Life Science Journal 
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1097-8135, Monthly
Volume 12 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 50), March 25, 2015. life1203
 Cover (oniline), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1203

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or .docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript to: lifesciencej@gmail.com

When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Life Science Journal




Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text



Clinical profile of stroke patients and the association of carotid intima-media thickness at Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia


Dr. Khalid W Al Quliti. MD


Chairman, Department of Medicine, Assistant professor and consultant of Neurology, College of Medicine, Taibah University

Email: kh_alquliti@yahoo.com


Abstract: Background: Stroke, a common neurological disorder which can be ischemic or hemorrhagic, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a sensitive subclinical atherosclerosis marker and a strong predictor of subsequent cerebrovascular morbidity. Aim of the work: This study sought to detect the risk factors associated with cerebral stroke and to investigate the relationship between these risk factors and (CIMT) in both ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS). Patients and methods: This age and sex-matched case control study was carried out on 50 cerebral stroke patients with a mean age of 51 ± 7.05 years and 50 nonstroke patients with a mean age of 50.70 ± 7.18 years. Careful history taking and clinical examination was conducted, including age; gender; smoking habits; associated comorbidity, preexisting stroke, and preexisting coronary heart disease. CIMT was measured with high resolution ultrasonography by experienced radiologists. Results: The study revealed high statistical significance with body mass index (BMI), moderate and heavy smoking, CIMT, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), and preexisting ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients who had had a stroke compared to nonstroke patients. There was a highly significant statistical increase in moderate and heavy smokers who suffered IS compared to those with HS. IHD and hypertension was significantly present in HS patients compared to IS patients. The presence of DM was statistically more common among patients with IS than those with HS. Conclusion: The risk for cerebral stroke was higher among patients with elevated BMI, who are moderate to heavy smokers, have elevated CIMT, hyperlipidemia, DM, and IHD. The risk for IS was higher among patients who are moderate to heavy smokers, and have DM; whereas the risk for HS was higher among patients with hypertension and IHD. CIMT caused no significant difference between IS and HS patients.

[Dr. Khalid W Al Quliti. Clinical profile of stroke patients and the association of carotid intima-media thickness at Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):1-6]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.01


Keywords: Cerebral stroke, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT).

Full Text



Effect of Excessive Aquatic weeds in Egyptian Lake


Mona S. Zaki, 2Olfat Fawzy and 3Refat A. Yaussef


1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

3Department of Soils and Water Uses, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt



Abstract: Approximately, two- third of earth's surface is water, so water would seem to be inexhaustible. Yet conservation of water represents a national problem that will become even greater than the need to conserve. If we have to protect and utilize our water resources fully, sound management is required. Today water must be intensively utilized to meet agricultural/commercial and recreational requirements. In Irrigation and drainage systems are semi-natural ecosystems. They are subject to change by nature. One of the actions of the nature being results is the development of aquatic weeds.

[Mona S. Zaki, OlfatFawzy and Refat A. Yaussef. Effect of Excessive Aquatic weeds in Egyptian Lake. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):7-8]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.02


Keywords: Effect; Excessive; Aquatic weed; Egyptian; Lake

Full Text



Incidence of Acute Renal Allograft Rejection in Egyptian Renal Transplant Recipients:

A Single Center Experience


Yasser Soliman1, Sahar Shawky1, Abd-Elrahman Khedr1, Azza M. Hassan2, Maha Behairy1


1 Internal Medicine and Nephrology department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

2Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University



Abstract: Background: Acute renal graft rejection episodes have a major impact on long term renal allograft survival. There has been a reduction in the incidence of acute rejection in the past three decades due to usage of potent immunosuppressive drugs. Objectives: To measure the incidence of acute renal allograft rejection among Egyptian renal transplant recipients, to identify their risk factors and their impact on graft and patient survival. Methods: Combined retrospective and prospective study was done on kidney transplant recipients in Nasr City Health Insurance Hospital center, Cairo Egypt, whom received kidney transplantation in the period from 2000 up to 2005. Data extraction sheet was designed to collect data retrospectively from records during the period (2000-2005) and follow up of patients was done for the period (2005-2013). Diagnosis of acute rejection was done by clinical and laboratory data, administration of anti-rejection treatment and by biopsy when available. Results: Seventy four living donor recipients were included in the study. Twenty four received kidneys from related donors and fifty from unrelated donors. We encountered 16 (21.6%) patients with acute rejection episodes. Of them 15 (93.75%) acute T cell mediated rejection and one (6.25%) Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection and 37.5% of them occurred within the first 6 months post transplantation. Complete recovery of normal graft function occurred in five cases (31.25%), while 11 cases (68.75%) remained with mild renal impairment. No significant difference between related and unrelated donor regarding incidence of acute rejection. Five patients developed graft loss and one case of death recorded due to cardiac disease. Twelve years graft survival rate was (93.2%) with median survival time 11 years using Kaplan Meier method. Conclusion: The incidence of acute rejection episodes still high among Egyptian renal transplant recipients in single center. Optimization of immunosuppression and facilitating usage of induction therapy in high risk patients is recommended.

[Yasser Soliman, Sahar Shawky, Abd-Elrahman Khedr, Azza M. Hassanand Maha Behairy. Incidence of Acute Renal Allograft Rejection in Egyptian Renal Transplant Recipients: A Single Center Experience. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):9-15]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.03


Keywords: Acute rejection, graft survival.

Full Text



Evaluation of UNECE U-12 as nutritional supplementation for surgical patients with malnutrition


Alice Lan1, Kuo-Tze Hung 1, Tsann-Long Hwang 2


1. Research and Development Center, New Bellus Enterprises Co., Ltd., Tainan 72042, Taiwan

2. Department of Nutritional Therapy and Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan



Abstract: The study aims to investigate the effect of UNECE U-12 supplementation on the nutritional status of surgical patients. The study was conducted in the Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Post-operative cancer patients with chronic diseases, cachexia, who met one or more of these criteria: underweight, abnormally low albumin levels, malnutrition, and insufficient dietary intake. 67 patients were originally recruited, but only 36 completed the study. UNECE U-12 was given to patients daily as a partial replacement of their usual diet. Anthropometric analysis, biochemical measurements, and clinical examinations were performed at the baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks later. 36 participants did not have any adverse reactions to the UNECE U-12 supplementation. Blood glucose levels, blood lipids levels, hepatic and renal function were all normal. Serum albumin levels were significantly increased after 8 weeks of UNECE U-12 supplementation. Increases in transferrin levels were also observed after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of supplementation. HDL concentrations were elevated both after 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Total lymphocyte counts were also increased after 4 weeks of supplementation. In summary, UNECE U-12, a nutritional supplement designed for surgical patients improved their post-operative nutritional status in this short term study.

