Life Science Journal 
Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1097-8135, Monthly
 Volume 12 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 56), September 25, 2015. life1209
 Cover (oniline), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1209

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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The Effect of Land Use on Land Surface Temperature Based on Remote Sensing Indices and GIS in Al-Jouf Northwest, KSA


Amal Yahya Alshaikh


Department of Geography and GIS Faculty of Faculty of Arts and Humanities, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah KSA

Email: ayalshikh@kau.edu.sa


Abstract: This research has been undertaken to investigate the effect of land Use (LU) on land surface temperature (LST) in Al-Jouf area by using remote sensing indices and (GIS) technique. The study also aims to analyze and compare the relationship between land surface temperature and NDVI / NDWI. The main source of this study is Remote Sensing Data from Landsat-8 OLI (30m resolution) acquired in September (2014). Remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) bands have been used to interpret the distribution and changes in surface temperature. Results showed high correlation between Land Surface Temperature and land use types. High temperature values are associated with bare land and built-up area, while low ranges are found in water bodies and vegetation cover. Results also indicate that, LST and [NDVI / NDWI] shared an inverse relationship, implying that an increase in vegetation cover and water bodies abundance would generally reduce land surface temperatures. Generally the LST ranged from 27°C to 48°C in the study area.

[Amal yahya Alshaikh. The Effect of Land Use on Land Surface Temperature Based on Remote Sensing Indices and GIS in Al-Jouf Northwest, KSA. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):1-11]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.01


Keywords: Al-Jouf, Land Use, Land Surface Temperature, Effect, Remote Sensing, GIS

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Child-Pugh versus APACHE II Scoring Systems for Prognosis Prediction of Acute Variceal Upper Gasterointestinal Bleeding


Yosry M El-Kharadly1;Hala S El-Wakil2; Ahmed A ElBaz3 *; and Mohanned M Soliman4


1 Department of Gastrointestinal tract surgery, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

3 Department of Tropical Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

4 Department of Emergency Medicine, Nasser institute for research and treatment, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Background Accurate risk stratification for patients with acute variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding would be useful for identifying low-risk patients, who might not require hospitalization and high-risk patients, who require aggressive care in a closely monitored setting. Objectives: To evaluate the application of Child-Pugh and APACHE II scoring systems in the prediction of outcome of patients with acute variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and Methods: 100 patients were included prospectively. Clinical and laboratory data necessary to both Child-Pugh and APACHE II scores were calculated through 24 hours following admission. During hospitalization patients' outcome was reported. Discrimination was tested using the receiver operating characteristic curves and by comparing areas under the curve. Results: 26 patients developed one or more complications, 13 patients developed rebleeding without statistical significant Child-Pugh and APACHE II scores, 3 patients developed renal failure, 21patients had hepatic encephalopathy. All Child A patients survived, only one out of Child B patients died (2.2%) and 9 patients in Child C died (23.7%). Child-Pugh score cut off value for mortality was more than 10, with sensitivity 90%, specificity 77.5%, positive predictive value 31%, negative predictive value 98.6% and accuracy 80.4%. While applying APACHE II score, it was found that the cut off value was more than 15, with sensitivity 70%, specificity 77.8%, positive predictive value 25.9%, negative predictive value 95.9% and accuracy 70.6%. Conclusions: APACHE II and Child-Pugh scoring systems are useful for risk stratification of patients with acute variceal bleeding regarding mortality but not for rebleeding. It is preferred to use Child-Pugh score as a more sensitive score as well as more easy to apply to predict mortality.

