Life Science Journal 
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online), Monthly
Volume 12 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 50), February 25, 2015. life1202
 Cover (oniline), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1203, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1097-8135

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or .docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript to: lifesciencej@gmail.com

When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Life Science Journal




Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text



Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its Biofilm in Persistent Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Qassim Region.


Ayman H Al-Gadaa1, Azzam Alkadi1 and Ezz Saleh2


1General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Qassim University, KSA.

2Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Qassim University, KSA.



Abstract: Background: Diabetic foot ulcer is a disastrous complication of diabetes mellitus that may end up with leg amputation. MRSA in diabetic foot disease is increasing worldwide to develop into a problem of healthcare provision. MRSA biofilm is a serious threat as it is considered responsible for chronic or persistent infections and may cause therapeutic failure with regular antibacterial therapy. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of MRSA and MRSA biofilm production among diabetic patients with chronic leg ulcers and to clarify risk factors related to this infection in resistant diabetic foot ulcers. Subjects and methods: Three hundred and eighty four (384) patients with persistent diabetic foot ulcers was involved in this study. Samples obtained from ulcers were directly plated on MacConkey, blood and mannitol salt agar,incubated aerobically, and anaerobic culture on GN and NS media was done, all colonies appeared were examined macroscopically and different pathogens identified by gram stain and the available biochemical reactions.Coagulase, catalase tests and APIStaph system for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) identification were done. All S.aureus isolates were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for MRSA mecA gene detection, then MRSA strains examined for biofilm formation via PCR detection of icaA and D gene and quantitative tissue culture plate method (TCP). Results: A total of 293 isolates were detected from 384 patients and 414 persistent diabetic foot ulcer specimens. The most frequent isolated organism was 106(36.2%) Staphylococcus aureus.Among the 106 Staphylococcus aureus, 55 (51.9%) were (MRSA) and among them 31 (56.4%) were biofilm producers.Screening of the extent of biofilm formation of the isolated MRSA by tissue culture assay (TCP) revealed that 18/31(58.1%) were strong adherent, 7(22.6%) were moderate adherent and 6(19.3%) were also non/weak adherent. Regarding the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with MRSA and non MRSA infected diabetic foot ulcers, the risk for MRSA isolation was significantly increase with older age, longer duration of diabetes mellitus, larger size of the ulcer as well as presence of osteomyelitis (p≤0.05). Regarding risk factors for MRSA and MRSA biofilm infections; the risk for MRSA isolation was significantly increase with older age while biofilm formation increase significantly with previous antibiotic treatment and previous colonization with MRSA. Conclusion: The high rate of MRSA infections in diabetic foot that have the ability of biofilm formation was alarming for public health. Biofilm-based wound care is “a significant shift in the whole approach to wound healing”. Early identification and discrimination between MRSA and MRSA biofilm can be one of the essential steps towards the prevention and treatment of the most serious diabetic foot ulcer infections.

[Ayman H Al-Gadaa, Azzam Alkadi and Ezz Saleh. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its Biofilm in Persistent Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Qassim Region. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):1-8]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.01.


Keyword: Methicillin; Staphylococcus aureus; Biofilm; Diabetic; Foot; Ulcer; Qassim Region

Full Text



Basic physical profile of current Czech elite male ice hockey players – reference values


Martin Sigmund 1, Dagmar Sigmundova 1, Jana Kvintova 1


1 Faculty of Physical Culture, Palackı University, Olomouc, Czech Republic

E-mail: jana.kvintova@upol.cz


Abstract: In the Czech Republic, ice hockey is a very popular sports discipline with remarkable international success. The present article analyses basic morphological parameters (body height, body weight, body mass index) in all Czech professional ice hockey players in the top league (ELH) in the Czech Republic (N = 413; average age: 25.9±5.90 years; age range 16–42 years; Goalkeepers (N = 44); Defenders (N = 151); Forwards (N = 218); 100% male). Statistical data processing was performed using a single factor ANOVA and Fisher’s (LSD) post hoc test. The observed values represent the current level of development of basic morphological parameters in professional ice hockey players in the Czech Republic and can be considered reference values in this specific population group. This study is the first to report the basic physical characteristics of all male ice hockey players from the Czech Republic.

[Sigmund M, Sigmundova D, Kvintova J. Basic physical profile of current Czech elite male ice hockey players – reference values. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):9-13]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.02.


Key words: body height; body weight; BMI; professional sport; man

Full Text



Altered chicken cecal microbial communities affect Salmonella colonization


Yeshi Yin1, †, Fang Lei2, 6, †, Dan Fang3, Liying Zhu1, Hongwei David Yu4, Charlie Xiang5, Baoli Zhu2, Jian Wu3, *, Xin Wang1, *


1. State Key Laboratory of Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Institute of PlantProtection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, China

2. CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

3. Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China

4. Departments of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, Huntington, 25755, USA

5. State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China

6Current Address: Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China

Co-authors: These authors contributed equally to this article.



Abstract: Altering the diets of chicken and other poultry shows promise as a mean for controlling and preventing Salmonellosis. However, it is not known whether alteration of the gut microbiota from changes in diet in turn changes the colonization of Salmonella. The current study describes an investigation of the effects of medium composition on chicken cecal microbiota and subsequent colonization of Salmonella in vitro. Both batch fermentation and chemostat systems were used to compare the effects on bacterial community by different culture media, which were either rich in starch and peptone (Veal Infusion medium, VI) or rich in simple sugars and hydrolyzed peptide (Viande-Levure medium, VL). Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitive real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to ascertain that the growth of chicken cecal microbiota in VL medium resulted in a Bacteroides-enriched community that was closer to the initial cecal inoculum. However, VI medium produced a microbiota represented mainly by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. A time-dependent reduction of Salmonella was observed only in VI microbiota and the decrease was correlated with a marked increase in the proportion of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium relative to other species. Supernatant from lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from VI microbiota showed lactic acid-independent bacteriocidal activity on Salmonella. Animal challenge experiment also showed that LAB isolates have the function of decrease S. pullorum colonization in vivo. In summary, our results suggest that in vitro enriched microbiota with probiotic compositions can reduce colonization by Salmonella.