[Lan A, Hung KT, Hwang TL. Evaluation of UNECE U-12 as nutritional supplementation for surgical patients with malnutrition. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):16-19]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.04


Keywords: Post-operative nutrition, cachexia, malnutrition

Full Text



Statistical Analysis of Factorial Experiments for Quality Engineering and Similar Cases under Inverse Gaussian Model


Amina A. Saleh1, Asmaa Al-Radady2


1. Professor; Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2. Assistant Professor; Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Factorial experiments with k-factors have varieties of applications in life testing and engineering reliability studies. In the last few decades, researchers became aware of the appropriateness of assuming an Inverse Gaussian Model instead of the Normal Model in order to analyze such experiments. However, previous researches provide no complete study for the case of two-factor, neither it provide any attempt to consider the more general case of K-factor experiments. In this article we reconsider the case of two-factor experiments and provide an explicit algebraically form of maximum likelihood estimators for all main effects and all sum of reciprocals. This new development enable us to provide a complete decomposition for the total sum of reciprocals and construct an ANOR table in a complete analogue to the ANOVA table under the Normal Model. This will provide a complete statistical analysis of such experiments. This work is extended to the case of three-factor experiment. First, we considered the additive model that containing all main effects and obtain explicit algebraically form of the maximum likelihood estimators for the main effects. This procedure can be generalized to any k-factor additive model. Then, we considered some sub models of the complete three factor model, in particular, sub models with one main effect and one interaction effect, and sub models with two interaction effects. For those sub models we were again able to obtain an explicit form of the maximum likelihood estimators for the main effect and for the interaction effects. These estimators allow us to provide a perfect decomposition for the total sum of reciprocals and again to construct an ANOR table in a complete analogue to the ANOVA table under the Normal Model for the case of three-factor experiment. Applications of the procedures are illustrated with data set of strength measurements of an insulating material and a data set on Effect of Humidity and Several Surface Coatings on the Fatigue Life of 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy.

[Saleh, A, Al-Radady A. Statistical Analysis of Factorial Experiments for Quality Engineering and Similar Cases under Inverse Gaussian Model. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):20-35]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.05


Keywords: Inverse Gaussian; Factorial experiment; Maximum Likelihood; Analysis of reciprocals.

Full Text



Obesity and Food Frequency Intake among Female Breast Cancer Patients in Qatar


Mervat Youssef


Clinical Nutrition Program, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Alqura University, Holly Makkah, KSA.



Abstract: Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer that now strikes more women in the world. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body weight and cancer breast, and to explore some of the possible associated factors in a sample of Qatar population. Methods: A randomized-controlled study was conducted. Data were obtained from a random sample of 138 women attending AL-Amal Hospital out-patient clinic in two months period. 69 patients were normal, and 69 were diagnosed as having cancer breast. The patients were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaire, and daily food intake was obtained using food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of adiposity. Results: Age of the sample included in the study ranged from 20 to 80 years. 66.7% were Qatari, 33.3% non-Qatari. 82.61% were married. 61.59% of all cases had college education or above. 69.6% of cancer patients were obese compared with 40.6% of no cancer. 37.7% of no cancer females had normal weight compared with 10.1% of cancer patients (p-value = 0.00). Breast cancer cases who had positive history of obesity were significantly higher (78.3%) compared with 55.1% of no cancer cases (p -value = 0.004). 39.13% of cancer patients had obesity during adult hood compared with 15.94% for no cancer patients (p -value = 0.00). 75.36% and 47.8% of cancer and non cancer patients respectively, had obesity for ≥ 3 years (p -value = 0.001). The results revealed that the highest rate of breast cancer (47.8%) was among patients aged 40-50 years. Cancer was higher among Qatari females (53.6%) than non-Qatari (46.4%) (p value = 0.001). Breast cancer was significantly higher among menopausal women (57.97%) than non menopausal (42.03%) (p value= 0.00). Breast cancer patients who never or rarely did exercise presented (71.01%) compared with 66.67% of non breast cancer. Daily food intake of cancer patients was significantly higher than no cancer patients in fruit, butter, margarine, eggs, legumes, and smoked food. Conclusion: cancer was higher among obese patients and patients who had a history of obesity especially obesity during adult hood and for long period of time.

[Mervat Youssef. Obesity and Food Frequency Intake among Female Breast Cancer Patients in Qatar. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):36-43]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.06


Keywords: Obesity, food frequency, and breast cancer.

