The discussion also includes the technological constraints for design of LNA. What particular technology is going to be used for this design? Normally LNA is designed using discrete elements, but for this particular application enhancement mode (pHEMPT) technology is used.

[Shafqat Hameed, Umar F. Khan. Design and Optimisation of Low Noise Amplifier in Superhetrodyne GPS Receiver Front End. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):689-694] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 99

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.99

 

Keywords: GPS, Signal, Satellites, applications, frequency, Technology

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Reactions of 5-Bromo-4,6-Dimethyl-2-Thioxo-1,2- Dihydropyridine -3- Carbonitrile with Organophosphorus Reagents

 

Hoda A. Abdel – Malek1*, Marwa. S. Salem2, and Leila S. Boulos1

 

1Department of Organometallic and Organometalloid Chemistry, National Research Centre, El – Behoos St., P.O. 12622, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Synthetic Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbasiya, Cairo, Egypt. *hodanwar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The reaction of 5-bromo-4,6-dimethyl-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (1) with phosphorus ylides 2a,b afforded the new phosphonium ylides 7a,b. Wittig – Honer reagent 3 reacts with 1 to give the olefinic product 8. On the other hand, the dimeric compound 9 and the alkylated products 10, 11 were isolated from the reaction of 1 with dialkyl phosphite 4, trialkyl phosphite 5 and tris(dimethylamino) phosphine 6. Possible reaction mechanisms are considered, and the structural assignments are based on analytical and spectroscopic evidence.

[Hoda A. Abdel – Malek, Marwa. S. Salem, and Leila S. Boulos. Reactions of 5-Bromo-4,6-Dimethyl-2-Thioxo-1,2- Dihydropyridine -3- Carbonitrile with Organophosphorus Reagents. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):695-700]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 100

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.100

 

Keywords: Phosphorus ylides, Wittig-Horner reagent, phosphites, dihydropyridines, nicotinonitriles.

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Forecasting Gamma radiation levels using Digital image processing

 

Abou-Bakr M.Ramadan 1, Ahmed M. El-Garhy 2, Fathy Z.Amer 2, and Mazhar M. Hefnawi 1 *

 

1 Department of National Network for Monitoring Radioactivity, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, Cairo, Egypt; 2 Department of Electronics, Communications and Computers, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt. mmaazz_2222@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This work introduces a new way for data visualization. Its name is " Digital 'Application name' Image". Normal digital image is created by digital camera or digital scanner but digital application name image is created by measurements of monitoring data. This work uses the data which is measured by some radiation monitoring stations and classifies it using fuzzy logic rules to create some digital radiation images. The main unique advantage of digital radiation image is that it expresses thousands of measurements in a very clear form through only one picture while the maximum number of measurements does not exceed 100 for other conventional visualization methods. This feature gives a facility to view one year of all recorded measurements in only one photo. This picture helps the user to observe the behavior of thousands of measurements in few minutes instead of spending few hours in reviewing hundreds of charts for the same measurements. This work also introduces a new way for forecasting Gamma radiation levels. This way uses image restoration technique to predict the gamma levels. Of course, this technique is used after creating digital radiation image. The quality for the output result from this model is at least accepted for forecasting and covering lost data. The main feature from this model is that it needs only one kind of data while other prediction models need at least three kinds of data. Therefore this model covers the common limitation in famous prediction models and saves money, time and effort.

[Abou-Bakr M.Ramadan, Ahmed M. El-Garhy, Fathy Z.Amer and Mazhar M. Hefnawi. Forecasting Gamma radiation levels using Digital image processing. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):701-710]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 101

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.101

 

Keywords: Data visualization; Digital image processing; Digital Radiation Image; Environmental Forecast

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Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Pyrazole, Pyrimidine and Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines Containing Aryl Sulfone Moiety

 

Ahmed A. El-Kateb1, Naglaa M. Abd El-Rahman1,2,*, Tamer S. Saleh1,3, Ibrahim F. Zeid4, Mohamed F. Mady1

 

1Green Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, 12622, Egypt

2Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, El-Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koam, El-Menoufia, Egypt

naglaa_r@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A facile, rapid and efficient microwave-assisted procedure for the synthesis of novel pyrazole, pyrimidine, and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines linked to sulfonyl dibenzene moiety via the reaction of E-3-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-(4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one 3 with the appropriate amines described here. In general, microwave procedure as an eco-friendly energy source offers advantages such as a shorter reaction time, simple workup, reaction selectivity and improves an overall yield compared with conventional methods. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral data.

[Ahmed A. El-Kateb, Naglaa M. Abd El-Rahman, Tamer S. Saleh, Ibrahim F. Zeid, Mohamed F. Mady. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Pyrazole, Pyrimidine and Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines Containing Aryl Sulfone Moiety. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):711-718]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.102

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.102

 

Keywords: Green chemistry; enaminone; pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine; aryl Sulfone; microwave irradiation

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Lipid Profile in Tuberculous Patients: A Preliminary Report

 

Mohamed M. Metwally1 and Hesham Abdel Raheem2

 

1Chest Diseases Department and 2Clinical Pathology Department, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Serum cholesterol in pulmonary TB patients is lower than healthy controls, but this is not clear if it is a risk factor or a consequence of the disease itself. Study Objectives: To detect any differences in lipid profile between Egyptian TB patients and controls and to test whether this difference changes after treatment or not aiming to prove if the difference is a risk factor for tuberculosis or a consequence of the disease itself. Patients and Methods: For new TB patients, we did a fasting serum lipid profile of serum cholesterol (SC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). All patients received the same four antiTB drugs for 8 weeks then a follow up lipid profile was done. Samples for lipid profile from healthy controls were also taken. Results: We recruited 30 new TB patients, 14 women and 16 men with a mean age (plusmnSD) of 33.4 plusmn13.25 years. There were 16 pulmonary TB and 14 other forms as pleural (5), TB lymphadenitis (5), TB peritonitis (4) plus 15 controls. Regarding the whole studied group, only serum triglyceride was significantly lower before treatment than control group (P<0.01) while both serum cholesterol and HDL showed a significant increase after treatment than before it (P<0.01 for both). Regarding pulmonary tuberculosis patients, both serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly lower on diagnosis than healthy controls (P<0.05 for both) and only serum cholesterol increased significantly after treatment than before it (P<0.01). Conclusions and recommendations: Hypocholesterolemia in Egyptian patients with pulmonary TB is present at the time of diagnosis. However, it proved to be a consequence of the disease rather than a risk factor as serum cholesterol significantly increased in both pulmonary TB and in the whole group after treatment.

