Life Science Journal 
 Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 14 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 75), April 25, 2017. 
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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Efficiency of Bromocriptine in Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular and Microvascular Complications in Patients with Poorly Controlled Diabetes: A Clinical Trial


Mitra Niafar1, Nooshin Milanchian2, Kavous Shahsavari Nia3, Majid Zamani4, Amir Ghafarzad4, Seyed Vahid Seyed Hosseini5, Mohammad Reza Jafari Nakhjavani6*


1- Associate Professor of Endocrinology, Bone Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2- Endocrinologist, Bone Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3- Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4- Assistant professor of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of medical sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

5- General Surgeon, Surgery ward of Shahid Mahallati Hospital, Tabriz, Iran.

6- Assistant Professor of Rheumatology, Connective Tissue Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.



Abstract: Background: Available studies are seeking new treatments to control diabetes. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the efficiency of Bromocriptine in glycemic control and complications of diabetes. In this clinical trial, 43 patients with poorly controlled type II diabetes were treated with oral Bromocriptine 2.5 mg twice/day. Anthropometric factors, blood glucose, hemoglobinA1C level, waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed for 6 months. To assess the efficiency of Bromocriptine in microvascular and cardiovascular complications of diabetes, serum Hemocysteine and hs. CRP levels were measured. The analyses were performed by paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The mean baseline fasting blood glucose of patients reached from 184.3 mg/dl to 155.6, 148.9 and 159.5 mg/dl in the first 45days, the third month and the sixth month, respectively, and2-hour postprandial blood glucose declined from 276.6 mg/dl to 217.0, 205.1 and 201.0mg/dl (p< 0.0001). It is worth noting that in the third month a 0.8% reduction was observed in hemoglobin A1C that this reduction reached 0.9% in the six month (p<0.0001). Although Hemocysteine level (p=0.058) and hs. CRP (p=0.056) increased within six months of the study, the increase was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The findings of the current study showed that Bromocriptine as a concomitant therapy effectively reduced fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C.

[Niafar M, Milanchian N, Shahsavari Nia K, Zamani M, Ghafarzad A, Seyed Hosseini SV, Jafari Nakhjavani MR. Efficiency of Bromocriptine in Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular and Microvascular Complications in Patients with Poorly Controlled Diabetes: A Clinical Trial. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):1-8]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.01.


Keywords: hs.CRP, hemoglobin A1C, Bromocriptine

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Insight into the Effect of Types of Sound on Growth, Oil and Leaf Pigments of Salvia Officinalis, L Plants


Hanaa F.A. Abd El-Rahman


Basic Sci. Education Dept. Kinder Garden Fac. Beni Suef Univ. Egypt



Abstract: This study in an attempt to show how the rate of growth, oil% and leaf pigments of Salvia officinalis L plants was affected by types of different music. Plants were exposed to classical music, Jazz music and control. Both classical music (Sonata Mozart No.7) and Jazz music (The Entertainer for Scott Joplin) exposure were given for two hours per day at 8.0 to 9.0 am in the morning and again at 8.0 to 9.0 pm in the evening. Results showed that considerable variation was detected on growth characteristics, oil% and leaf pigments among the two types of music and the control. Classical music was measurably superior than using Jazz music and control in enhancing these parameters. A negative effects on these properties were attributed to using Jazz music relative to the control and those plants exposing to classical music. It is necessary to exposing Salvia officinalis plants to classical music twice per day at 8 to 9 am in the morning and again 8 to 9 pm in the evening to promote growth, oil% and leaf pigments.

[Hanaa F.A. Abd El-Rahman. Insight into the Effect of Types of Sound On Growth, Oil and Leaf Pigments of Salvia Officinalis, L Plants. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):9-15]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.02.


Keywords: Salvia officinalis, classical music, Jazz music, growth oil, leaf pigments.

