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 Life Science Journal 
Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition 
(Life Sci J)
ISSN 1097-8135 (print); ISSN 2372-613X (online)
Volume 10 - Special Issue 7 (Supplement 1007s), July 25, 2013. life1007s
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1007s
 
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

An Investigation of Comorbidity of Schizotypal and Borderline Personality Disorders with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and the Relationship between Their Personality Characteristics and the Severity of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

 

Hossein Dadashzadeh1, Amineh Alizadeh2, Asghar Arfaie3, Fatemeh Ranjbar3

 

1 Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz, Iran.

2 (Corresponding Author), M.Sc in Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz, Iran. E-mail: amineh.alizadeh@gmail.com.

3 Associate professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

 

Abstract: Introduction: In the 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders obsessive disorders are classified as a subgroup of anxiety disorders. Magical thinking is the mutual trait between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. On the other hand, magical thinking is recognized as one of the main traits of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Given the fact that to date no study has investigated the comorbidity of personality disorder with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its effect(s) on the personality disorders, the present study aims to investigate the comorbidity of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with OCD and to find out the relationship between them and the severity of OCD. Materials and Method: The current study is of descriptive, cross-sectional type. 140 patients who visited Razi Training and Medication centre and Bozorgmehr clinic in Tabriz were under study for 12 months. The patients afflicted with other mental disorders except SPD and BPD were excluded from the study. The sampling was carried out via convenience sampling method. Clinical interviews were carried out with individuals to diagnose OCD patients. Then, schizotypal personality disorder and BPD patients were diagnosed via structured clinical interviews prepared on the basis of DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria to assess the comorbidity of SPD and BPD with OCD. In the next phase, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ) and borderline personality scale (STB) were used. The obtained scores from the questionnaires were recorded to find out the relationship among SPD, BPD and the severity of OCD. Findings: According to the findings of the study the comorbidity of SPD with OCD is estimated at 41.4%, while it is estimated at 18.6% for the comorbidity of BPD with OCD. Furthermore, there is a significant and positive correlation between Yale-Brown, SPD and BPD scores of the patients (r = 0.22, P<0.01). Results: The results of the study show that first; there is a high comorbidity between SPD and OCD. Second, schizotypal and borderline personality traits contribute to the severity of OCD. Third, SPD is an effective predicator of OCD.

[Dadashzadeh, H., Alizadeh, A., Arfaie, A., Ranjbar, F. An Investigation of Comorbidity of Schizotypal and Borderline Personality Disorders with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and the Relationship between Their Personality Characteristics and the Severity of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):1-7] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

 

Keywords: Comorbidity, Schizotypal Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Obsessive-compulsive Disorder.

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Defecation Disorders after Surgery for Hirschsprung’s Disease in Children; an Iranian Experience

 

Saeid Aslanabadi 1, Davod Badebarin 1, Masoud Jamshidi 1, Mahbuba Valinejad 2, Kamyar Ghabili 3, Samad EJ Golzari 4,5, Hadi Mohammad Khanli 6, Babak Sabermarouf 7

 

1. Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2. Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4. Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

5. Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

6. Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

7. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

babak_sm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) is a congenital disease of the intestinal nervous system characterized by absence of ganglionic cells in distal colon followed by functional obstruction. After corrective surgery, the majority of children with HD develop defecation disorders such as soiling, constipation, fecal incontinence, and/or enterocolitis. The aim of this investigation was to determine the prevalence, diagnoses, therapies, and 6-month clinical outcomes in children with HD after corrective surgery. In this cross-sectional study performed at pediatric surgery ward in Tabriz Children’s Hospital, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of defecation disorders after surgery for HD were studied. First, defecation pattern was determined in 230 HD patients who had undergone surgery within previous ten years. Later, thirty patients with severe defecation disorders were recruited. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were performed. Clinical outcome was evaluated after six months. Defecation pattern was normal in 65% of the patients. In 21% of the cases, defecation disorders were mild and negligible, with no need of treatment. In 13% (30 patients), the pattern was impaired. Soiling, constipation, fecal incontinence and enterocolitis were the postoperative disorders. Of 30 patients with defecation disorders, 18 children (60%) and 12 patients (40%) had undergone multi-stage and TOSEPT surgical procedures, respectively. Defecation disorder was developed in 25.3% and 7.7% of the patients underwent multi-stage and transanal one-stage endorectal pull-through (TOSEPT) surgical procedures, respectively. Twelve patients and 10 children were treated with reoperation and medical therapy, respectively. Clinical outcome was excellent in five patients (16.7%), good in 15 patients (50%), fair in 8 patients (26.7%), and poor in 2 patients (6.6%). In conclusion, majority of the children with HD and postoperative defecation disorders have a favorable long-term clinical outcome when treated with minimally invasive surgical methods such as TOSEPT. Moreover, postoperative defecation disorders can be successfully treated using surgical procedures, medical therapy, as well as teaching both parents and their children.

[Aslanabadi S, Badebarin D, Jamshidi M, Valinejad M, Ghabili K, Golzari SE, Khanli HM, Sabermarouf B. Defecation Disorders after Surgery for Hirschsprung’s Disease in Children; an Iranian Experience. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):8-11] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2

 

Keywords: Hirschsprung’s disease; defecation disorder; TOSEPT

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Considerations  of  Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption (ELF and Lower HF Band Frequencies) by Bone marrow

 

Fariba Jahani Sani 1, Zahra Emami 1*, Nassim Hesari 1, Atefeh Arefi1

 

Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University

 Corresponding Author: zahra_sh_emami@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this research work is investigation of the absorption of electromagnetic waves in frequencies of ELF and lower part of HF Band  by bone marrow of adult male Wistar rats. The selected frequencies were 100 Hz, 500 Hz, 1 KHz and 1 MHz .For this purpose, rats were divided into three groups: control group, first and second experimental groups. The control groups did not expose to electromagnetic radiation at all. The first experimental group were exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 30 minutes and the second experimental group were exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 60 minutes .At the end, this three groups were sacrificed and  the bone marrow of their femur were removed. The bone marrow mixed with phosphate buffer, then their spectrum were taken in region about 200-800 nm wave length .This research work showed that relative absorption rate of electromagnetic radiation by bone marrow of rats are maximum in frequency of 500 Hz where as there was no absorption in 100 Hz frequency. The cell mutation in this frequency was studied in another paper.