[Mohamed M. Metwally and Hesham Abdel Raheem. Lipid Profile in Tuberculous Patients: A Preliminary Report. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):719-722]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 103

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.103

 

Keywords: Serum; cholesterol; pulmonary; patient; healthy; treatment

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Dynamic Characteristics of a Hollow Femur

 

B.W. Huang1,2, C.H. Chang3, F.-S. Wang4, A.D. Lin1, Y.C. Tsai1, M.Y. Huang1, J.-G. Tseng2*

 

1Graduate Institute of Mechatronics Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan, ROC

2Medical Mechatornics Engineering Program, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan, ROC

3Neurosurgery department, Mackay Memorial Hospital Taitung Branch, Taiwan, ROC

4Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Center for Laboratory Animals, Taiwan, ROC

*E-mail: james.tseng@csu.edu.tw. (NSC 99-2632-E-230-001-MY3)

 

Abstract: The femur is the largest, longest, and strongest bone of the human skeleton and has the ability to support up to 30 times the weight of an adult. This paper examines the fundamental dynamic characteristic of both the solid and hollow femur, experimentally and numerically. Reverse engineering is applied to obtain the outer geometry of synthesis femur. Noble's Canal Flare Index (CFI) is applied to excavated marrow material of the femur canal and to build a more realistic human hollow femoral model. Both solid and hollow femur are imported to the finite element package, ANSYS, to perform the analysis. The mechanical properties of real human femur are substituted into the FE model to achieve the final goal of finding dynamic response of human solid and hollow femur. The comparison of natural frequencies, stress, strain, and displacement of both solid and hollow femur are matched to the physical rules.

[B. W. Huang, C.H. Chang, F.-S. Wang, A.D. Lin, Y.C. Tsai, M.Y. Huang, J.-G. Tseng. Dynamic Characteristics of a Hollow Femur. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):723-726]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 104

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.104

 

Keywords: Human Hollow Femur, Geometry, Femoral Canal, Reverse Engineering

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Assessment of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Type II Diabetics versus Asymptomatic patients with other Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Disease. Preliminary Data from GSPECT Tc99m sestaMIBI Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Study in Egyptian Patients.

 

Akram Abd Elbary,1; Mohamed Khaled,1Wael Sami1; Mohga Said2, Hala Zakaria2, Lamiaa Hamed3, Shaban Mohamed4; and Alia Abd El-Fattah4

 

1 Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Lab Department Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3.Statistics Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

4. Medical physicians Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. akram_bary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a recognized risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However ischemia in diabetics may express their ischemia as atypical symptoms. We aimed at comparing incidence and extent of diabetic vs. non diabetic with other risk factors for CAD. Patients: The study included 46 pts with 1 or 2 risk factors for CAD mean age 55+6 years, 18 males. Methods: Patients were subjected to laboratory assessment including lipid profile, HbA1C, microalbuminuria. Patients were subjected to myocardial perfusion imaging [(MPI) study using 2 day (stress-rest) protocol patients were injected 25 mCi Tc99m sestaMIBI intravenously at peak of stress. Rest study was acquired in a separate day. Gated SPECT was acquired 30-60 minute post-stress for estimation of LVEDV, LVESV and LVEF. Processing and analysis were done to get the classic short axis, vertical long axis and horizontal long axis slices with application of 20 segment scoring system for semiquantitative analysis of defect size to get summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS). The study was interpreted as negative when SSS = 0-3, mild (SSS>3 & <8), moderate (SSS=8 &<12), and severe >12)]. Results: Patients were subdivided into two groups; Group1 (Diabetic): 24 pts and Group 2 (non Diabetic): 22 pts. Laboratory data showed comparable lipid profile in G1 vs G2; Serum cholesterol (196+58 vs. 200+58 mg/dl, p>0.05), triglycerides 163+66 vs. 187+90, p>0.05), HDL (45+14vs. 50+14, p>0.05) & LDL (127+48vs 135+44, p>0.05). HbA1c level was 9+3% in G1 vs 7+2 in G2, p=0.01 and was abnormal in 19 pts of G1 vs. 10 pts in G2, p=0.03. Microalbuminuria was detected in 13/24 pts of G1 vs 6/22 pts in G2. Mean exercise duration was 7+3 min in G1 vs 7+2 minutes in G2 P>0.05, mean Mets achieved was 10.6+3 vs 9.4+2 in G2, P > 0.05. Myocardial perfusion imaging was interpreted as positive in 41% of all pts (19 pts) (46% in G1 vs. 36% of G2), Six pts had mild ischemia (4 diabetics), Nine had moderate ischemia (4 diabetics) and 4pts had severe ischemia (3 diabetics [75%]), Mean SSS, SRS,& SDS were comparable (4.7+4vs 3.6+4, (0.3+1.6 vs 0.2+0.9),& (4.4+4 vs 3.4+3.7%) in G1vs G2 respectively. left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEDV and LVESV were comparable in G1vs G2 (68.1+10.8% vs 70.6+8.2%, P = 0.3), (103+24 vs 97+17, P = 0.3) & (32+16 vs 28+12, P = 0.4).Neither microalbuminuria nor HbA1c abnormality correlated with severity or abnormality of MPI. Conclusion: Preliminary data from our ongoing study suggest high incidence of silent ischemia in patient with type II diabetes mellitus and non diabetic patients with other risk factors for CAD in our developing country, with tendency of more severe ischemia and higher post-stress LV volumes in diabetic patients.

[Akram Abd Elbary; Mohamed Khaled; Mohga Said, Hala Zakaria, Lamiaa Hamed, Shaban Mohamed and Alia Abd El-Fattah. Assessment of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Type II Diabetics versus Asymptomatic patients with other Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Disease. Preliminary Data from GSPECT Tc99m sestaMIBI Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Study in Egyptian Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):727-732]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 105

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.105

 

Key Words: Diabetics, Coronary Artery Disease, sestaMIBI, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

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Transplantation of bone marrowderived stromal cells to chronic cerebral ischemia rats on the influence ofCognitive function and proteins Nogo-A and NgR expression in the hippocampus.

 

Yanlin Wang, Songbo Yang, Huili Zhang, Guangming Gong, Qin Jie, Yuming Xu

 

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan province, 450052, P. R. China. xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: TO study the transplantation of bone marrowderived stromal cells (mesenchimal stem cells, MSC) to chronic cerebral ischemia rats on the influence of proteins Nogo-A and NgR expression in the hippocampus and explore the mechanism of its function in improving the Cognitive function. BMSCs were harvested and purified by fICOLLC density gradient centrifugation. The chronic cerebral ischemia models were produced by permanent occlusion and snip of bilateral common carotid arteries. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups: model group, BMSCs transplantation group (Brdu marker)and sham operate group. All of the rats were trained in Morris Water Maze to find the changes of spatial learning and memory ability. The expression of Nogo-A and NgR in the hippocampus were measured by immunohistochemical technique. The model group exhibited serious spatial learning and memory deficits in both navigation test and spatial probe test. In the former testthe mean escape latency of BMSCs transplantation group was significantly shorter than that of model groups and the frequency of crossing the former platform was significantly higher. The expressions of Nogo-A and NgR in BMSCs transplantation group were significantly lower than those of model groups and significantly higher than sham operated group, which was accordant with the change of spatial learning and memory ability. BMSCs transplantation effectively promote spatial learning and memory ability for the rats of chronic cerebral ischemia, which maybe induced by the decrease of proteins Nogo-A and NgR.