[Yin Y, Lei F, Fang D, et al. Altered chicken cecal microbial communities affect Salmonella colonization. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):14-25]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.03.


Keywords: Chemostat, Chicken cecal microbiota, Salmonella, Lactic-acid bacteria, PCR-DGGE, Real-time PCR

Full Text



Role of Capparis spinosa in ameliorating trichloroacetic acid induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice


Aglal A. Alzergy1, Saad M.S. Elgharbawy1,2, Ghyath S. Mahmoud3 and Mervat R. Mahmoud4


1Department of Anatomy and Embryology, faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Omar El Mukhtar University, Libya. 2Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University. 3Department of Animal Science Faculty of Science Benghazi University. 4Science M Sc.

E-mail: aglalalzergy@yahoo.com saadelgharbawy@yahoo.com


Abstract: The hepatoprotective effect of the mixture of leaves powder of the medicinal plant; Capparis spinosa and honey against some biochemical and histological alterations induced in Swiss albino mice intoxicated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was investigated. 120 male mice 20-26gm were divided into 6 groups. Group I was the control group; group II treated orally with honey (40 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks), group III treated orally with a mixture of Capparis spinosa leaves powder and honey(40 mg/kg for 3 weeks), group IV Given orally aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa leaves powder for 3 weeks, group V treated with TCA in drinking water (500mg/kg for 3 and 6 weeks, then left for 3 weeks for recovery and group VI (Regeneration group) received TCA for 6 weeks then treated with a mixture of Capparis spinosa and honey for 3 weeks. The treatment with TCA for 6 weeks induced 6% deaths in the experimental animals. The mortality increased to 14% in the group left for recovery without treatment whereas, in the group intoxicated with TCA then treated with the mixture of Capparis spinosa and honey the mortality reached 6% only. TCA induced a significant decrease in the final body weight comparing to the control group. Administration of the mixture of Capparis spinosa and honey showed an insignificant increase in the final body weight comparing to TCA alone treated group. Results of the biochemical studies showed abnormal levels of serum enzyme activities in TCA treated animals. Whereas, animals intoxicated with TCA and treated with the mixture of Capparis spinosa and honey showed an improvement in the levels of these serum markers. Histological examination revealed that administration of TCA induced various pathological lesions in liver tissues; included stenosis of hepatic sinusoids, dilatation and congestion of central veins, hemolysis and focal inflammatory cells infiltration, hyperplasia of Kupffer cells, hypertrophied hepatocytes and necrotic hepatocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm were frequently observed. Sever reactivity of most hepatocytes to periodic acid Schiff (PAS) was also noticed. Intoxicated mice treated with the mixture of Capparis spinosa leaves powder and honey showed an improvement in the histological structure.

[Aglal A. Alzergy, Saad M.S. Elgharbawy, Ghyath S. Mahmoud and Mervat R. Mahmoud. Role of Capparis spinosa in ameliorating trichloroacetic acid induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):26-39]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.04.


Key words: Capparis spinosa, trichloroacetic acid, histopathological liver, liver functions, mice(Mus-musculus)

Full Text



Direct Sales Cosmetics Consumer Satisfaction in Bangkok Metropolitan


V. Moongvicha


Faculty of Business Administration, Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon,

86 Pitsanulok Road, Bangkok 10300, Thailand

Tel: +6689-527-6543, Fax: +662-281-1842, Email: <varapun.m@rmutp.ac.th>


Abstract: The consumer satisfaction in consumerism of direct sales cosmetics in Bangkok metropolitan is reported for the study of (i) the effects of consumer information perception that can be caused by consumer right and consumer protection perceptions, (ii) the effect of customer satisfaction which is caused by consumerism in right, protection and information perceptions, (iii) factors which effect for repurchased behavior are caused by consumer information perception and consumer satisfaction. The independent variables are consumer right perception, consumer protection and consumer information perceptions, and consumer satisfaction, while dependent variable is repurchased behavior. The quantitative method was used in this research, where the data was collected by survey technique using 400 questionnaires. Those were random samplings from consumer who are consuming cosmetics distributed by company or agent’s representative for direct sales in Bangkok area. Data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, linear program and Path Analysis. The cause and effect was modelled by LISREL 8.52. This research outcome implies clearly that since consumer protection perception did not pay an importance role for consumer satisfaction upon cosmetics distributedby direct sales method, the customer has an emotional buying behavior more than a rational motional, moreover they were satisfied with cosmetics distributed by direct sales method and its selling technique. So the following research that should be studied upon the of word-of mouth customer send messages thru others, while customer satisfaction derived approaching the trust of direct sales technique.

[Moongvicha V. Direct Sales Cosmetics Consumer Satisfaction in Bangkok Metropolitan. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):40-45]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.05.


Keywords: Consumer satisfaction; Consumer protection perception; Consumer right perception; Consumer information perception; Repurchased behavior

Full Text



Participation of the Bidayuh Community In Tourism Developmental Initiatives in Bau, Malaysia


*Shazali Johari1,2, Sridar Ramachandran1,2, Ahmad Shuib2 and Syamsul Herman1,2


1Faculty of Forestry and 2Institute of Agricultural and Food Policy Studies,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

1E-mail: ahseng69@yahoo.com


Abstract: This paper presents the cultural attributes owned by the Bidayuh community in Malaysia that could be utiziled for tourism development. The Bidayuh community is also known as the 'people of land' and well equiped with their cultural products like 'Ogong' gong ensemble, gigantic drums and a unique bamboo percussion instrument known as the 'pratuakng'. Apart from that, this study also reveals the readiness of the native community to participate in tourism activities and obstacles faced by them to develop tourism in their area. The cultural uniqueness of the community is recognized by both the international tourists and the other Malaysian communities. However, the development of tourism to expose the culture of the community to outsiders is still questionable. Initial investigations done shows that the community is willing to involve in tourism to share their culture with outsiders although no effective developmental programs by the government. Thus this study is important to create awarenes to outsiders about the untapped indigenous resources to enhance cultural commercialization in a sustainable manner.

[Johari, S., Ramachandran, S. Shuib, A. and Herman, S. Participation of the Bidayuh Community In Tourism Developmental Initiatives in Bau, Malaysia. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):46-48]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.06.


