Life Science Journal 
Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition
(Life Sci J)
 ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1097-8135, Monthly
Volume 12 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 57), October 25, 2015. life1210
 Cover (oniline), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1210

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Textbook Input as Agent of Low Vocabulary Uptake by EFL Learners


Thamer Alharthi and Ahmad Alfotais


Department of European Languages and Literature, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Department of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom



Abstract : For most people ‘learning, working and communicating in a global context’ begins in a FL classroom and one of the major tasks of the FL student is the learning and retaining of vocabulary. There are growing concerns about the limited vocabulary knowledge in Saudi EFL contexts (AlSaif, 2011). Given that vocabulary is probably the most crucial aspect of optimized FL learning, it has a prominent place in language teaching textbooks and materials. However, as O’Loughlin (2012, p. 256) suggests, “There is little published information investigating the vocabulary presented in course-books”. The present study seeks to shed light on the role of vocabulary input in textbooks and asks whether it is responsible for the low vocabulary uptake by Saudi EFL learners at tertiary level. The study examines the impact of some potential factors including frequency, recycling and word class on the students’ achievements in vocabulary knowledge. A total of 40 third-year university English majors’ lexical knowledge was assessed, using achievement vocabulary tests to obtain an overall picture of the size of their vocabulary. The results show that the learners’ vocabulary comprises less than the 2,000 most frequently used words in English, with adjectives learned better than other parts of speech. This confirms findings reported in the literature (Milton, 2007) that there is a linear relationship between the frequency of words and students’ knowledge, such that they retain high frequency words better than low frequency words. A number of ELT course books were then analyzed using the VocabProfile software program (Cobb, 2009). The vocabulary content of textbooks provides minimal chances for learners to develop their vocabulary, as they recycled a small number of vocabulary items and did little to expand their vocabulary beyond these.

[Thamer Alharthi and Ahmad Alfotais. Textbook Input as Agent of Low Vocabulary Uptake by EFL Learners. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):1-7]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.01


Key words: Vocabulary, textbooks, word frequency, recycling, word class

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Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization Versus Surgery In Multi-vessel Disease


Mohamed Mahmoud 1, Osama Osman2, G.M. Shaaban3 and M.M. Nasr4


Al-AzharAssiut University Cardiology Departments (1, 2), Cardiology National Heart Institute and Cardiothoracic Surgery National Heart Institute (3,4)



Abstract: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains the leading cause of mortality in the world. When it manifests as obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), it typically presents as angina pectoris or myocardial infarction (MI). Many treatments have been linked to the improvement of mortality from CAD. These include secondary preventive medical therapy and revascularization; initial treatments for acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI); revascularization for chronic angina; treatment for heart failure (HF); and primary preventive therapies, including treatment of hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipidemia. Multivessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD) is characterized by involvement of greater than 1 epicardial coronary artery (CA) or the unprotected left main (LM). The choice of revascularization strategy in this setting remains a critical issue in cardiology. Although coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has traditionally been the revascularization strategy for most patients with MV disease, there has been a gradual shift toward percutaneous revascularization (PCI). Early randomized clinical trials showed CABG to be superior to medical therapy. However, trials comparing CABG to bare metal stenting have not shown a mortality benefit. Advancements in interventional techniques will continue to challenge the notion that CABG is the standard therapy for patients with MVCAD. Several ongoing randomized clinical trials comparing CABG to drug eluting stents (DES) will provide valuable insight into the role of each procedure. Limited data suggests that CABG is superior to MV PCI even when drug-eluting stents are used. Several ongoing randomized trials are evaluating the long-term comparative efficacy of PCI with DES and CABG in patients with DM. Though CABG is currently the gold standard for revascularization of patients with unprotected LMCA stenosis, stent implantation in carefully selected patients appears to be both feasible and safe. Aim of the Work: The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of PCI using Drug Eluting Stents versus CABG in treatment of MVCAD. Results: Follow up for one year for all the patients showed that MACE positive patients in group (A) were 36% occurred at 9.78±2.1 months. No mortality was found during that period. On the contrary, group (B) showed 24% MACE positive patients, 8% mortality. All our complications occurred during post procedure hospital stay. The difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant. A Combination of semiquantitative stress echo and the clinical history allows us to define the risk of all late cardiac events for patients with MVD undergoing stenting or surgery. This study demonstrates that dobutamine stress echo is a powerful predictor of late cardiac event after coronary revascularization and is superior to simple clinical risk assessment. Our study concluded that: PCI and CABG are considered for diabetic patients with MVD, inspite of increased need for revascularization after PCI, yet the difference between CABG and PCI is not significant.

