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Life Science Journal 
 Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly
 
Volume 13 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 63), April 25, 2016. life1304
Cover (pdf), Cover (jpg), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, lsj1304
 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Immune defense reactions of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria that survived infection by Beauveria bassiana

 

Mohamed O. Abokersh1 and Emad M. S. Barakat2

 

1- Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Asmarya Islamic University, Zeletin, Libya.

2- Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt.

E-mail: emsbarakat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that serves as a biological control agent of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (F.) and other locusts and grasshopper pests. To measure the dose-dependent response to fungal attack, adult locusts were topically treated with doses of 4.5 x 104, 1.8 x 105, 4.5 x 105, 4.5 x 106 and 9.0 x 107 Bs/ul in sterile 0.85% saline with saline only as a control. LD30 was estimated to be 3.83105 Bs/ul and used as sublethal dose to perform the subsequent immunological tests. Microscopic examination of haemolymph smears revealed that the fungal spores have been observed on the 1st day, and appeared darker on the 3rd day after infection. Haemolymph was taken from control and treated locusts, after different time intervals; 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post topical treatment, centrifuged and only the supernatant fractions were used for active phenoloxidase (PO), and lysozyme assays. A significant increase in PO was detected in fungal-treated insects at the 1st and the 2nd days post-treatment. This was followed by a significant decrease at the 3rd day compared with control insects. Also, a significant increase in lysozymes was observed at all time intervals post-treatment. We conclude that circulating PO and active lysozymes may be an important enzymatic defense against Beauveria infection and that they are associated with attempted clearing of Beauveria blastospores and hyphae from locust hemolymph.

[Mohamed O. Abokersh and Emad M. S. Barakat. Immune defense reactions of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria that survived infection by Beauveria bassiana. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):1-9]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.01

 

Key words: entomopathogenic fungi, desert locust, haemolymph, phenoloxidase, lysozyme

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2

Hypoglycemic Efficacy of Date Kernels Coffee on Diabetic and Nephrodiabetic Patients

 

Mai Abd Al-Khalik Gharib1,2; El-Sayed H. Bakrand1,3 and Sameh M. Baz4,5

 

1Nutritionand Food Science Department, Faculty of Home Economics, Minufiya University, Egypt.

2Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Dammam University, KSA.

3Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, KSA.

4Lab Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, KSA.

5Clinical Pathology Department, Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

Corresponding author: sayedhamed20007@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Recently, date seeds powders are marketed and are a source of choice to people preferring a non-caffeinated coffee with coffee-related flavor. In addition, insulin-date seed extract combination minimizes the toxic effects of diabetes. Hence, the study aimed to find out the efficacy of the date kernels drink in ameliorate serum glucose and insulin resistance. Fifty five patients, ten of them were classified as negative control group (NCG), and forty five patients received their standard medical treatment (tablets or insulin). The date kernel coffee (DKC) supplementation is given to every patient in the experimental groups twice daily in cups. Each cup contains 10g of DK in 200 ml. this was given for three consecutive months. Patients were divided into subgroups as follows: Diabetic control group 1 (DCG1) receiving their medical tablets only along the experimental period; Diabetic group 1 (DG1)treated with the same tablets plus DKC supplement; Diabetic control group 2 (DCG2) received their medical insulin only along the experimental period; Diabetic group 2 (DG2) treated with the same dose of insulin plus DKC supplement; Nephro-diabetic control group (NDCG) received their medical treatment only along the experimental period; Nephro-diabetic group (NDG) received their medical treatment plus DKC supplement. The results indicated that fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FG/I ratio) was significantly diminished (p ≤ 0.001) after administrating DKC. Significant amelioration on markers of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was induced in diabetic and nephrodiabetic patients treated with insulin as compared to baseline (by means of 2.610.30 versus 2.090.38 at (p≤ 0.001) and 6.101.03 versus 3.820.39 at (p≤0.05)). β-cell function index had significantly increased at (p≤0.001) and NDG had the best effect by mean of 1.070.05 versus 0.490.03 at baseline. We concluded that serum glycemic profiles had significantly improved after treatment.