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Effect of Readability on Farmers’ Knowledge: An Assessment of some Agricultural Extension Pamphlets


Hazem S. Kassem1,2, Mohamed A. Abdel-magieed2, Heba M. El-Gamal2, F. Aldosari1


1Agricultural Extension and Rural Society Dept., King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Agricultural Extension and Rural Society Dept., Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

e-mail: hskassem@ksu.edu.sa


Abstract: Readability of agricultural print materials is rarely considered as an important variable on farmers’ behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the readability of some extension pamphlets and measuring the relationship between farmers' knowledge level and readability of these pamphlets. The pamphlets were tested on a systematic random sample of (83) farmers from Talkha and Aga districts in Dakahlia Governorate of Egypt. Cloze test was conducted to measure the readability level of the pamphlets studied. Pre-test and Post-test were used to determine the knowledge gain level of farmers. The readability level of the farmers reflected the frustration level on Cloze test scale; where farmers unable to read and understand the text even with the assistance from the extension worker. The study also showed that there is a significant difference at the level of 0.01 between pre and post exposure related to farmers' knowledge levels on each pamphlet tested. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between readability level of each pamphlet and farmers' knowledge level. Proposed guidelines were recommended to assist agricultural extension organizations to modify the upcoming materials to significantly improve readability while maintaining content for farmers with low education literacy.

[Kassem HS, Abdel-magieed MA, El-Gamal HM and Aldosari F. Effect of Readability on Farmers’ Knowledge: An Assessment of some Agricultural Extension Pamphlets. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):16-22]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.03.


Keywords: Agricultural extension, farmers, knowledge, pamphlets, readability

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Comparison of Delayed and Immediate Implant Loading Protocols: A Literature Review


Atif M. Almadani1, Meshari H. Alanzi2, Ahmed H. Abdel fattah3


1 Department of Prosthodontics, University Hospital Tübingen, Faculty of Dentistry, Osianderstreet 2-8, 72076 Tübingen, Germany, Mobile No. +4917672861932, Email: dr.atifalmadani@gmail.com

2 Department of Prosthodontics, University Hospital Tübingen, Faculty of Dentistry, Tübingen, German, dr.meshari_alanzi@live.com

3 Professor and Consultant in Prosthodontics, Cairo Egypt, daabdelfatah@gmail.com


Abstract: Edentulism or the state of having tooth loss, in partial or complete form, often leads to difficulties in aesthetics, function, or comfort. The most common method of treating partial or complete edentulism is the implant-supported dental rehabilitation, with its favourable survival rates for replacing missing teeth and improving the quality of life of the patients. Several techniques have been developed, including the flapless approach, one-stage implant surgery, mini-implants, implants placed in fresh extraction pockets and others to compensate for the increasing need for less invasive and faster treatment. Delayed implant loading is commonly used for its established success and integrity, however, with the advancement of surgical dentistry, implant therapies nowadays often use immediate loading and early loading, specifically in mandibles with good bone quality. In our study, a literature review was made to discuss several studies conducted not later than 2010 that had attempted to identify the better loading protocol using different variables such as success rates, patient’s satisfaction, physiological effects, and short- or long-term effects on the patients. Most of the mentioned studies have presented little significance or no significant difference between the immediate and delayed implant loading protocols, which may indicate that treatment to edentulism may vary, depending on the case of the patient. With the assistance of this literature review, a more rigid systematic review is recommended to further evaluate and compare the two loading protocols.

[Atif M. Almadani, Meshari H. Alanzi, Ahmed H. Abdel fattah. Comparison of Delayed and Immediate Implant Loading Protocols: A Literature Review. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):23-29]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.04.


Keywords: delayed implant loading protocols, immediate implant loading protocols, edentulism, implant therapy

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Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Fat Graft for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis


Sabah S. Moshref, MBBS, FRCS(I) 1; Yasir S. Jamal, MBBCH, FRCS(I)1; Amro M. Al-Hibshi2, MBChB, FRCS(C)3; Abdullah M. Kaki3, MBBS, FRCP(C)4