Keywords: Cultural tourism, participation, community development

Full Text



Learning Styles and Learning Strategies in Adult Second Language Learning: A Longitudinal Case Study


Thamer Alharthi


King Abdulaziz University, 80200, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

E-mail: talharthi@kau.edu.sa


Abstract: The importance of variables such as learning styles and learning strategies are becoming significant predictors used to improve second and foreign classroom teaching and learning. Clearly, knowing and understanding L2/FL learners’ learning style preferences would help them target and adapt certain language strategies and therefore lead to positive attitudes towards learning the language. To date, there have been few empirical studies of the relationship between learning styles and learning strategies at tertiary level and in particular in the Saudi context. With this in mind, the present small scale study, using a longitudinal design, aimed to examine primarily choices of learning styles and learning strategies by an adult learner of English as a second language. This single case study triangulates quantitative and qualitative data, using published questionnaires, strategy inventories and a retrospective structured interview. The major results showed that learning styles had an impact on the participant’s strategies choices. Moreover, the participant emerged as an ectenic learner with five out of ten preferred style dimensions, namely, deductive, analytical, sharpening, reflective, and perhaps sequential subscale dimensions. On the other hand, the participant showed strong preferences for five of the ten styles on a list of synoptic preferences including field-sensitivity, field-independence, analogue, concrete and perhaps random style dimensions. The results have implications for teaching and the learning situation in language classrooms.

[Thamer Alharthi. Learning Styles and Learning Strategies in Adult Second Language Learning: A Longitudinal Case Study. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):49-59]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.07.


Keywords: Learning styles; ESL; Cognitive styles; Learning strategies; Case study; Triangulation; Adult learner

Full Text



Short- term Effect of Closure Versus Non-closure of Peritoneum at Cesarean section


Mohammed M. Fahmy MD, Said A. Saleh MD, Nabih I. El-Khouly MD and Rehab A. Zahrane


Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Faculty of Medicine - Menoufia University



Abstract: Background: Cesarean Section (CS) is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. The complications following cesarean section include fever, wound infection, postoperative pain, postoperative distention and bleeding which don’t commonly occur in normal vaginal delivery. Suturing the peritoneal layers at CS may or may not confer benefit, hence the need to evaluate whether this step should be omitted or not. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the short term morbidity of closure versus non closure of peritoneum at CS. Patients and methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial of 80 cases undergoing elective cesarean section was done randomized into closure and non closure groups. Preoperative, Intraoperative and postoperative details were recorded. Results: Operative time, postoperative pain, postoperative distention and wound infection are significantly lower in the non closure group. Febrile morbidity and hemoglobin level were similar in both groups. Conclusion: non closure of both visceral and parietal peritoneum at CS is associated with less operative time and less postoperative pain and distention and wound infection hence routine closure of peritoneum at CS can be avoided.

[Mohammed M. Fahmy, Said A. Saleh, Nabih I. El-Khouly and Rehab A. Zahrane Short- term Effect of Closure versus non-closure of peritoneum in follow up of cesarean section. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):60-63]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.08.


Keywords: Peritoneal closure, Cesarean Section, postoperative morbidity.

Full Text



Validity of spot urine samples to estimate daily salt excretion in patients with CKD


Howaida El-Shinnawy, M.D, Osama Mahmoud, M.D, Hayam Aref, M.D, Walid Anwar Abdelmohsen M.D, Amr Mohab, M.D


Division of Nephrology, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Objective: Alternative methods have emerged as a substitute for the gold standard 24‐hour urinary collection to estimate24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Different equations have been used to estimate Na intake using spot urine samples. This study aimed to evaluate the use of spot urine samples to estimate 24 hours excretion of sodium in patients with CKD and its correlation with the gold standard 24-hour urine collection as well as blood pressure in those patients. Methods: This study included 60 patients with different CKD stages admitted to the department of Internal Medicine of Ain Shams University Hospitals in the period from January 2013 till March 2014. Spot urine samples were examined on the same day that patients completed their 24-hour urine collection. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from spot urine was calculated by Tanaka’s as well as Kawasaki's formulae and the results were compared to the measured urinary sodium in 24-hr urine samples. Results: There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the measured 24-hour urinary sodium and estimated 24-hour urinary sodium from spot urine samples using Tanaka’s and Kawasaki’s formulae in patients with CKD stages 2, 3 and 4 (P<0.001). This relation was stronger when using Tanaka’s formula compared to Kawasaki’s formula in stages 2 and 4 CKD (r=0.968 and r=0.788 compared to r=0.936 and r=0.768 respectively). In patients of CKD stage 3, Kawasaki’s equation was more correlated than Tanaka’s (r=0.927 compared to r=0.919), however, in stage 5, there was no significant correlation between both of them using either formula. (P =0.922 for Tanaka’s equation and P =0.846 for Kawasaki’s equation). There was no statistically significant relationship between SBP, DBP or MBP with measured sodium in 24 hour urine or that estimated from spot urine samples using Tanaka’s equation,however, when using Kawasaki’s equation, there was a statistically significant relation between estimated sodium excretion from spot urine samples and SBP (P =0.043), DBP (P =0.049) and MBP (P =0.029). Conclusion: Equations using spot urine samples were found to be an accurate method to estimate 24-hour urinary Na in patients with CKD. This didn’t apply for patients with CKD stage 5 where both equations were invalid to estimate the 24 hour urinary Na excretion.

[Howaida El-Shinnawy, Osama Mahmoud, Hayam Aref, Walid Anwar Abdelmohsen, Amr Mohab. Validity of spot urine samples to estimate daily salt excretion in patients with CKD. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):64-70]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.09.


Key words: CKD, urinary sodium, spot urine

Full Text



A New Approach for Geometric Properties of DNA Structure in E3


Nural Yüksel1, Aysel TURGUT VANLI2, Esra DAMAR3


1.Department of Mathematics, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039, Turkey

2.Department of Mathematics, Gazi University, Ankara 06500 Turkey

3.Department of Mathematics, Hitit University, Çorum 19169 Turkey



Abstract: In this paper, we research the geometric properties of the double-helix of DNA for Bishop frame in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In addition, Bishop frame vector fields of strand-helix and Bishop curvatures are found. Future we obtained the circle of curvature or osculating circle and the axis curvature. Moreover, we introduced Bishop spherical images and give some interesting corollaries.