[Yosry M El-Kharadly; Hala S El-Wakil; Ahmed A ElBaz; and Mohanned M Soliman. Child-Pugh versus APACHE II Scoring Systems for Prognosis Prediction of Acute Variceal Upper Gasterointestinal Bleeding. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):12-17]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.02


Keywords Child-Pugh score; APACHE II score; Variceal bleeding; Mortality

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Removal of Metal Ions Using Prepared Poly (Vinylpyrrolidone- Itaconic acid) Polymer


H. A. Hanafi


Cyclotron project, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P. NO. 13759, Egypt



Abstract: Template polymerization of itaconic acid (IA) in the presence of PVP as a template polymer using gamma rays as initiator were synthesized and characterized; and their use as sorbents in heavy metal removal was investigated. The capacity of the prepared polymer containing different amounts of PVP, N, N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (NMBA) and IA concentration was investigated. It is obvious that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing itaconic acid content. P(VP-IA) was found to be a potential adsorbent for removal of metal ions from aqueous medium. The effects of pH of the adsorption medium, initial concentration of the metal ions and contact time and adsorbent dose were investigated as the effective parameters on the adsorption capacities. The selectivity of the resins for metal species was compared. Column experiments were applied using packed column with prepared polymer with specific eluting reagent that is efficient for separation of metal ions.

[H. A. Hanafi. Removal of Metal Ions Using Prepared Poly(Vinylpyrrolidone- Itaconic acid) Polymer. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):18-24]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.03


Keywords: Template polymerization, Radiation, Adsorption, metal ions.

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Taq1 B Polymorphism Of Cholestryl Ester Transfer Protein; A Potential Risk Factor For Atherosclerosis In Niddm Diabetes Mellitus


Hazem S. A-Y 1, Marianne F. M 1, RandS2, Mary F3, Fatma A. El S1, Walaa A. R1


1Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of internal medicine, endocrinology unit, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of internal medicine, vascular unit, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt



Highlights: TAQ1 B polymorphism Hetero type (B1B2) is found more in diabetic patients with increased intima media thickness, however Wild type (B2B2), and Homo type (B1B1) were found in people with diabetes, with normal intima media thickness. The mutant, and wild type was not correlatedto lipid profile, which means that genetic background play a vital role in diabetic atherosclerosis which is not correlated only to dyslipidemia, and this may open a new window for research in contributing factors in this era. Abstract: Aim: In this study we assessed the role of TAQ1 B polymorphism of cholesterol ester transfer protein in diabetes atherosclerosis. Methods: 90 type II diabetic patients were enrolled in the study, full clinical evaluation, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and DNA analysis for the G277A of CETP gene polymorphism by PCR-RFLP technique was performed for all patients. Assessment of the carotid intima media thickness were done for all patients according to which patients were classified to those with normal or increased intima media thickness. Results: 95% mutant type (Homo,Hetero types) in the group with increased carotid intima media thickness compared to those of normal intima media thickness, in which the percent was 80%, and this was statistically significant. There was statistically significant difference in the right and left carotid intima media thickness between the wild type and the mutant type with higher values in the patients with the mutant type, however there was no statistically significant difference in lipid profile, between those patients with wild type and those with mutant type. Conclusion: Hetero type (B1B2) is found more in patients with diabetes with increased intima media thickness, however Wild type (B2B2), and Homo type (B1B1) were found in patients with diabetes with normal intima media thickness.

[Hazem S. A-Y,Marianne F. M,Rand s, Mary F, Fatma A. El S, Walaa A. R. TAQ1 B Polymorphism Of Cholestryl Ester Transfer Protein; A Potential Risk Factor For Atherosclerosis In NIDDM Diabetes Mellitus. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):25-30]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.04


Keywords: Taq1 B; Polymorphism; Cholestryl Ester; Transfer Protein; Atherosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus

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In vivo and In vitro studies of the inhibitory effect of Anethum graveolens essential oil on Candida albicans growth and infection


Khloud Alshehri1, Magda M. Aly1, Osama A. H. Abu-Zinadah1, Hanan Ameen2 and Abdulqader M. Shaikh1


1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cells and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans. Until now, there is no active and safe antifungal agent. The medicinal plant Anethum graveolens (Dill) was collected and essential oil (E.O) was extracted using soxhlet. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained oil was determined against C. albicans as test organism using agar well diffusion method. The extracted oil showed excellent activity against C. albicans with MIC of 0.0312 μg/ml. In time–kill experiment, the log time–kill was 3.08. Immunosuppressed mice was infected with C. albicans and treated with A. graveolens E.O. The treated mice had a significantly lower number of the collected Candida (cells/swap) compared to untreated mice (control). Comparative Histological studies of epithelium of dorsal tongues stand with PAS stain confirmed the anticandida activity of the oil and there is a reduce number of C. albicans cells in epithelium layers of tongue after treatment with A. graveolens E.O. In conclusion, essential oil of Anethum graveolens can be used to treat fungal infection.