[Fariba Jahani Sani, Zahra Emami, Nassim Hesari, Atefeh Arefi. Considerations of Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption (ELF and Lower HF Band Frequencies) by Bone marrow .Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):12-18](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

 

Keywords: Bone marrow, Electromagnetic radiation, Wistar rat, UV-Visible spectroscopy

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Lunar Tidal Effect consideration on the Bottom Side of the Ionosphere through the Variation of Critical Frequencies and Height of the E-layer Plasma in Mid-Latitude

 

A. Rezvanimoghadam[1], Z. Emami[1]*, M. Janserian1

 

1Department of Physics,Faculty of Sciences,Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University Mashhad Branch, Iran

*Corresponding Author: zahra_sh_emami@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ionosphere is a part of the atmosphere which is formed due to solar ultraviolet radiation on the atmosphere. It stretched from high altitudes heights above the earth surface to near the Earth's. It is divided into different layers such as D, E, and F and… due to the ionization rate and the density of electrons and ions and some other factors. Ionosphere is known as an environmental plasma medium. The lunar tide has always been regarded interesting as one of the notable phenomenon in the ionosphere, and significant due to fact that is indicates a close correlation between ionosphere and specifications of the layered shape of the plasma movements .In this study the lunar tide in the E layer of the ionosphere in the mid-latitude, has been determined by the analysis of the foE and hmE parameters in 2009 year, while the selected site is Boulder Colorado. When the moon is experiencing one of its four main phases, the tide goes to its maximum or minimum values. So we study correlation of the height (hmE) and critical frequency (foE) in these days. The investigations revealed that, the correlation coefficient between the hmE and foE varies with the variation of the moon phase, but these variations are the same for each of the moon main phases in different months.

[A. Rezvanimoghadam, Z. Emami, M. Janserian. Lunar Tidal Effect consideration on the Bottom Side of the Ionosphere through the Variation of Critical Frequencies and Height of the E-layer Plasma in Mid-Latitude. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):19-22](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4

 

Keywords: plasma, ionosphere, Lunar tide, main phases of the moon, critical frequency (foE)

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Vaccination and Immunity Status against Hepatitis B among Students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2013

 

Zehni K (MSc)1*., Rokhzadi M.Z(MSc)2., Mohmodi SH(MSc)2., Ashjardalan  A(BS)3

 

1Instructor of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2Instructor of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

3Bachelor of Laboratory Sciences, Medicine Faculty, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

 

Abstract: Hepatitis B is a common infection in the world and one of the main health problems in our country. Over 350 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus in the world and are chronic carriers of this infection. Health care workers and medical group students are always at risk of being infected with hepatitis B (HBV). This study was aimed at determining hepatitis B vaccination coverage and HBs antibody level among the students of the nursing and midwifery faculty of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: This analytic–cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 on 163 third- and fourth-year students of nursing and midwifery faculty. Blood samples were taken from each individual and tested for HBs antibody by Elisa Method. Those who had anti HBs titer >10 ul/ml were considered as positive. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 Software and Chi-Square, Fisher and T-test (p<0/05).Results: The results showed that 30.7 % of the subjects were male and 69.3% were female. And a total number of 115 subjects (72.3%) had completed their vaccination (three dose and more). Moreover, 108 individuals (70%) had regarded (0, 1, 6) standard protocol. Results of also showed that 135 (86%) had protective immunity . The average HBs antibody in subjects was 103.97 ul/ml. There was a significant correlation between HBs Ab level and educational field but there was no significant correlation between HBs Ab level and variables such as sex and regarded 0-1-6 protocol. Conclusion: Medical students are exposed to hepatitis B in work and occupational environment. Therefore, it is suggested that medical group students’ anti HBs level should be measured; and non-immune ones must be revaccinated based on the specified protocol (0-1-6).

[Zehni K., Rokhzadi M.Z., Mohmodi SH., Ashjardalan A. Vaccination and Immunity Status against Hepatitis B among Students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):23-28](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5

 

Keywords: hepatitis B, vaccination, HBs antibody, medical group students

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The Relation between Blood Sugar Level and Cholesterol and Triglyceride and some Factors in Heart Failure Patients Hospitalized in Tohid Medical Center of Sanandaj in 2013-2014

 

Bahram Nik-Khu1, Kian Zobeiry2, Fardin Gharibi3, Mozhdeh Zarei4, Nasrin Aliramaei*5, Fariba Farhadifar6

 

1. Pathology PhD, Medical Faculty, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2. Medical Student. Tehran University of Medical Sciences-Tehran, Iran

3. Ms PH Health Management, Deputy of Research and Technology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

4. Ms PH Midwifery. Deputy of Research and Technology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

5.,* Lecturer, MSc (member of scientific board of faculty nursing and midwifery). Kurdistan University of Medical, Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

6. MD. Associated professor of OBG GYN. social determinant of health research center Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (SDHC-MUK), Sanandaj, Iran