Full Text



Effect of Aspartame on Submandibular Salivary Glands of Adult Male Albino Rats


Mohammed.S.S,1 El-Sakhawy M. A.2, Sherif, H3 and Shredah, M4


1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, Egypt

2Cytology &Histology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

3Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

4Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Damanhur University, Egypt



Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of administration of aspartame in two doses (40mg/kg and 80mg/kg body weight) on the submandibular salivary glands of male albino rats. Ninety adult male rats weighing (200-250g) were used in this study. Animals in each group were caged in separate cages in the animal house at the Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University. Pure aspartame (APM) powder was purchased from ADWIA Co., Cairo, Egypt, The animals were divided into 3 groups: Group I: composed of 30 rats. They were daily administrated distilled water by means of gastric tube and considered control group. Group II: composed of 30 rats. They were daily administrated APM (40mg/kg) dissolved in distilled water for, 2, 4, and 6 months by means of gastric tube, and considered as experimental group 1. Group III: composed of 30 rats that were daily administrated APM (80mg/kg) dissolved in distilled water for 2, 4, and 6 months and considered as experimental group 2. Ten animals from each group were sacrificed after 2, 4 and 6 months under chloral hydrate anesthesia. Portions from the submandibular salivary gland were prepared histologically and stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin. The histological examination of submandibular salivary gland sections of rats after 2 months received low and high doses of aspartame revealed some histological changes in the gland parenchyma. Some serous acini appeared distended and most of them tended to be spaced with vacuolated cytoplasm and ill-defined cell boundaries. Nuclei were pushed toward basal portion and showed signs of hyperchromatism. Some acini presented division of nucleus without division of cytoplasm. Most blood capillaries appeared to be engorged with collected red blood corpuscles. In addition striated ducts appeared dilated while granular ducts showed stagnant eosinophilic secretion. Histological examination of the submandibular gland after 4 months revealed obvious morphological changes. The parenchyma of the submandibular gland lost its normal acinar architecture. Some acinar cells presented granular cytoplasm while others exhibited empty vacuoles. Signs of pre- malignancy such as nuclear hyperchromatism, pleomorphism and abnormal mitosis were evident. Submandibular gland sections after 6 months revealed that the granular convoluted tubules became the most prominent feature of the gland on the expense of the serous acini. The submandibular glands presented atrophic changes. The serous acini in submandibular gland were atrophied.

[Mohammed S. S., El-Sakhawy M. A., Sherif, H and Shredah, M. Effect of Aspartame on Submandibular Salivary Glands of Adult Male Albino Rats. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):44-50]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.07


Key words: Aspartame, Submandibulargland, Histology

Full Text



An Analysis of the Selection Criteria in Purchasing a House in Klang Valley towards the Quality Affordable Housing


A. R. Musa 1, N.M. Tawil 1, A.I Che-Ani, H. Basri 2


1. Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,  National University of  Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

2. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia



Abstract: The world has seen an increment demand of affordable housing areas because the houses currently built in the market are not affordable to the public. This issue has been widely discussed not only in Malaysia, but also in other developing countries. The Malaysian Government has taken an initiative to overcome this problem by developing low-cost housing areas. However, this initiative has been met with poor reviews to the disappointment of the public. No fixed criteria has been set to determine the minimum quality of housing development. Emphasizing on quality housing as a home does not only serve the purpose of being a shelter, but also as a means of creating quality communities. Several factors help in the decision to buy a house. One of these factors is the quality of the house. Therefore, this paper identifies factors that influence the decision of purchasing a house. The feedback and perceptions of the respondents show human needs and requirements. These perceptions are important to identify the criteria for quality affordable housing. Two hundred respondents were interviewed to obtain their perceptions and views on the factors that influence the outcome of purchasing a home. To gauge the needs and requirements of respondents, the samples were distributed randomly to the respondents who purchased a house or are planning to buy one. These factors are assessed using a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Descriptive analysis is used to determine the frequency and total percentage. The Cronbach’s alpha is used to determine the validity, which shows that the questions regarding home selection criteria has a good fit with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.952. The research finding shows that 74% of the respondents strongly agreed that house price is the main criteria that they would consider when purchasing their own house. The research findings also reveal the deficiencies of the current home of the respondents, which include the small gross floor area was small compared to the house price.This study is important in determining the criteria that should be considered in promoting quality affordable housing in the future and in understanding customer needs. This study provides the implications of the development of new affordable housing. Thus, these criteria could be used as a checklist for the designer or the architect in developing a new affordable housing design in Malaysia.

[Musa AR, Tawil NM, Che-Ani AI, Basri H. An Analysis of the Selection Criteria in Purchasing a House in Klang Valley towards the Quality Affordable Housing. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):51-57]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.08


Keywords: Affordable Housing, Quality, Selection Criteria

Full Text



Analysis and Simulation of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing For Optical Transmission Networks


Othman AL-Rusaini and Adnan Affandi


Dept. of Elect. & Comp. Eng., Faculty of Eng. King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, KSA



Abstract: A Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system is a high-speed optical transmission system that simultaneously transports optical signals of different wavelengths over a single optical fiber. DWDM was developed as a next generation optical signal transport technology after traditional Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) systems offering much greater potential capacities. TDM is the most popular technology in the electrical networks, but it cannot utilize the available bandwidth, because it is limited by the speed of the time-multiplexing and demultiplexing components. That technology uses electrical components, which restrict potential resources of optical fibers. Theoretically DWDM technology gives indefinitely many services by using optical fibers. The number of services is dependent on many factors such as channel spacing between channels, number of channels, bit rate, input power, optical fiber effective area and optical fiber length. This paper provides an analysis & simulation of Dense Wavelength Division (DWDM) technology for the optical transmission systems. This paper provides a method to develop a more powerful comprehensive simulation program using MATLAB to simulate the different parts of the DWDM systems in order to provide some ways to minimize the impact of linear and non-linear effect (attenuation, dispersion, self-phase modulation (SPM), cross phase modulation (XPM) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)) on transmission quality.

[Othman AL-Rusaini, Adnan Affandi. Analysis and Simulation of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing For Optical Transmission Networks. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):58-68]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.09


Keywords: DWDM, TDM, Optical Transmission Systems, Matlab, etc.

Full Text



A Novel Computer Aided Approach to Fiber Optic Communication link Design


Adnan Affandi and Othman AL-Rusaini


Dept. of Elect. & Comp. Eng., Faculty of Eng. King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, KSA



Abstract: A generalised and comprehensive flowchart is developed for designing optical fiber communication links, taking into consideration most design factors and component parameters. The flowchart, which is implemented into a web page using ASP.net web programming and C#, is tested on several existing optical fiber links. A general computer-aided approach is developed to assist the designer in selecting suitable combination(s) of Transmitter, Fiber, Detector and number of repeaters to satisfy the link specifications. The capability of this program to minimize the number of repeaters is also demonstrated. With the proper choice of parameters, the program also determines the various cost involved and finally the Cost Estimation relationships. Also an experimental investigation is carried out on an existing long-haul optical fiber link.

[Adnan Affandi, Othman AL-Rusaini. A Novel Computer Aided Approach to Fiber Optic Communication link Design. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):69-81]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.10


Keywords: Optical fiber, flowchart, etc.