[Alshehri K, Aly MM, Abu-Zinadah OAH, Ameen H and Shaikh Omar AM. In vivo and In vitro studies of the inhibitory effect of Anethum graveolens essential oil on Candida albicans growth and infection. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):31-34]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.05


Keywords: Candida albicans; Anethum graveolens; Immunosuppressed rats; anticandida

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Early embryonic development of the foregut of the Caridean shrimp Exopalaemon styliferus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1840)


Ali Abd AL-Latif Al-Al, Sabeeh H. Al-Maya, Munera A. A. Ibrahi and Salman D. Salma


Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

Department of Invertebrates, Marine Science Centre, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

qalialali_75@ymail.com; phone:07710850383


Abstract: Introduction: Exopalaemon styliferus was reported from the northern part of the Arabian Gulf and the inland waters of Iraq. It is a well-known fact that the recent hatched larvae of crustaceans didn’t feed. The aim of the present article is, therefore, to give a descriptive account of the events and changes occurred in the cellular masses of the embryo which leads to the early development of the foregut and to resolve the question, why new hatched zoeas don’t feed? Materials and methods: specimens of the shrimp E. styliferus were collected from Shatt Al-Arab estuary at Al-Fao town, south of Basrah. A conical net, 1 m long and 40 cm mouth aperture was used to collect the oviparous females and brought to the laboratory, placed in 60 L glass tanks filled with water from the same locality. After hatching, the females were removed. Every day, 10 larvae were collected and fixed and this continues until the day 20 after hatching. Embryos were fixed with Bouin’s fluid for 24hr, whereas the larvae were fixed with Formalin Acetic Acid Alcohol (FAA) for 24hr. The specimens (embryos and larvae) were processed for light microscopic study. Results: the present study investigates the formation of forgut in shrimp Exopalaemon styliferus which has five developmental stages. The first four stages are embryonal while the fifth one is after hatching. The forgut is originated in the initial post naupliar stage as embryos at a length of 0.8 mm from a small cellular mass in the second part of the cephalic area. Changes in this stage are divided into two secondary stages according to the arrangement, shape and structure of cells. It is found that esophagus rudiment develops independently of stomach rudiment, and then they are connected together in the second developmental stage. The hole of the mouth is closed in this stage. The length of the embryos in the second stage (mid post naupliar) approximates between 1.5 and 1.7 mm esophagus rudiment appears as a small hollow tube where its wall is constructed of one layer epithelial cells, and at the end of this stage stomach rudiment appears in a pear shape where the beginning of the origination cardiac and pyloric parts is distinguished. In the third stage, final post nauplius stage, where embryos at length of 2 mm, here is clear growth in forgut accompanied with a series of changes and centralized to the emergence of pyloric part of the stomach and cardiac pyloric valve. In the final embryonal stage, pre-hatching embryo stage, the length of the embryo is 2.2-2.3 mm, and the wall of foregut becomes of three layers, two of them are cellular and the third is non cellular which is secreted by epithelial cells of the ling of cavity of gut. In this stage, the limits of the cardiac part but the details of pyloric part are not so clear. Larvae hatch at length of 2.5-3.5 ml in larval phase after hatching (Zoea 1) where many morphological changes take place in the stomach and make it in a marsupial shape curved towards the dorsal part of the larva. In this phase, forgut is connected with midgut after the appearance and clarity of details of the pyloric part and the constitution of its dorsal chamber which is the last events in this stage. Conclusion: the study concludes that the reason behind the disability of the first larval phase to nurture after hatching is incompletion of the foregut as it is without important structures such as folds in the cardiac part and cardiac- pyloric valve and filter of the pyloric part.