[Mai Abd Al-Khalik Gharib; El-Sayed H. Bakrand and Sameh M. Baz. Hypoglycemic Efficacy of Date Kernels Coffee on Diabetic and Nephrodiabetic Patients. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):10-18]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.02

 

Key words: date kernels coffee, insulin resistance and diabetes

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3

Effect of Stone Density and Stone Cushion on the Behavior of Soft Soils Improved by Stone Columns

 

Ebraheem Hasan Ramadan1, Abdel-Aziz A. A. H. Senoon1, Mohammed M. A. Hussein2 and Diaa-Eldin A. Kotp3

 

1Civil Eng. Dep., Faculty of Eng. Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

2Civil Eng. Dep., Faculty of Eng. SohagUniversity, Sohag, Egypt.

3Civil Eng. Dep., Faculty of Eng. Al azhar University, Qena, Egypt.

ehramadan@gmail.com, asenoon2000@yahoo.com, ohamed.ma_2000@yahoo.com, engdiaa2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: For low-rise buildings and structures such as liquid storage tanks, abutments, embankments and factories that can tolerate some settlement when found on soft soils. Stone columns (also known as granular piles or granular columns) provide an economical method to increase the bearing capacity, reduce the settlement and accelerate the consolidation of soft soils. Their behavior depends on several factors such as the density of stone that forms the columns. This paper presents the results obtained from finite difference analysis. Three dimensional finite difference numerical model FLAC3D was used in this study. The effect of stone density on the behavior of stone columns group in soft clay soil was studied. Also, the effect of adding a stone cushion between the footing and the stone columns was studied. The numerical analysis indicated that the settlement of footing, the vertical stresses and the lateral displacement of stone columns are decreased with increasing both the value of internal friction angle (φ) of stone column material and the stone cushion thickness for the same stone column geometry and the soil condition.

[Ebraheem Hasan Ramadan, Abdel-Aziz A. A. H. Senoon, Mohammed M. A. Hussein and Diaa-Eldin A. Kotp. Effect of Stone Density and Stone Cushion on the Behavior of Soft Soils Improved by Stone Columns. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):19-30]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.03

 

Keywords: Ground improvement, Soft clay, Stone columns, Cushion.

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4

Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Glycated Hemoglobin and Glycated Albumin Levels in Non-Diabetic Patients: Role of Malondialdehyde

 

Medhat A Ghazy1, Tamer A Elbedewy1, Nivin Baiomy2, Hossam Hodeib2

 

1 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

2 Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

E-mail: tamerelbedewy2006@yahoo.com, tamer.elbedawi@med.tanta.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Background/aim: HemoglobinA1c (HbA1c) is used to assess the long-term glycemic control. Glycated albumin (GA) is a shorter-term glycemic marker, not influenced by hemoglobin disorders. The studies about the effect and mechanism of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on HbA1c are conflicting and not yet known. IDA promotes oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) found to be elevated in oxidative stress. The aim of our work to investigate the effect of IDA before and after treatment on HbA1c and GA levels in non-diabetic patients and the role of MDA in this effect. Subjects and methods: Prospective study was conducted with 105 participants divided into two groups. Group I comprised 85 IDA patients treated with intravenous iron, 60 patients respond to treatment which complete the study. Group II included 20 apparently healthy participants as control group. Complete blood count, iron profile, HbA1c, GA and MDA were measured before treatment and after 12 weeks from the beginning of intravenous iron infusion. Results: HbA1c and MDA are significantly higher in IDA before treatment than the controls. HbA1c and MDA decreased significantly by iron therapy. Insignificant difference between the controls, IDA patients as regard GA. Significant negative correlations between HbA1c and hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum ferritin, serum iron and transferrin saturation. Significant positive correlations between HbA1c and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum MDA. Conclusions: GA rather HbA1c is better glycemic marker in IDA. Caution should be used when diagnosing diabetes among IDA patients using HbA1c. MDA may play a role in HbA1c elevation in IDA.