*Corresponding Author: n_aliramaei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Heart failure is the major health problem in developed countries. Obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and alcohol consumption are the most important causes of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is also the most common metabolic disorder in endocrine glands which can be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, the present study was aimed at investigating the relation between blood sugar level and cholesterol and triglyceride and some factors in heart failure patients hospitalized in Tohid medical center of Sanandaj in 2013. Method: The research was an analytic-descriptive study conducted on 256 heart failure patients hospitalized in the cardiology ward of Tohid medical center, Sanandaj in 2012-2013.  Simple  random  sampling  was  utilized.  A  questionnaire  including  7  items  about  demographic information and 3 questions on the level of cholesterol-triglyceride and blood sugar was applied. Ten hours after the failure and when the patients were hospitalized and fasting, blood sampling was conducted. Blood sugar was considered in form of hypoglycemia FBS<50, normal 50<FBS<110, hyperglycemia FBS>110. Level of blood cholesterol was considered in two normal forms (less than and equal to 200). Hypercholesterolemia was more than 200. And blood triglyceride was considered in two normal forms (less than and equal to 250). And hypertriglyceridemia was more than 250. Descriptive statistics was utilized to describe the collected data and data analysis was conducted through chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio (OR). Findings: Out of 256 studied patients, 195 (76.2%) were male and 61 (23.8%) were female. The patients mean age was 62.4 with a standard deviation of 12.92 and age range of 35-87. In this study, there was no significant relation between level of fasting sugar blood and patients gender (P=0.45), age group (P=0.21), smoking (P=0.83), record of hyperlipidemia (P=0.32), and record of high blood pressure (P=0.80). However, there was a significant relation between record of diabetes and sugar blood (OR=3.38, CI 95%, 1.50: 7.78). There was also a significant relation between level of cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (OR=2.9, CI 95%, 1.49: 5.70). Discussion: Although diagnosing and treating diseases have experienced a lot of developments, there are still some risk factors such as blood sugar disorder, central obesity, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia which are labeled as metabolic syndromes and related to risk of an increase in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, mean age of the patients was reported to be 62.4 while it is 67 in European countries. A significant relation was observed between level of cholesterol and fasting blood sugar while in other studies it has been reported that impaired glucose tolerance does not increase risk of cerebrovascular cases and coronary artery diseases. There was a significant relation between level of triglyceride and record of high level of blood sugar. Research has showed that blood sugar disorder, regardless of its intensity, increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Blood sugar and metabolic syndrome are high among Iranians. Therefore, intensive attention needs to be devoted to these factors in health enhancement programs.

[Fariba Farhadifar, Kian Zobeiry, Fardin Gharibi, Mozhdeh Zarei, Nasrin Aliramaei. The Relation between Blood Sugar Level and Cholesterol and Triglyceride and some Factors in Heart Failure Patients Hospitalized in Tohid Medical Center of Sanandaj in 2013-2014.. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):29-35] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6

 

Keywords: cholesterol, triglyceride, blood sugar, heart failure.

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Studying the relationship between environmental attitude with responsible behaviors towards the environment

 

Dr. Hossein Banifatemeh1, Hossein Honarvar∗2, Dr. Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam 3, Dr. Mohammad Abbaszadeh4

 

1PhD in Sociology, Professor and faculty member of  University of Tabriz

2Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran. I.R OF IRAN

3Assistant Professor, University of Tabriz-Iran; Emaile

4Assistant Professor, University of Tabriz-Iran

Corresponding Author: huseyn.hunarvar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: in contemporary world, the environment issues and its related challenges, especially environmental responsible behavior has attracted the policymakers, sociologists and environmental researchers and managers’ attention. One of the important ways for the risks and natural environment destruction is changing people’s attitude and behaviors. Therefore, environmental attitude is considered as one of the main and influential factors in this case. this research has been done with 400 samples through multi stage cluster sampling method among Tabriz citizens. the results show that there is a correlation among independent variable (ecological word view with dependent variable (environmental behaviors towards the environment). The regression analysis of variables show that emphasize on technology, protection environment by humans, supporting the government policies have the most contribution in making the relationship between these variables.

[Hossein Banifatemeh, Hossein Honarvar, Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam, Mohammad Abbaszadeh. Studying the relationship between environmental attitude with responsible behaviors towards the environment. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):36-42](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7

 

Keywords: Ecological Worldview, Environmental Responsible Behaviors, Citizens

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Organizational Formality and Its Relation with Empowerment, Innovation and Creativity of the Employees of Education Organization: A Case Study

 

Vali Samarghani Motlagh1 and Mohammad Hassani2

 

1 (Corresponding Author), M.Sc of Educational Administration, Head of Education in Western Azerbaijan, Urmia, Iran.

E-mail: samarghandimotlagh@gmail.com.

2 Associate Professor of Educational Administration, Department of Education, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Urmia, Iran.

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the relation between organizational formality and employees’ empowerment, innovation and creativity and to investigate the mediator role of empowerment in the relation between organizational formality and innovation and creativity. The statistical population of this research consisted of 186 employees who were selected in random. Some descriptive statistical techniques including Mean, Standard Deviation and Percentage as well as some inferential statistics including Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Multivariate Regression and Partial Correlation were used for data analysis purposes. The obtained results revealed that there is a positive significant relation between organizational formality and employees’ empowerment (r=0.28 and p<0.01) as well as employees’ creativity and innovation (r=0.18 and p<0.05). Also, there is a positive significant relation between empowerment and employees' innovation and creativity (r=0.59 and p<0.01). The results of multivariate regression showed that organizational formality could predict empowerment, innovation and creativity and empowerment itself could predict innovation and creativity. It was also revealed that empowerment and its components play a mediator role in the relation between organizational formality and employees' innovation and creativity. [Vali Samarghani Motlagh and Mohammad Hassani. Organizational Formality and Its Relation with Empowerment, Innovation and Creativity of the Employees of Education Organization: A Case Study. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):43-49] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8

 