[Yüksel N, Turgut Vanlı A, Damar E. A New Approach for Geometric Properties of DNA Structure in E3. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):71-79]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.10.


Keywords: DNA structure; double-helix; bishop frame; bishop curvatures; bishop spherical images.

Full Text



Moment Inequality for Exponential Better than Used in Convex Average Class of Life Distributions with Hypothesis Testing Application


N. M. AL-Ghufily


Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Science, Princess Norah University P.O Box 285350 Riyadh 11323 Saudi Arabia, nag_1426@hotmail.com


Abstract: The exponential better than used in convex average EBUCA class of life distribution is considered. A moment inequality is derived for EBUCA distributions which demonstrate that if the mean life is finite, then all moments exist. Based on this inequality, a new test statistic for testing exponentiality against EBUCA is introduced. It is shown that the proposed test is simple, enjoys good power and has high relative efficiency for some commonly used alternatives. Critical values are tabulated for sample sizes  QUOTE   A sets of real data is used as a practical applications of the proposed test in the medical science.

[N. M. AL-Ghufily. Moment Inequality for Exponential Better than Used in Convex Average Class of Life Distributions with Hypothesis Testing Application. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):80-85]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.11.


Key Words: EBUCA, exponentiality, moments, asymptotic normality, efficiency, test power.

Full Text



Mechanical Properties Improvement of Dental Amalgam Using TiO2 and ZnO


Abdalwahid K. Rajih,  Kadhim F. Al- Sultani and Manar A. Al- Kinani


Dept. of Engineering Metallurgy, College of Material's Engineering, Babylon University



Abstract: In recent years, there have been many attempts to improve the properties of dental amalgam. The primary constituents are Ag, Sn, Cu, and sometimes Zn which were traditionally carefully chosen for certain specific characteristics. In this work, however, (0.5-1) % ZnO and TiO2 were added separately and together. The addition was added to amalgam alloy powder and the prepared composite powder was triturated by a given percent of mercury. Wear test was performed with presence artificial saliva and conducted by Pin-on-Disc. Vickers hardness and compression strength was also conducted. The results showed that amalgam/ TiO2 composite and amalgam/ hybrid composite posses the best wear resistance (85% compared to the control specimen), hardness (48% and 47% respectively with respect to the control specimen) and compression strength (63% and 62.5% respectively with respect to the control specimen).

[Abdalwahid K. Rajih,  Kadhim F. Al- Sultani and Manar A. Al- Kinani. Mechanical Properties Improvement of Dental Amalgam Using TiO2 and ZnO. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):86-90]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.12.


Key words: dental amalgam, TiO2, ZnO, hybrid, wear resistance, Vickers hardness and compression strength.

Full Text



Evaluation of Spectrum of protection provided against two infectious bronchitis isolates using classical live vaccine


Manal A. Afifi, Mohamed M. Zaki, Sahar A. Zoelfokkar, Hassanein H. Abo-Zeid


Department of poultry diseases, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University



Abstract:The protection of H120 classic IB vaccine was evaluated against two IBV isolates; one was found to be 98% related to IS/1494/06 variant II strain (isolate 46) and the other was found to be 90% related to 6/82 classic strain (isolate 25) in SPF and commercial chicks. The protection was assessed depending on ciliary activity using scanning electron microscopy, gross and microscopic lesion scoring of trachea and kidney, and detection of viral genome using real time RT-PCR. No significant protection could be provided against both challenging viruses using the classic H120 vaccine either once; at 1st day of age or twice; at day 1 and 14 of age. This indicated that the classic H120 strain and the challenging IB field strains are not the same protecteotype. Therefore, change in the program of vaccination is required to obtain a relative improvement of protection.

[Manal A. Afifi, Mohamed M. Zaki, Sahar A. Zoelfokkar, Hassanein H. Abo-Zeid. Evaluation of Spectrum of protection provided against two infectious bronchitis isolates using classical live vaccine. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):91-98]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.13.


Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), H120, IS/1494/06, 6/82, protecteotype

Full Text



Clinicopathologic evaluation of different subtypes of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma according to WHO classification


Basem Hassan El-Esawy1,2 and Ahmad Abd El Hakam Elaskary2,3


1Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Taif University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

3Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: To assess the frequency of different subtypes of Non Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL) according to WHO classification & study of clinicopathologic correlation. Methods: Total 320 biopsy proven cases of NHL, from 2010 to 2013, were selected. The inclusion criteria in all newly diagnosed patients of NHL with appropriate clinical information regarding gender, anatomic location and occurrence of B symptoms. All the cases were evaluated on Haematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) and special stains. Cases were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) using extensive panel of antibodies and classified according to WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms 2008. Results: Clinical data showed that 215(67.2%) were males and 105(32.8%) females. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The B cell lymphoma comprised of 85 % as compared to T cell lymphoma consisting of 15%. The extra nodal involvement was seen in 130 (40.6 %) cases, while 190 (59.4%) cases showed nodal involvement. The B symptoms were found in overall 153 (47.8 %) cases. Conclusion: B cell NHL is more common as compared to T cell lymphoma. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most frequent B cell lymphoma. The major bulk of T cell lymphomas comprised of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Significant association was seen in the occurrence of B symptoms with extra nodal origin and male gender.

[Basem Hassan El-Esawy and Ahmad Abd El Hakam Elaskary. Clinicopathologic evaluation of different subtypes of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma according to WHO classification. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):99-103]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.14.