[Yanlin Wang, Songbo Yang, Huili Zhang, Guangming Gong, Qin Jie, Yuming Xu. Transplantation of bone marrowderived stromal cells to chronic cerebral ischemia rats on the influence of Cognitive function and proteins Nogo-A and NgR expression in the hippocampus. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):733-739] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 106

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.106

 

Keywords: BMSC; Chronic cerebral ischemia; Nogo-A; NgR; Cognitive function

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Nurses’ Performance, isolation policy and HCV Sero-conversion among Hemodialysis Patients in Egyptian Hospitals

 

Sahar Yassin1, Manal El Dib2 and Dalia Roshd2

 

Departments of 1Public Health and 2General Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Yassins1966@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: HCV infection remains highly prevalent both in developed and less-developed countries. In spite of considerable decline in the incidence and prevalence of HCV infection among HD patients in many countries, this infection still remains a major problem among patients on maintenance HD especially in Egypt. Clearly, strict adherence to standard precautions including isolation precautions is the key stone in the prevention of nosocomial transmission of HCV in hemodialysis units. Study design and aim of the work: This study was conducted in the HD units at four Egyptian hospitals, two public and two private hospitals. First phase; cross section – exploratory phase to document nurses' knowledge, practice and application of isolation policy in the units. Second phase; prospective phase to the HCV sero-negative cases to detect sero-conversion rate. Statistical analysis: the public units (Group A) was compared with private units( group B) using suitable significant tests with significant level P value<0.05, calculation of HCV period prevalence, incidence and incidence density. Results: group B units follow isolation policy for HCV positive patients while group A units don't, nurses training sessions, knowledge and practices are significantly better in group B units than in group A, seroconversion rate is higher significantly in group A units than in group B. Conclusion and recommendations: HDUs that conform to policies and regulation related to infection control and isolation of HCV sero-positive cases had significant low incidence rate for HCV sero-conversion.

[Sahar Yassin, Manal El Dib and Dalia Roshd. Nurses’ Performance, isolation policy and HCV Sero-conversion among Hemodialysis Patients in Egyptian Hospitals. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):740-749] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 107

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.107

 

Key words: HCV seroconversion, isolation policy, hemodialysis units, infection control standard

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Study on the molecular mechanisms of the inflammation induced by β-amyloid in vivo

 

Jun Wu1, 2, Zhe Min2, Yongjie Xiong2, Qiuyue Yan2, Yuming Xu1,*, Suming Zhang2,*

 

1 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China;

2 Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China;

*Co corresponding authors:Yuming Xu. Email: xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn; Suming Zhang. Email: suming_zhang@hotmail.com.

 

Abstract: Background. The study is to explore the molecular mechanisms of the inflammation induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) in the tissue of cortex and hippocampus of mice. Methods. The tissue of cortex and hippocampus of mice, were exposed to Aβ1-42 with or without Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium (PDTC), then Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα); Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for IL-1β and TNFα mRNA, western blot analyses of IκBα and NF-κB p65. Results. PDTC inhibited the protein expression of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-1β and TNFα mRNA, inhibited the decreasion of IκBα in the cytoplasm, and also inhibited elevation of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus in Aβ-stimulated tissue of cortex and hippocampus of mice. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the IL-1β, TNFα protein and mRNA were induced by Aβ via the NF-κB signal pathway in the tissue of cortex and hippocampus of mice.

[Jun Wu, Zhe Min, Yongjie Xiong, Qiuyue Yan, Yuming Xu, Suming Zhang. Study on the molecular mechanisms of the inflammation induced by β-amyloid in vivo. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):750-755] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 108

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.108

 

Keywords: Aβ; PDTC; IL-1β; TNFα; NF-κB

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Construction and identification of a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing His-tag-ICP47 fusion gene

 

WANG Peng1, KAN Quan-cheng2, YU Zu-jiang2, LI Ling3, ZHANG Zhenxiang1 and PAN Xue1

 

1.Nursing College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China (Wang P, ZHANG ZX and Pan X)

2.Clinical Pharmacology Base (Kan QC), Department of Infectious Disease (Yu ZJ), First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

3.Department of Palliative Care and Hospice Care, the Ninth People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, Henan 450053, China (Li L)

 

Abstract: Background: The response of host immune systems against gene products expressed by genetically modified cells is a major obstacle to successful gene therapy. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classantigen presenting pathway is very important in acute allograft rejection and blocking MHCantigen expression is becoming a research hotspot of inducting immune tolerance. Infected cell protein 47 (ICP47) expressesd by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), inhibits MHCantigen presentation pathway by binding to host transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP), and thereby reduces the rate of cytolysis of infected cells by sensitized CTL and evades the host immune clearance. The aim of this study is to construct and identify a recombinant adenovirus expressing His-tag-ICP47 fusion gene for the following studies of its immunological activities. Methods: The adenoviral vector system of AdEasy-1was used to prepare the recombinant adenovirus expressing His-tag-ICP47 fusion gene or the control empty recombinant adenovirus r-Track. His-tag-ICP47 fusion gene was firstly cloned into the pAdTrack-CMV vector. The gene fragments digested by Pmewere co-transformed with adenoviral backbone vector pAdEasy-1 in E.coli BJ5183 cells to produce recombinant adenoviral vector pAdEasy-H-ICP47. Linearized with Pac, recombinant adenoviral vector was subsequently transfected into 293 cells to product r-H-ICP47. Meanwhile, the control empty recombinant adenovirus r-Track was built in the same way. Finally, The viruses were amplified and virus particle titres were determined. Purified virus was analyzed for the presence and expression of His-tag-ICP47 fusion gene by PCR and Western-blot analysis. Results: The recombinant adenoviruses of r-H-ICP47 and r-Track were successfully constructed and successfully transfected into 293 cells and virus granules appeared. The virus particle titres of r-H-ICP47 and r-Track were determined with the resulting of 3.7×1010efu/mL and 4.4×1010efu/mL The proteins producted by recombinant adenovirus-infected cells were confirmed by PCR and Western-blot analysis. Conclusion: The replication-defective recombinant adenoviruses of r-H-ICP47 and r-Track are successfully constructed, and the virus particle titres are highly enough to infect and express relevant genes in cells at a desired level, respectively.

[WANG Peng, KAN Quan-cheng, YU Zu-jiang, LI Ling, ZHANG Zhenxiang and PAN Xue. Construction and identification of a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing His-tag-ICP47 fusion gene. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):756-763] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 109

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.109

 

Key Words: recombinant adenovirus; infected cell protein 47; fusion gene

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The Theoretical Framework and Application on the Relationships between Family Functioning, Alexithymia and Emotional Intelligence among Early Adolescents

 

Fataneh Naghavi1, Ma’rof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com, 2E-mail: marof@putra.upm.edu.my

 

 Abstract: With respect to the relationship between family functioning, alexithymia, and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence construct is still being developed with empirical support. Hence, our the perivious researches showed that how family functionig, alexithymia and several family’s characters could effect on early adolescent’s emotional intelliegnce. This study defines and discusses the theoretical framework in terms of the relationships between family functionig, alexithymia and several families’ factors that influece on early adolescent’s emotional intelliegence, specifically.

