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 Life Science Journal 
Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition 
(Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1097-8135
Volume 12 - Special Issue 4 (Supplement 1204s), September 25, 2015. life1204s
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1204s
 
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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Finding International Model Views for Studying the Effect of Telecommunications Proliferation on Economic Growth and Social Development

 

Zenzo Polite Ncube 1, Naison Gasela 2, J.M. Hattingh 1

 

1. Department of Information Technology, Sol Plaatje University, Kimberley 8300, RSA

2. Department of Computer Science, Mafikeng Campus, North-West University, Mmabatho 2735, RSA

2. Department of Computer Science, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2735, RSA

Zenzo.Ncube@spu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The relationships between factors like general economic freedom, trade freedom, etc., and telecommunications proliferation are often a poorly understood field, and in spite of many papers in reputable journals, they remain a challenge. While many viewpoints have been expressed in literature, the problem that remains is to determine what should be done for a specific country. A situational audit for a specific country is obviously desirable as well as proposals aimed at the improvement of telecommunication proliferation. There is thus a need for a methodology to conduct a situational audit of a specific country aimed at measuring the relevant attributes that are important. One of the contributions envisaged for this paper is the creation of methodologies that can aid a specific country to overcome some of its weaknesses in the telecommunications area and implement specific actions in order to enhance their situation regarding the use of telecommunications and related activities to facilitate a better life through economic growth and social welfare development. The methodology investigated here is data modelling by multiple regression techniques and also the use of interpretive techniques such as Linear Response Surface Analysis. The relative successes and failures of countries could be analyzed by means of these methodologies. This will hopefully help to eventually create a “blue-print” for a country wishing to improve its position regarding valuable telecommunications options. The results are presented and discussed.

[Zenzo Polite Ncube, Naison Gasela, J.M. Hattingh. Finding International Model Views for Studying the Effect of Telecommunications Proliferation on Economic Growth and Social Development. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):1-8]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.01.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.01

 

Keywords: Telecommunications proliferation, economic growth, situational audit, Linear Response Surface Analysis (LRSA)

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An empirical Study of the Role of Institutional Reforms and other Factors on Telecommunication Technology Proliferation

 

Naison Gasela 1, Zenzo Polite Ncube 2, A.C. Kadyamatimba 3

 

1. Department of Computer Science, Mafikeng Campus, North-West University, Mmabatho 2735, RSA

2. Department of Information Technology, Sol Plaatje University, Kimberley 8300, RSA

3. Department of BIS, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, RSA

Naison.Gasela@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Telecommunications proliferation is influenced by a number of factors. These factors can be roughly classified as either factors not within the decision-maker’s control (some researchers call these parameters or state variables) or certain factors often called decision variables or controllable factors. These are variables over which the decision-maker has control. From considering the results of many of the available literature studies, there is general consensus that supports the notion that telecommunication (telecom) technology and cellular phones are beneficial for economic growth and social welfare. There are, however, many factors that may severely limit these expectations. One is for example that true wireless communication remains expensive. Another is that besides the lack of an adequate fixed line infrastructure, factors like general economic freedom and trade freedom are often lacking in many developing countries. This paper is an empirical study of the role of institutional reforms and other factors on telecommunication technology proliferation. In this paper, the main factors determining telecommunication technology proliferation are empirically explored and the results are presented and discussed.

[Naison Gasela, Zenzo Polite Ncube, A.C. Kadyamatimba. An empirical Study of the Role of Institutional Reforms and other Factors on Telecommunication Technology Proliferation. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):9-14]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.02.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.02

 

Keywords: Institutional reforms, telecommunications technology proliferation, cellular phones, economic freedom

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Insulin Resistance, a Co-factor to Dysglycemia, Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in an Egyptian Population: A Non-Randomized Retrospective Study

 

Ashraf A. El-Sheikh1, Nora A. El-Sheikh1, Manal M. Badawi2, Magda H. Mahran2 and Maha M. Abdelfattah2

 