Keywords: Non Hodgkin lymphoma, B & T cell lymphoma Immunohistochemistry , B symptoms

Full Text



Vitamin D Deficiency in knee Osteoarthritis and Its Relationship with Obesity in Saudi Arabia


Gehan A. Mohamed1, Waheed M. Al-Harizi2, Mohamed A. Bedewi3 and Huda H. Gafar 2


Rheumatology1 Clinical pathology2 and Radiology Department3 Salman bin Abdulaziz University, College of Medicine, Al Kharj, kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem worldwide and a high prevalence has been found in Saudi Arabia. Vitamin D influences cartilage and bone metabolism and its deficiency may influence the knee joint cartilage and lead to development and progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Conflicting results have been reported about the association between vitamin D deficiency and knee osteoarthritis, while the association between low vitamin D and high body mass index (BMI) was reported in the published literature. Vitamin D deficiency may be one of the factors that account for increased pain in knee osteoarthritis. Objective: The study aimed to determine serum 25 – hydroxyl vitamin D (25-OHD) levels in patients with symptomatic KOA compared with controls and to evaluate the association of serum 25-OHD levels with obesity and KOA. Methods: A total of 100 patients with symptomatic knee OA and 100 controls were studied. All patients met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for diagnosis of knee OA. The clinical status of patients with knee OA was evaluated. Knee pain was elicited using the VAS and WOMAC pain subscale, and the physical function evaluation consisted of the timed chair stand and 10-meter walking tests. BMI was assessed for all patients. Serum 25-OHD was measured for OA and controls; concentrations <20 ng/ml were considered as deficient levels. The radiological features of knee OA were graded on a five-point scale (0–4) for Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L) classification. Results: The study included 100 patients with symptomatic knee OA (mean age 52.47 ± 10.427), 70 women (70 %) and 30 men (30%). It included 100 controls (mean age 49.67 ± 9.18), 53 women (53 %) and 46 men (64 %). 68%, 55% of patients and controls, respectively were Saudi. Serum 25-OHD deficiency was observed in 66% of patients compared with 58 % in controls (P=0.244), with mean serum 25-OHD level (18.10± 10.99ng/m) lower than controls (19.88 ±10.34 ng/m) (P = 0.342), with no significant difference between the two groups. Among KOA patients, 72.1% had BMI ≥30 (obese) (mean 33.782±6.107). A high BMI (≥30) was observed in 77.3% of patients with low 25-OHD level versus 62.5% in patients with normal 25-OHD level with statistically significant difference (P= 0.043). Most of the patients (75.9%) had radiological evidence of KOA K/L grade 1-2, while only 24.1% had a K/L grade>=3. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly correlated with high BMI (obesity). High BMI (obesity) was significantly correlated with aging, greater knee pain (high VAS and WOMAC) and a slow walking speed. BMI also significantly associated with radiological severity of KOA. Conclusion: These findings indicate a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and high BMI, which in turn is associated with greater knee pain, poor physical function, and severe radiological evidence of KOA. Recommendation: These findings reveal the importance of measuring and monitoring vitamin D levels in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, particularly the obese patients.

[Gehan A. Mohamed. Waheed M. Al-Harizi, Mohamed A. Bedewi, Huda H. Gafar. Vitamin D Deficiency In knee Osteoarthritis And Its Relationship With Obesity In Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):104-111]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.15.


Key words: Vitamin D Deficiency, knee Osteoarthritis, Obesity, Saudi Arabia

Full Text



Immunological Control of Fish Diseases


Mona. S Zaki and Olfat Fawzi


Department of Hydrobiology, National research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Department of Biochemistry, National research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Disease prevention by means of vaccination and immunostimulation of fish in aquaculture has been particularly successful against several bacterial diseases. There are several alternative strategies to the use of antimicrobial have been proposed. There are always trails for controlling and combating diseases by developments in control strategies. The developments have involved better husbandry and nutrition, vaccines and immunostimulants.

[Mona. S Zaki and Olfat Fawzi. Immunological Control of Fish Diseases. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):112-114]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.16.


Keyword: Fish, Diseases, Immunological

Full Text



Histological Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Albino Rat Liver and Possible Prophylactic Effects of Milk Thistle Seeds


Eman E. Abu-Dief1, Kamal M. Khalil2, Hekmat O. Abdel-Aziz1, Eman K. Nor-Eldin1, Eman E. Ragab1.


1Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

2 Department of chemistry, Faculty of science, Sohag University, Egypt.


Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications including pigment, plastics, papers, inks, food colorants, toothpastes and cosmetic manufacturing. Milk thistle is a herbal supplement used to treat liver and biliary disorders. Silymarin, an active ingredient of Milk thistle, is a strong antioxidant that promotes liver cell regeneration and stabilizes cell membranes. Our aims were to investigate the biochemical and histological changes in the liver after administration of different doses of TiO2 NPs and if there is a protective role of Milk thistle against these changes. The present study was carried out on fifty adult male rats divided into five groups: control group, group IIa injected by 100mg/kg TiO2, group IIb treated by oral Milk thistle during injection by 100mg/kg TiO2, group IIIa injection by 150mg/kg TiO2 and group IIIb treated by oral Milk thistle during injection by 150mg/kg TiO2. There were a decrease in the body weight and an increase in the coefficients of the liver in all treated groups. Changes in hepatocytes include; ballooned vacuolated cytoplasm and congested dilated portal vessels with inflammatory cellular infiltrations. Hepatocytes showed early signs of apoptosis and degeneration with nuclear changes. There were excessive amount of collagen fibers and marked depletion in the amount of glycogen. The histologic alterations observed might be an indication of hepatocyte injury due to TiO2 NPs toxicity that interacts with proteins and enzymes in hepatic tissue. This interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and generation of reactive oxygen species induce hepatocytes apoptosis and generates inflammatory process resulting in cellular degeneration. These changes were improved by Milk thistle supplement as increase body weight, normal coefficient and normal morphology of the liver.

[Eman E. Abu-Dief, Kamal M. Khalil, Hekmat O. Abdel-Aziz, Eman K. Nor-Eldin, Eman E. Ragab. Histological effects of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Adult male albino rat liver and possible prophylactic effects of Milk thistle seeds. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):115-123]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.17.