[Mohamed Mahmoud, Osama Osman,G.M. Shaabanand M.M. Nasr. Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization versus Surgery in Multi-vessel Disease. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):8-23]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.02


Key words: PCI= percutaneous coronary intervention, CABD= coronary angio bypass graft, echo?

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Early Puberty of Schoolgirls and its Impact on Academic Standing and Attitude towards School and Teachers, in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Amani Ahmad Rifai Filimban 1 and Tahia Abdullah Maimanee 2


1. Department of Biology, Collage of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. P.O. Box: 42845 Jeddah 21551, Saudi Arabia

2. Department of Biology, Collage of Science, King Abdulaziz University



Abstract: Although facts have showed that the age of puberty among girls seems to have been decreasing in recent decades in different countries around the world including the Gulf region, unfortunately the data regarding puberty of elementary school female students is still scarce in the Gulf region. The main goal of this study is to investigate early puberty among a sample of Saudi schoolgirls through Ages (8- 11) Years. Thus, while also examining the impact of early puberty on their behavior and grades in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study was done on 508 randomly selected female students from ages 8-11 years in the city of Jeddah. Data was collected by conducting interviews with these students on a school day, conducted in their schools. The interview questions included: demographic information, the scale of grades, as well as the questionnaire of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (the second edition) (BASC 2), to evaluate the personality and self-comprehension of girls going through puberty. The results of the study illustrated that the mean age of puberty among Saudi girls is presently 10.11 years old. Likewise the study showed that pubertal girls suffer from negative behavior; such as school problems composite that includes a change in attitude towards the school and its teachers with a significant relationship estimated by (P=0.00) (R= 0.29). Also, early puberty affects the academic grades of pubertal girls. The age of puberty among Saudi girls follows the secular trend in decreasing. Moreover, significant links have been found between early puberty, and decreased academic standing, as well as a negative behavior towards school and teachers among pubertal girls.

[Filimban AAR, Maimanee TA. Early Puberty of Schoolgirls and its Impact on Academic Standing and Attitude towards School and Teachers, in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):24-29]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.03


Keywords: Early puberty, pubertal age of girls, attitude to school, attitude to teacher, academic standing, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Assessing the potential for the establishment of monetary union among GCC countries


Waqar Ahmad Gulzar


Department of Industrial Engineering

King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 00966-503632416 (m); Stream: GCC Monetary Union



Abstract: Oil rich, interest (‘riba’) free economy of GCC region supported by close proximity of the member states, historically homogenous culture and visa-free movement between the states favors adoption of single regional currency. It is proposed that such a currency would not suffer from inflation. The proposed currency being free from the negative effects of usury, exchange rate uncertainty, inflation with reduced transaction costs, less competitive devaluations, and better fiscal discipline will prove to be one of the strongest currency of the world. Motivated by the above mentioned factors, this study is conducted to assess the feasibility for the establishment of a common currency among the six GCC states. Stratified Proportionate Random sampling technique was used by personally administering questionnaires to the respondents. Secondary data was collected from various authentic sources that include yearly financial data from banks, business firms, documents published by a number of government and private sector agencies. Statistical analysis was also conducted using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), Scree Tests, and regression and correlation analysis under varying scenarios. Hofstede Cultural Index was also used to study the cultural homogeneity of the GCC countries. The study concluded that the conditions in GCC countries are highly favorable for accepting a single Gulf currency for the whole region.