1AbouSeifein Diabetes Center in Cairo, Egypt

2Microbiology and Immunology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology in Giza, Egypt

adc_elsheikh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Insulin Resistance (IR) - a major component of the metabolic syndrome -is directly related to macro-vascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients irrespective of the glycemic level (2). However, the impact of IR on micro-vascular complications such as Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is not yet fully established. So once more, the IR dilemma rises again but this time from a new prospective. Material & Methods: We recruited 120 type 2 diabetic patients diagnosed for a period of less than 3 years, age range (35-65y) 64 females – non-smokers, with no evidence of peripheral arterial disease confirmed clinically and by duplex study. All 120 patients were subject to Clinical Examination, Ezscan / Sudoscan tests & Laboratory investigations – all on a one-day medical service. Laboratory tests included: Glycemic profile (FBG, 2hPPBG & HbA1c). HbA1c was performed both by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by capillary blood sample using the Clover system (Boronate Affinity Chromatography, Infopia). 2) Urea, creatinine & microalbuminuria. 3) Lipid profile & Triglyceride. 4) Complete Blood Count & ESR. 5) Liver enzymes ALT & AST. 6) Fasting & PP C-Peptide. 7) C-reactive protein (CRP hs) & Interlukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels, as inflammatory markers. Insulin Resistance was diagnosed by the Ezscan and confirmed by the Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-2 ir calculator, university of Oxford, 2004) with a cut-off point of >2.5 ( for present or absent IR). The results of the Ezscan were categorized as follow: <40% is considered absent IR (HOMA <2.5), from 41-60% is considered mild IR (HOMA 2.6-3), from 61-80% is considered moderate IR (HOMA 3.1-4) and >80% is considered severe IR (HOMA >4). Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) was estimated by the Sudoscan using the micro-Seimens unit (uS) and the results were categorized as follow: (1) Mild DN (green zone, >60 uS). (2) Moderate DN (yellow zone, 40-59 uS). (3) Severe DN (red zone, < 40 uS). Results: The results of the Sudoscan & Ezscan tests led to the paradigm of 4 groups: Group A (30 patients, 25%) without evidence of DN and absent IR with an average HbA1c of 8.5% - Group B (42 patients, 35%) with mild DN and mild IR (average 52 %) and average HbA1c of 8.7% - Group C (30 patients, 25%) with moderate DN and moderate IR (average 70 %) and average HbA1c of 7.9% - Group D (18 patients, 15%) with severe DN and severe IR (average 88 %) and average HbA1c of 8.2%. These results were statistically significant (P<0.001) concerning the positive correlation between IR & DN irrespective of HbA1c level a as glycemic marker. A weaker positive correlation could be detected between the level of glycemia (HbA1c) and DN. Conclusion: DN is a common incident in most type 2 diabetic patients, it occurs earlier than we expect in the process of the disease. Our study confirms the strong correlation between IR & DN in type 2 diabetic patients irrespective of the severity of symptoms or the glycemic level. It also confirms the accuracy and simplicity of both the Ezscan & Sudoscan as non-invasive and accurate diagnostic tools for IR & DN respectively.

[Ashraf A. El-Sheikh, Nora A. El-Sheikh, Manal M. Badawi, Magda H. Mahran andMaha M. Abdelfattah. Insulin Resistance, a Co-factor to Dysglycemia, PredictingPeripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in an Egyptian Population: A Non-Randomized Retrospective Study. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):15-22]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.03.

 

Key words: Diabetic Neuropathy, Insulin Resistance, Ezscan, Sudoscan, HbA1c

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4

Improvement of marketing management of enterprises

 

Fikret Veli Guliyev

 

Azerbaijan Cooperation University, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan

 

Abstract: When enterprises rely on their prouction capacity and produce goods without learning the needs and tastes of consumers and present them to the market, difficulties arise in the sale and their market situation gradually gets worse. In order to prevent such situation and ensure success in market activities it is necessary to follow the system of marketing management of enterprise activities.

[Guliyev FV. Improvement of marketing management of enterprises. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):23-27]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.04.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.04

 

Keywords: Market orientation of enterprises; systematic approach; marketing service; marketing management; elements of the marketing system; organizational culture of marketing; contrary information contact; market subjects

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Analysis of genetic diversity in linseed using molecular markers

 

Tahira Bibi1, Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa1*, Ejaz-ul-Hasan1, Salsabeel Rauf1, Tariq Mahmood1

and Qurban Ali2

 

1. Oilseeds Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2. PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

3. Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding author’s email: saadpbg@gmail.com, qurban.ali@cemb.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Broadening the genetic base of linseed cultivars to maintain, evaluate and utilize germplasm efficiently and effectively, it is essential to investigate the extent of genetic diversity present in the germplasm. The major aim of the study was to analyze the extent and distribution of genetic variation among various linseed genotypes using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Out of 15 RAPD primers used, seven primers had given clear and polymorphic bands. Total number of loci traced by these primers was 68 and all were polymorphic. Polymorphism of these genotypes was 100 %. Amplification product ranged from 250 bp to 3000 bp. Similarity coefficient of selected genotypes ranged from 0.5 (50 %) to 0.93 (93 %). Maximum similarity of 0.93 was shown by LS-11 with LS-17 (93 %). Minimum similarity of 0.50 was shown by LS-19 with LS-32 and LS-04 (50 %). Genetic distance of RAPD for the total pairs of genotypes varied from 0.1 to 0.41. LS-19 is the most diverse genotype showing maximum genetic distance of 0.41 (41 %) from rest of the genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed that genotypes LS-19, LS-32, LS-3 and LS-25 were diverse and promising accessions for use in national variety development program.

[Bibi T, Mustafa HSB, Hasan EU, Rauf S, Mahmood T and Ali Q. Analysis of genetic diversity in linseed using molecular markers. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):28-37]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.05.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.05

 

Keywords: molecular markers, RAPD, bio-diversity, Cluster analysis, genotypes

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Crop improvement through conventional and non-conventional breeding approaches for grain yield and quality traits in Zea mays

 

Fawad Ali1, Naila Kanwal1, Muhammad Ahsan1, Qurban Ali1,2 and Nabeel Khan Niazi3,4

 

1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan

2. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan

3. Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan

4. Adjunct Research Fellow, Sothern Cross University Australia

Corresponding Author: fawadniazi_a@yahoo.com, saim1692@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Zea mays is an important cash crop grown for food and feed throughout the world. The growth, yield and quality of corn grain and fodder are highly affected by various biotic and abiotic factors that caused reduction in output. The crop yield and quality may be improved through conventional breeding by selecting genotypes on the basis of genetic variability. Various statistical analysis and designs like randomized complete design, randomized complete block design, factor factorial analysis, combining ability analysis, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, additive, dominance and gene interactions helped plant breeders to identified best inbred lines, synthetic varieties and hybrids. The traits that are under polygenic control may be improved through quantitative genetics and quantitative plant breeding approaches. The non-conventional or advanced molecular plant breeding now a day helping in improving the potential of crop plant by inducing gene (s) of interest in crop plants. Biotechnology also helped to develop biotic and abiotic resistant crop genotypes. In present review, the role of conventional and non-conventional breeding has been explained for better understanding of breeders to work with conventional and molecular plant breeding.

[Fawad A, Muhammad A, Kanwal N Ali Q, Niazi NK. Crop improvement through conventional and non-conventional breeding approaches for grain yield and quality traits in. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):38-50]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.06.

 

Keywords: Zea mays, tissue culture, gene action, heterosis, genetic variability, yield, traits

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Oxidative damage caused by Reactive Oxygen Species under drought stress in Gossypium hirsutum

 

Muhammad Asim Bhutta1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi1, Muhammad Khalid Shabaz2, Mehmood Ahmad1, Saif-Ul-Malook3 and Qurban Ali4

 

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bahauddi Zakariyaiya University, Multan, Pakistan. 2Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

3Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

4Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore Pakistan

*Corresponding author: m.k.qureshi81@gmail.com, saifulmalookpbg@gamil.com

 

 Abstract: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is an important fibre crop. It is very sensitive to drought stress. Water stress reduces yield in cotton by reducing number of bolls per plant, reduced boll size, and increased flower shedding. Drought stress severely affects the process of photosynthesis. Water stress results in production of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) to lethal a level that causes oxidative damage to lipids, protein and DNA. ROS includes superoxide radical (O2˙ˉ), hydroxyl radical (OH˙), hydroperoxyl radical (HO2˙), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), alkoxy radical (RO˙), peroxy radical (ROO˙), singlet oxygen (1O2). ROS are produced in various organelles of the cell that includes chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and plasma membranes. Plants have natural defence ROS scavenging enzymes like CAT (catalase), GR (glutathione reductase), superoxide dismutase (SOD), APX (Ascorbate peroxidase) etc. The extent of damage from ROS depends on the delicate balance between ROS production and ROS scavangers. This review paper highlights the sites of ROS production, their antioxidant enzymes, and certain genes identified in cotton that can enhance the production of ROS scavenging enzymes thus can enable cotton plant to tolerate drought stress.