Key Words: TiO2 nanoparticles, rats, liver, histology, Milk thistle

Full Text



Interactive effect of drought and calcium chloride treatments on growth criteria and some metabolic activities of Vigna membranacea


H. M. Mandururah & A. A. Alayafi


Department of Biological Sciences, Girls Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding Author: aal_shareaf@hotmail.com


 ABSTRACT: Drought is the most important environmental factors limiting crop productivity.This study aimed at evaluating the effects of varying soil moistures on (Vigna membranacea) seeds with this compound. (Vigna membranacea) seeds were subjected to each of the following treatments: a) soaked in distilled water for 6 hours, b) soaked in 10-4,10-3,10-2 mMCaCl2 for 6 hours, Plants after 21 days were subjected to drought for 15 days, after which lot of the stressed plants were harvested, the remaining stressed plants were irrigated and harvested 4 hours later, in order to provide a set of recovering plants..Maximum germination percentages of seeds attained in case of seeds soaked for 6 hours after their exposure to CaCl2 concentration, Results showed that in general that presoaking of seeds in CaCl2 solutions (10-4, 10-3, 10-2) reduced the inhibitory effect of water stress on root and stem growth and makes plant more drought –tolerant. Such effects were reflected on the increased leaf growth parameter, leaves content of photosynthetic pigments of plants,enhancement of total soluble sugars, free amino acids and proline contents. On the other hand, hardening enhances an increase in carbohydrate contents. The results also indicated that the stimulated activities of amylase and peroxidase is well correlated with the decrease of CaCl2 concentrations.

[H. M. Mandururah & A. A. Alayafi. Interactive effect of drought and calcium chloride treatments on growth criteria and some metabolic activities of Vigna membranacea. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):124-132]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.18.


Key words: Vigna membranacea seeds, drought treatment, growth parameters

Full Text



Assessment of Autoimmune Thyroid Markers in Euthyroid Egyptian Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 


1Ahmed Mohamed Bahaa El-din, 1Alyaa Ahmed El-Sherbeny, 1Emad Abd El-mohsen Abd El-hadi, 1Hesham Abouellail and 2Manal Mohsen 

1Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

ahmed.bahaa1011@gmail.com draliaa78@yahoo.com 


Abstract: Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women in child bearing period. A condition that causes irregular menstrual periods because monthly ovulation is not occurring and levels of androgens in women are elevated. The condition occurs in about 5 to 10 percent of women. Most, but not all, women with PCOS are overweight or obese, and they are at higher than average risk of developing diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. Most women with PCOS are able to lead a normal life without significant complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of thyroid antibodies and their levels in sera of euthyroid women with PCOS in Egypt. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 euthyroid women with PCOS and 18 healthy women as a control group in the Outpatient Clinics of Endocrinology Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital. PCOS was defined according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. Thyroid function was evaluated by measurement of serum TSH and FT4 levels by chemiluminescence immune assay. Antithyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-TG, respectively) were detected as markers for thyroid auto-immunity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Women with PCOS had significantly higher levels of anti-TPO in comparison to controls (27 ± 10 and 21 ± 10 IU/mL, respectively; p< 0.05) and no significant difference was found in serum levels of anti-TG, TSH, or FT4 between the two groups. Patients with PCOS had a non significant higher prevalence of positive results for anti-TG and/or anti-TPO in comparison to controls (40% and 22.2%, respectively; p >0.05), anti-TPO alone (28.9% and 16.7%, respectively; p> 0.05) and anti-TG alone (22.2% and 11.1%, respectively; p > 0.05). No significant associations were found between the assayed antibodies and thyroid hormones. Conclusions: It is important to screen for thyroid autoimmune markers in euthyroid women with PCOS. And that furthers studies are needed to confirm the relation between thyroid auto-antibodies and PCOs in such euthyroid patients.

[Ahmed Mohamed Bahaa El-din, Alyaa Ahmed El-Sherbeny, Emad Abd El-mohsen Abd El-hadi, Hesham Abouellail and Manal Mohsen. Assessment of Autoimmune Thyroid Markers in Euthyroid Egyptian Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):133-138]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.19.


Keywords: Anti-thyroglobulin, Anti-thyroid Peroxidase, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Thyroid Gland, Egypt

Full Text



Immunological and Bacteriological Findings Associated with Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Farm


¹Hanan, M. El-Hewairy,¹Sahar, A. Galal, ²Hamouda, R.H. and ³Dohreig R.M.A


¹ Department of immunology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza.

² Mastitis and Neonatal Diseases Research Dept. of Animal Reproduction, Research Institute, Haram, Giza, Egypt.

³ Dept. of Animal Reproduction, Research Institute, Harams, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: In the present study we examined quarter milk samples obtained from 120 cows (480 quarter) using the California mastitis test (CMT) and Somatic cell count (SCC). A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count 150 x10³ - ˂ 200 x10³ cells/ml. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Staphylococcus (23.75%), Streptococcus (21.5%) and E. coli (2.5%). Also we study the correlation level of lysozyme in udder milk in comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Somatic cell count (SCC) in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis (SM). The lysozyme level in milk is a biomarker for subclinical mastitis.

[Hanan, M. El-Hewairy, Sahar, A. Galal, Hamouda, R.H. and Dohreig R.M.A. Immunological and Bacteriological Findings Associated with Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Farm. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):139-146]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.20.


Key words: Subclinical mastitis- CMT – SCC- Lysozyme – Dairy farm.

Full Text



Combinations of nisin and γ irradiation to improve microbiological quality of minced chicken during refrigerated storage


Dalia A. Zahran


Health Radiation Research Dept., National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. salmar_yasser@yahoo.com


Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of nisin at supplementation levels of 100 or 200 µg/g, γ irradiation at dose of 1 or 2 kGy and their combination, on microbiological quality of minced chicken and minced chicken artificially inoculated with Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, during refrigerated storage. Samples were analyzed for total bacterial, mold & yeast counts at 0-time, 7 and 14 days and the log number of microorganisms were determined. Treatment of minced chicken with nisin alone at 100 or 200 µg/g showed no significant (p> 0.05) improvement in microbiological quality of minced chicken during storage. The combination of nisin and γ irradiation improved (p< 0.05) the microbiological quality of minced chicken together with the antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. The use of nisin combined with γ irradiation would be promising to control food-borne pathogens, improve microbiological safety and extend shelf-life.

[Dalia A. Zahran. Combinations of nisin and γ irradiation to improve microbiological quality of minced chicken during refrigerated storage. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):147-152]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.21.