Full Text



Significant Industrial Properties of Enteriococus faecium SFD as a Probiotic and Bacteriocin-Producing Strain


Sahar F. Deraz , Mohammed G. Shehata, Ashraf A.  Khalil


Department of Protein Research, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research    Institute, City of Scientific Research & Technological Applications, New Borg El-Arab City, P.O. Box: 21934 Alexandria, Egypt

Email: sahar_deraz@hotmail.com


Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in the production of fermented sausages and other meat-derived commodities. The purpose of the present study was to determine the technological properties of the newly isolated E. faecium SFD from homemade Egyptian karash chesse with potential application biopreservatives and probiotic. The strains were studied to evaluate the effects of different ingredients e.g. salt, nitrite, water activity and fat, on the functionality of the strain as well as nitrate reductase, proteolytic, lipolytic, Amylolytic activities and antifungal activity. A series of in vitro fermentation experiments were performed with varying concentrations of NaCl, NaNO2, glycerol and meat fat particles. A low concentration of NaCl (2%, w/v) showed almost no effect on bacterial growth. However, the biomass concentration in the presence of 4 and 6% NaCl was 91 and 72% of the concentration which was obtained when no salt was added. All sodium nitrite concentrations tested (100, 200 and 300 ppm) had little or no influence on both growth and bacteriocin production by E. faecium SFD with the exception of 400 ppm NaNO2. .Furthermore, the strain was able to reduce nitrate to nitrite at anaerobic conditions and showed proteolytic activities as revealed by clear haloes in milk agar. Also an antifungal activity was detected against Fusarium proliferatum, F. culmorum, F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum. The restrictive and inhibitory effects of nitrite, salt and fat on the growth of bacteria investigated were not very marked, and there were no significant differences between the separate or combined action of salt and nitrite.

[Sahar F. Deraz, Mohammed G. Shehata, Ashraf A. Khalil. Significant Industrial Properties of Enteriococus faecium SFD as a Probiotic and Bacteriocin-Producing Strain. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):82-91]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.11


Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; E. faecium; cell biomass; sodium chloride; sodium nitrite; antifungal

Full Text



Optimization of Crystallization Conditions and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction of Neisseria meningitidis 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate Reductoisomerase (NmDXR)


Hanan A. Omar1* and Jennifer L. Ekstrom2


1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Theodore Bilharz Research Institute, Imbaba, Giza, Egypt. 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.



Abstract: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a major public health problem and continues to cause substantial mortality and morbidity. The Neisseria meningitidis 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (NmDXR) protein is a potential drug target for antibiotics. The DXR enzyme is inhibited by the antibiotic fosmidomycin. Crystallography has become a standard technique used for drug design. In this study, purified NmDXR was crystallized in complex with NADPH, cobalt ion and the inhibitor fosmidomycin in order to study their mode of interaction with the enzyme. SDS–PAGE of the purified NmDXR enzyme revealed a single 43 kDa protein band. The crystallization was performed using the hanging-drop and sitting-drop vapor-diffusion methods. Successful crystallization conditions were optimized by varying pH, precipitant concentration and protein concentration to determine optimal conditions. The effects of various additives on crystallization were also investigated. This strategy yielded several large crystals with dimensions up to 0.8 mm x 0.2 mm x 0.1 mm rod. Preliminary atomic-resolution data were collected. The data are 99% complete, with maximum resolution of 1.2 Ć. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) and the AutoMR routine within Phenix. This structural study of NmDXR should be useful for drug design development of novel NmDXR inhibitors for meningitis treatment.

[Hanan A. Omar and Jennifer L. Ekstrom. Optimization of Crystallization Conditions and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction of Neisseria meningitidis 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate Reductoisomerase (NmDXR). Life Sci J 2015;12(3):92-97]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.12


Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), Crystallography, fosmidomycin

Full Text



Performance Characteristics Of Warp Knitted Lining Fabrics Used For Sportswear


R.A.M. Abd El-Hady, R.A.A. Abd El-Baky


Ass. Prof. In Spinning, weaving & knitting Dept., Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Giza, Egypt.



Abstract: The purpose of a lining is to provide the comfort of the wearer, preserve the shape of the sportswear, conceal construction details and raw edges of fabric, thus giving a neat appearance to the inside of the sportswear. Development in sportswear lining fabrics has been progressing to perform high functions and to achieve comfort. The contributing factors for developing active sportswear lining fabrics are: fiber material, fabric structure, production techniques, lamination and finishing techniques to obtain sophisticated fiber, modified structure of yarns and fabrics. In this paper, the performance properties and various factors affecting it are discussed for sportswear lining fabrics using different constructions.

[R.A.M. Abd El-Hady, R.A.A. Abd El-Baky. Performance Characteristics Of Warp Knitted Lining Fabrics Used For Sportswear. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):98-104]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.13


Keywords: lining Fabric, Performance Characteristics, Warp Knitted Structures, Sportswear.

Full Text



Temporal Database: An Approach for Modeling and Implementation in Relational Data Model


Ab Rahman Ahmad1, Nashwan AlRomema2, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim3, Ibrahim Albidewi4


1,4Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2,3UTM-IRDA Digital Media Center, Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.

1hayinsuh@yahoo.com, 2nashwan.alromema@gmail.com


Abstract: Conventional relational data models deals with current data and can only represent the knowledge in static sense, while temporal data representations have a dynamic domain and resources on the database systems which are well described in literature. This study introduces an approach for implementing temporal database applications with interval-based timestamp in conventional Non-temporal Database Management Systems (DBMS). The proposed approach can be easily implemented in relational framework as well as having the representational power of the modeling and querying power of 1NF relational data model.

[Ahmad A, Alromema N, Rahim MS, Albidewi I. Temporal Database: An Approach for Modeling and Implementation in Relational Data Model. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):105-109]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.14


Keywords: Temporal Database, valid-time data model, transaction time data model.

Full Text



Effect of Laser on Carbon nano-tubes /Poly vinylalcohol Composite used in Microwave Shielding


Gamal M. Nasr (1), Ashraf S. AbdelHaleem (2), AnkeKlingner(3), Adel M. Alnozahy(4), MagdyMorad(4)


(1) Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

(2)Armed forces, Egypt

(3) Department of Physics, Basic Science, German University in Cairo, Egypt.