[Bhutta MA, Muhammad KQ, Muhammad KS, Mahmood A, Malook SU Ali Q. Oxidative damage caused by Reactive Oxygen Species under drought stress in Gossypium hirsutum. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):51-59]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.07.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.07

 

Key words: Gossypium hirsutum L. Photosynthesis, Drought stress, Reactive oxygen species, Trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase

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Plant cuticular waxes: a review on functions, composition, biosyntheses mechanism and transportation

 

Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad*1, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman1, Qurban Ali2 and Shahid Iqbal Awan3

 

1. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

3. Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular genetics, The University of Poonch, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Rawalakot, Pakistan

Corresponding author’s emails: hafizahmad90@yahoo.com, saim1692@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Plants are simultaneously exposed to various biotic and abitic stresses which effect growth and development of plants causing to reduce yield. The term plant wax is collectively used to describe the lipid components of cuticles covering the areal parts of plants. Cuticular wax layer protects the plants against environmental stresses and work as a waterproof barrier. It reduces the residual transpiration, minimize the non-stomata water loss, shelter plants from ultraviolet radiations, decrease the water deposition on plant surface, minimize the retention of pollens, dust and air pollutants. Plant waxes provide the protection against bacterial, fungal pathogens and reduces plant-insect interactions. Generally cuticular wax is comprised of long chain aliphatic lipids, tritrepenoids, sterols and flavonoids. Aliphetic compounds are synthesized in epidermal cells to from very long chain fatty acids. These very long chain fatty acids are changed to their derivatives to form wax. The aim of present review is to exploit the available information about the composition, functions, biosyntheses process of plant epicuticular wax and factors involved in its regulation so that the information may be helpful for plant biologists to improve the potential of crop plants against environmental stresses.

[Ahmad HM, Rahman MU, Ali Q Awan SI. Plant cuticular waxes: a review on functions, composition, biosyntheses mechanism and transportation. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):60-67]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.08.

 

Keywords: Cuticular wax, wax composition, drought tolerance, wax biosyntheses

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Estimation of genetic association among yield contributing traits in aromatic and non-aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars

 

Sarfraz Naseer1,*, Muhammad Kashif1, Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal2 and Qurban Ali1,3

 

1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author: sarfraz1771@yahoo.com, hafizahmad90@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study provided useful evidences about yield and its contributing components on 8 morphological traits, which were studied in 24 Asian accessions of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant yield was positively and significantly correlated with filled grains weight per panicle, number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and spikelet fertility percentage at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Thus, these traits could play pivotal role in the development of high yielding rice genotypes. Path coefficient analysis recorded highest positive direct effect on yield per plant through number of grains per panicle, filled grains weight per panicle, plant height and 1000-grain weight. Hence, traits like number of grains per panicle, filled grains weight per panicle and 1000-grain weight would be useful in future breeding programs to develop superior genotypes having excellent yield potential.

[Naseer, S, Kashif M, Ahmad HM, Iqbal MS Ali Q. Estimation of genetic association among yield contributing traits in aromatic and non-aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):68-73]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.09.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.09

 

Keywords: Oryza sativa, correlation, path coefficient, accessions, grain yield, genotypic, phenotypic

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Assessment of genetic variability in basmati and non-basmati cultivars of Oryza sativa

 

Sarfraz Naseer1,*, Muhammad Kashif1, Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal2 and Qurban Ali1,3

 

1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author: sarfraz1771@yahoo.com, hafizahmad90@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The experiment was conducted to reveal genetic variability and to study the parameter analysis in 24 aromatic and non-aromatic rice genotypes. Highly significant variations were determined and the phenotypic variance was relatively greater than genotypic variance for most of the traits, like plant height, number of spikelets per panicle and number of grains per panicle. Higher magnitude of phenotypic variance showed more effect of environment on expression of these traits. A few traits such as number of tillers per plant, spikelet fertility percentage, filled grains weight per panicle, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant indicated least differences between PV and GV, this phenomenon gave the information of gene control for expressivity of these traits. Highest GCV was observed for number of tillers per plant, then yield per plant, number of grains per panicle and filled grains weight per panicle, while spikelet fertility percentage showed lowest value of GCV. Sufficient amount of variability was observed for most of the traits. Filled grain weight per panicle exhibited high heritability but lowest genetic advance showing non-additive gene control. Moreover, number of grains per panicle, plant height and number of spikelets per panicle revealed high magnitudes of GCV %, PCV %, heritability % and genetic advance. These results suggested that the choice for better improvement considering these traits might be beneficial.