1Professorof Plastic Surgery and Consultant,1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Professor of Plastic and Pediatric Surgery and Consultant, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3Assistant Professor and Consultant, 2Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4Professor and Consultant,3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Background: Knee osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease which leads to major morbidity, disability, and health care utilization. It usually presents with arthralgia and stiffness of the joint. The aim of this prospective interventional study was to examine the therapeutic effects of intra-articular micro-graft injection of autologous fat for knee osteoarthritis. Methods: This study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2012 to October 2015; eighty adult patients (148 knee joints) were enrolled in this study. Patients were suffering from moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis. The majority of patients were having bilateral knee osteoarthritis (n= 68, 85.00%), then right knee (n= 9, 11.25%) and left knee (n= 3, 3.75%). Liposuction was performed to collect the fat micro-graft, then 10-20 ml of the prepared autologous fat micro-graft were injected intra-articular into the affected knee/s. Results: Visual analogue scale values of the joints’ pain showed improvement after the fat injection compared to before, both during rest and with activity. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index also indicated improvement, both in the three domains (pain, stiffness and physical function) and in total. Conclusions: The use of intra-articular autologous fat micro-graft is a safe, simple and effective new line of treatment for degenerative knee osteoarthritis. Longitudinal study is needed for follow up of these cases. Clinical Question/Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Studies –Level II.

[Sabah S. Moshref, MBBS, FRCS(I); Yasir S. Jamal, MBBCH, FRCS(I); Amro M. Al-Hibshi, MBChB, FRCS(C); Abdullah M. Kaki, MBBS, FRCP(C). Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Fat Graft for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):30-35]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.05.


Keywords: Autologous fat micro-graft, Intra-articular injection, Knee, Osteoarthritis, Visual analogue scale.

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Palynotaxonomic study on Boraginaceaein Saudi Arabiaand its taxonomic significance


Gazer, H. Magda1; El Bous, M.Mona2


1Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

2 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Port -Said University, Port -Said, Egypt



Abstract: The present paper assesses the taxonomic significance of pollen morphology and micro - and macro-morphological characters of the 21 Taxa representing 12 genera collected mainly from Saudi Arabia, belongs to 2 subfamilies (Heliotropoideae and 5 tribes of Boragonoideae (Echieae, Lithospermeae, Cynoglosseae, Boraginea and Eritricheae). Pollen morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the data were analyzed using SPSS. The pollen and morphological data of the studied taxa were investigated using cluster analysis to find whether or not pollen characteristics can support the classifications based only morphological characters and explore variations in both pollen and morphological characters. The cluster analysis of 24 characters and 60 character states of pollen leads to the recognition of 8 pollen types. The pollen of the studied taxa were divided into four major groups based mainly on exine ornamentation, size, symmetry, polarity of pollens and number, type, shape, position of apertures. The results show that groupings based only on pollen characteristics alone did not align completely with those based on morphological data. The palynological results ensure the eurypalynous type of the family and support the proposal that Echium belongs to tribe Lithospermeae rather than tribe Echieae. Morphological results also suggest that Paracaryum, Microparacaryum, Lappula and Trichodesma are included in the subfamily Cynoglossoideae rather than being different tribes of subfamily Boragonoideae.

[Gazer, H. Magda; El Bous, M. Mona. Palynotaxonomic study on Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabiaand its taxonomic significance. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):36-51]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.06.


Keywords: Pollentypes, Taxonomy, Boragonoideae, Heliotropium.

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Glaucoma Treatment with the Aqueous Extract of Prunella vulgaris in Rats Experimental Model


Hsing-Chen Wu1, Meng-Yi Lin1, Chi-Ting Horng2, Kuong-Jen Chien2, You–Li Lee1,*


1Department of Nutrient, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

2Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC.

E-mail: h56041@gmail.com


Abstract: Glaucoma is one of the world’s leading causes of blindness. Prunella vulgaris is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for a long time. The aim of our study is to evaluate the activity of lowering intraocular pressure through the use of aqueous extracts of prunella vulgaris (AEPV) in an experimental glaucoma model. The rats used in the study were divided into six groups: one sham group, two positive control groups with topical brimonidine instillation and oral acetazolamide therapy, and three groups treated with AME (low, medium and high dosage). The antioxidant activity of AEPV was accessible by MDA and GPx levels. The ability to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) signified the efficiency of treating glaucoma. The results revealed that AME may decrease the MDA production and restore the GPx level in the periocular blood. This extremely beneficial effect may be by the same as that of brimonidine. Furthermore, AEPV also showed the ability to significantly lower IOP as is the case with brimonidine and acetazolamide. AEPV is a relatively safe Chinese herbal medicine with no observed side effects such as body-weight loss, or pathological change. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of prunella vulgaris is beneficial in treating glaucoma during the development of progression of this disease due to its significant IOP and antioxidant activities.