Keywords: Organizational Formality, Empowerment, Innovation and Creativity, Education Organization Employees

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Targeted Effects of Subsidies on Prices of Selected Commodities

 

Farshad Nikoubakht 1, Seyedreza Baharisaravi 2

 

MA. Student at AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

1: Email: Farshadnikoubakht@aut.ac.ir

2: Email: SeyedrezaBaharisaravi@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Subsidies in recent years as a general and comprehensive due to pressure on government budgets on the one hand and the enjoyment of all households from subsidies on the other hand, forced governments to move toward subsidies targeted to avoid wasting resources and increasing the coverage of government payments,. The issue in Iran in past years been targeted, so that in January 2010 the subsidies that had been sanctioned by the government were to implement. Now, after more than a year of implementation of this Act, be considered to evaluate the effects of its implementation as necessary. The law implementation has different effects, that examine of effects is extensive and time consuming and it is not possible to analysis comprehensively in this report. The present report focuses on the effects of subsidies targeted on prices of selected commodities.

[Farshad Nikoubakht, Seyedreza Baharisaravi. Targeted Effects of Subsidies on Prices of Selected Commodities. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):50-57]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

 

Keywords: market-subsidies -targeted - Selected Commodities

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Applying Internal Analysis Data and Non-Linear Genetic Algorithm in Developing a Predicting Pattern of Financial Distress

 

Zahra Poorzamani

Department of Accounting, Assistant Professor, Central Tehran Banch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran,

 E- mail: zahra.poorzamani@yahoo.com

Mostafa Nooreddin

Master of Accounting, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E- mail: Mostafa.noreddin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bankruptcy is an event with strong impacts on management, shareholders, employees, creditors, customers and other stakeholders, so as bankruptcy challenges the country both socially and economically. The aim of this study is to make a financial distress predicting model for listed companies’ in Tehran stock exchange using financial proportions and artificial intelligent techniques. So financial information relevant to time period 1992 to 2011 is compiled and expected financial proportions’ are extracted and neural network patterns (ANN), principal component analysis combination, and Non-Linear Genetic Algorithm (PCA +NON-LIN) have been compiled to predict the financial distress. Then according to obtained results, these patterns have been compared and the best pattern has been chosen.  In accordance with the results, It is distinguished that the neural net work using the information One year before financial distress occurring has more efficiency in predicting the financial distress of the companies rather than the other technique in this research.

[Zahra Poorzamani. Applying Internal Analysis Data and Non-Linear Genetic Algorithm in Developing a Predicting Pattern of Financial Distress. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):58-63] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10

 

Key words: Financial Distress, Financial Variables, Non-Linear Genetic Algorithm, Neural Network

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Studying the relationship between conditional and unconditional conservatism with Altman's bankruptcy model index evidenced from Iran

 

Zahra Poorzamani, Neda Anhari

 

Department of Accounting, Assistant Professor, Central Tehran Banch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 E- mail: zahra.poorzamani@yahoo.com

Master of Accounting, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: N_anhari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Conservatism is one of the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. Also regarding the fact that management uses less conservatism approaches strategically, in the present research we will study the relationship between conditional and unconditional conservatism with Altman's bankruptcy model index in firms accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange. To calculate conditional and unconditional conservatism we have used the models posed by Ball, Shiva Komar, Guili, and Hyne. In the present research 124 firms accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange during the time period between 2007 and 2011 were investigated. To test the hypotheses we have used a linear regression model. The research findings showed that there is a meaningless relationship between conditional conservatism and Altman's bankruptcy index but there is a meaningful and negative relationship between unconditional conservatism and Altman's bankruptcy index.

[Zahra Poorzamani, Neda Anhari. Studying the relationship between conditional and unconditional conservatism with Altman's bankruptcy model index evidenced from Iran. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):64-69] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11

 

Keywords: conditional and unconditional conservatism, Altman's bankruptcy index

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Seeking Parsimony in Bankruptcy Studies Using Redundancy Analysis

 

Zahra Poorzamani1, Azita Jahanshad2

 

Department of Accounting, Assistant Professor, Central Tehran Banch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran,

 E- mail: zahra.poorzamani@yahoo.com

Department of Accounting, Assistant Professor, Central Tehran Banch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E- mail: az_jahanshad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Despite the long-standing criticism directed towards variable selection in financial distress studies, no research has so far examined the relationship between alternative variable sets used in such studies. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study is to employ canonical correlation analysis in order to examine the relationships that exist between variable sets employed in four bankruptcy studies and then to illustrate the value of applying the law of parsimony to canonical correlation analysis solutions. The primary purpose of parsimony is that the more parsimonious the solution is, the more replicable the model will be. In this study the goal was achieved by removing the three variables in variable sets employed in selected bankruptcy studies.

[Zahra Poorzamani, Azita Jahanshad. Seeking Parsimony in Bankruptcy Studies Using Redundancy Analysis. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):70-78] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12

 

Keywords: financial distress, bankruptcy, canonical correlation analysis, law of parsimony, variable deletion strategy

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Effect of chaos theory on Tehran stock exchange index

 

Nasrollah Amouzesh*1, Mohsen Ahmadi2

 

1. Department of Accounting, Gachsaran branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran

2. Department of Accounting, Gachsaran branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran

E-mail: e_amouzesh2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Accuracy and adequacy of economical prediction models in the world of business, is strategic and vital.  Many economists believe that the linear models are not suitable enough for prediction of price and shares index. Therefore many of the researches are concentrating on the economical time series and their suitable dynamic models. In the present research the whole share price in a 5 years duration from 2008 to 2012 have been chosen as the statistical sample to find out the effect of chaos theory on Tehran stock exchange index.  A main hypothesis which has been considered is:  the chaos theory has effect on the whole share price index and also 3 secondary hypotheses have been mentioned which are whole shares prices index have non-random structure. Whole share price index have non-linear structure. Whole share price index has chaos structure. For data processing Herest view test has been used and then Liaponof view and coordination is used. Results of the research show that the whole share price index has non-random, non-linear and chaos structure and therefore chaos point of view theory has effect on the whole share price index in Tehran stock exchange.