[Naseer S, Kashif M, Ahmad HM, Iqbal MS Ali Q. Assessment of genetic variability in basmati and non-basmati cultivars of Oryza sativa. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):74-79]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.10.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.10

 

Keywords: Oryza sativa, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, additive, heritability, genetic advance

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Performance evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for physiological and qualitative traits

 

Muhammad Ali Raza1, Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad2,*, Zahid Akram1 and Qurban Ali3

 

1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Pakistan

2. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author: hafizahmad90@yahoo.com, saim1692@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Pakistan is an agricultural country and its economy mainly depends on agriculture. Wheat is an important cereal crop and is used as staple food in Pakistan. To fulfill the food supply of increasing population of the country it is basic task for plant breeders to improve the yield and quality of the crop. Present study was conducted in the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PMAS- Arid Agriculture University Rawalpind to identify the potential wheat genotypes for physiological and qualitative traits. Thirty different genotypes were used as a genetic material. The analyses of variance showed highly significance variations among wheat genotypes for under consideration traits. From the results of experiment it was concluded that genotype “Bhakar-1” provided highest mean value for flour yield and protein content. Hence this genotype can be used to improve these traits. However the mean value for genotype Satluj-86 was lower for most of the studied traits such as transpiration rate, protein content and dry gluten contents, so this genotype may be avoided for cultivation in rainfed conditions and not to include in breeding programs.

[Raza MA, Ahmad HM, Akram Z, Ali Q. Performance evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for physiological and qualitative traits. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):80-86]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.11.

 

Keywords: Triticum aestivum, Wheat, quality traits, physiological traits, rainfed conditions

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Assessment of effect of different herbicides on morphological traits of Gladiolus grandiflorus

 

Zeeshan Ali1, Abdul Qadeer1, Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad2,*, Omar Aziz3, Muhammad Qasam1 and Qurban Ali4

 

1. Institute of Horticultural Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3. Institute of Soil and Environmental Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

4. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author’s email: hafizahmad90@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Floriculture is emerging as a profitable venture due to divergence of farmers towards high value floral crops and utilization of flowers in social and industrial level. Manual weeding is a very tedious and expensive labour practice of weed control that often damages the crop as well. Worldwide different weed control strategies are employed in the crops such as preventive, cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical. However, the chemical control using herbicides is one of the recent practice that is used in modern agriculture. The effectiveness of herbicide is decided by its specificity and mode of action under a soil conditions, its organic matter content, weather conditions and soil moisture prevailing at that particular area. Present study was conducted at Floriculture Research Area, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2011-12 to study the effect of different herbicides on growth and yield of gladiolus plants. Pre emergence and post emergence applications of herbicides improved the growth of Gladiolus plant. Pendimethalin applied at 12ml/litre as pre emergence herbicide significantly increased plant height of white prosperity (100.78cm).

[Ali Z, Qadeer A, Ahmad HM, Aziz O, Qasam M, Ali Q. Assessment of effect of different herbicides on morphological traits of Gladiolus grandiflorus. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):87-93]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.12.

 

Keywords: Gladiolus grandiflorus, herbicides, morphological traits, weeds, floriculture, floral crops

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Improvement of secondary metabolites for Cucurbita moschata through tissue culture techniques: An overview

 

1Saba Riaz, 2,*Saif-ul-Malook, 1Athar Hussian Shah, 3Muhammad Sarfaraz, 1Syeda Muthira Zanib Kazmi, 1Zonaira Abad, Sofia Jabeen, 2Rana Qammar Uz Zaman, 2Muhammad Asif and 2,4Qurban Ali

 

1. Department of Botany, Government College University Lahore, Pakistan

2. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan

3. Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan

4. Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan.