(4) National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Egypt

ashraf_20091@hotmail.com; hannshawky@yahoo.com


Abstract: Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) / sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) / carbon nanofiller (CNT) camposite with various CNT contents (up to volume fraction(V)= 0.038) were fabricated and irradiated with different doses of laser (up to 200 Joules), their dielectric properties were evaluated, and their microwave absorption properties were evaluated. The uniform, stable dispersion and well oriented CNT within the PVA matrix were achieved through using SDS as dispersing agent. The dielectric analysis of the PVA/CNT samples irradiated with laser revealed that the percolation threshold was appreciably changes from 0.019 to 0.029 by laser beam energies up to 200 Joule. It was observed that absorption microwave properties improved with increasing in the loading levels of CNT (up to V= 0.038) as well as laser energy (up to 200 Joules). The maximum value (129.5dB) of the SET is obtained at (36.5GHz) for the composites with V= 0.038 after exposed to (200 Joules) of laser beam. From our results we can conclude that, by using Sohi et al model, one could interpret the change in the percolation threshold owing to the change of the geometric factor that defines the geometry arrangement of conductive chains and their overlap in the PVA matrix. The skin depth decreases with the increasing of CNT (to 0.04 V. fraction) by approximately 400 times its initial value and increases by four-order of magnitude upon irradiated the samples by 200 Joule laser-beam. The maximum value of SET (129.5dB) is obtained (at 35 GHz) for the irradiated composite loaded with 0.038.

[Gamal M. Nasr, Ashraf S.AbdelHaleem, AnkeKlingner, Adel M. Alnozahy and MagdyMorad. Effect of Laser on Carbon nano-tubes /Poly vinylalcohol Composite used in Microwave Shielding. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):110-117]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.15


Key words: Poly VenylAlcohol, Carbon nanotube,Co2 laser, Microwave shielding

Full Text



Self Care Practices of Chemotherapy Patients


Abeer M. El-Shatby Moursy and Amna Yehyia Saad Ead


Lecturer of Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.



Abstract: Cancer is one of the health problems today, which is perceived by public as frightening, anxiety, painful and untreatable disease that implies death. More than one half of patients diagnosed with cancer receive chemotherapy treatment which cause many side effects. Thus, the patients must assume major responsibility of their own care, and motivated to continue the regimen even when produces side effects. The study aimed to determine the side effects experienced by chemotherapy patients and describe self-care practices carried out by the patients to relieve the experienced side effects. This study design was cross sectional descriptive design conducted at Oncology Therapy Unit, Alexandria Main University Hospital. A convenient sample of 50 adult patients of both sexes were studied, 25 patients with colon cancer and 25withbreast cancer. Their age ranged from 23-63 years old. Two tools were used in the study to collect data. First tool was an interview schedule which included sociodemographic and health profile data. Second tool was Self-Care Practices Checklist included list of side effects of chemotherapy, patient's self-care practices and its outcomes carried out by the patients to relieve side effects of chemotherapy. The results of the study revealed that the main incidences of chemotherapy side effects were related to gastrointestinal system, neurological system and psychological status of patients. In conclusions, self-care practices performed by studied patients were insufficient to provide complete relief of the side effects due to inadequate information about the side effects of chemotherapy and how to manage it. It can be recommended that increase the number of qualified nurses at the chemotherapy in and outpatient clinics to provide the patient and family members with information regarding chemotherapy, its purpose, side effects and how to manage these side effects.

[Abeer M. El-Shatby Moursyand Amna Yehyia Saad Ead. Self Care Practices of Chemotherapy Patients. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):118-128]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.16


Key Words: Self- care practices, Cancer patients, Chemotherapy side effects.

Full Text



Role of AFP-L3 in Diagnosis of Atypical Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Upper Egypt Patients


Ahmed Allam1, Hamdy S. Mohammed2, Medhat Ibrahim Mohamed and 3Khaled Abdalazeem Eed4


1 Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

2 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

3 Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

4 Tropical medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar University, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common worldwide health problem. The diagnosis is based on typical radiological imaging pattern and elevated tumor markers. Sometimes, atypical HCC on imaging represents a diagnostic challenge.  Aims of the work: To evaluate the role of AFP-L3 in diagnosis of HCC in atypical imaging patients in upper Egypt.  Patients and methods: The study included fifty three cirrhotic patients with hepatic focal lesions and atypical radiological picture by triphasic CT, recruited from Hepatology Clinic of Sohag University Hospital. Forty three patients were cirrhotic with positive HCV and ten were cirrhotic with positive HBV. All of them were diagnosed as HCC by percutaneous core biopsy at the Internal Medicine and Tropical Department of Sohag University Hospital. All patients were subjected to history taking, complete clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound, CT and laboratory tests including liver function tests, prothrombin time, Anti-HCV, HBs-Ag, AFP and AFP-L3. Results: The mean value of AFP in all patients was 86.61±11.31ng/ml. Patients were classified into two groups based on AFP concentration: group (1), included 20 patients with AFP concentration up to 20 ng/ml (39.62%) with a mean value of 15.07±0.73. Group (2): included 33 patients with AFP concentration > 20 ng/ml (60.38%) with a mean value of 129.97±13.36.The mean value of AFP-L3 concentration in all patients was 11.62±1.13ng/ml with mean percentage of 12.29±2.19%. The mean value of AFP-L3 concentration in group (1) was 1.3±0.27 ng/ml and mean percentage 7.37±1.34%. The mean value of AFP-L3 concentration in group (2) was 18.95±2.97 ng/ml and mean percentage 14.2±1.46%. The number of patients with AFP-L3% >10% were twenty four patients (45.28%) out of all patients. In group (1) Seven patients out of twenty (35%) had AFP-L3 level >10%. In group (2) seventeen patient out of thirty three (51.5%) had AFP-L3 level >10%. Conclusion: AFP-L3 has an important role in diagnosis of HCC with atypical radiological picture. In addition, AFP-L3 ≥ 10 % could be a diagnostic tool for HCC and can replace the invasive liver biopsy specially in patients with atypical radiological picture by CT.