[Hsing-Chen Wu, Meng-Yi Lin, Chi-Ting Horng, Kuong-Jen Chien and You–Li Lee. Glaucoma Treatment with the Aqueous Extract of Prunella vulgaris in Rats Experimental Model. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):52-60]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.07.


Keywords: Prunella vulgaris, Glaucoma

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Phytoremediation of Pb and Cd by native tree species grown in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Amira M. S. Abdul Qados


Department of Biology, College of Science, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University.



Abstract: Pot culture experiments were conducted to study the remediation potentials of three native tree species Acacia saligna, Eucalyptus rostrata and Conocarpus erectus to remove Pb (0, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil) and Cd (0, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 soil) from the contaminated soils in order to find out the most effective species that can be used to clean up the soil from heavy metal pollution. Obtained results showed that the highest level of pollution with Pb and Cd caused a significant reduction in vegitative growth parameters and photosynthetic pigments, while proline, Pb and Cd contents in plant organs increased with increasing Pb or Cd level in the soil till certain level. Catalase and Peroxidase activity was stimulated with increasing pollutant levels then tended to decrease at highest level of Pb and Cd. Results indicated that A. saligna was the most tolerant species to lead and cadmium pollution followed by E. rostrara while C. erectus showed low level of tolerance to Pb and Cd pollutants.

[Amira M. S. Abdul Qados. Phytoremediation of Pb and Cd by native tree species grown in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):61-73]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.08.


Keywords: heavy metals, pollution, phytoremediatiion, proline, enzymes

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Effects of Land Preparation Methods on the Growth and Yield of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas LAM)


1Akinboye O. E., 2Aiyelari E. A. and 1Oyekale K. O.


1Department of Agronomy and Landscape Design, School of Agriculture and Industrial Technology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: a.funso1@gmail.com, kenoye3@yahoo.com


Abstract: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas LAM) is among the world’s most important, versatile and under exploited food crops. Not much research has been carried out on the most suitable land preparation technique(s) for its production. This work was designed to assess the effects of land preparation methods on the performance of sweet potato and make recommendations on land preparation for optimal and sustainable production. The land preparation methods used in this experiment were ploughing and harrowing, ploughing harrowing and ridging, ridging, Slash and burn. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. This gave a total of 15 plots. Each plot measured 3m X 4m (12m2) with lm2 between plot spacing. The size of each experimental plot was 26 m X 13 m, making a total land area of 338m2. Potato vines were planted at 50 cm within the rows and 100 cm between the rows. Growth parameters were measured between 4 and 14 weeks after planting (WAP). Data were collected on vine length, number of leaves and stem diameter. Yield parameters taken at harvest (14WAP) were number of roots, tuber length, tuber girth and fresh weight. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, correlation was carried out on the data and significant differences were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The results showed that at 5 and 6 WAP, ploughed harrowed and ridged plots produced the longest vines of 89.00cm and 143.58cm respectively. There was a significant correlation between vine length and tuber length 5 and 6WAP (r2 = 0.55, P<O. 05 and r2 = 0. 59, P<0.05 respectively). Land preparation methods did not have significant effect on number of leaves but it did on stem diameter at 4 and 11WAP. There was a high negative, significant correlation between stem diameter 11WAP and root number. (r2 = - 0.466146, PO 01). If sweet potato were to be produced for propagation and use of its vines or for forage, a combination of ploughing, harrowing and ridging method of land preparation is recommended. Slash and burn land preparation method is suggested only if the leaves are required for forage, vegetables or other purposes, as such the study recommends that the leaves should then be harvested at 7weeks after planting. If sweet potato is to be planted for the roots, the highest fresh yield of sweet potato was obtained in slash and burn land preparation method, so slash and burn land preparation method is recommended.