 [Nasrollah Amouzesh, Mohsen Ahmadi. Effect of chaos theory on Tehran stock exchange index. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):79-83] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13

 

Keywords: economical prediction models, chaos theory, non-random structure, non-linear structure.

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Analysis of relation between corporate governance and auditing quality in reduction of earning management in initial release of share in Tehran stock exchange market

 

Abbas Taleb Beydokhti1, Nasrollah Amouzesh*2

 

1. Department of Accounting, Science and Research Hormozgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hormozgan, Iran

*2. Department of Accounting, Gachsaran Branch Islamic Azad University Gachsaran , Iran

E-mail: e_amouzesh2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this research relation between corporate governance and auditing quality on the earning quality in initial release of share in Tehran exchange market will be analyzed. Corporate governance is effective parameters in reduction of earning management. On one side auditing quality also can be effective in the earning management process. In this analysis all companies that had initial release in the country in the year 2002 to 2011 were analyzed. Results of the analysis with the use of regression models show that there isn’t a negative relation between auditing quality and earning management. Considering corporate governance hypothesis the results show that there isn’t a negative relation between auditing committee and non- responsible members of board of directors with earning management.

 [Abbas Taleb Beydokhti, Nasrollah Amouzesh. Analysis of relation between corporate governance and auditing quality in reduction of earning management in initial release of share in Tehran stock exchange market . Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):84-87] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14

 

Keywords: earning management, corporate governance, auditing quality, audit committee.

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Investigating Problems، And providing solutions to generate motivation among shift work staff of Gachsaran Oil and Gas exploitation company

 

Roohallah Fathi *1, Forough Farzan 2, Sakineh Asadi 3

 

*1. Department of Management, Dehdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dehdasht, Iran

2. Department of Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran

2. Department of Management, Azna Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azna, Iran

Roohallah.fathi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Now days the most considerable Part of production Systems has been dedicated to shift work. Consequently, considering the situation of shift workers Will be of great importance. In Iran,these systems are used in production industries such as oil, gas and petrochemical, and also in service departments such as hospitals and police. On the other hand, There are more problems in shift Hours such as stress, fatigue and job dissatisfaction Particularrly in the operation units of oil and gas Exploitation company. Some industrial countries have adapted the shift system as Their strategy to the maximum efficiency of human Resources and ensure the sustain ability of industries as Well as manufacturing activities. so, shift working population is continuously growing more rapidly then they did in the past. in this paper we briefly introduce the shift systems, the stress resulting from such conditions and the destructive consequences of shift working, we also articulate some strategies for improving work conditions, employees satisfaction and some suggestions abou t this research.

 [Roohallah Fathi, Forough Farzan, Sakineh Asadi. Investigating Problems، And providing solutions to generate motivation among shift work staff of Gachsaran Oil and Gas exploitation company. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):88-91] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15

 

Keywords: Shift, stress, stress at work, motivation, Work Tension

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Analysis of Arbitrage Pricing Theory to Predict Stock Returns during and after the Stock Market Bubble in Tehran

 

Zahra sarlak *1, Morteza Ghasemi 2, Mohammahe Skandari 1, Hamid Reza Malek Hossini 1, Jafar Nekounam 1

 

*1. Department of Accounting, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomein, Iran

2. Department of Accounting, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran

Z.sarlak1@gmail.com

 

Abstract Understanding the mechanism and efficiency of a risk and return in capital markets, is one of the important issues that have attracted the view of financial user for long time. Pattern introduce the process of return, risk and return relationship of various factors as independent. Among these models there are capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and arbitrage pricing. This study uses two basic hypotheses to test the arbitrage pricing theory of capital market in the period of 1999 to 2008 in Tehran. First the number of factors that influence the efficiency is estimated that involved 13 in the pre-bubble, 12 in the bubble period and 14 after bubble period. The main purpose is the test arbitrage pricing theory (APT) technique using factor analysis and the efficiency of the odd week, and finally with an average balance equation obtained by even weeks were analyzed to estimate the model predictive power The results should that there is no significant difference between the mean squared errors of odd and even days with the 95 confidence Research findings suggest that the arbitrage pricing. Theory is true only in the bubble period, and Iran’s stock market returns is affected of two-factor model, these two factors supply 48.6 percent of total output fluctuations.

 [Zahra sarlak, Morteza Ghasemi, Mohammahe Skandari, Hamid Reza Malek Hossini, Jafar Nekounam. Analysis of Arbitrage Pricing Theory to Predict Stock Returns during and after the Stock Market Bubble in Tehran. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):92-98] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16

 

Keywords: arbitrage pricing theory, bubbles, risk, efficiency.