[Waqar Ahmad Gulzar. Assessing the potential for the establishment of monetary union among GCC countries. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):30-43]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.04


Keywords: Assessing; monetary union; GCC; country

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Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Taxanes: A Study for Evaluation.


Abdel-Maksoud, Mohamed Yousef


Ain Shams Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Hematology Oncology Department, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al-Khober, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Purpose: Taxanes are effective in the treatment of many common cancers, including lung, breast, prostate, and gynecological malignancies. Paclitaxel and docetaxelare the two most widely used chemotherapy drugs in the taxane family; however, the development of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) often necessitates dose-reduction, which may hamper the effectiveness of the drug and compromise survival outcomes especially when used in the adjuvant setting. Limited literature is available on the prevalence and severity of dose reduction due to CIPN. We sought to determine the frequency and severity of neuropathy and CIPN-induced dose reduction in cancer patients who received taxane-based chemotherapy with study of risk factors. Methods: We conducted a prospective review of 64 cancer patients and treated with taxane-based neoadjuvant, adjuvant or palliative chemotherapy at Ain Shams Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Hematology Oncology Department, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al-Khober, Saudi Arabia between January 2013 and March 2015. Twenty-eight patients received paclitaxel (43.7%) while thirty-sex patients received decetaxel (56.3%). Doses were administered according to the standard doses/m2 either weekly or every three weeks and patients were followed for manifestations of CIPN during the course of treatment and for 3 months after finishing it if possible. Results: Twenty of 64 (31.3%) patients developed neuropathy, with ten of those patients (35.7%) in the paclitaxel group and ten (27.8%) in the docetaxel group. Fourteen (21.9%) patients required dose reduction. Ten (15.6%) of these patients were dose-reduced specifically due to CIPN that developed during treatment and 4 (6.3%) had reductions due to other causes all of them were in the docetaxel group. The median relative dose intensity (received dose/planned dose) for the 14 CIPN-induced dose reduction patients was 80%. Age was a non-significant factor for the development of neuropathy, neither for the whole 64 patients (p-value = 0.441), nor for both subgroups (p-value = 0.919 for paclitaxel group and = 0.494 in docetaxel group). Patients with older age appeared to have a higher risk of taxane-induced dose reduction but was non-significant for the whole 64 patients(p-value = 0.134 for dose reduction in general and = 0.877 for dose reduction due to neuropathy) and for paclitaxel group (p-value = 0.106 for dose reduction in general and for dose reduction due to neuropathy as all dose reduction cases in paclitaxel group were due to CIPN).In docetaxel arm, age was significant for dose reduction in general (p-value = 0.0138) but was non-significant for dose reduction due to CIPN (p-value = 0.156). Patients treated with paclitaxel (rather than docetaxel) experienced a higher but non-significant risk of CIPN and neuropathy-induced dose reduction with p-values of 0.461 and 1.271 respectively, while in case of dose reduction in general, docetaxel had higher incidence but also non-significant (p-value = 0.939). Weekly paclitaxel protocol had higher but non-significant risk of CIPN or CIPN-induced dose reduction than 3-weekly protocol (p-values = 0.195 and 0.018 respectively).Finally, DM was assessed. For the whole 64 patients, there was significant increase of incidence of CIPN in diabetic patients (p-value = 0.003) and a highly significant dose reduction in the same group (p-value = 0), while there was non-significant increase in dose reduction due to CIPN compared to dose reduction due to other causes (p-value = 0.065). Similar results were elicited in the paclitaxel group with significant increase in CIPN and highly significant in dose reduction in general and non-significant in dose reduction due to CIPN compared to dose reduction due to other causes (p-values are 0.011, 0.00001, and 1 respectively).As regards the docetaxel group, the situation is slightly different. CIPN had a non-significant increase in diabetic patients (p-value = 0.179). For dose reduction, there was a highly significant increase among diabetic patients (p-value = 0.0003) but non-significant in dose reduction due to CIPN compared to dose reduction due to other causes (p-value = 0.428). Conclusions: In our study, the incidence of CIPN-associated dose reduction in our patient population was 21.9%. Older patients treated with docetaxel had a higher risk for dose reduction; while the diabetic subject shad a higher risk of dose reduction with diabetic patients treated with docetaxel had a higher risk of dose reduction only while diabetic patients treated with paclitaxel had a higher risk for both neuropathy and for dose reduction.