[ Akinboye O. E., Aiyelari E. A. and Oyekale K. O. Effects of Land Preparation Methods on the Growth and Yield of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas LAM). Life Sci J 2017;14(4):74-79]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.09.


Keywords: Land Preparation, Ploughing, Harrowing, Ridging, Growth and Yield.

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Identification and characterization of a novel tegumetal cathepsin B antigen from adult Schistosoma mansoni and assessment of its role in modulation of murine schistosomiasis.


Gehan El-Enain1; Ibrahim Rabia1; Abeer Mahgoub2, Ismail M. Moharm3, Mohammed S. Hedaya4, Faten Nagy5, Azza Fahmy1, Karima M.Metwalley6, Wafaa EL-Komy1.


Departments of 1Parasitology,5Immunology and 4General Surgery, Theodor Bilharz Research, Institute, Giza, Egypt. 2Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 3Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University Department of Zoology Faculty of science, Al-Azher University6



Abstract: Cysteine proteases are important virulence factors for parasites. Cathepsin B (SmCB) proteases are abundant in different stages of Schistosoma and it has been identified to induce a level of host-protective immune responses with amelioration of morbidity. In this study, the parasitological parameters, level of immunoglobulins, cytokines profile and hepatic granuloma were assessed to study the effect of immunization of mice with cathepsin B antigen with or without treatment using anti-helminthic drug (PZQ). Multiple small doses of cathepsin B were intraperitoneally injected into naive mice; the first dose of a 100μg of purified (SmCB) was followed by two booster doses of 50μg each, at weekly intervals. The experimental design included five groups of 10 mice each; four batches of them were infected with a 100 S. mansoni cercariae as follows: One batch served as infected control, another one was immunized prior to infection, the third was pre-immunized and post-PZQ treated and finally the fourth one was post-treated with PZQ only. The fifth group was mice immunized with cathepsin B only. All groups were sacrificed 8 and 12 weeks post infection. The histopathological and parasitological examinations revealed the highest remarkable increase in the percentage of degenerated ova (12%) within the diminished hepatic granulomas and the most significant decline percentage of the worm burden (46%), tissue egg loads (42.8% and 50% for hepatic and intestinal ova, respectively) were experienced by the infected pre-immunized and post-treated mice. The data collected from this research study might be useful in developing potential vaccine against S. mansoni.

[Gehan et al. Identification and characterization of a novel tegumetal cathepsin B antigen from adult Schistosoma mansoni and assessment of its role in modulation of murine schistosomiasis. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):80-88]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.10.


Keywords: Schistosomiasis - Cathepsin B – Immunization – Vaccine

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Cerebellar Organotypic Slice Culture System: A Model of Developing Brain Ischaemia


Mohamed A. Al-Griw1, Ian C. Wood2 and Michael G. Salter3


1Develomental Biology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tripoli, Tripoli-Libya

2School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds-UK.

3Present address: Invista (UK) Ltd, Redcar, Cleveland, UK.



Abstract: Ischaemic injury during brain development correlates with long-term neurological problems resulting in part from oligodendrocytes (OL) damage and a loss of appropriate myelination. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible remain partially understood and there is no effective clinical treatment. Here we develop and characterise an ex-vivo slice culture ischaemia model to elucidate the cellular mechanisms to aid the search for therapeutic interventions. Cerebellar slices from 7 day-old rats were cultured for 10 days and their developmental profile in culture and their response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was assessed. During the culture period development of white matter progressed as in-vivo, the numbers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) decreased and the numbers of mature OLs increased and there was extensive myelination of axons as judged by colocalisation of myelin basic protein and neurofilament. Cultured slices were exposed to a short period of OGD at 7 days in-vitro and reperfused to mimic in-vivo conditions. Twenty minutes of OGD was found to result in significant injury as judged by a 58.6% reduction in cell viability 3 days post-injury. Treatment of cultures with OGD resulted in a loss of OLs and a loss of myelination of axons. In summary we have developed a paradigm for studying the damage to OLs and loss of myelination associated with ischaemic periods during development which should facilitate the search for understanding the mechanisms responsible and identifying potential therapeutic interventions.

[Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Ian C. Wood and Michael G. Salter. Cerebellar Organotypic Slice Culture System: A Model of Developing Brain Ischaemia. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):89-98]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.11.


Keywords: Myelin; oligodendrocyte; white matter; organotypic; slice culture; ischaemia

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Removal Of Heavy Metals From Aqueous Solution Using Sludge Based Activated Carbon – A Review


Dr. S. Kanchana


Department of Civil Engineering, RVS Technical Campus-Coimbatore, Coimbatore.



Abstract: Industrial activities paves way for the production of an important byproduct called the sludge. The properties of Industrial sludge shows broad variations based on its origin and type of treatment undergone. Positively the sludge is found to be a material that is rich in carbon. This property of the sludge is being utilized for the production of activated carbon. Adsorption using activated carbon is a popular treatment method nowadays. But the expensive nature of commercial activated carbon demands its replacement by low cost carbon procured from waste materials. Sludge to carbon conversion processes can significantly reduce the sludge volume produced, eliminate the need for further treatment of sludge, reduce the cost of hauling and land filling the sludge, and reduce transportation costs. Many research works reported the adsorbing properties of different sludge based adsorbents in removing industrial pollutants. This paper critically reviews the usage of sludge based activated carbon in adsorbing the heavy metals from industrial wastewaters.

[Kanchana S. Removal of Heavy metals from aqueous solution using sludge based activated Carbon – A Review. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):99-103]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.12.


Keywords: Activated Carbon, Adsorption, Heavy Metals, Industrial Sludge.

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Pentraxin 3 in Hemodialysis Patients: Relationship to Co-morbidities


Aziza Ahmed El Sebai, Eman Saleh El Hadidi, Hala Abdel Al *and Engy Yousry El Sayed **


*Departments of Clinical and Chemical Pathology and **Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ain Shams University. ashorengy@yahoo.com


Abstract: Hemodialysis (HD), despite being the most common treatment modality for end stage renal disease (ESRD); the mortality rate in HD patients from co-morbidities still remains higher than 20-50 % per year. The aim of this study was to measure the plasma level of pentraxin 3 (PXT3) in patients on maintenance HD and to assess its relationships to co-morbidities such as malnutrition and associated co-morbid diseases. This case-control study included 50 HD patients, 30 ESRD patients and 30 healthy controls. HD patients were classified into different subgroups according to the Davies co-morbidity index and malnutrition score. Plasma pentraxin3 (PTX3) was analyzed by a sandwich ELISA technique. Plasma level of PTX3 reached its highest levels in HD patients followed by ESRD patients as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, within the different subgroups, the highest levels and the highest odd ratio of PTX3 were detected in the subgroups having the highest Davies co-morbidity index, or the highest malnutrition score as compared to the other subgroups. At a cutoff 0.6 ng/mL, PTX3 was able to discriminate HD patients with low Davies co-morbidity index from those with both medium and high Davies co-morbidity index with a diagnostic sensitivity of 92.5% and a diagnostic specificity of 70.0%. Meanwhile, the best cutoff of plasma PTX3 for discriminating patients with mild malnutrition from severe and moderate malnutrition was 0.6 ng/mL with a diagnostic sensitivity 90.9% and a diagnostic specificity 41.2%.. Conclusion and recommendation: Pentraxin 3 appears to be a clinically useful marker for early identification of patients with renal failure on maintenance HD who are at substantially increased risk of morbidity. These patients may require care and aggressive follow-up in more specialized units. Such patients would also probably benefit from early referral to a renal transplant center for consideration of candidacy for transplantation and expedited evaluation.

[Aziza Ahmed El Sebai, Eman Saleh El Hadidi, Hala Abdel Al and Engy Yousry El Sayed. Pentraxin 3 in Hemodialysis Patients: Relationship to Co-morbidities. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):104-110]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.13.