[Ahmed Allam, Hamdy S. Mohammed, Medhat Ibrahim Mohamed and Khaled Abdalazeem Eed.  Role of AFP-L3 in Diagnosis of Atypical Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Upper Egypt Patients. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):129-133]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.17


Keywords: AFP, AFP-L3, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

Full Text



Research of food waste treatment in small urban areas in Henan Province, China


Yang Bo1, Niu Zhenhua1, Shen Feiling2


1Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000, China

2Henan College of industry and information technology, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000, China



Abstract: To understand the collection, transportation, disposal, management and supervision, and other processes involved in the handling of food waste in small urban areas, a survey of food waste handling in many small urban areas in Henan province was conducted. Questionnaires, random interviews, communications with catering industry personnel, transportation of individual household food waste and other measures were adopted to collect the data, and several suggestions were made for the improvement of food waste handling processes.

[Yang Bo, Niu Zhenhua, Shen Feiling. Research of food waste treatment in small urban areas in Henan Province, China. Life Sci J 2015; 12(3): 134-137]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.18


Keywords: small urban areas; food waste treatment; measures and suggestions

Full Text



The benefit of clinical psychologists in prevention from the suicide in one hospital in Taiwan, Republic of China


Shu-Fen Huang 1, Chia-Hui Lu 1, Chon-Lin Ju,2 Jo-Tzu Lan2, Chi-Wen Chang3, Chen-Lin Chang4, Wei-Tsung Kao 4, Chi-Hung Lin 4, Chi-Ting Horng 5, *


1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

2 Department of Nursing, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

3 Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

4 Department of Psychology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

5 Education Medical Center, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.



Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the suicide intention by using the 5-items Brief Symptoms Rating Scales (BSRS) to screen high risk of patients with suicidal intention and compare the benefits from clinical psychologists. Methods: All 80 patients with BSRS score 10 were advised to be hospitalized and were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (n17), patients with score15 received the care from psychologists. There were 23 patients in group 2 (n23; total BSRS15) without psychologist’s help. 16 subjects with score ≦ 15 (10) in group 3 did not seek help from psychologists. In group 4 (n24), they had lower score (≦ 15, but 10) with counseling from  psychologists. We compared the score change in the 4 groups. Results: In group 1, the mean score was 17.7 ± 0.2 before admission, and the mean score after therapy was 9.9 ± 0.8 (P0.05). In group 2, the mean score was 11.4 ± 0.2 before therapy, and the mean score after therapy (without psychologist’s help) was 9.5 ± 0.2 (P0.05). In group 3, the score showed 16.9 ± 0.4 before admission and it revealed 13.9 ± 0.8 (P0.05) after medical care. There are 13.3 ± 1.2 and 7.9 ± 0.2 in score before and after therapy with help from specialized clinical psychologists (P0.05). This data was all corrected after one month. The results demonstrated that the total BSRS score and the incidence of suicidal ideation decreased apparently after the medical care from clinical psychologists in spite of the level of score. Conclusion: We strongly suggested that clinical psychologists may engage in patients care and are considered as the important role of the medical team work in any hospital, especially, in engaging in behavioral and psychological problems.

[Shu-Fen Huang, Chia-Hui Lu, Chon-Lin Ju, Jo-Tzu Lan, Chi-Wen Chang, Chen-Lin Chang, Wei-Tsung Chang, Chi-Hung Lin, Chi-Ting Horng. The benefit of clinical psychologists in prevention from the suicide in one hospital in Taiwan, Republic of China. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):138-145]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.19


KeywordsBrief  Symptoms Rating Scales (BSRS),Clinical psychologist, Suicide

Full Text



Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent females regarding reproductive health at makkah al Mukaramah


Sahar Mansour Lamadah 1,2, Hoda Abed El-Azim Mohamed 1,3, Sahar Mahmood El-Khedr1,4


1 Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al- Mukarramah, KSA

2 Lecturer of Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

3Assistant professor of Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, El Minia University, El Minia, Egypt

4Assistant professor of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt



Abstract: Reproductive health is a crucial part of general health, it is a reflection of health during adolescence and adulthood. Because the adolescent of today is the young married woman of tomorrow and the grandmother thereafter, it is important to pay attention to reproductive health needs and problems of adolescent females. This study aims to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescent females regarding reproductive health at Makkah Al Mukaramah. Subjects and Methods: An exploratory descriptive research design was utilized. The study was conducted at 3 departments (Nutritional department, laboratories medicine department and health administration department) at Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm Al Qura University and 15 governmental secondary schools representing the five educational zones at Makkah Al Mukaramah, three schools were selected from each zone. A purposive sample of 1273 students enrolled in the above mentioned settings in the range of age (15-21 years) which represent middle and late adolescents was recruited for the study. Two tools were used for data collection in the current study, a Self –Administered Questionnaire and an Attitudinal Assessment scale. Results: It was evident that, nearly equal percent (83.4% and 83.6%) of middle and late adolescents groups respectively had unsatisfactory knowledge toward reproductive health. In addition, (83.6% and 75.8%) of middle and late adolescences groups respectively had expressed a positive attitude toward reproductive health. Moreover, (81.7% and 83.9%) of middle and late adolescents groups respectively had unsatisfactory practices toward reproductive health. Conclusion and recommendations: Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that both middle and late age adolescent females have poor knowledge and inadequate practices regarding different aspects of reproductive health. It was recommended to raise awareness of the public, community leaders, health personnel, adolescent girls and women about reproductive health needs of adolescents through undertaking Information /Education and Communication Programs.

[Sahar Mansour Lamadah, Hoda Abed El-Azim Mohamed, Sahar Mahmood El-Khedr. Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent females regarding reproductive health at makkah al Mukaramah. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):146-158]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.20


Key words: reproductive health, adolescents.

Full Text



Genetic Polymorphism among Some Sugarcane Germplasm Collections as revealed by RAPD and ISSR analyses


Khaled, K.A.M1; I.S. El-Demardash2 and E.A.M. Amer1


1Department of Breeding and Sugar Crops Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt.