[Abdel-Maksoud, Mohamed Yousef. Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Taxanes: A Study for Evaluation. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):44-53]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.05


Keywords: Peripheral neuropathy; Taxanes; Dose reduction

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Nutritional profile of leaf litterfall as feed resource for grazing animals in semiarid regions


Rodríguez Santillán P.1, Guerrero Cervantes M.2*, Ramírez Lozano R.G.1, Bernal Barragán H.3, González Rodríguez H.4, Juárez Reyes A.S.2


1Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Alimentos. Pedro de Alba y Manuel Barragán S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. 66451, México

2Universidad Juárez de Estado de Durango, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Km 11.5 Carretera Durango-Mezquital, Durango, 34280, México

3Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Agronomía, Av. Francisco Villa S/N, Col. Ex-Hacienda el Canadá, Escobedo, N.L. 66450, México

4Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, A.P. 41, Linares, N.L. 67700, México.

Corresponding author: mgc1177@yahoo.com.mx


Abstract: Leaf litterfall samples, monthly collected during 2008 in two sites (Crucitas and Campus) at the Tamaulipan Thornscrub vegetation from northeastern Mexico, were subjected to chemical and in vitro fermentation assays. Thus, in vitro gas production at 24 hours, metabolizable energy and microbial protein synthesis were estimated. The presence of significant interactions for all variables (except the interaction site*month for the ash content) indicated that the studied factors are not independent among them. Considering the whole year and both sites, the neutral detergent fiber content were higher (41.6 vs 33%) and ether extract (3.7 vs 3.3%) in Campus site than in Crucitas site. Conversely, Campus site had higher ash content (13.6 vs 10.0%), crude protein (13 vs 9%), in vitro true organic matter digestibility (74 vs 62%), metabolizable energy (11.5 vs 9.5 MJ/kg dry matter), gas production (50 vs 65) and microbial protein (6.0 vs 5.4 µmol) than Crucitas site. In Crucitas site, the lower values for neutral detergent fiber fraction and higher values for crude protein content (28 vs 12.3%) were observed during the period of January to June, but in Campus site was just the opposite (42% vs 9.0%). It is concluded that the most of samples of litterfall in all months (except for crude protein in Campus site) have a good nutrient concentration and digestibility. Additionally, the estimated annual leaf litter production in Crucitas site and Campus site of 5.1 and 3.8 ton ha-1, respectively is considered as enough biomass availability to meet the maintenance and weight gain requirements in adult range small ruminants.

[Rodríguez Santillán P., Guerrero Cervantes M., Ramírez Lozano R.G., Bernal Barragán H., González Rodríguez H., Juárez Reyes A.S. Nutritional profile of leaf litterfall as feed resource for grazing animals  in semiarid  regions. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):54-61]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.06


Keywords:  chemical composition; in vitro gas production parameters; leaf litter; Tamaulipan Thornscrub vegetation

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Factors Affecting Compliance of Hypertensive Patients toward Therapeutic Regimen