[Medhat A Ghazy, Tamer A Elbedewy, Nivin Baiomy, Hossam Hodeib. Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Glycated Hemoglobin and Glycated Albumin Levels in Non-Diabetic Patients: Role of Malondialdehyde. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):31-38]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.04

 

Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia; Hemoglobin A1c; Glycated albumin; Malondialdehyde

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5

Taxonomic study of the main families of Egyptian Coleoptera with forensic Importance

 

Rabab F. Sawaby, Hayam EL Hamouly and Reham H. Abo-El Ela

 

Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

ho1_ah2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The present work was carried out to create taxonomic study to the members of order Coleoptera with forensic importance. Twenty nine species under twenty one genera and nine families were collected from decaying carcasses (Rabbits & Guinea pigs). Keys, diagnosis, synonyms, photographs and the forensic importance were given to clarify the status of each species.

[Rabab F. Sawaby, Hayam EL Hamouly and Reham H. Abo-El Ela. Taxonomic study of the main families of Egyptian Coleoptera with forensic Importance. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):39-53]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.05

 

Keywords: Forensic entomology; Anobiidae; Histeridae; Taxonomy; Egypt

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6

Health related Quality of Life of male type2 diabetes: A case control study

 

Awad S. Alsamghan

 

Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

awadalsamghan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To measure the Health Related quality of Life (HRQoL) in male type2 diabetic patients and identifying the variation of HRQoL with the socioeconomic factors. Materials and Methods: This matched case control study was conducted in Abha, Aseer Region on 106 diabetic patients and 106 non diabetic patients. Data was collected using an interviewer–administered questionnaire. The health related quality of life of participants in the four weeks prior to assessment was measured by using the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was 57.60 11.3 years and 57.62 11.5 years respectively. Compared to the controls, the participants in the case were highly educated, less unemployed and had higher monthly income. Mean scores of Quality of life with respect to physical functioning, role limited due to physical health, role limited due to emotional problem, energy and vitality and psychological domains were significantly poor among cases compared to controls. Age and low level of education are significantly negatively affecting all domains of quality of life among cases. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus has considerable negative impact on the HRQoL. Quality of life of patients is an essential factor that affects diabetic management and therefore, the ultimate diabetic care should involve the assessment of HRQoL in any modality used to treat diabetic patients. Understanding the effect of diabetes on QOL is important for day to day clinical management and also for public health policy initiatives in order to improve the QOL of diabetic patients.

[Alsamghan AS. Health related Quality of Life of male type2 diabetes: A case control study. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):54-61]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.06

 

Keywords: Health Related quality of Life (HRQoL), type2 diabetic patients, SF-36 questionnaire

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7

RS and GIS Based Approach for Detecting Land-use Changes and its Impact on the Groundwater Aquifer

 

Eman S. Ammeish1, Badr M. Mabrouk 2 and Wedad S. Morsy3
 

1Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Professor of Hydrogeology, Geology Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig University.

3Research Institute for Groundwater, RIGW, National Water Research Center, (NWRC) Cairo, Egypt.

Email: wedad_morsy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The assessment of Land-use changes has an important role on groundwater management. It can give an early warning for planners and developers to protect groundwater aquifer from depletion and preserve its sustainability. The study area can be considered as one of the highest priority regions in Egypt to achieve sustainable development in the future. The present agricultural activities are mainly based on groundwater for irrigation. However, irrigation requirements have become so large that they may cause depletion of the groundwater levels in most of the existing wells. The aims of this work are to accurately characterize land-use changes in the Desert Fringes of Western Nile Delta region over number of years using object-based image classification approach. Study area was divided into three subareas: A, B, and C. Unsupervised followed by supervised classification separately were applied to the acquired satellite images. The classification results were further improved by employing image enhancement and visual interpretation, as well as 150 random points were chosen as ground trothing to calculate and check the accuracy of the classification. The accuracy values obtained were sufficient to meet the monitoring needs of the change detection in the study area. Five land-use categories, cultivation, desert, urban, road and water were identified and mapped. Results indicated that the major change was in the barren land which has changed into agricultural land. The change detection results show that agricultural development increased by 95 % (around 178,850 feddan) throughout the study period (1984-2011). It was also found that the increase in urbanization by about30, 500 feddan during 1984-2011 was predominantly due to encroachment into traditionally cultivated land at the fringes of urban centers. The development of reclaimed land was naturally accompanied with maximum drawdown in groundwater level between 3-13 meters. The overall results demonstrated that using satellite images to produce land-use maps is relatively cheap, accurate and fast. The results also, showed that change detection map can provide a powerful tool for planning, monitoring groundwater development and help to design a suitable exploration plan. Spatial planning should take better account of effects of land-use change on the groundwater system and define mitigating actions for reducing the negative impacts of land-use change.