Keywords: Minced chicken, nisin, γ irradiation and microbiological quality.

Full Text



Minimize of Cadmium by Medicinal Plants (Review)


Mona S. Zaki1, A. Y. Gaafar1 and Nagwa S. Ata2


1Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Microbiology and Immunology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Contamination of aquatic ecosystem by industrial and agricultural pollutants may affect the health of fish, either directly by uptake from the water, or indirectly through their diet of vegetation, invertebrates or smaller fish. While the obvious signs of group pollution, dead fish, has long been recognized, there is increasing evidence that low-level pollution may decrease the fecundity of fish population, leading too long term decline in fish numbers, such sub-lethal pollution could impact on reproduction either indirectly via accumulation in the reproductive organs, or directly on the free gametes (sperm or ovum) which are released in to water. Owing to their bioaccumulation and non-degradability, heavy metals pose a serious pollution hazard to the aqueous environment. Fish exposed to metals are usually characterized by increased metal levels in the gonads. Gonadal levels of copper and zinc of Catostomuscommersoni living in polluted lakes were higher than those in fish inhabiting unpolluted waters. More concentration on an example of heavy metal widely contaminating our Egyptian water bodies.

[Mona S. Zaki, A.Y. Gaafar and Nagwa S. Ata. Minimize of Cadmium by Medicinal Plants (Review). Life Sci J 2015;12(2):153-155]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.22.


Keywords: Minimize; Cadmium; Medicine; Plants; Review

Full Text



Saprolegnia parasitica in fish (Review)


Mona S. Zaki 1 and Olfat M. Fawazi 2


1 Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2 Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Saprolegnia parasitica infections induced marked tissue alterations as well as some hematological and serum biochemical changes. Although potassium permanganate malachite green treated the infected cases and allowed the regenerative processes but it does not progress the hematological and serum biochemical parameters.

[Mona S. Zaki and Olfat M. Fawazi Saprolegnia parasitica in fish (Review). Life Sci J 2015;12(2):156-157]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.23.


Keyword: saprolegnia, fish; biochemical parameter

Full Text



Cytogenetic Effect of Chitosan on Mitotic Chromosomes of Root Tip Cells of Vicia faba


Mona S. Al-ahmadi


Department of Biology, Science College for girls, Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Email: dr.alahmdi2009@yahoo.com


Abstract: Chitosan is a biopolymer consisting predominantly of unbranched chain and derived from the natural product chitin. Three concentrations of chitosan during three different time periods were examined for its genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. The results show that treatments with chitosan increased the mitotic index compared with control, although treatment with high concentrations for (12&16houre) decreased the mitotic index but the effect were in significant at 005; furthermore, different treatments caused chromosomal aberrations similar to the chromosomal aberrations noticed in control which is normally observed during seed growing and before long would be insignificant. The study indicates that chitosan can be considered an excellent alternative to synthetic plants fertilizations.

[Mona S. Al-ahmadi. Cytogenetic Effect of Chitosan on Mitotic Chromosomes of Root Tip Cells of Vicia faba. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):158-162]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.24.


Key wards: Chitosan, Cytogenetic, Vicia faba, Root Tips.

Full Text



Study of natural radionuclides and its radiation hazard index in building materials used in Saudi Arabia


1Safiah Q. Aamidalddin, 1 J.H. Alzahrani, 1Zain M. Aamoudy, 1Afaf A. Fakeha, 1Hanan H. M. Al-Habeaddi and 2Nagdya M. Ibraheim


1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Sudi Arabia

2Nuclear Safety Center, EAEA.

safiahqh@yahoo.com, jam7474@hotmail.com


Abstract: Forty samples for thirteen different types of building materials (cement, gypsum, Insulators of water, Ceramic Ceiling, ceramic, granite, marbles, sand, wood, bricks, iron, aluminum and Paints are used in Jeddah were analyzed by a gamma spectrometer based on HPGe detector. The total average content of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for all the building brand samples are 18.25 Bq kg−1, 21.22 Bq kg−1, and 260.11 Bq kg−1 respectively. The estimated radium equivalent activities (Raeq), representative index (Iγ), absorbed γ-dose rate (DR), the annual effective dose rate (Deff) and external hazard indices are lower than the recommended safe limit. The results indicated that all the samples collected from the market used as building materials in Jeddah are safe in general for the radioactivity levels.

[Safiah Q. Aamidalddin, J.H. Alzahrani, Zain M. Aamoudy, Afaf A. Fakeha, Hanan H. M. Al-Habeaddi and Nagdya M. Ibraheim. Study of natural radionuclides and its radiation hazard index in building materials used in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):163-168]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.25.


Key words: building materials, dose rate, naturally radioactive series.

Full Text



A scanning electron microscopic study to determine the effect of different etching techniques on enamel surface.


Heba Y. Ismail 1, Sanaa A. Soliman2 and HalaMounir2


1 Health Radiation Researcher, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Ideal etching to enamel surface is a challenging procedure. This study was conducted to determine the effect of sandblasting and laser irradiation on enamel versus conventional etching by studying the changes using scanning electron microscope. Sixty seven non-carious molar teeth were divided into 3 groups twenty two molars each. Group L: Enamel irradiated with Er:Cr;YSGG. Group S: Sandblasted at 65-70 psi. Sub-group SO: Sandblasted + bonded by Solo stick primer. Group P: Sub-group PT: Etched with 37%phosphoric acid. One molar was left unetched while Six molars were randomly selected, disked and prepared for scanning electron microscope examination. The results of this study indicate that conventional acid etching and Er:Cr;YSSG laser etched techniques can be used for etching of enamel surface and further bonding of metal orthodontic molar tubes as these two techniques have the most favorable etching patterns. Er;Cr:YSSG can be used as an alternative method for conventional acid etching technique in etching enamel surface for bonding orthodontic molar tubes.

[Heba Y. Ismail, Sanaa A. Soliman and Hala Mounir. A scanning electron microscopic study to determine the effect of different etching techniques on enamel surface. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):169-175]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.26.


Key words: enamel acid etching, laser etching, sandblasting, SEM of etched enamel surface.