[Ali Abd AL-Latif Al-Ali, Sabeeh H. Al-Mayah, Munera A. A. Ibrahim and Salman D. Salman. Early embryonic development of the foregut of the Caridean shrimp Exopalaemon styliferus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1840). Life Sci J 2015;12(9):35-54]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.06


Keyword: Shrimp, Exopalaemon styliferus, Development, Foregut

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Dynamic Stresses and Displacements around Cylindrical Cavities in an Infinite Elastic Medium under Moving Step Loads on the Cavity's Surface


Hamid Mohsenimonfared 1, M. Nikkhahbahrami 2


1.  Department of mechanical Engineering, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran

2.  Department of mechanical Engineering, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: Potential functions and Fourier series method in the cylindrical coordinate system are employed to solve the problem of moving loads on the surface of a cylindrical bore in an infinite elastic medium. The steady-state dynamic equations of medium are uncoupled into Helmholtz equations, via given potentials. It is used that because of the superseismic nature of the problem, two mach cones are formed and opened toward the rear of the front in the medium. The stresses and displacements are obtained by using integral equations with certain boundary conditions. Finally, the dynamic stresses and displacements for step loads with axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric cases are obtained and discussed in details via a numerical example. Moreover, effects of Mach numbers and poisson's ratio of medium on the values of stresses are discussed.

[Hamid Mohsenimonfared, M.Nikkhahbahrami. Dynamic Stresses and Displacements around Cylindrical Cavities in an Infinite Elastic Medium under Moving Step Loads on the Cavity's Surface. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):55-66]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.07


Keywords: Wave propagation, Fourier series method, cylindrical cavities, Helmholtz equations, moving load.

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Burnout, Work Engagement, work alienation as predictors of turnover intentions among universities employees in Kerman


Hamid Taboli


Department of Management studies, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran


Abstract: The main purpose of the present study was to determine whether work engagement mediate relationship between burnout and turnover intentions in sample of 210 universities employees in Kerman- Iran. The participants ranged in age between 25 to 45 years old by using reliable instruments. Results of study indicated that work engagement negatively related to turnover intention, while burnout and work alienation were positively related to turnover intention. Also, work engagement mediate relationship between burnout and turnover intentions among universities employees. The implications of these results for work performance are discussed.

[Hamid Taboli. Burnout, Work Engagement, work alienation as predictors of turnover intentions among universities employees in Kerman. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):67-74]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.08


Keywords: Burnout, Work Engagement, Work Alienation, Turnover Intentions

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Importance of Decentralization in agricultural extension


Mohaddaseh Nazarpoor


Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

E-mail: M_nazarpoor@yahoo.com


Abstract: Agricultural extension increasingly has become defined as one or other of (apparently) differentiated activities of technology transfer or rural development. In many situations, the transfer of technology, heretofore considered the purview of public sector systems, has been reconceived. Such changes suggest a refocussing of paradigms for the delivery of public sector extension. In developed industrialized countries, which often provide models for extension service delivery elsewhere, the declining relative importance of agriculture for economic growth, the increasing education and affluence of smaller populations of rural producers, and the increasing use of externally purchased inputs have changed the nature of publicly funded extension services and led to a questioning of the means of delivery of extension services by governments Agricultural extension is a non-formal type of education that provides advisory services by the use of educational approach in acquiring knowledge and skills to deal with the growing needs of global world. Diverse agricultural extension funding and delivery arrangements have been undertaken since the mid-1980s by governments worldwide in the name of "privatization." When agricultural extension is discussed, privatization is used in the broadest sense – of introducing or increasing private sector participation, which does not necessarily imply a transfer of designated state-owned assets to the private sector.