[Eman S. Ammeish, Badr M. Mabrouk and Wedad S. Morsy. RS and GIS Based Approach for Detecting Land-use Changes and its Impact on the Groundwater Aquifer. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):62-74]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.07

 

Keywords: Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Land-use, change detection, Groundwater, West Nile Delta

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8

The effect of visual cues accompanying written texts in Drill-and-Practice programs on educational achievement for elementary students with intellectual disability

 

Akram Fathy Mostafa 1, Abdullah Nasser Ibrahim Al-essa 2

 

1. Instructional Technology Department, King Abdulaziz University (Jeddah), South valley University (Qena)

2. Institute of Educational Graduate Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

aali3@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The research aims to recognize on the effect of pattern of visual cues accompaniment to written texts in drill and practicing on academic achievement for students who have intellectual disability the sample of search consists of twelve students from Imam Muslim school in province of thadek By dividing students into experimental groups. Every group has six students. According to the experimental design for search. Also It was designed educational programming followed by model "Abd latif El – Gazar". After confirming from homogeneity of both experimental groups, the programming is applied on two groups by different of pattern of hint. then the tool of search has applied in achievement test. The result of search leads to have differences which have statistical evidences for (0.05) between average of order of grads both of experimental groups. (the group which was students is in color for a pattern of hint and the group that was studied is in shadow as a pattern of hint) for the first group.

[Mostafa A, Al-essa A. The effect of visual cues accompanying written texts in Drill-and-Practice programs on educational achievement for elementary students with intellectual disability. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):75-87]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.08

 

Keywords: visual cues - Drill-and-Practice programs - intellectual disability

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9

Effect of Enzymatic Treatment on Polyphenolics Content in Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica) Juice

 

Reham Makhdoom, Ginat El-Sherif and Maha Ahmed Hijazi

 

Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Home Economies College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA

ginat.elsherif@yahoo.com, bal_gibi@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: Cactus fruits (Opuntia ficus indica L.), commonly called prickly pear or nopal cactus belongs to the dicotyledonous angiosperm Cactaceae family, a family that includes about 1500 species of cactus. Opuntia ficus indica is found in tropical and subtropical plant areas. This plant is pointed out as relevant health promoting food with a great number of potentially active nutrients, the fairly high sugar content and low acidity of the fruit give it a delicious, sweet taste. This work aimed to study the effect of enzymatic treatment on polyphenols content in prickly pear juice. The results showed that, prickly pear juice had a high amount of phenolic compounds. HPLC-analysis for prickly pear juices (before and after enzymatic treatment) were carried out for identification of phenolic compounds showed that, all phenolic compounds were increased by enzymtic treatment, except vanillic, ferulic and cinnamic, it were decreased by the treatment prickly pear juice before enzymatic treatment was contained a high amounts from pyrogallol (3.767 mg/100g), catechol (2.270 mg/100g), vanillic (1.182 mg/100g), e-vanillic (2.969 mg/100g), and benzoic (1.956 mg/100g). Also, The major flavonoid compounds in prickly pear juice before the enzymatic treatment were luteo.6-arbinose 8-glucose (3.775 mg/100g) and luteo.6-glucose 8-arbinose (1.091 mg/100g). While, the major compounds after the enzymatic treatment were luteo.6-arbinose 8-glucose (9.723 mg/100g), luteo.6-glucose 8-arbinose (1.646 mg/100g) and A pig.6-glucose 8-e-rhamnose (1.527 mg/100g). All flavonoid compounds were increased by the enzymatic treatment, except, A pig.6-rhamnose 8-glucose, narengin, quercetrin and apegenin.