 [Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. The Theoretical Framework and Application on the Relationships between Family Functioning, Alexithymia and Emotional Intelligence among Early Adolescents. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):764-770]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.110

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.110

 

 Keywords: Family Functioning, Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence, Alexithymia, Children’s Alexithymia, Emotional Quotient, Emotional Intelligence Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, McMaster Model.

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Effect of Ginger Extract on Deltamethrin Induced Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Changes in Testes of Albino Rats

 

Saber A. Sakr1, Wael M. Al-Amoudi2

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-kom, Egypt

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

sabsak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study investigated the effect of ginger{Zingiberofficinale Roscoe(Zofficinale R.}extract on deltamethrin induced testicular damage in albino rats. Treating animals with deltamethrin at a dose level of 1/10 LD50, 3 days weekly for 6 weeks caused a decrease in body and testes weights. Remarkable decreases were also noted in sperm cell concentrations and sperm motility. In addition histopathological results revealed degeneration of spermatogenic cells, congestion of blood vessels and destruction of Leydige cells. The diameters of the seminiferous tubules and heights of their germinal epithelium were significantly reduced. Immunohistochemical results showed that Bax expression was increased in Leydige cells and p53 expression increased in spermatocytes of testes of deltamethrin treated rats. According to these results, deltamethrin induced oxidative stress and caused apoptosis in testes of albino rats. Treating animals with deltamethrin and ginger revealed an improvement in the histological changes observed in animals treated with deltamethrin and increased sperm concentration and motility. Moreover, ginger treatment leads to a decrease in the expression of p53 and bax. This effect of ginger extract may be attributed to its antioxidant activity.

[Saber A. Sakrand Wael M. Al-Amoudi. Effect of Ginger Extract on Deltamethrin Induced Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Changes in Testes of Albino Rats. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):771-778]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.111

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.111

 

Keywords: Deltamethrin, testes, ginger, apoptosis, p53,Bax.

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Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Leaves Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride -Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats

 

Saber A. Sakr1 and Hawazen A. Lamfon2

 

1. Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt

2. Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

sabsak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an environmental pollutant that showed toxicity in different organs. Exposure to CCl4 is known to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in treatment of many diseases. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective role of rosemary on CCl4-induced renal damage. Treating rats with 1.0ml /kg body weight of 10% CCl4 twice a week for 6 weeks induced many histological changes in the kidney cortex. The renal tubules lost their characteristic appearance and their lining epithelial cells were degenerated. The glomeruli were atrophied and the renal blood vessels were congested. The intertubular spaces were infiltrated by inflammatory leucocytic cells. An increase in interstitial expression of α-SMA was observed compared with control group. CCl4 also caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and urea. Treating animals with CCl4 and aqueous extract of rosemary led to an improvement, in both biochemical and histopathological pictures. It is concluded that rosemary extract had a protective effect against kidney injury induced by CCl4 and this effect may be attributed to its antioxidant activity.

[Saber A. Sakr and Hawazen A. Lamfon. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Leaves Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride -Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):779-785]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.112

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.112

 

Keywords: CCl4, Rosemary, Nephrotoxicity, Creatinne, urea, α-SMA

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Echocardiographic Evaluation of Cardiac Structural and Functional Changes in Hepatitis C Positive Non-Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Patients and Their Plasma NT-ProBNP Levels

 

Manal Eldeeb1, Ragai M. F. R. Fouda1, Mona M.R. Hammady1 and Laila Rashed2

 

1Internal Medicine Department Cairo University, 2Biochemistry Department Cairo University

monahammady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CC) refers to cardiac structural, functional, and electrophysiological changes in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. Emerging role of natruretic peptides in screening LC patients for development of CC was suggested. The aim of this study was to assess structural and functional cardiac changes in hepatitis C positive nonalcoholic (LC) patients and N- terminal pro brain natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) blood levels in these patients. Methods: Forty hepatitis C positive LC patients classified according to their child - Pugh score underwent transthorathic echocardiographic assessment of cardiac chambers dimensions, and left ventricular functions. Estimation of plasma NT-proBNP levels of these patients and 10 healthy age and gender matched healthy control subjects was done. Results: Child-Pugh C LC patients have significantly higher mean left ventricular end diastolic (LVEDD) and end systolic dimensions (LVESD) compared to those of Child- Pugh A and B LC patients. LV systolic function was preserved in the three Child- Pugh groups, while diastolic dysfunction was detected in 78.5% of Child- Pugh C patients. Mean plasma NT-proBNP level was significantly higher in Child-Pugh C patients compared to mean plasma levels in Child- Pugh A and B patients. ProBNP plasma levels correlated significantly with serum albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, international normalized ratio, Child-Pugh score, LVESD, LVEDD, left atrial and right ventricular diameters. Conclusion: Child-Pugh C LC patients suffered of cardiac structural changes associated with diastolic dysfunction and raised mean ProBNP plasma level but preserved systolic function. NT-ProBNP levels correlated significantly with echocardiographic changes and Child- Pugh score.

[Manal Eldeeb, Ragai M. F. R. Fouda, Mona M.R. Hammady and Laila Rashed. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Cardiac Structural and Functional Changes in Hepatitis C Positive Non-Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Patients and Their Plasma NT-Probnp Levels. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):786-792]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 113

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.113

 

Key words: cirrhosis- cardiomyopathy-echocardiography- NT-proBNP-Hepatitis

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Model of occupational stress, that take of organizational commitment and normal personality type in staff of Banks.

 

Maryam khodabakhshi1,Dr.Gayane Shaverdian2

 

1. PHD student of department of psychology in Yerevan state university in Armenia.

2. Deapartment of psychology in Yerevan state university in Armenia.

Khodabakhshi23@gmail.com

 

This research has been conducted to determine a model of occupational stress regarding people personality types, norm of working community and their organizational commitment. Method of this research is descriptive correlation method; statistical society of this research includes all staff members of Shahr Bank of Iran, among them 300 people were selected by random cluster sampling approach from Tehran. In this research some questionnaires of personality types Myers - Briggs, Philip L. Rice occupational stress, Alan - Mayer organizational commitment have been used to determine the normal people personality types, occupational stress, organizational commitment. The findings from step by step regression analysis showed that the most important predictors of occupational stress are emotional and introversive types of personality that have lower organizational commitment in emotional, normative, and continuous dimensions and by using these findings a model is presented to predict the occupational stress.