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Emergency medicine in Iran: a qualitative study

 

Ehsan Karimi1; Shervin Farahmand2; Mohammad Reza Farnia1*, Mehdi Momeni1, Morteza Saeedi1, Hojat Sheikh

Motahar Vahedi1

 

1.MD, Assistant professor of emergency medicine, emergency department of Shariati Hospital, Tehran university of Medical Sciences

2. Associate professor of emergency medicine, emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran  university of Medical sciences

* (Corresponding Author), Assistant professor of emergency medicine, emergency department of Shariati Hospital, Tehran university of Medical sciences. Tel number: 0098-21-84901000- E-mail: m-farnia@sina.tums.ac.ir, dr.farniamohamad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Study objective: Although the emergency medicine was established 10 years ago in Iran, no study has been conducted on this specialty as a career yet. This made us evaluate the viewpoints of the Iranian emergency medicine specialists about their career in a qualitative study. Method: Data were compiled using a qualitative methodology (grounded theory), face-to-face interviews and open questions. Interviewees were selected based on academic or nonacademic activities (employment) and genders; they had at least 2 years experience in their career. Interviews continued until we reached data saturation when there was not any new idea in our interviews. Then the verbatim transcriptions were coded with thematic analyses to extract themes by two independent reviewers, and after an agreement, these themes were classified in 3 main categories. Results: Categories include: 1. Career nature 2.The positive points (aspects) of the profession 3. Weak points (The negative aspects of the career) About the first category, Iranian emergency medicine specialists mentioned that they have an effective and important role as the first line physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of emergency patients and the appropriate management of the emergency ward. In  thsecond category, thmain positive aspect was thspiritual values and  thsense of fulfillment caused by saving lives of critical patients. Other themes, such as schedule flexibility and job opportunity were also important in this category. About the negative aspects, the main concern was about not being recognized as a specialty by society after 10 years. Besides, there were also concerns about stress and burnout. The main difference between the perspective of academic emergency medicine specialists and nonacademic counterparts was the feeling of more job security in the first group. There was not any difference in the perspective of male and female  emergency  medicine  specialists  about  their  career.  Conclusion:  Based  on  this  study,  we  achieved  a hypothesis about the viewpoints of Iranian emergency medicine specialists about their career. This hypothesis can be a basis for more detailed quantitative studies in this issue. It seems that Iranian emergency medicine specialists have a positive perspective on their career and their role in the health care system in that the future of this new specialty will be very encouraging, although there are concerns about burnout and lack of support from Iranian emergency medicine society among specialists.

[Ehsan Karimi, Shervin Farahmand, Mohammad Reza Farnia, Mehdi Momeni, Morteza Saeedi, Hojat Sheikh Motahar Vahedi. Emergency medicine in Iran: a qualitative study. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):99-105] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17

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Extensive Strategies for the Development of Cities

 

Mohsen Hatami

Department of Urbanization, University of Tehran Kish International Campus, Tehran, Iran

Email: mohsen.hatami@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Urbanization is a manifestation of the process of transformation of society and more recently of globalization. It is estimated that by the year 2008, more than half the human population, of 3.3 billion people will be living in urban areas. This number is expected to swell to 5 billion by 2030. The world’s urban population has grown from 220 million to 2.8 billion over the twentieth century. This scale of growth is expected to continue in the next couple of decades with Africa and Asia witnessing major growth. By 2030 the towns and cities of the developing world will make up 80 per cent of urban humanity.

[Mohsen Hatami. Extensive Strategies for the Development of Cities. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):106-115] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18

Keywords: Civilization; Urban development; Transportation; Developing Networks.

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Position and Performance of Families in Development, Culture and Arts of the State

 

Fatemeh Moradi

 

Ph.D. Student of Persian Literature, Imam Khomeini International University of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran

Address: 34147-37918, first floor, 23, Hekmat 50 Alley, Noroozian St., Qazvin, Iran.

Email address: dr.moradi@yahoo.com; Cell: +989124479103. Tel.: +982113661017

 

Abstract: A society culture is a response formed by human beings in which they accept to live by each other. Study in the field of culture is very sensitive and deep. In this study, one of effective organs in this debate, family, has been investigated and despite of small and limited appearance, it has the greatest impact of the foundations of culture, development, customs, norms, beliefs, values and future abnormalities. In addition, practical ways for more effective and deeper family models have been proposed. Today psychology’s findings indicate the impacts of children from first months of birth because the family as the first practical model teaches principles, values and do-and-don’ts indirectly to its members, like an informal center of training and teaching, by its behaviors and traits. It injects dynamicity and mobility and causes to strengthen and develop activist spirit, creativity, innovation, self-confidence, self-esteem and flourish among its members. Also, in this study, some strategies such as culture establishment, path definition, illustration of roles and relations, empowering people, practical support and etc. are accounted for and considered to develop the culture and arts by the family. Then, successful, germinating, creative and messenger culture and the role and performance of the family in their strengthening are investigated and some ways for more effectiveness are proposed.

[Fatemeh Moradi. Position and Performance of Families in Development, Culture and Arts of the State. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):116-118] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19

 

Keywords: Family, Development, Culture

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Electronic banking implementation methodology, strategic approach in the third millennium

 

1Mehdi Rouhi Khalili, 2Amin Balaghi Inalo, 3Javad Mehrabi

 

1MA of Public Administration-Human Resource Management

2PhD Candidate of Public Administration-Comparative and Development, Qom Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran (Corresponding Author)

 

Abstract: Rising growth and improvement of information technology has created revolution in people different aspects of life and performance organizations. This technology has changed the operating procedures and peoples attitude of organizations and governments, and has provided new industries, jobs and creativity to the affairs. Emersion of phenomena such as: electronic jobs, electronic trade, electronic banking are the main results of influence and improvement of information technology on economic. Our country is a young country in the presence and application of the electronic banking. There is a long way to achieve a desired status. In the field of electronic banking, so far wide activities have done, but the lack of some infrastructures at different aspects have led to slow these activities. Now, in the most advanced countries, banks have provided on-line banking services for their clients by internet. Clients can do most of their banking works without presence at bank by connecting to home page and using their special code. These factors provide the ground to facilitate of doing commercial and bought sold affairs that have led to increase the competition between banking and non banking institutions. Therefore, the electronic banking can be defined as a collector of facilities for clients who can access to the banking services by safe intermediates without the physical presence. On the other hand, implementation of electronic banking requires accompaniment and coordination of other executive and legal institutions correlate to banking system that without them, banks are not able to take new technology completely, in their affairs. This article has verified electronic banking and we as far as possible try to make this subject clear. [Mehdi Rouhi Khalili, Amin Balaghi Inalo, Javad Mehrabi. Electronic banking implementation methodology, strategic approach in the third millennium. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):119-127] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20

 

Keywords: Importance and necessity of electronic banking, comparison traditional banking with electronic banking, impact of electronic banking on organization structure of banks, barriers of electronic banking implementation in Iran.