Key words: Renal failure, end stage renal disease, malnutrition, pentarexin 3

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Bioactive glasses as group of biomaterials used in dentistry


Meshari H. Alanzi1, Atif M. Almadani2, Alyan Alazemi3


1 Department of Prosthodontics, University Hospital Tübingen, Faculty of Dentistry

Freiacker St., Tübingen 72070, Germany

Mobile No. +4901735875684, Email: dr.meshari_alanzi@gmail.com

2 Department of Prosthodontics, University Hospital Tübingen, Faculty of Dentistry

Tübingen, Germany, dr.atifalmadani@gmail.com

3 Department of Prosthodontics, University Hospital Tübingen, Faculty of Dentistry

Tübingen, Germany, alyandmd@live.com


Abstract: Bioactive glasses are able to bond to both soft and hard tissue and promote the bone growth. The bioactivity behavior of these glasses is related to the formation of a biologically active hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the glasses. The mechanism of bonding of bioactive glasses to tissues includes a series of surface reactions that occur when the glass is exposed to an aqueous environment. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, such as bone grafts, scaffolds, coating materials, and are used for hypersensitivity treatment. One of the most important properties of bioactive glasses is their ability to exhibit antibacterial activity, which creates a bacteria-free environment while healing and regenerating the defect area. These potentials of bioactive glass make it a unique material to be widely used in dentistry. Such materials can stimulate bioactive behavior around the fixed restorations margins and provide a bioactive surface. Therefore, they can develop periodontal tissue attachment and create complete sealing of the marginal gap. This sealing can prevent the failure of fixed ceramic restorations by eliminating the secondary caries, micropenetration of oral bacteria and their adhesion on the cement surface.

[Meshari H. Alanzi, Atif M. Almadani, Alyan Alazemi. Bioactive glasses as group of biomaterials used in dentistry. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):111-116]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.14.


Keywords: Bioactive materials, bioglass, dental, osteogenesis.

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Applied Study on the Protective Effect of NSNP Mouth Health Liquid on Artificial Teeth


Kai Qi, Yansong Zhang, Xiao Hao, Wei Sun, Huaijie Zhu*


The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2# Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China.

*Corresponding Author: Huaijie Zhu, MD, Email; jacksun689@gmail.com, Tel. 86-150-3711-5732

The Item was sponsored by Science and technology project of Jinshui DistricZhengzhou City, Henan State, China, Item File# is 11


Abstract: Objective: Killing effect of NSNP mouth health liquid of artificial teeth and mouth on bacteria in the surface of artificial teeth. Material and Methods:30 case of full artificial teeth wearers, after dinner, take out the mandibular or maxillary artificial teeth, rinse with tap water, then, put the artificial teeth in 100 ml solution 20NSNP, 40NSNP, 60NSNP, 80NSNP and NS in a 100mm diameter glass beaker, keep the glass beaker at 25-30°C for 4,6 and 12 hours to take 1ml from the beaker to Evenly coated on the agar Petri dishes with inoculating loop respectively, to be incubating the agar plate in 37°C for overnight, and then to Count the colonies on the Petri dish. Result: The NSNP function on the bacteria killing rate of Artificial teeth surface shows that the effect of 60 and 80NSNP, at 4 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours, were more than 90%, significantly higher than 40 and 20NSNP, and showed a statistically significant difference that is with very significant, P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively. 20 and 40NSNP also showed that more than 60% bacteria killing rate on the surface of the artificial teeth, and there was a significant time and dose depending. Conclusion: 1. 60 and 80 NSNP had a killing effect on the surface of artificial teeth with more than 90%, and had good time and dose effect; 2. NSNP through the process of apoptosis induced by programmed cell apoptosis to achieve the bactericidal mechanism, no longer occur resistance;

[Kai Qi, Yansong Zhang, Xiao Hao, Wei Sun, Huaijie Zhu. NSPN mouth health liquid of artificial teeth and Mouth on Study of the Protection of Artificial Teeth. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):117-120]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.15.