Corresponding author email: saifulmalookpbg@gmal.com, saim1692@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cucurbita moschata is a plant which belongs to Cucurbitaceae family and it is widely used in traditional medicine. As there is lack of information available on the tissue culture and secondary metabolites of Cucurbita moschata, plant tissue culture appears to be a viable option for the improvement of the Cucurbita species by means of plant tissue. The establishment of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system suitable for genetic transformation is the key step in this approach. Plant growth regulators hold great potential for their effect and impact on callus development and regeneration in Cucurbita moschata. Callus formation and regeneration in plants is not only effected by PGRs but also dependent upon the moisture content, light intensity, temperature and type of explant. Present study highlighted the medicinal importance of Cucurbita moschata secondary metabolites production. The tissues having higher rates of cell division produce growth regulatory substances including cytokinins, auxins and many other secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites regeneration and effectiveness in tissue culture is generally a quantifiable trait that repeatedly varies between plant species and within a plant species among, varieties, subspecies cultivars and ecotypes. So tissue culture regeneration of secondary metabolites can become variable particularly when many metabolic actions have to be established within the similar species and different types of secondary metabolites identified by the plant callus.

[Riaz S, Malook SU, Shah AH, Sarfaraz M, Kazmi SMZ, Abad Z, Jabeen S, Zamsn RQU, Asif M, Ali Q. Improvement of secondary metabolites for Cucurbita moschata through tissue culture techniques: An overview. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):94-101]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.13.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.13

 

Keywords: Cucurbita moschata, Plant Growth Regulators, Cytokinins, Regeneration, Tissue culture, Metabolites, Callus

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QTL mapping for the improvement of drought tolerance in cereal crops: An overview

 

Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad1,*, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman1, Farrukh Azeem1and Qurban Ali2

 

1. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author: hafizahmad90@yahoo.com, saim1692@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cereals are annual grasses having starchy grains that are used as food. Drought is major stress that largely constrains the productivity of cereal crop in all over the world. Improving the cultivars against drought stress will increase crop yield as well as the cultivatable areas. Therefore, the development of cultivars having resistance against drought stress is a fundamental challenge for biologists to address future problems of food security. Identifying genomic regions responsible for drought tolerance will be helpful to develop the cultivars suitable for drought stress environments. Hence quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a fundamental tool which aids to dissect the complex traits of drought stress. Significant work has been done in this direction by plant breeders and biologists. This review article narrates the cereal specific research on QTLs and enlightens the traits that have been considered responsible for drought tolerance. Moreover, it has also been discussed that how breeders have improved these traits in cereals by using a QTL mapping approach. The knowledge can help the plant breeders to expedite the release of cultivars that are resistant to drought stresses by quick and accurate accumulation of desirable alleles in breeding programs.

[Ahmad HM, Rahman MU, Azeem F, Ali Q. QTL mapping for the improvement of drought tolerance in cereal crops: A review. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):102-108]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.14.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.14

 

Keywords: QTL mapping, Abiotic stress, Drought resistance, Molecular markers, Cereal crops

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Correlation and path coefficient analyses of yield components in S3 progenies of Helianthus annuus

 

Ishrat Ramzan1, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat1, Abid Muhammad Shah2 and Qurban Ali1,3

 

1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Department of Agronomy, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Pakistan

3. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author’s email: ishratramzan35@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fifteen accessions of Sunflower were evaluated for genetic variability and association of morphological traits with achene yield. The trial was laid out following Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The data were recorded on traits and subjected to statistical analysis. The differences among accessions were highly significant for studied traits. Genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than phenotypic correlation coefficients suggesting low environmental effects. Plant height had the highest positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with achene yield. All studied traits had positive direct effects on achene yield. Head diameter followed by oil yield had the highest direct effect on achene yield. Palmitic acid had shown the highest positive indirect effect on achene yield through number of achenes. Number of achenes followed by % filled achenes had the highest broad sense heritability and genetic advance indicating higher genetic contribution than environment. On the basis of correlation and path analysis it may be suggested that plant height, days to 50% maturity, head diameter, filled achene percentage, 100 achene weight and achene yield may be used for selection to improve sunflower oil yield.

[Ramzan I, Sadaqat HA, Shah M, Ali Q. Correlation and path coefficient analyses of yield components in S3 progenies of Helianthus annuus. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):109-112]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.15.