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Relationship between Different Types of Intelligence and Student Achievement

 

Arbabisarjou, Azizollah, Ph.D

Faculty member, Zahedan University   of Medical Sciences, 98167-43463,  Zahedan, Iran. Email:

Raghib, Maede-Sadat

MA, Educational Administration, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran (Corresponding author)

Moayed, Narges

MA, Educational Administration, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran

Rezazadeh, Shekoofeh- Sadat

MA in Curriculum, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran.

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between different types of the intelligence and student achievement in University of Isfahan. In other words, this study seeks to investigate the relationship among emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence with student achievement. The statistical population of this study includes all students at University of Isfahan who studied in this university in 2011-2012 years. A sample of 250 members was selected from this population by Multi-stage random cluster sampling method. Data-collection instruments were Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire – Short Form (TEIque-SF) and The Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24) questionnaires. In order to analyze the data, SPSS 15 and AMOS 18 were used. The results of this study indicate that it is possible to introduce a model that explaining student’s achievement based on the emotional and spiritual intelligences.

[Arbabisarjou, Azizollah, Raghib, Maede-Sadat, Rezazadeh, Shekoofeh- Sadat, Bonakdarhashemi, Nazanin. Relationship between Different Types of Intelligence and Student Achievement. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):128-133] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21

 

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Spiritual Intelligence, Achievement, Students.

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Intention to Use Information Technology ethically; a path analysis model based on individual variables

 

Farshad Hajian,

Master of Social Sciences, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

Najmeh- Sadat Mortaji,

Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh  Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

Email: najmemortaji@yahoo.com

Telfax: +987148765432

 

Abstract: The current study investigated the impact of individual variables of computer self-efficacy, perceived punishment severity and prior experience on intention to used information technology ethically. Data collected from two state universities in Iran during the academic year of 2010-2011. Sample consisted of 403 students who were selected using random categorical sampling method. Data analyses showed that all of the proposed paths were significant. Also, model fit indices showed that the presented model has a good fit for the current data. [Farshad Hajian, Najmeh- Sadat Mortaji. Intention to Use Information Technology ethically; a path analysis model based on individual variables. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):134-138] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22

 

Keywords: Path Analysis, Intention to Use information Technology, Individual Variables.

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Safety and Security Enhancement for Privacy of Users in Pervasive Computing via P3P and APPEL Protocols

 

1Somayeh Jafari, 2Masumeh Jafari, 3Fatemeh Saberi, 4Rouhollah Yazdani, 5Shiva Darijani

 

1Department of Computer Engineering, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran (Corresponding Author)

2Department of Computer Engineering, University of Pnu, Shahre Babak Center, Iran

3Department of Computer Engineering, University of Pnu, Shahre Babak Center, Iran

4Department of Computer Engineering, University of Azad, Kerman Center, Iran

5Department of Computer Engineering, University of Azad, Bam Center, Iran

 

Abstract: This paper explores the challenges facing pervasive computing deals. Pervasive computing environment and the future of computing is a new approach Computers and computing environments, and is intended to accommodate the daily lives of people And it should always be an invisible component. Security is a significant challenge in pervasive computing environment. In this paper, the security of AES has two key protocols. This paper addresses the issue of privacy as a complementary discussion of standards, protocols, tools and other related subjects has been analyzed with it. The key factor to preserve user privacy, without which it cannot be universal computation. Provide guidelines for appropriate interaction with the user-defined policies and compliance for working with user data collected by the central argument of this article. This approach uses a system that detects the position of the building is created based on wireless signal strength meter works. Privacy preservation is also using P3P and APPEL related protocols is done by the system. Finally, simulation results are presented. Method is to compare the simulation a similar system using both real system implementation and Privacy Policy and poster presentations of new models, Terms of service to users by comparing the time being.

[Somayeh Jafari,  Masumeh Jafari, Fatemeh Saberi. Rouhollah Yazdani, Shiva Darijani, Safety and Security Enhancement for Privacy of Users in Pervasive Computing via P3P and APPEL Protocols. Life Sci J 2013; 10(7s):139-147] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23

 

Keywords; Industrial security applications; Local area identification; Pervasive computing environments; Security supportive architectures.

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The study of the relationship between the concept of health and status of health promoting behaviours in girls who were studying in high schools of Sistan and Balouchestan province

 

1. Kiani, Fateme

Health promotion research center, faculty member, Zahedan University of medical sciences, Zahedan, Iran (corresponding author)

2. Khazaeeian, Somaie

Faculty member, Department of Midwifery,  Zahedan University of medical sciences, Zahedan, Iran

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: health promoting behaviours is one of the ways by which people can maintain their health. Regarding that adolescents are a considerable part of the country population and the importance of their health for society health promotion, the study was designed to determine the status of health promoting behaviour and its effect on understanding the concept of health. This study was cross sectional descriptive. 400 students of Sistan & Balouchestan province were selected by stratified sampling method. Collection tool of the data was health promoting lifestyle (HPLP-II) which was composed of standard questionnaire of health promoting lifestyle and the concept of health questionnaire, both of them had subscales. The data were analysed by Pearson statistical correlation test using SPSS 15. The mean of age was 15.8. Mean of (HPLP II) was 134.9±18.5 out of total score of 208. The highest score was 26.7 for spiritual growth subscale and the lowest was 16.9 in physical activity subscale. A significant statistical correlation was observed among mean of (HPLP II), variables of the concept of health understanding, and its subscales (P<0.001). Health promoting behaviours are something beyond an individual phenomenon and various factors like understanding health concept, vocational status, adaptation and etc affect it. Thus it is recommended to design plans by which we can improve health promoting behaviours with the increase of understanding the concept of health. [Kiani, Fateme, Khazaeeian, Somaie. The study of the relationship between the concept of health and status of health promoting behaviours in girls who were studying in high schools of Sistan and Balouchestan province. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):148-151] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24

 

Keywords: Health promoting behaviors, Girls, Highcschools.