Keywords: apoptosis, nitric oxide, NO, sodium nitroprusside, SNP, artificial teeth protection, Mouth Health Liquid

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Eco-Friendly Concrete Made with Recycled Aggregates


Ahmed M. Tahwia


Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, EL-Mansoura, Egypt



Abstract: Construction and demolition waste (C & DW) represents an unavoidable product of construction industry. Industrial activities consume large amounts of natural resources and generate waste and by-products. The use of waste materials from other activities turns waste products into resources, instead of burning them or burying them in landfill sites or dumping into landfills. C & DW is usually discarded in landfills causing very serious environmental problems. Concrete is a sustainable material because it has very high thermal mass, is made from some of the most plentiful resources on earth, is produced with little waste, is produce durable structures, can be made with recycled materials,, is produced with local material, can consume industrial by-products such as iron blast-furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash and completely recyclable. The main objective of this study is to make use of waste materials as coarse aggregate for new concrete mixes. Two types of waste materials from construction activates are used: crushed waste concrete with compressive strength ranged from 30 to 35 MPa and waste ceramic floor and wall tiles. The waste ceramic and concrete are manually crushed and then tested for grading and water absorption. The main variable in this study is the ratio of coarse aggregate from recycled materials to the total weight of coarse aggregate in the new concrete mix. Workability of the fresh concrete was evaluated through slump test. Concrete specimens; cubes, and cylinders from mixes made out of recycled aggregate as a part of coarse aggregate are prepared and then tested for the uniaxial compression, splitting tension, and the modulus of elasticity. The results are then compared with those of the natural coarse aggregate from Dolomite. All strength properties are studied at three various ages of concrete at testing. The three considered ages are the 2, 7, and 28 days. The results showed that the compressive and splitting tensile of recycled ceramic concrete increased considerably than the normal aggregate concrete. Also, the results indicated that the strength dropped by about 4.5-22% when using recycled concrete aggregates. The utilization of recycled materials is confirmed and is an eco friendly material.

[Ahmed M. Tahwia. Eco-Friendly Concrete Made with Recycled Aggregates. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):121-128]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.16.


Keywords: Natural aggregate; waste management; recycled concrete aggregate; mechanical properties.

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Benefit from modern textile programs to innovate new decorative textile effects Inspired by animal skins


Nancy Abdelmaboad Elsawy


Faculty of Specific Education, Tanta University, Egypt



Abstract: The decorative elements inspired by animal skins are considered from the most decorative elements which have great and fine value, Continuous thinking in processing shapes in different fabric weaves and to create innovative configurations from these treatments Is one of the most important axes of development in the textile field which allows the development of the appropriate executive specifications for its production as fabrics suitable for furniture and curtains. Research importance: Enriching textile applications with innovative decorative textile effects inspired by animal skins. Promotes the general taste of the consumer and increases the artistic taste and sense of the aesthetic value of the product. Research goals: Innovate new textile decorative effects suitable for implementation as design units inspired by animal skins. (1) In this research, some decorative elements were taken from some animals skins, and many substitutions were made from the textile weaves of each form and transformed into design units with an innovative decorative effect that conforms to the textile and textile applications and characterized by being atypical and its artistic and aesthetic high value. (2) The decorative effects inspired from 5 deferent animals skin as (giraffe – leopard – snake – peacock – zebra). (3) It was implemented using modern textile and design techniques (Penelope textile – Nedgraphic – Atrezzo 3D). (4) After the implementation, a group of 10 faculty members evaluated the decorative weaves using a questionnaire form for evaluation. The results were analyzed to show the extent of the success of the creative and aesthetic decorative texture as furnishing fabrics. (5) The inspired decorative weaves achieved the degree of satisfaction between the arbitrators. The decorative weaves inspired by the (Giraffe – snake) has achieved the highest agreement among the arbitrators. The Coefficient of agreement reached between the arbitrators of the faculty members 90% while the decorative weaves inspired by the zebra reached the lowest agreement between the arbitrators as the coefficient of the agreement arbitrators of the faculty members 60%.

[Nancy Abdelmaboad Elsawy. Benefit from modern textile programs to innovate new decorative textile effects Inspired by animal skins. Life Sci J 2017;14(4):129-136]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17. doi:10.7537/marslsj140417.17.


Key words: Modern textile programs – inspired weaves – animals skins

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The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 30, 2017. 

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