Fatma Mostafa Mahrous


Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt



Abstract: Hypertension is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factor but its control is still a challenge all around the world. Control of blood pressure can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, so the compliance to antihypertensive drugs and life style modification play an important role for the control of hypertension. This study was aimed to assess factors affecting treatment compliance with antihypertensive therapy guided by the use of Health Belief Model variables among hypertensive patients. The study was conducted at the Cardiology outpatients' clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital. Collecting data from simple random sampling a total of 135 hypertensive patients who are using antihypertensive treatment that attended the Cardiology outpatients' clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital. The results of this study illustrated that the hypertensive patients participated in this study showed low compliance to antihypertensive treatment, the most significant factors with demographic characteristic was sex (female being compliant) and with the guide of Health Belief Model (HBM) the strongest predictor was perceived barrier to antihypertensive treatment, and there was statistically significant relation between over all patients compliance & their information about therapeutic regimen including: side effect of drugs & how to deal with it, health diet, possible complication. The study recommended that the nurses should give heath education to patients to every clinic visit about the therapeutic regimen including medications, diet, exercise and activity, early warning signs, self-care and precipitating factors that should be avoided. Also, follow-up for the patients' compliance with therapeutic regimen by a community health nurse should be done periodically.

[Fatma Mostafa Mahrous. Factors Affecting Compliance of Hypertensive Patients toward Therapeutic Regimen. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):62-69]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.07


Keywords: Factors affecting, compliance, Hypertensive Patients therapeutic regimen

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Elemental Distribution in Rock Samples, Wadi Baba, Southern Sinai, Egypt


Afaf A. Fakeha


Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



Abstract: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X ray Energy Dispersive X ray (EDX) was applied to search for Uranium, Thorium, as well as other elemental constituents of the studied rock samples. Ten samples of West of Wadi (valley) Baba, Southern Sinai, Egypt were collected for this study. These Samples varied in composition between calcareous sandy, dolomite, argillaceous and stone and ferruginous shale and clay stone. Spot analysis from these samples showed that the major elemental constituents matches with the types of the collected samples. The identified trace elements include Uranium (U), Th, Mo, Zn, In, and Tl.

[Afaf A. Fakeha. Elemental Distribution in Rock Samples, Wadi Baba, Southern Sinai, Egypt. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):70-76]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.08


Key Words: Sinai, SEM, EDX, Uranium, Thorium, rare earth

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Influence of UV-C (254 nm) on the Inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Kentucky isolated from chicken breast fillets in Egypt.


Mohamed Tharwat Elabbasy1, 2, Ahmed Elsayed Tharwat2, Essam Hassan Mohamed3


1College of Public Health and Molecular Diagnostics and Personalised Therapeutics Unit (MDPTU)

Hail University, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt

3Bacteriology, Mycology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt



Abstract: The study validated the efficacy of UV-C (254 nm) to inactivate Salmonella serotypes inoculated into chicken fillets samples obtained from different processors in Egypt with a treatment time of 2 and 4 minutes. Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Kentucky were successfully isolated and identified from the examined samples with a percentage of 73%, 18% and 9%, respectively from the total number of positive samples (22%) (11 out of 50). Sterile chicken fillets samples were inoculated with 8 logs of Salmonella serotypes (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S. Kentucky). The inoculated samples were treated with UV-C (254 nm) for 2 and 4 minutes and the decimal reduction times (D value, min) were determined and calculated for the Salmonella serotypes. The calculated D values for tested S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S. kentucky in UV-irradiated chicken fillets were 1.47, 1.67 and 2.05 min., respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between control and treated samples at 2 and 4 min., also between the tested Salmonella serotypes. This study will better enable processors to determine the process lethality of Salmonella serotypes in commercial chicken fillets.

[Mohamed Tharwat Elabbasy, Ahmed Elsayed Tharwat and Essam Hassan Mohamed. Influence of UV-C (254 nm) on the Inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Kentucky isolated from chicken breast fillets in Egypt. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):77-82]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.09


Key words: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis , Salmonella Kentucky, UV-C, Chicken breast fillets decontamination

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A study of some Environmental Impact on Olive's production in Toushka Area, Egypt