[Maryam khodabakhshi Gayane Shaverdian. Model of occupational stress, that take of organizational commitment and normal personality type in staff of Banks. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):793-796]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.114

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.114

 

Key words: model of occupational stress, personality types, organizational commitment

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The influence of cognitive restructuring training on reducing Non organic sexual problems of couples

 

Mahshid Sasanpour

 

Department of Psychology, PhD student Psychology Yerevan State University, Armenia

m_sasan49@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of research is to determine the effect of cognitive restructuring training on reducing nonorganic sexual problems of couples in Isfahan. And increasing its dimensions (sexual satisfaction, sexual motivation, sexual confidence, sexual pleasure, and sexual health). In this research experimental methods with preparing pretest and posttest with case and control group were used. The samples of this research were 120 couples that were selected randomly from the research community and were classified in two groups of test and control. The research instrument was Hooper sexual problems and Cognitive Restructuring learning. In this study case group was trained for 10 sessions, each session 2 hours, and at the end of this term, again the questionnaire was completed by both groups. And by using analysis of data covariance, were analyzed. Research results showed that educating cognitive restructuring on reducing the total score of couples' sexual problems and all its dimensions. (P < 05/0). By reducing sexual problems, marital and sexual satisfaction will be increased and it will have a positive effect on couples' life. Because the cause of many psychological distress and marital conflicts is resulting from lack of sexual satisfaction and years of ignoring the sexual instinct in humans has had irreversible effects on social and marital relationships and has collapsed many families, finding some solutions for resolving sexual problems seems necessary. This study showed that cognitive restructuring can be taught alongside other methods of therapy for marital problems and disputes arising from sexual problems.

 [Mahshid Sasanpour. The influence of cognitive restructuring training on reducing Non organic sexual problems of couple. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):797-802 ]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 115

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.115

 

Key words: Cognitive restructuring, sexual problems, sexual satisfaction, couples.

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Knowledge and Practices of Working Mother about Breastfeeding and Weaning In Assiut City, Egypt

 

Safaa A Mohamed Kotb1, Asmaa G Mohamed1, Entesar M Mohamed2 and Ekram M Abdel Khalek3

 

1 Community Health Nursing Department, 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Nursing,

3 Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

 

Abstract: The importance of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is well established for the infant, the mother and the family. The aim of this study is assessment the knowledge and the practices regarding breastfeeding and weaning among working mothers in Assiut city using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study was conducted in four MCH centers in 2010. Direct interviews were done with 43 worked mothers had children aged 4 to 24 months as well as seven FGDs. 69.8% of the mothers were at the age 30 years or less. All the studied mothers knew that the breastfeeding is the best nutritional source for the baby. The majority of the mothers had good knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding for the child and the mother. 67.4% initiated breastfeeding within the first 30 minutes after delivery. The participants in general were less knowledgeable about exclusive breastfeeding practices. There were some fault practices reported by the participants. There is a need for health education programs, which support and encourage breastfeeding particularly at a primary care level, focusing more on working mothers.

 [Safaa A Mohamed Kotb, Asmaa G Mohamed, Entesar M Mohamed and Ekram M Abdel Khalek. Knowledge and practices of working mother about breastfeeding and weaning in Assiut city, Egypt. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):803-808]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 116

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.116

 

Key words: Knowledge- practices- breast feeing weaning

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Serum Visfatin is Specific Significant Predictor of Rheumatoid Arthritis Severity: A Comparative Study versus Interleukin-6 and Clinical Severity Scores

 

Khaled Amer1and Waleed M. Fathy2

 

1Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

Khaledmoezz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To determine serum levels of visfatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of varying duration of disease and to correlate it with serum interleukin (IL)-6 and clinical and radiological severity scores. Patients & Methods: The study included 70 patients fulfilled either four of seven ACR criteria or having morning stiffness ≥60 minutes, symmetrical arthritis and small joint arthritis for at least 6 months and 20 cross matched age and gender volunteers (Control group). Patients' data including age, gender, weight, height and calculation of body mass index (BMI) were determined. All patients underwent clinical evaluation for disease activity assessed using a 28 joint disease activity score, (DAS-28), pain using visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional disability using the Swedish version of the Stanford health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) to calculate the Disability Index (DI). Postero-anterior radiographs of hands, wrists, and forefeet were taken and joint destruction was classified according to Larsen–Dale index. Blood samples were obtained from patients and controls for ELISA estimation of Rheumatoid factor (RF) and serum IL-6 and visfatin. Results: Mean DAS-28 score was 3.9±0.8; range: 1.4-6.8, mean VAS joint pain score was 60.2±5.2; range: 51-71 and mean DI was 12.3±5.1. Erosive lesions were identified in 43 patients (61.4%), while the remaining 27 patients (38.6%). Fifty-one patients (72.9%) were RF positive; 34 had joint erosions and 17 patients were free of erosion. Estimated serum levels of IL-6 and visfatin were significantly higher in patients compared to controls with significantly higher levels in patients had erosive lesions compared to those free of erosion. There was positive significant correlation between presence of radiological evidence of presence bone erosion and patients' age, clinical data and disease severity scores and serum levels of IL-6 and visfatin. Serum levels of IL-6 and visfatin were found to be specific predictors of radiological evidence of bone erosion. Conclusion: There was a positive significant correlation between serum visfatin levels and clinical and radiological severity of RA and could be considered as specific predictor for RA radiological severity.

[Khaled Amer and Waleed M. Fathy. Serum Visfatin is Specific Significant Predictor of Rheumatoid Arthritis Severity: A Comparative Study versus Interleukin-6 and Clinical Severity Scores. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):809-816]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 117

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.117

 

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, interleukin-6, visfatin, prediction of radiological severity.

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Efficacy of Prophylactic Fluconazole in Reducing Candidemia in High Risk NICU and PICU Patients

 

Dalia Abdel Latif A1, Mohamed H. Sultan1 and Hanan E. Mohamed2

 

1NICU and PICU, Pediatric Dept., 2 Clinical Pathology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

draymanelgadaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Candida infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients, especially those with risk factors. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Candida species in risky NICU and PICU patients and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic Fluconazole in reducing Candida colonization and subsequent invasive candidemia in those patients. Design: Prospective, randomized, double blind placebo controlled clinical study. Setting: Tertiary level intensive care units at pediatric department. Subjects: 80 intensive care unit high risk group patient of neonatal and pediatric age. Intervention: children were randomly grouped during first three days to receive either Fluconazole or placebo till 28 days or less, if discharged or died earlier. Weekly surveillance cultures from oropharyngeal swabs, urine, stool and sputum (when available), samples were collected from all patients and cultured on sabaroud dextrose agar media. Blood culture on BactALERT®3D culture system for Candida detection was done when candidemia was suspected. For positive cultures, isolates were identified by API 20c biochemical identification strips. Liver enzymes were monitored. Results: Baseline risk factors for Candida infection in Fluconazole and Placebo groups were similar. Candida colonization was reported in 35 patients (87.5%) in the placebo group which was significantly higher (P =0.0001) than that detected among patients in the Fluconazole treated group [10 patients (25%)]. Fluconazole treated group showed significantly lower colonization with Candida albicans (C. albicans) and higher colonization with non Candida albicans (non-C. albicans ) versus placebo group. Invasive Candida infection was significantly higher (P =0.03) among placebo group than Fluconazole treated one. Invasive non-C. albicans infection was reported in 9/13 patients [6 patients (66.6%) in Placebo group and 3 patients (33.3%) in Fluconazole treated group]. No significant hepatotoxicity was noticed during Fluconazole therapy. Conclusion: Prophylactic Fluconazole in risky neonatal and pediatric patients in ICU is effective in reducing Candida colonization especially C. albicans but not invasive candidemia.