[Reham Makhdoom, Ginat El-Sherif and Maha Ahmed Hijazi. Effect of Enzymatic Treatment on Polyphenolics Content in Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica) Juice. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):88-93]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.09

 

Keyword: Cactus fruits- Prickly pear- Antioxidants- Enzymatic treatment- HPLC analysis

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10

Expression of hormone receptors; p53 and CD44 in endometrial carcinoma and their prognostic significance

 

Safinaz H. El-Shorbagy1, Radwa Orieby1 and Shahinaz H. EL-Shorbagy2

 

1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of Obestetric and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

drsafy_shorbagy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Endometrial cancer is the most frequently occurring female genital cancer. Traditional prognostic factors for the disease are histological type, grade, depth of myometrial invasion and tumor stage. The current diagnostic procedures are insufficient to identify endometrial cancer patients with poor prognosis. Objective: Toevaluate the prognostic significance of immuno-histochemical markers (estrogen receptor "ER", progesterone receptor "PR", p53 and CD44) in endometrial carcinoma (EC) and correlate the results with known predictors of survival to avoid overtreatment of low-risk groups and to ensure adequate postoperative treatment for patients with highly aggressive tumors. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 80randomly selected endometrial carcinoma biopsies from archives of pathology records (15 curettage specimens and 65 hysterectomy specimens).Archival specimens included62endometrioid carcinomas (EMC)and 18endometrial serous carcinomas (ESC). Paraffin sections of 4–5 m thickness were stained with H&E to confirm their histological diagnosis and grading. Immunohistochemical expression of hormone receptors (ER& PR), p53 and CD44were evaluated in all biopsies and correlated with known predictors of survival. Results: Hormone receptors ER and PR were more often positive in endometrioid than in serous tumors. Uterine endometrioid carcinomas showed significantly higher CD44 expression than did uterine endometrial serous carcinomas, the reverse was seen in p53 expression where ESC showed higher expression than EMC. Conclusion: Expression of hormone receptors (ER and PR) and CD44 were associated with low-grade and early stages of endometrioid carcinomas and they were mostly negative in aggressive endometrial serous carcinomas. Whereas, p53 overexpression was associated with high-grade and advanced stages of EMC and was also significantly higher in ESC. Thus ER, PR and CD44 high expressions could be considered as good prognostic markers, whereas p53 overexpression could be taken as a poor prognostic marker for endometrial carcinoma.

[Safinaz H. El-Shorbagy, Radwa Orieby and Shahinaz H. EL-Shorbagy. Expression of hormone receptors; p53 and CD44 in endometrial carcinoma and their prognostic significance. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):94-104]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.10

 

Key words: Endometrial carcinoma, hormone receptors (ER and PR), p53, CD44, EMC, ESC, prognosis

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Effect of Nursing Teaching Protocol on quality of life for Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

 

Attyiat Hassan Hussein1 and Ghaydaa Ahmed Shehata2

 

1 Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt

2 Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Egypt

 

Abstract: Aims of this study were to determine the teaching needs of patients with Parkinson’s disease, design nursing teaching protocol and evaluate the effect of nursing teaching protocol on quality of life for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Subjects and Methods pretest-posttest experimental design was utilized in this study. Hypotheses were formulated: knowledge of Participants after application of the nursing teaching protocol was higher than their knowledge before application of it, quality of life for participants will improve. Participants will have less disease symptoms or problems as compared to prior application of nursing teaching protocol. The Sample was of (30) adult patients from both sex. Setting the study was conducted in neurology department and its out patient clinic at Assiut University Hospital. Tool The following tools were utilized for data collection; first tool "Patients' assessment sheet", second tool: Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) Results There was statistical significance difference between (pre & post) nursing teaching protocol for patients regarding to their level of knowledge and quality of life. It was concluded that, Application of nursing teaching protocol when dealing with Parkinson’s patients shows a significantly improvement in patient's knowledge which reflected into their quality of life. Recommendation Reapply this research on a larger probability sample acquired from different geographical areas in Egypt for generalization. Assessment of nurse's knowledge and practices in relation to bundle of care provided for patients with Parkinson’s disease.

[Attyiat Hassan Hussein and Ghaydaa Ahmed Shehata. Effect of Nursing Teaching Protocol on quality of life for Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Life Sci J 2016;13(4):105-111]. ISSN: 1097-8135 (Print) / ISSN: 2372-613X (Online). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11.

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.11

 

Keyword: Nursing Teaching Protocol, Quality of life & Parkinson’s Disease

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2016. Marsland Press, Zhengzhou University

 

 

doi:

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.01

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.02

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.03

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.04

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.05

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.06

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.07

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.08

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.09

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.10

doi:10.7537/marslsj130416.11

 

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