[Mohaddaseh Nazarpoor. Importance of Decentralization in agricultural extension. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):75-79]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.09


Keywords: Decentralization, Agricultural extension

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Main Characteristics of Adult learning


Mostafa Emami


Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

E-mail: emami_mostafa@yahoo.com


Abstract: Successful adult education programs recognize that adult learner needs and learning styles may require non-traditional methods of teaching and accommodate them whenever possible. This means holding classes and sessions outside of typical working hours for adults that work, providing one-on-one tutoring, group classes, and other methods of delivering services that are flexible. It is also important to hold the classes where it is convenient for adult learners to attend, such as local houses of worship, residential facilities, libraries, or other community centers. Understanding this key principle is difficult sometimes for organizations that have worked in child education, but not in adult education. Congregations that have held learning programs for children may feel that they are suited to take on adult education without realizing the differences in program structure and content. It is important that congregations research training opportunities before embarking on an adult education program.

[Mostafa Emami. Main Characteristics of Adult learning. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):80-85]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.10


Keywords: Adult learning

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Assessing Similarities between e-learning and adult Education


Jamshid Gorbani


Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

E-mail: jamshid_ghorbani@yahoo.com


Abstract: Distance education can be used for some aspects of most disciplines. For example, several institutions of higher education already have developed certificate programs, undergraduate programs, and graduate programs in health and physical education that are delivered using distance education methods. Eastern Oregon University, Emporia State University, Kutztown University, LaSalle University, the Medical College of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, and Virginia Tech are among institutions integrating distance technology into their physical education programs. Distance education is education designed for learners who live at a distance from the teaching institution or education provider. It is the enrollment and study with an educational institution that provides organized, formal learning opportunities for students. Presented in a sequential and logical order, the instruction is offered wholly or primarily by distance study, through virtually any media.

[Jamshid Gorbani. Assessing Similarities between e-learning and adult Education. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):86-90]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.11


Keywords: Distance Education, E-learning

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The difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy in adult education


Majid Habibi


Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

E-mail: majid_habibi@yahoo.com


Abstract: Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

[Majid Habibi. The difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy in adult education. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):91-95]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.12


Keywords: Andragogy, Pedagogy, adult education

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Arterial Compliance and Carotid Artery Changes in Multiple Sclerosis


Forayssa M. Talaat, M.D. 1, Sahar A. Nassef, M.D. 2, Nervana M. El-Fayomy, M.D. 1, Ahmed M. Abdelalim, M.D. 1, Alaa N. EL-Mazny, M.Sc.1 and Mary W. Fawzy, M.D. 2


1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.



Abstract: Limited studies show abnormal arterial compliance in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated possible carotid artery changes and arterial stiffness in MS patients. This study included 33 patients with clinically definite MS and 22 healthy control subjects. Expanded disability status scale (EDSS), Pulse wave velocity (PWV), Ankle brachial index (ABI), and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were measured in all participants. Brachial ankle PWV was significantly higher in MS patients compared to the healthy controls (P=0.014). There was no statistically significant difference between patients and control subjects as regards brachial femoral PWV, CIMT or ABI (P>0.05). Brachial femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly higher in the secondary progressive compared to the relapsing remitting MS patients (P=0.033). CIMT was significantly higher in the secondary progressive compared to the relapsing remitting MS patients (P=0.022). There were no statistically significant correlations between brachial ankle PWV, brachial femoral PWV or CIMT and EDSS scores in MS patients (P>0.05).Arterial wall changes may exist in MS patients. Its’ value as potential biomarker for disease pathology or future atherosclerosis in MS patients remains questionable.

[Forayssa M. Talaat, Sahar A. Nassef, Nervana M. El-Fayomy, Ahmed M. Abdelalim, Alaa N. EL-Mazny, and Mary W. Fawzy. Arterial Compliance and Carotid Artery Changes in Multiple Sclerosis. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):96-100]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.13


Keywords: Ankle brachial index, Arterial stiffness, Intima media thickness, Multiple sclerosis, Pulse wave velocity

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DNA Barcoding of two endangered medicinal Plants from Abou Galoom protectorate


H. El-Atroush1, M. Magdy2 and O. Werner3


1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbasya, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 68 Hadayek Shubra, 12411, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Departamento de Biología Vegetal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100, Murcia, Spain.