[Dalia Abdel Latif A., Mohamed H. Sultan, Hanan E. Mohamed. Efficacy of Prophylactic Fluconazole in Reducing Candidemia in High Risk NICU and PICU Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):817-824]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 118

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.118

 

Key words: Candida colonization; candidemia; antifungal prophylaxis; Fluconazole; risk factors for candidemia; ICU infection and nosocomial infection.

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Usefulness of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication for Platelet Recovery in Egyptian Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Patients

 

Hosneia Kh. Akl1, Hanan E. Mohamed1 and Hoda A. El-Hady2

 

1Clinical Pathology and2 Internal Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

draymanelgadaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Recent studies have shown a relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura( ITP ). Objectives: To clarify the relation between H. pylori and ITP, determine its prevalence in this disease and to evaluate the effect of its eradication on platelet recovery. Subjects and methods: 65 adult patients with ITP (platelet count < 100 x 103/ml ) were investigated for the presence of H. pylori infection and its eradication by H pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme immunoassay method (EIA). H. pylori positive patients received standard triple therapy for seven days to eradicate infection. Platelet counts were monitored every 2 weeks and assessed 6 months after the end of H. pylori eradication therapy. Uninfected patients underwent immunosuppressive therapy and their platelet counts were followed up for the same duration. Results: 45/ 65 ITP patients, were H. pylori positive. They were significantly older and showed longer disease duration than H. pylori negative patients. There was significant increase in platelet count in both group after treatment and this increase was significantly higher in H. pylori positive group than negative one. Out of the 45 infected patients who received treatment, H. pylori was successfully eradicated in 39 patients. In 21 (53.8%) of these patients, significant good platelet response was detected when compared with unsuccessfully treated and H. pylori negative patients. Conclusion: Eradication of H. pylori infection led to good platelet response in ITP patients. Therefore, search for this infection must be attempted in ITP patients at diagnosis which will allow a good non immunosuppressive option for some of them.

[Hosneia Kh. Akl, Hanan E. Mohamed, Hoda A. El-Hady. Usefulness of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication for Platelet Recovery in Egyptian Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):825-829]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 119

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.119

 

Key words: H. pylori, eradication therapy, platelet count, immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

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Density and sex ratio of seven spotted ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) in three altitudes of Khorramabad district

 

*Amir Ansari pour1, Keyvan Aghasi2, Mostafa Bedoreh3

 

1- Agriculture faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad branch, Khorramabad, Iran. Email: Amir.ansari2010@gmail.com

2- Graduated student, Department of Entomology, Agriculture faculty, Islamic Azad University, Arak branch, Arak, Iran.

3- Agriculture faculty, Department of Plant protection, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

 

Abstract: Frequencies of seven spotted ladybird (C. septempunctata) were sampled from three altitudes of; 1700, 1800 and 1900 meters above sea level in the Rieg-sefid region of the Khorramabad district of Iran (33º48'N, 48º57'E, 1638m) in 2009 and 2010 during summer and autumn seasons. There was a higher frequency of females than males at all three altitudes (1700, 1800 and 1900 m) in both years. The average ratio of females to males in 2009 at an altitude of 1700 meters above sea level was 1.53:1; at the altitude of 1800 m it was 1.54:1 and at the altitude of 1900 m it was 1.55:1. The average ratio of females to males in 2010 at an altitude of 1700 meters above sea level was 1.49:1, at an altitude of 1800 m it was 1.51:1 and at an altitude of 1900 m it was 1.54:1. According to this information, results demonstrated that the ratio of females to males in seven spotted ladybird species increased at higher altitude. It was also observed that populations of this ladybird in farms at high altitude decreased and increased according to season.

[Amir Ansari pour, Keyvan Aghasi, Mostafa Bedoreh. Density and sex ratio of seven spotted ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) in three altitudes of Khorramabad district. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):830-834] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 120

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.120

 

Keywords: sex ratio, ladybird, Khorramabad, coccinella septempunctata

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Genetic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from contact lenses and other sources by RAPD analysis

 

Salha HM Al-Zahrani*, Nariman AH Aly and Maha A Al-Harbi 

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author: shaalzahrani@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 isolates) collected from contact lens storage cases, contact lenses and contact lenses wearer in Saudi Arabia. PCR amplification of all isolates revealed one fragment with 230 bp that represented 16S rDNA gene. A total of 48 amplified DNA fragments (from 3500 to 90 bp) were observed using three RAPD primers; B-01, B-11 and B-14. Whereas, 42 fragments were polymorphic and the other 6 amplified fragments were commonly detected among all Pa isolates. The three primers showed a mean polymorphism of 87%, whereas, the polymorphic % B-01 primer was higher (89%) followed by primer B-11 and B-14 with 88 and 83%, respectively. the constructed UPGMA dendrogram showed two main clusters; the first included 10 isolates with a medium bootstrap 83%, the second included the remaining 14 isolates with two sub-clusters. The first sub-cluster divided to two branches; the first contained isolates 21 & 23 and the second was divided more to two sub-branches. The second sub-cluster was divided to isolate 2 that occupied unique branch and two other branches that divided again to several sub-branches. Isolate 8 revealed most high similarity with isolate 7(77%) followed by isolates 18 and 17 (74%). Isolates 3 & 1 and 22 & 15showed similar percentage (72%). isolates 7 and 3 displayed (70%). Conclusion: high DNA polymorphism occurrence of amplified fragments &Variable genetic similarities of Pa isolates (24)was noticed. The fluctuation of genetic similarity percentages of each of the isolates with others revealed the divergent genetic backgrounds of different serotypes.

[Salha HM Al-Zahrani, Nariman AH Aly and Maha A Al-Harbi. Calculate & Analyze of Growth in Vicia FabaL. Plant. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):835-843] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 121

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.121

 

key words: Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, contact lens and contact lenses wearer, 16S rDNA gene, RAPD-PCR

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Physiological Studies on the Aedes eagypti larvae Culicidae, Diptera

 

Zakia, A. jamal ¹ and Faten, F. Abuldahab²

 

1. Biology Department, College of sciences and Arts, Yanbu, Taibah University

2. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for Girls, Kingabdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: The total and dry body weight treated larvae of Aedes aegypti was significantly decreased at different time intervals under investigation (6, 12, 24, and 48 hrs) post-treatment with LC30 of Bt subsp. Kurstaki HD-1. The body water content was decreased significantly at 6 hrs post-treatment, while it was highly significant at the three other treatments. Also hemolymph volume was significantly decreased. A significant increase in hemolymph density was observed only at 12 hrs post treatment. The main of the total hemocyte count in the treated larvae at all inspected time was highly significant increased, also there was a marked variation in the hemocytes percentage of untreated and treated larvae of Aedes eagypti at time intervals.