2Department of Genetics and Cytology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

1Khaled.scri@scrieg.com (corresponding author); 2Lola_eldemardash@yahoo.com


Abstract: Nine genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp) namely G.T.54-9, G.84-47, POJ.28-78, Co.997, F.161, F.153, N.Co.310, G.74–96 and Phil.8013; which available at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI) screened to detect the genetic polymorphism of studied genotypes using RAPD and ISSR techniques. Based on RAPD data, the percentage of polymorphic amplified products ranged from 37.5-72.7%, the total number of the amplified RAPD produced by each primer varied from 8-11 amplified products. Unique DNA bands with different sizes were detected in particular genotypes, primer OP-A01produced two DNA bands displayed in the genotype G.T. 54-9 (258 bp and 700 bp). While primer OP-O10 produced two DNA bands, one band displayed in the genotype G.84-47 (924 bp) and one in G.T. 54-9 (1104 bp). Some of the primers produced polymorphic bands specific to a set of genotypes. These bands could be considered as genotype-specific bands. Based on ISSR data, the percentage of polymorphic amplified products ranged from 9.09 to 80%. The total number of the amplified RAPD produced by each primer varied from 10-12 amplified products. Unique DNA bands with different sizes were detected in particular genotypes. Primer 17899B produced two DNA bands for genotypes G.84-47 (972 bp) and F 161 (690 bp), while each primers 844B and HB 15 produced one band displayed in genotypes NCo310 (715 bp) and G.T. 54-9 (312 bp) respectively; primer HB 14 produced two bands, one of them displayed in genotype Co. 997. These bands could considered as genotype-specific bands. The overall similarity indices based on both techniques revealed that the highest similarity was 79%, between genotypes G.74-96 and Nco.310 followed by genotypes F.153 and F.161 (78%), while the lowest similarity was 50% between genotypes G.T.54-9 and POJ.28-78, followed by genotypes G.T.54-9 and F.153 (53%). This investigation highly recommended using of RAPD and ISSR systems in order to detect genetic polymorphism and genetic similarity in sugarcane genotypes.

[Khaled, K.A.M; I.S. El-Demardash and E.A.M. Amer. Genetic Polymorphism among Some Sugarcane Germplasm Collections as revealed by RAPD and ISSR analyses. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):159-167]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.21


Keywords: Sugarcane, polymorphism, germplasm collections, RAPD and ISSR

Full Text



Helicobacter pylori in Egyptian patients with HCV- related liver cirrhosis and portal hypertensive gastropathy: Prevalence and relation to disease severity


Eslam Safwat1, Hany Aly Hussein1 and Sarah Adel Hakim2


Internal Medicine Department1, Pathology Department2, Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Background and Aim: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen. Its role in the pathogenesis of portal hypertensive gastropathy is debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this infection in patients with portal hypertension due to HCV-related liver cirrhosis, and its relation with the disease severity. Patients and Methods: 80 consecutive patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis were enrolled. All patients were subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and histopathologic testing of H. pylori. The diagnosis and the severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) were evaluated on doing endoscopy. Child-Pugh and MELD scores were calculated to assess the severity of liver cirrhosis. Results: H. pylori infection was reported in 48 patients with overall prevalence 60%. PHG was found in 52 patients (65%); 28 (53.8%) of them had mild and 24 (46.2%) had severe PHG. H . pylori was more prevalent among patients with than those without PHG (69.2% vs. 42.9%; p= 0.022). A multivariate logistic regression study showed a significant correlation between H. pylori infection and occurrence of PHG as an independent risk factor (OR 4.12, 95% CI: 1.191-14.252; p= 0.025). Out of the 36 patients with PHG and H . pylori infection, 20 had severe PHG (55.6%) and 16 had mild PHG (44.4%). Yet, no significant relation was found between H . pylori infection and severity of liver cirrhosis as regards Child-Pugh score (p= 0.56) and MELD score (p= 0.787). Conclusion: our results showed a significant association between H . pylori infection and the occurrence and also the severity of PHG in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Yet, the severity of liver cirrhosis itself did not correlate with H . pylori or the severity of PHG. Thus, eradication of H. pylori may be beneficial to ameliorate PHG.

[Eslam Safwat, Hany Aly Hussein and Sarah Adel Hakim. Helicobacter pylori in Egyptian patients with HCV- related liver cirrhosis and portal hypertensive gastropathy: Prevalence and relation to disease severity. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):168-173]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.22


Keywords: portal hypertensive gastropathy, helicobacter pylori, liver cirrhosis

Full Text



Co-infection of GFP, Ad2 & Ad12 in A549 & IMR90 cells  to evade the interferon response


Nahla Mohamed1,2,3; Jehan Hossain and3 and Victor Nilsson3


1 College of Medicine- Princess Nourha bint Abdulrahman University- Riyadh- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Universitetssjukhuset, Virologi, Umeć universitet -SE-901 85 Umeć  Sweden

3Uppsala university- Uppsala-Sweden



Abstract Background: Over the years several experiments have been directed into understanding the interaction of adenovirus type 2 and the human hosts which it infects. Aim of the study: This was designed to investigate the host cell morphological changes during Ad2/GFP and Ad12/GFP infections in human cells to understand the rescuing potential of Ad12/GFP in infected cells in comparison with Ad2/GFP in the same cell lines. Materials and methods: Human diploid fibroblast cell lines (IMR-90) and human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were infected with Ad2/GFP, Ad12/GFP and GFP only. Infected cells were countered after 24, 48, 60 and 72 hours post infection (h.p.i). Changes in cell morphology were also monitored at the specified times post infection. At each particular h.p.i cells were harvested and proteins extracted. The proteins expressed at each h.p.i were measured with electrophoresis technique run in SDS buffer. Ad2 and Ad12 DNAs were also extracted for PCR studies. Results: The study suggested that although GFP alone could not lead to any cell deformities in IMR-90 and A549 cells after 72h, Ad12 could but did so after a slow start. At 60 hours the number of infected cells by Ad12 had gone past that of Ad2 in both cells. Conclusion: The general growth of Ad2 was however revealed to be better in IMR-90 and A549 cells than Ad12. Thus, it is possible that the inability of Ad12 to evade the interferon response may have implications for the virus to establish persistent infections.