Abstract: DNA barcoding is a recent and widely used molecular-based identification system that aims to identify biological specimens, and to assign them to a given species. However, DNA barcoding is even more than this, and besides many practical uses, it can be considered the core of an integrated taxonomic system, where bioinformatics plays a key role. DNA barcoding data could be interpreted in different ways depending on the examined taxa but the technique relies on standardized approaches, methods and analyses. We tested two medicinal endangered plants (Cleome droserifolia and Iphiona scabra) using two DNA barcoding regions (ITS and rbcL). The ITS and rbcL regions showed good universality, and therefore the efficiency of these loci as DNA barcodes. The two loci were easy to amplify and sequence and showed significant inter-specific genetic variability, making them potentially useful DNA barcodes for higher plants. The standard chloroplast DNA barcode for land plants recommended by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) plant working group needs to be evaluated for a wide range of plant species. We therefore tested the potentiality of the ITS and rbcl markers for the identification of two medicinal endangered species, which were collected from Abou Galoom protectrate, South Sinai, Egypt. Wild plants belonging to diverse families of arid regions. Maximum likelihood tree analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminatory power of the ITS and rbcL genes. In this work ITS and rbcl markers were used to discriminate and confirm the identification of two medicinal endangered plants, it was found that, the viability and potentiality of ITS region in identification process for the two plants used is more efficiency than rbcl, where rbcl confirm the identification of two plants at generic level, while ITS at the species level. There is also four new sequences were obtained from using each previous marker, two new sequences for C. droserfolia and another two for I. scabra.

[H. El-Atroush, M. Magdy and O. Werner. DNA Barcoding of two endangered medicinal Plants from Abou Galoom protectorate. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):101-109]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.14


Key Words: DNA barcoding; ITS; rbcl; medicinal endangered plants; Identification

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ABO IgG antibodytitersofapheresis platelets:Aretrospective single center Egyptian study.


Manal H Farahat1 and Mohammad AASharaf2


1Departments of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Hospitals.

2Department of Biochemistry, Zagazig University Hospitals



Abstract: Background: Minor incompatible apheresis platelets (AP) transfusion containing critical anti-A or anti-B titer can cause clinically significant hemolysis. The aim of study was to determine ABO blood groups frequency of AP units, to quantify its titer for anti-A and B IgG by gel method, and evaluated gel card titration method by comparing some of its results with tube testing method. Methods blood groups of 270 APs were determined by slide test with anti-A and anti-B reagents. We evaluated 80 group O, 15 group A, 15 group B samples for anti-A and/ or anti-B IgG titer by gel method, to confirm gel card titer results tube testing was performed on eight units of group O and on one sample from each group A, B AP. Results: percent frequency of 270 apheresis blood groups were for A, B, O, AB 38.9, 21.9, 29.6 and 9.6% respectively. Group O APs (N80) had significantly higher anti-A and B titers than group A (N 15) or B (N 15) (p<0.00). 17.5% of group O had titers ≥256, no group A or B APs had a titers>256.A highly significant kappa agreement (0.62) was found when comparing gel card technology with tube test (p<0.00**). Conclusion: Prevalence of critical anti-A and Btiters in group O was relatively high, and a significant level of diagnostic concordance found between gel and test tube methods.