[Zakia, A.Gamal and Faten, F. Abuldahab. Physiological Studies on the Aedes eagypti larvae Culicidae, Diptera. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):844-849]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.122

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.122

 

Key word: hemolymph, hemocytes, Aedes aegypti,hemolymph density,blood count

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Calculate & Analyze of Growth in Vicia FabaL. Plant

 

Tayeb Saki Nejad

 

Assistant professor in Department of Agriculture, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran,

Corresponding Author: Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com, saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract Tested using a modified split plot design in randomized complete block with the main treatments bean varieties and sub-levels of nitrogen fertilizer treatments were performed. The results show that the variance in total dry matter accumulation of bean varieties Treatment plant and the different levels of nitrogen fertilizer has been so significant at 1% of the total plant dry matter accumulation increased with increasing nitrogen. This is due to increase in line with the increased photosynthesis and leaf area index and dry matter accumulation in plants. Sigmoid curve diagram of a bean leaf area index figures showed that growth in primary school, which had up to 50 days after the Kennedy Planting of the LAI value is only 0.7 is taken to slow the spread of leaf area index for the legume family, the high levels of nitrogen fertilizer (80 kg/ ha) the first period to reduce the level of leaves, and secondly in the treatment of lower levels of nitrogen treatments were applied to the leaf area index was higher. Chart for RGR at different levels of nitrogen reduction process and that their maximum RGR in the early stages of development with 0.15 g per day is reached. NAR average value equal to 6.7 grams per square meter per day is 48 days after planting in the NAR to the 7.4 grams per square meter per day increased and then showed its decreasing trend.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad. Calculate & analyze of growth in Vicia Faba plant. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):850-852] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 123

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.123

 

Keywords: Growth analysis, horse bean, fertilizer

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Solitary Wave Sol’s for the Generalized Fifth Order KdV eqn

 

Awatif A. Hendi1; Fatheah A. Hendi2; Fathea S. Hakami3, Manal A. Awad3 and M A Abdoud4

 

1Theoritical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, 2King Abdul Aziz University

3King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology; King Saud University

4Faculty of Education for Girls, Physics Department, King Kahlid University, Bisha, Saudia Arabia

ahindi@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: In this letter, different kinds of solutions including breather-type soliton and two soliton solutions are obtained for a generalized variable-coefficients fifth-order KdV equation by means of the bilinear method and extended homoclinic test approach. The proposed method can also be applied to solve other types of higher dimensional integrable and non-integrable systems.

[Awatif A. Hendi; Fatheah A. Hendi; Fathea S. Hakami and Manal A. Awad. Solitary Wave Sol’s for the generalized fifth Order KdV eqn. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):853-856]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 124

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.124

 

Keywords: Extended homoclinic test approach; bilinear form; generalized fifth-order KdV equation; Periodic solitary wave solutions.

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Studying the factors relative to the being polygamy of the Bashtian Men

 

1Jahangir Jahangiri, 2Hosein Afrasyabi, 3Leila Nikpoor Ghanavati

 

1 Assistant Professor, Shiraz University, Iran

2Assistant Professor, Yazd University, Iran

3 Department of Social Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

pardakhtearz2@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Marriage is the start point of the family formation among different cultures. One of the main criterions in this field is the number of wives. This survey is aimed to explore the factors affecting the polygamy. In this regard, using the quantitative performance, the economic and social factors relative to being polygamy of Bashtian men are examined. Data was gathered using some questionnaires. 200 questionnaires were distributed among the polygamous and monogamous men and then they were gathered and analyzed. According to the results, there is a meaningful relationship between polygamy and some factors including the power of men, the men desire for having more than one wife, the educational degree, the man job, the illness of first wife and dissatisfaction from the first wife's family.

[Jahangir Jahangiri, Hosein Afrasyabi, Leila Nikpoor Ghanavati. Studying the factors relative to the being polygamy of the Bashtian Men. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):857-864] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 125

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.125

 

Key words: polygamy, marriage, culture

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An assessment of Dietary Intake Associated with the Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Yerevan, Armenia

 

Ezatollah Fazeli Moghadam 1 *, Artashes Tadevosyan 2, Masood Kimiagar 3, Maryam Chamari 4

 

1Lorestan University of Medial Sciences, Khoram Abad, Iran. PhD student, Yerevan State Medical University after M. Heratsi, Public Health Department, Yerevan, Armenia

2 MD, PhD, DSc, Yerevan State Medical University after M. Heratsi, Public Health Department, Yerevan, Armenia

3 PhD full Professor, Shahid Beheshti University of Medial Sciences, Nutrition Science Department

4MSc, Tehran University of Medial Sciences, Nutrition Science Department

ztfazeli@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the relationship between the dietary intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) in various countries. Extreme changes have occurred in lifestyles as well as dietary patterns in industrialized countries. Also, no study has been done to address the association between CHD and food consumption in these populations. This case-control study was conducted to assess the dietary intake in individuals with and without CHD during 2010 and 2011; we randomly selected 320 patients with CHD and 320 subjects without CHD (≥ 30 years old) from the hospitals, polyclinics and center of preventive cardiology in Yerevan. Dietary intakes with 135 food items over the previous 12 months were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We observed an inversely significant association between fruits, vegetables (not potatoes), whole grain, and plant food consumption and CHD. In a logistic regression, after adjusting for confounder risk factors, each 100 g increase in fruit or vegetables decreased 63% odds of CHD. The odds ratio for those with intake of sweet and dessert in the highest quartile was 2.64 (95% CI 1.65-4.21). 85% of cases and 81.3% of controls, consumed fish and seafood less than 200 g/wk (P>0.05), also, low intake of whole grain (below 100 g/d) was most common both in cases (95.9%) and controls (93.4%). This pioneering study indicates which fruit, vegetable intakes, whole grain and plant food independently associated with the CHD risk in the population under investigation.

[Ezatollah Fazeli Moghadam, Artashes Tadevosyan, Masood Kimiagar, Maryam Chamari. An assessment of Dietary Intake Associated with the Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Yerevan, Armenia. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):865-870] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 126

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.126

 

Keywords: assessment; Dietary; Intake; Coronary; Heart; Disease; Adult

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Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Their Relation to Locus of Control in Armenian Participants

 

Hamidreza Akbarikia 1*, Khachatur Gasparyan2

 

1Payame Noor university Iran*, 2Yerevan state Medical University, Armenia

E-mail:hamid_akbarikia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Obsessive compulsive symptom is a debilitating disorder marked by two distinct phenomena: recurrent, disturbing, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and overt repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) that are performed to reduce distress caused by obsessions. Locus of control is concerned with the degree to which an individual perceives that she/he has control over a given event, or whether she/he perceives it lays outside his/her control. The study aimed to evaluate correlation of obsessive compulsive symptoms with locus of control. This research emphasized on cognitive and practical approach on OCD. For the current study 150 Armenian participants were male 40% and 60% were female. Participant׳age ranged from 17 to 30in students and the mean age for the samples was 21.78 (SD=3.52), and other samples were OCD patients with ranged age 25 to 58 and the mean age was 37.40(SD=9.61). Participants completed Armenian version questionnaire batteries including measure of Levenson locus of control, and Ybocs OCD scale. the multiple liner regression analysis with total OCD scores as the dependent variable had a significant association with powerful others scores. After including this variable, we found (total obsessive compulsive β=.42, F=25.7, T= 4.68, P.V <.01) so result showed robust association between powerful others and obsessive compulsive disorder, scores significantly predicted total OCD scores. Finally, powerful others were strong predictor then subscale obsessive and compulsive attendant severity OCD (obsessive: β= 32, F=11.8, T= 2.9, P.V <.05 ). Locus of control had only a main effect on obsessive compulsive disorder. That is, high levels of locus of control, indicating a powerful others and chance was associated with higher obsessive compulsive disorders, special obsessive thinking symptoms.