Mohammed Mahmoud Sherif


Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water Research Center (NWRC), Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Many vital factors were affecting the agricultural development and sustainability in Egypte project (Toushka). Olive trees (Olea europaeal. L. "cv" Manzanillo and Koroneiki) were cultivated in May, 2007 at the experimental farm of Water Research Study Complex – Abu Simble (WRSC)-Toushka, the trees were cultivated from tell now with zero productivity. The objective of this study is to investigate some of the most important factors that affect the olive trees growth and productivity such as water quality, soil edaphic "some soil physical and chemical properties" and air temperature. The study indicates that water quality for irrigation classified the class: C2-S1 which indicates a good quality and can be used to irrigate many crops including all olives species in different soils. The soil physical and chemical properties was classified under Class S2 "Moderately" which is suitable for cultivate olives. In addition, the temperature in Toushka study area were very high specially during the initial and induction periods, started from December to March; that affecting the period of Flowering and fruit set in April and May. In addition to in winter season there was no amount of frosts for flowering. According to the high temperature in Toushka area may be prevent pollen germination in Olive trees (Koroneiki and Manzanillo).

[Mohammed Mahmoud Sherif. A study of some Environmental Impact on Olive's production in Toushka Area, Egypt. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):83-89]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.10


Keywords: Toushka area, Environmental Impact, olives production

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Comparative study of surface roughness between polyamide, thermoplastic polymethyl methacrylate and acetal resins flexible denture base materials before and after polishing


Maha A Mekkawy 1, Lamis A Hussein 2, Mohamed A. Alsharawy 3


1 Department of removable prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim university. KSA

2 Department of dental material, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim university. KSA

3 Dental Biomaterials research chair, King Saud University. KSA



Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the surface roughness of different types of flexible thermoplastic materials (polyamide, polymethyl methacrylate and acetal resins) before & after polishing. Materials and methods: seven specimens were made for each group. One surface was polished using the conventional laboratory polishing technique, while the other surface remain unpolished. A profilometer was used to measure the surface roughness. Results: One way anova was used to compare surface roughness of the three materials before and after polishing. The test revealed that the surface roughness was decreased in all materials after polishing with a statistical difference, and Polyamide (Breflex) exhibited the least surface roughness values. Conclusion: All tested materials exhibited a little degree of roughness, below the threshold Ra=0. 2 μm. The surface smoothness of all resin specimens, was produced successfully by conventional laboratory polishing.

[Maha A Mekkawy, Lamis A Hussein, Mohamed A. Elsharawy. Comparative study of surface roughness between polyamide, thermoplastic polymethyl methacrylate and acetal resins flexible denture base materials before and after polishing. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):90-95]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.11


Key Words: Flexible denture base material, surface roughness, polyamide, thermoplastic acrylic resin, acetal resins, conventional laboratory polishing.

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Ototoxic effects of kanamycin and the possible protective role of salicylate in adult albino rat


Nader Galal Zaki; Wael Badr El-Kholy, Fouad Kamal Mansour and Nariman Abdel-Rahman Abdel-Fattah


Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

drnadergalal.ng@gmail.com, wael_elkholy71@yahoo.com


Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the ototoxic effects of aminoglycoside, kanamycin, and the possible protective role of salicylate in the adult albino rats. As aminoglycosides are indispensable agents both in treatment of infections and Meniere’s disease, a great effort has been made to develop strategies to prevent aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Anti-free radical agents, such as salicylate, have been shown to attenuate the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides. The animals, in this study, were divided into three groups, group I (control), group II (treated) which was divided into 3 subgroups, subgroup (I) received kanamycin for 7 successive days, subgroup (II) received kanamycin for 14 successive days, subgroup (III) received kanamycin for 14 successive days followed by 7 days of rest. Group III (treated protected) received kanamycin and salicylate for 14 successive days followed by 7 days of rest. Cochleaewere removed and processedfor histological, morphometrical and statistical analysis. This study showed damage of the organ of Corti, apoptotic cells with dense nuclei in spiral ganglion, excess collagen deposition in basilar membrane and in area underlying striavascularis. These effects were greatly reversed by addition of salicylate.