[Manal H Farahat and Mohammad A Asharaf. ABO IgG antibody titers of apheresis platelets: A retrospective single center Egyptian study. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):110-115]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.15


Keywords: platelet apheresis; ABO; antibody titer; IgG; incompatible transfusion

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as a risk factor of atherosclerosis in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis in Al-Gharbiyah Governorate in Egypt


Abd El Raouf, Y. M and Alghazaly, G


Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt



Abstract: The relation between HCV infection and kidney disorders is well recognized. Hepatitis C virus patients are more likely to have carotid atherosclerosis plaques as compared to HCV negative individuals. This study assessed the relation of HCV infection with atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. Forty patients with ESRD on regular hemodialysis were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1, included 20 patients known to be HCV infection, but no hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and Group 2 which included 20 patients known to have neither HCV nor HBV infection. All subjects were subjected to full clinical evaluation. Laboratory investigations included: complete blood count, and levels of: fasting plasma glucose, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total serum bilirubin, serum albumin, lipid profile, Serum calcium, serum phosphorus, parathormone hormone (PTH), prothrombin time(PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), international normalizing ratio (INR), serum creatinine, blood urea, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), C- reactive protein (CRP), HCV antibodies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HCV, and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBSag). Duplex study of both carotid arteries was carried-out. The study showed that serum levels of ALT, AST, LDL-Ch and PTH were significantly higher in HCV positive patients undergoing hemodialysis (P= 0.036, 0.042, 0.018 and 0.009 respectively), and there was significantly higher carotid atherosclerotic diameters among HCV positive patient as proved by carotid duplex study. In conclusion: we conclude that HCV infection in hemodialysis patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis as proved by carotid duplex.

[Abd El Raouf, Y. M and Alghazaly, G. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as a risk factor of atherosclerosis in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis in Al-Gharbiyah Governorate in Egypt. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):116-123]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.16


Key words: Endstage renal disease, Hemodialysis, Hepatitis C virus, Atherosclerosis

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Liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography is affected by serum total bilirubin in medicalcholestasis


Eman Rewisha1*, Hanaa Badran1, Khaled Gamil1, Eman Abdel Sameea1, Ashraf El jaky1, Khaled Metwaly1, Nashwa Shebl1 and Amal El Sharnouby 2


1HepatologyDepartment, 2 Clinical PathologyDepartment, National Liver Institute, Shebeen El Kom, Menoufiya University, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Transient elastography (TE) is a non-invasive and reproducible tool to assess liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. However, it remains to be determined if cholestasis interferes with fibrosis assessment. Aim: To determine the effect of increased serum total bilirubin on liver stiffness measurement in patients with medicalcholestasis. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with cholestasis (total serum bilirubin > 10 mg/dl) were prospectively included. Blood samples were collected for assessment of liver functions tests and TE was done initially and after resolution of cholestasis (decrease in serum bilirubin level <3mg/dl). Patients with high BMI which could affect fibroscan were excluded. For determination of the etiology of cholestasis, a detailed physical examination and history taking were performed in all patients. Exclusion of obstructive jaundice was established by abdominal ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Results: Patients were 43.83 ± 7.64 years old and males were 22 patients (73.3%). Patients with F2 represented 6.7% (2 patients), patients with F3 represented 20% (6 patients) while LSM of 22/30 of patients reached cirrhotic level (F4).There was statistically significant change in LSM value after decrease in bilirubin level (P< 0.01). The mean value of LSM at the time of inclusion in the study was 29.01±18.84kPa and the mean value of LSM after resolution of cholestasis was 17.57±11.15 kPa. The decrease in the mean level of LSM value was statistically significant (P< 0.01). The mean value ± SD of total bilirubin level at baseline was 15.66 ± 6.19 mg/dl and the mean value ± SD of total bilirubin level after the decrease in its level was 2.33 ± 0.61 mg/dl. The decrease in the mean level of total bilirubin level was statistically significant (P< 0.01). Conclusion: TE has not demonstrated reliable diagnostic accuracy in patients with cholestasis.

[Eman Rewisha, Hanaa Badran, Khaled Gamil, Eman Abdel Sameea, Ashraf El jaky, Khaled Metwaly, Nashwa Shebl and Amal El Sharnouby. Liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography is affected by serum total bilirubin in medical cholestasis. Life Sci J 2015;12(9):123-127]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17. doi:10.7537/marslsj120915.17


Key words: Liver stiffness measurement, transient elastography, serum, bilirubin medicalcholestasis

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