 

Keywords: Helianthus annuus, correlation, path coefficient, genotypic, phenotypic, genetic advance, heritability

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Quality of Guava Whey Beverage Fortified With Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract

 

Afaf O. Ali, Wael H. M. Elreffaei, Adel M. Elkarmany and Fatma M. A. Elsheek

 

Regional Center for Food & Feed, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

waillh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Efficacy of preservation and antioxidant activities of aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in whey beverage was determined. It is well known for its nutritional and health benefits and is being recommended for malnourished people all over the world. Moringa oleifera leaves, is a rich source of bioactive compounds, as polyphenols. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging abilities of the leaf extracts guava in whey beverages stored under different conditions. Moringa leaves were turned into an aqueous extract and fortified to whey guava beverage at different ratios (2.5,5.0, and 7.5%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents have been measured using colorimetric methods. The antioxidant capacities were evaluated using scavenging assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in aqueous extract. The results showed that extractability of Moringa leaves compounds Total Phenolic Compound (TPP) was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the phenolic extract in the beverage contains 7.5% (5.560 0. 21g/100ml) of Moringa leaves extract at them in control without Moringa extract (2.0830.29 g/100ml) and it showed higher antioxidant activities at zero time and up to 10 storage days. Consistent differences (P 0.05) in DPPH activity were observed among the different ratio of Moringa leaves extract in the beverages about 77 to 99% scavenging activity against free radicals from DPPH at the zero time. Generally, antioxidative potential was expressed at a later stage resulting in higher DPPH scavenging activity values initially (zero time) and a latter (10 days) decrease in the most of prepared beverages except for fortified Moringa leaves extract with guava whey at concentration 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%. The sensory evaluation of the whey guava beverage fortified with 2.5 or 5% was the acceptable ratios for using Moringa leaves extract in such beverage. It is can concluded that, of the stability of the leaf extract of M. oleifera as a preservative has been limited up to 10 days when uses in the beverages.

[Afaf O. Ali, Wael H. M. Elreffaei, Adel M. Elkarmany and Fatma M. A. Elsheek. Quality of Guava Whey Beverage Fortified With Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):113-122]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.16.

 

Key words: Moringa oleifera, leaves,total phenolic, DPPH, whey beverages

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Re-Irradiation for Painful Bone Metastases Using Three Different Fractionation Schedules of Radiation Therapy

 

Ahmad M. Alhosainy1, Khadeja M. Elhossieny2, Heba M. Ali Elassar2

 

1Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

2Anaethesiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

ahosainy40@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: Treatment of bone metastases comprises a large part of the radiotherapy daily practice. Palliative radiotherapy has proven to be successful in treating pain caused by bone metastases. Aim of the study: This study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of re-irradiation for painful bone metastasis comparing different fractionation schedules with assessment of subjective response and toxicity. Patients and methods: Ninety patients with painful localized bone metastases, were classified into 3 groups; group A, included 30 patients who received single fraction 8 Gy, group B, included 30 patients who received 3 Gy in 10 fractions and group C, included 30 patients who received 4 Gy in 5 fractions; patients who did not respond to therapy referred to pain clinic to complete management by different modalities according to World Health Organization (WHO) step ladder approach. Results: Four weeks after radiotherapy; complete response was achieved in 23.3%, 26.7 and 30% in groups A, B, and C. When considered the overall response at 4 weeks post radiation were 85%, 90% and 95% in group A, B and C respectively, with no statistical significant difference among the three groups (P >0.05). Also, radiation toxicity were assessed 8 weeks after radiotherapy and the results revealed that treatment was well tolerated in the three groups with no significant difference. Also, there was no significant difference among the three groups as regard other prognostic factors as performance status and site of bone metastasis. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference had been found among the 3 groups regarding fractionation schedules and treatment morbidities, so, in palliation of pain from bone metastases using radiotherapy, the treatment schedules should be individualized, regarding cost and time.

[Ahmad M. Alhosainy, Khadeja M. Elhossieny, Heba M. Ali Elassar. Re-Irradiation for Painful Bone Metastases Using Three Different Fractionation Schedules of Radiation Therapy. Life Sci J 2015;12(4s):123-131]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17. doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.17.

doi:10.7537/marslsj1204s15.17

 

Keywords: Irradiation; Pain; Bone; Metastases; Fractionation; Therapy

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 27, 2015

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