[Hamidreza Akbarikia, Khachatur Gasparyan. Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Their Relation to Locus of Control in Armenian Participants. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):871-876] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 127

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.127

 

Keywords: Locus of control; Obsessive-compulsive; Internal; powerful other; chance

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Study of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 6 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Albuminuria

 

Ahmed Zahran1, Enas S. Essa2 Waleed F. Abd Elazeem 2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unite and 2Clinical Pathology Department Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

ahmed173@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes and is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). There are Growing evidences indicating that chronic low-grade inflammatory response is a recognized factor in the pathogenesis of development and progression of diabetic renal injury. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) with urinary albumin excretion (UAE) as a marker of renal injury. Methods: A total of 73 type 2 diabetic patients were divided into three groups according to urinary albumin excretion, normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria In addition, 10 apparently healthy subjects were included as control group. TNF-α, IL-6, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and creatinine were measured in all population. Urinary albumin excretion was measured by morning spot sample albumin / creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were found to differ significantly among studied groups. Both markers showed significant positive correlation with duration of diabetes, Albumin creatinine ratio and glycated hemoglobin and showed significant negative correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), however TNF-α showed a better correlation with these variables when compared with IL-6. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that TNF-α is the independent predictors for ACR in total population with adjusted R2 0.512 and P value less than 0.01. Conclusion: TNF-α and IL-6 are higher in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria and correlate well with the severity of albuminuria, however TNF-α was found to be a predictor of ACR suggesting the possible role of TNF-α in pathogenesis and progression of renal affection in type 2 diabetic patients.

[Ahmed Zahran, Enas S. Essaand Waleed F. Abd Elazeem. Study of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 6 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Albuminuria. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):877-882]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 128

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.128

 

Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy; Albuminuria; tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6.

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A Prospective Study Comparing Lidocaine 2% Jelly versus Retrobulbar Anesthesia in 23-G Suturless Vitrectomy for Macular-Based Disorders: Efficacy and Intraocular Pressure

 

Ehab El Zakzouk; Sherif Emerah; Ayman Shouman; Mona Raafat, and Hala Bahy

 

Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt

ehabzakzouk@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To compare Lidocaine 2% Jelly versus retrobulbar anesthesia on efficacy and IOP in 23-G suturless vitrectomy for macular-based disorders. Materials and Methods:A prospective clinical trial was conducted on 40 patients allocated into two equal groups; group 1 received topical lidocaine 2% Jelly and group 2 received retrobulbar anesthesia (6ml volume of bupivacaine 0.5% solution with 10 IU/ml hyaluronidase). Both groups received a standardized sedative consisting of midazolam, fentanyl and /or propofol intraoperatively. All patients underwent a 23 G-suturless vitrectomy for macular-based disorders. IOP was measured in both groups, immediately before and after anesthesia application, and at 5 and 10 minutes after application before start of surgery. Pain scores were assessed using a numerical visual analogue scale immediately after surgery. Patient comfort, physician assessment of intraoperative patient’s compliance, need for supplemental anesthesia, volume of local anesthetic used and any complications were recorded. Results: There was a statistical significant variation in elevation in mean IOP in group 2 (retrobulbar group) compared to group 1 (lidocaine 2% Jelly) (P< 0.01). Mean IOP was elevated only in group 2 after injection and was reduced at all time-intervals. The two groups did not vary significantly in subjective pain score and surgeon’s satisfaction scale. A statistical significant difference was noted regarding anesthetic supplement being more in group 1 (topical group) compared to group 2 (retrobulbar group).Conclusion: Topical Lidocaine 2% Jelly is as effective as retrobulbar anesthesia for pain control in patients undergoing 23G suturless vitrectomy for macular-based disorders. Lidocaine 2% Jelly is similar to retrobulbar anesthesia regarding patient’s comfort and surgeon’s satisfaction. Moreover, the Lidocaine 2% Jelly is found to have fewer effects on IOP prior to surgery. Lack of akinesia in this group (group 1) also did not prevent or hinder a successful surgical outcome.

[Ehab El Zakzouk; Sherif Emerah; Ayman Shouman; Mona Raafat, and Hala Bahy. A Prospective Study Comparing Lidocaine 2% Jelly versus Retrobulbar Anesthesia in 23-G Suturless Vitrectomy for Macular-Based Disorders: Efficacy and Intraocular Pressure. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):883-887]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 129

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.129

 

Key words: Topical Anesthesia - Lidocaine Jelly - retrobulbar - suturless vitrectomy.

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Acupuncture versus Ultrasound-Guided Peribulbar Block in Pediatric Strabismus Correction: A Prospective Randomized Study

 

Ashraf Darwish, Mona Raafat, Rehab Sami, Mohamed Hisham, and Hala Bahy

 

Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt

Ashrafdarwish1962@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Postoperative emesis after strabismus surgery continues to be a problem, despite the use of anti-emetic measures. The purpose of this study was to identify an anesthetic technique associated with the lowest incidence of vomiting after squint surgery. Materials and methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Acupuncture at P6 versus ultrasound guided medial canthus peribulbar block with propofol infusion on emesis in 180 pediatric patients undergoing strabismus correction. Results: The incidence of emesis was significantly lower in the peribulbar (4/90, 4.4%) compared to the acupuncture group (17/90, 18.8%) (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Among the two techniques, peribulbar block with propofol-based anesthesia is the technique with the lowest incidence of postoperative emesis compared to the acupuncture technique.

[Ashraf Darwish, Mona Raafat, Rehab Sami, Mohamed Hisham, and Hala Bahy. Acupuncture versus Ultrasound-Guided Peribulbar Block in Pediatric Strabismus Correction: A Prospective Randomized Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(1):888-891]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 130

doi:10.7537/marslsj090112.130

 

Key words: Anesthesia, Strabismus, peribulbar, Propofol, Emesis, acupuncture  

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Educational Language Teaching: A New Movement beyond Reflective/Critical Teaching

 

Reza Pishghadam 1, Reza Zabihi 2, Paria Norouz Kermanshahi 1

 

1. English Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, PO box 91779-48974, Park Square, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2. Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jirib Street, Isfahan, 81746-7344, Iran