[Nahla Mohamed; Jehan Hossain and Victor Nilsson. Co-infection of GFP, Ad2 & Ad12 in A549 & IMR90 cells to see interferon response. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):174-179]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.23


Key words: adenovirus 2, adenovirus12, IMR-90, A549, GFP, electrophoresis


Abbreviations: Ad2:adenovirus 2, Ad12: adenovirus 12, GFP: Green fluorescence protein

Full Text



Cardiovascular Disease Risk factor / Triglyceride Level Analysis


Teng Junyan1,2, Wei Yanping1, Cao Xingguo1, Chang Xiaowan1, Su Fengming3, Zhang Yifei1, Zhong Jingquan1,2


1Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, China;2 Henan Province People's Hospital, China; 3Emergency Medical Rescue Center of Zhengzhou City, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

The first author contact address: 5 Wei Wu Lu, Zhengzhou, Henan Province People's Hospital, China 450003. Tel: 18538191122.

Corresponding author: Zhong Jingquan, gilman_zhong@hotmail.com


Abstract: Background: Recently, China is economically to become the second-largest in the world after the United States [1]. The cardiovascular health of the state employees in Chinese government is worth noticing [2]. This study cohort was from Henan Province, as Henan is the largest one of the provinces in China, the statistics can be applied equally to the entire China. Controlling risk factor to reduce morbidity for disease is one of the concerns in preventive medicine. Thirty thousand state employees were participated for the investigation, triglyceride effect is found as a major risk factor for Cardiovascular disease. Methods: Randomly sampled thirty thousand state employees from Henan Province Hospital aged 35 years to 59 years. This article subjected the participants to physical examinations and instructed them to answer medical questionnaires. A simple assessment model of the morbidity risk on local individuals with ICVD was included. Results: The average exposure rates of civil servants in terms of overweight, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking were 62.96%, 76.07%, 34.87%, 8.10% and 21.30%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus increased with age. The risk factor exposure of male civil servants was significantly higher than that of female civil servants. The absolute risk of male civil servants of ICVD for 10 years was higher than that of healthy individuals of the same age, and the absolute risk increased rapidly beyond the age of 45 years. The absolute risk of female civil servants was also higher than that of healthy individuals beyond the age of 40 years; nevertheless, this risk likely increased rapidly beyond the age of 50 years. A prediction model for Myocardial Infarction is proposed. Conclusion: The morbidity risk of Henan provincial state employees with ICVD remains at a high level. As such, effective health management is recommended for them. The assessment method for ICVD is available to screen high risk populations, but this information should be further evaluated and developed in terms of index score weighting.

[Teng Junyan, Wei Yanping, Cao Xingguo, Chang Xiaowan, Su Fengming, Zhang Yifei, Zhong Jingquan. Cardiovascular Disease Risk factor / Triglyceride Level Analysis. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):180-185]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.24


Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk factors

Full Text



Comparative pathogenecity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Tilapia zilli.


Gaafar, A.Y.1*,  Soliman, M. K.2, Ellakany, H. F.2, Affr, N. A. 3, Elbialy, A. K.2, Mona S.  Zaki 1, Younes, A. M.1 and Abozahra, R.4


1 Department of Hydrobiology, Veterinary Researches Division, National Research Center (NRC), Cairo, Egypt.

2 Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Egypt.

3 Veterinary Services Authority, Kafr El-Sheikh Branch, Egypt.

4 Pharmaceutical Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University Egypt.



Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported recently in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) causing remarkable morbidities and mortalities. This research is a descriptive Histopathological study of the infection caused by MRSA from natural outbreak in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Experimentally challenged Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli were also investigated for comparative pathology. Pathological changes in both naturally and experimentally infected fish were described mainly in the brain, kidney, spleen and gills. The alterations were ranging between minor degenerative changes to severe necrotic alterations. Pathogenicity test showed that there are less pathological changes in tissues of Tilapia zilli and the changes were more severe in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). It was concluded that, presence of Tilapia zilli in Nile tilapia ponds is not only a managemental fault in tilapia culture but also it could be a biosecurity breach for bacterial fish diseases, especially for the zoonotic MRSA strains.

[Gaafar, A.Y., Soliman, M.K., Ellakany, H.F., Affr, N.A, Elbialy, A.K, Mona S.  Zaki, Younes, A.M. and Abozahra, R. Comparative pathogenecity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Tilapia zilli.. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):186-194]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.25


Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zilli, Histopathology.

Full Text



The Study of the effect of the juxtaposition of specific materials on some properties of knitting


Zeinab Shehata


Faculty of Education Ismailia, Suez Canal University, Dept. of Apparel and Textile



Abstract: In this articles three different types of fabrics (satin, Chiffon & Tulle) were sewn together for wedding and Soiree dresses, different needle counts were selected to study seam strength, slippage, and bending length and other properties. The seam was carried out with only stitch type (301) with different stitch densities per cm (3,4, and 6) three levels of needle count stitch type (12, 14 and 16) were chosen for this study. A full factorial design 3*3*3 was used in this research. All other parameters were constant. The sewing thread used was Ne 40/2. The results are analyzed by using the program of (STATISTICA), as, multiple regression’s’ test. The factors which have significant effect on the measured parameters were plotted and drawn as three dimension diagrams to demonstrate the shape of the relations of the dependent and independent parameters. It was found that the suitable fabrics for Wedding and Soiree dresses must be sewn from (Satin and Chiffon), because of the high seam strength. To get high elongation and drape, it is better to be sewn from (Chiffon and Tulle).

[Zeinab Shehata. The Study of the effect of the juxtaposition of specific materials on some properties of knitting. Life Sci J 2015;12(3):195-203]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26. doi:10.7537/marslsj120315.26


Key words: Chiffon, Tulle, satin, seam properties, seam pucker, soiree dress, needle count, stitch density

Full Text


The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting February 22, 2015. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net or contact with author(s) directly.

For previous issues of the Life Science Journal, click here. http://www.lifesciencesite.com

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com; lifesciencej@gmail.com 

 Marsland Press, PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA. 347-321-7172






Terms of Service  | 

© 2015. Marsland Press, Zhengzhou University