Full Text



Pesticides in Environment (Review)


Mona S Zaki1, Nagwa. S Ata2, Olfat Fawzy3 and Samy S. Shalaby4


1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

4Department of Animal reproduction, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt



Abstract: These chemicals are important as a potential hazard to aquatic life because they are designed and used to kill living organ­isms. It is beyond the scope of this book to describe in detail the effects of all the pesticides in common use; instead, a few examples will be given to indicate the types of problem encountered.

[Mona S Zaki, Nagwa. S Ata, Olfat Fawzy and Samy S. Shalaby. Pesticides in Environment (Review). Life Sci J 2015;12(2):176-178]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.27.


Keywords: Pesticide; Environment; Review; chemical; potential hazard; aquatic life.

Full Text



Osmoregulation in Fish (Review)


1Mona S Zaki, 2Olfat Fawzy and 3Samy S. Shalaby


1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

3Department of Animal Reproduction, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt



Abstract: Water containing concentrations of the chemical which are below this standard are said to be 'contaminated', a term used to indicate that the substances present in the water are at concentrations that are not harmful to the EQO. The use of this term can cause confusion because in other contexts, such as the purity of foodstuffs, this term is associated with harmfulness.

[Mona S Zaki and Olfat Fawzy and Samy S. Shalaby. Osmoregulation in Fish. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):179-181]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.28.


Keywords: Osmoregulation; Fish; Review; Water; chemical; contaminate; substance; foodstuffs; harmfulness.

Full Text



The Influence of Laminated Layer and Thickness Gigantochloa Scortechinii Bamboo Strips on Mechanical Performance of Unsaturated Polyester Composites


Kannan Rassiah1, 2*, M.M.H Megat Ahmad1, Aidy Ali1, and M. Mohd. Tamizi3


1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) Kem Sg. Besi, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.

2Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Politeknik Merlimau (PMM). KB 1031, Pejabat Pos Merlimau, Melaka. MALAYSIA.

3Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, MALAYSIA.



Abstract: In this study, several types of Gigantochloa scortechinii bamboo strips were used as fillers in an unsaturated polyester matrix and characterized in term of their tensile and flexural properties. The strips were formed with the culm fiber composite with inner-to-outer layer thicknesses of 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.5 mm. The laminated bamboo strips composites were developed using the hand lay-up technique. The analysis was carried out using a 2- factor, 3- level design of experiment (DOE) and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine how the layer strip and the thickness of the bamboo affected the mechanical properties of the composites. It was proven that both the bamboo layer and the thickness demonstrated significantly different results in terms of the tensile and flexural performance. The overall results indicated that the middle layer of the laminated composite exhibited the highest tensile and flexural strength.

[Rassiah K, Megat Ahmad MMH, Ali A, Tamizi MM. The Influence of Laminated Layer and Thickness Gigantochloa Scortechinii Bamboo Strips on Mechanical Performance of Unsaturated Polyester Composites.. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):182-188]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.29.


Keywords: Bamboo; Unsaturated Polyester; Tensile; Flexural; Laminate; Composite

Full Text



Evaluation of natural radioactivity and the associated radiation hazards in local cement used in Saudi Arabia


Shadiah S. Baz


Physics Department, Faculty of Science for Girls, king AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: The natural radionuclide (226Ra, 232Th and40K) concentrations for 14 brands of gray Ordinary Portland Cement and 9 brands of white cement used as building and construction material in Saudi Arabia were measured by using gamma spectrometry method. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since cement are widely used as building materials.The average value of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for gray cement is 32.21 Bq/kg, 23.30 Bq/kg and 177.32 Bq/kg respectively. The average values for the white cement are 23.90 Bq kg−1, 25.60 Bq kg−1 and 125.64 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The total average content of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for all the cement brand samples are 28.59 Bq kg−1, 24.30 Bq kg−1, and 154.85 Bq kg−1 respectively. These values obtained are lower than the world average values for building materials. The estimated radium equivalent activities (Raeq), representative index (Iγ), absorbed γ-dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AEDE) and external and internal hazard indices are lower than the recommended safe limit and are comparable with results from similar studies conducted in other countries. The measurements help in the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of building materials.

[Shadiah S. Baz. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and the associated radiation hazards in local cement used in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):189-195]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.30.


Key words: Radioactivity, Radium equivalent, Cement, Dose assessment

Full Text



The application of intercellular proteins in monitoring tobacco mosaic disease


Sumin Li, Fuxin Li, Wanfu Xiao 1, Yanmin Sun 3, Weiqun Liu 1, Hongxiang Guo 1


1 Henan Agricultural University, College of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China

2 Tobacco Company of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China

3 Puyang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Puyang, Henan 457000, China

§These authors contribute equally to this work, * Corresponding author: guohongxiang06@126.com


Abstract: Tobacco mosaic disease is known as “plant cancer”, and it not only drastically decrease the yield but also reduce the appearance quality and intrinsic quality of tobacco product. Therefore, prevention and monitor of tobacco mosaic disease is very vital for tobacco production. The aim of this study was to screen TMV infection-related proteins in intercellular proteins from tobacco leaves, and then use it to monitor and control tobacco mosaic disease. The results show that the early prevention and treatment can decrease effectively the incidence of tobacco mosaic disease. The expression of intercellular proteins in leaves has obvious changes in various treatments after infection, and the 55kD intercellular protein is a potential marker protein for monitoring the occurrence and treatment process of tobacco mosaic disease.

 [Li SM, Li FX, Xiao WF, Sun YM, Liu WQ, Guo HX. The application of intercellular proteins in monitoring tobacco mosaic disease. Life Sci J 2015;12(2):197-199] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31. doi:10.7537/marslsj120215.31.


Keywords: Tobacco mosaic disease; intercellular proteins; monitor

Full Text


The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 27, 2015. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net or contact with author(s) directly.

For previous issues of the Life Science Journal, click here. http://www.lifesciencesite.com

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com; lifesciencej@gmail.com 

 Marsland Press, PO Box 180432, Richmond Hill, New York 11418, USA. 347-321-7172






Terms of Service  | 

© 2015. Marsland Press, Zhengzhou University