[Nader GalalZaki; Wael Badr El-Kholy, Fouad Kamal Mansour and Nariman Abdel-Rahman Abdel-Fattah. Ototoxic effects of kanamycin and the possible protective role of salicylate in adult albino rat. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):96-104]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.12


Keywords: ototoxicity; kanamycin; salicylate;otoprotection; rat

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The relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level within normal reference range and metabolic syndrome


Abd El Raouf Y. M, Alghazaly G, and Elsharawy T


Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt



Abstract: Introduction: The effect of thyroid dysfunction on cardiometabolic profile is well known; increased total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting blood glucose, blood pressure (BP), and decreased high density cholesterol (HDL-C) are characteristic effects of hypothyroidism. Most of these changes are components of metabolic syndrome (Mts). Studies exploring the association between elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels and metabolic syndrome in euthyroid subjects are limited, that is why we conducted this study to explore this vague area. Methods: In this case control study, 100 subjects were studied (80 patients with Mts as the case group, and 20 subjects without Mts as the control group). Subjects had TSH level within reference range (0.35 mu/ml4.12mu/L). The parameters that were examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, serum level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum triglycerides (TG) level, and serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: We found no association between serum TSH level within normal reference range and the presence of Mts; but there was significant positive correlation between serum triglycerides level (TG) and serum TSH level in patients with TSH level < 2.5 mu/L and 0.35 mu/L (P=0.003). Negative correlation was found in the same group of patients between serum TSH level and both of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P=0.014 and P=0.043 respectively). Also, the study identified negative correlation between serum level of TSH within normal reference range and DBP among all patients (P=0.038). Conclusion: This study revealed no association between serum TSH level within normal reference range and the presence of Mts.

[Abd El Raouf Y. M, Alghazaly G, and Elsharawy T. The relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level within normal reference range and metabolic syndrome. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):105-112]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.13


Keywords: waist circumference, blood pressure, thyroid function, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol

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Fracture resistance of weakened roots restored with different types of posts


Mohamed Hazzaa, Jylan Elguindy and Mona Alagroudy


Fixed Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

Dr_jul@hotmail.com, Mohazza3@gmail.com


Abstract: Background: Many post systems are available to clinicians, yet no consensus exists about which one is better in restoring endodontically treated teeth. Purpose: This study evaluated the fracture resistance of weakened roots restored with custom made metal posts, zirconia custom made posts and fiber reinforced custom made posts. Methods: Forty five maxillary central incisors had their crowns removed 2mm above the cement-enamel junction and were endodontic ally treated. The canals were prepared for post fixation, and the canal walls were flared using a taper diamond bur. The prepared roots were randomly divided into three groups according to the post system. All posts were cemented with adhesive resin cement. For the fiber-reinforced resin posts, cores were built up using microhybrid composite. Specimens were loaded at 45 degrees in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The mode of failure was classified as favorable or unfavorable. Results: Teeth restored with cast posts had the highest fracture resistance. Fiber-reinforced resin posts failed at a compressive force comparable to clinical conditions, but most failures were repairable. Thinner root dentin walls significantly decrease the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Conclusion: Fracture resistance and mode of failure in anterior teeth with flared canals variedaccording to the type of post used to support a crown.

[Mohamed Hazzaa, Jylan Elguindy and Mona Alagroudy. Fracture resistance of weakened roots restored with different types of posts. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):113-118]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.14


Keywords: Fracture; resistance; weakened; root; restore; post

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A program to teach some skills of knitting techniques employed in the implementation of Bed Linen using the Web


Zeinab Shehata Mohammed Amar


Assistant professor of clothing and Textiles College of Education in Ismailia, Suez Canal University



Abstract: The educational process has become in the modern technical era depends strongly on the modern sophisticated tools (Sylvia, 1996) and in light of modern-day techniques. As the knitting techniques taught by traditional methods depends upon other study programs (children clothes, home, foreign... etc) in the quality of finishing and termination products. It comes as a result of the problem that many of the students move from one stage of education pre-university to university education department Home Economics coordination without their desire (Zeinab Shehata, 2008) and do not have any idea about cutting and sewing techniques and feel the difficulty of what they learn of the skills of traditional methods such as the use of some simple exercises such as making straight line - curves - angles, technique pagan tail in different sizes 1/2 * 1.1, 2,3,4,5... etc., to expand the use of stitch length (Nagda Mady 2005) to work Ruffles technology and technical work of the fragments in different sizes 1 / 2,1,3,2,5..ak (Ibrahim Saber, 2004). And too much time and effort spent by traditional methods for first year (the first semester), Department of Home Economics, Faculty of Education in Ismailia, Suez Canal University. So we should think about their education in interesting and exciting way by using multimedia, which are designed specifically to give students needed to learn some knitting Statistics and detail techniques, which means Sound skills and fixed image and image animation and effective text and sound effects and cut video integration of all these media appeared in one context regulator on the computer screen in order to allow interaction between the learner and the subject of learning (Atef El Sayed, 2000) to serve a certain position tutorial makes them willing to learn and continue to achieve educational goals that have been formulated in advance (Al-Shahat Saad, 2008) and the application of their learning about knitting techniques and skills of the web in the implementation of family furnishings. And it has been chosen point of the search. The research aims to: The design of modern educational and interesting way complementary to traditional education for the development of teaching methods in the field of knitting techniques based on the use of multimedia software to the web to give the students the knowledge and skills of cutting and sewing techniques. Search sample: 15 students studying traditional Web program both ways and the Faculty of Education in Ismailia. Questionnaire was developed to measure the technical, educational efficiency of the site and its impact on the education of students, and the percentage of the agreement arbitrators amounted to 92.9%. This percentage is high and it is a significant indicator of the degree of efficiency of the location of the educational, technical and methodological aspects. The work of validity and reliability used Cronbach's alpha coefficient and retail midterm grades for each of the test and the skill and the Pearson correlation coefficients and test (A nova, T-test to analyze the results). One of the most important results: The effectiveness of the proposed site in the educational learning some details and knitting techniques. There are statistically significant differences at the 0.05 level between the average ratings of the arbitrators products in the axes of the questionnaire in the marketing followed by functionally followed aesthetically. The total average rating of arbitrators for the product as a whole axes 88.1%.This high ratio indicates that the program has helped students by using the Web to produce products using some of the detail and knitting techniques can be marketed because they are characterized by a high proportion of functional and aesthetic point of view.

[Zeinab Shehata Mohammed Amar. A program to teach some skills of knitting techniques employed in the implementation of Bed Linen using the Web. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):119-126]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.15


Keywords: Web, skill, knitting techniques, furnishings bed

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Role of Tosyl Cellulose Acetate as Potential Carrier for Controlled Drug Release


Maha M Ibrahim1, Tamer Y A Fahmy*1, Ehab I Salaheldin1, Fardous Mobarak1, Mohamed A Youssef 2, and Mohamed R Mabrook2


1 National Research Center, Cellulose and Paper Department, 33 El-Bohouth St. (former El-Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza, Egypt

2 Helwan University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Cellulose is a naturally occurring organic polymer. The chemical functionalization of cellulose is conducted to adjust its properties for different purposes. In the present study, cellulose was extracted from bagasse, derivatized to acetate, and chemically modified again to prepare tosylated cellulose acetate. The prepared cellulose derivatives were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Tosyl cellulose acetate was evaluated as a potential carrier for the controlled release of pH-sensitive drugs. The release was investigated as a function of pH and time at various pH values. The results find their use in controlled release applications.

[Maha M Ibrahim, Tamer Y A Fahmy, Ehab I Salaheldin, Fardous Mobarak, Mohamed A Youssef and Mohamed R Mabrook. Role of Tosyl Cellulose Acetate as Potential Carrier for Controlled Drug Release. Life Sci J 2015;12(10):127-133]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16. doi:10.7537/marslsj121015.16.


Keywords: Cellulose acetate; Tosyl cellulose acetate; Controlled release

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The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 1, 2015

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