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Comparing Emotional Maturity and Marital Satisfaction in Married Men Having Healthy and Unhealthy Inference from their Family-of-Origin Employed in Tehran Oil Company

 

Azadeh Saffarpour1, Mina Sharifi2

 

1. MA in Counseling, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2. MA in Psychology, Tehran University. Tehran, Iran

azsaffarpour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the relationship between emotional maturity and dyadic adjustment in people having healthy and unhealthy inference from their family-of-origin. 240 individuals were selected to do this study from among 681 individual married men working at Pipe Line Oil Co. of Tehran using systematic random sampling. In this study, data obtained from, family-of-origin scale, dyadic adjustment scale, and emotional maturity scale. To analyze data the researcher used Z-test, Pearson correlation, multi-dimensional linear regression and T-test with independent samples. In this study, the researcher found that in two groups of samples having healthy and unhealthy inference from their family-of-origin there was significant relationships between the rates of 1. Emotional maturity and dyadic adjustment 2.The rate of emotional maturity and 3.Dyadic adjustment. The result of this study shows that the first hypothesis is supported by 95% confident and second and third hypothesis are by 99% confident at significant level of 0.0001. The result of this study focuses on the role of family-of-origin in creating emotional maturity and the quality of dyadic adjustment in people in the adolescence and after marriage.

[Azadeh Saffarpour, Mina Sharifi. Comparing Emotional Maturity and Marital Satisfaction in Married Men Having Healthy and Unhealthy Inference from their Family-of-Origin Employed in Tehran Oil Company. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):152-159] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25

 

Keywords: emotional maturity, marital satisfaction, healthy inference, unhealthy inference.

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Analysis and comparison of influential factors on job and marital satisfaction among teachers and public, exceptional and gifted schools

 

Mina Sharifi1, Azadeh Saffarpour2

 

1.MA in Psychology, Tehran University.Tehran, Iran.

2.MA in Counseling, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

mina.sharifi1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current research aimed at analyzing and comparing the influential factors in job and marital satisfaction among teachers of public, exceptional and gifted schools in Karaj city. In this research, married male and female teachers of public, exceptional, and gifted schools were studied in which their total number was 213 individuals, 80 people for public schools, 80 people for exceptional schools and 50 people for gifted schools. To analyze job and marital satisfaction JDI and ANRIJ questionnaires were used respectively.Data analysis showed that there is not any significant difference among there groups of teachers in the respect of job satisfaction. But there is a significant difference among three groups of teachers in the respect of marital satisfaction. Also there was higher rate of marital satisfaction among gifted school teachers. In addition it was founded that there is a direct relationship between job and marital satisfaction.

[Mina Sharifi, Azadeh Saffarpour. Analysis and comparison of influential factors on job and marital satisfaction among teachers and public, exceptional and gifted schools. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):160-167] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

 

Keywords: job satisfaction, marital satisfaction, exceptional schools, public schools, gifted schools.

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Decisional Balance and milk consumption among college students: By using the Transtheoretical model (TTM).

 

Farhadi Abolfazl , Farhadi  Sadegh and Nikpey Alef

Department of Nursing, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan , Iran

Corresponding Author email: farhadie_1967@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify the differences of aspects of decisional balance in each stage of change to milk consumption among college students by using the transtheoretical model (TTM). Methods: A convenience sample of 500 college students completed measures of aspects of decisional balance (pros and cons) by using modified specter scale. The staging measures and algorithm developed by the national cancer institute was used to assess respondents stag of change for milk consumption. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS 16.0 Program including ANOVA test, and descriptive statics. Results: The result showed that aspects of Pros for milk consumption were significantly increase from precontemplation to maintenance stages ( p ˂ 0/005), while cons of milk consumption were not significantly decrease from precontemplation to maintenance stages ( p ˃ 0/05 ).

Farhadi Abolfazl , Farhadi  Sadegh and Nikpey Alef. Decisional Balance and milk consumption among college students: By using the Transtheoretical model (TTM). Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):168-171] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27

 

Key words: Transtheoretical model, change, stages, decisional balance, milk consumption, students

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Situational Self-efficacy and milk consumption among college students: By using the Transtheoretical model (TTM).

 

Farhadi Abolfazl , Farhadi  Sadegh and Nikpey Alef

 

Department of Nursing, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan , Iran

Corresponding Author email: farhadie_1967@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify the differences of aspects of situational self-efficacy in each stage of change to milk consumption among college students by using the transtheoretical model (TTM). Methods: A convenience sample of 500 college students completed measures of aspects of situational self-efficacy (positive social,,negative affect and difficult situation) by using modified specter scale. The staging measures and algorithm developed by the national cancer institute was used to assess respondents stag of change for milk consumption. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS 16.0 Program including ANOVA test, and descriptive statics. Results: The result showed that aspect of Positive social for milk consumption were significantly increase from precontemplation to maintenance stages ( p ˂ 0/005), while negative affect and difficult situations of milk consumption were not significantly decrease from precontemplation to maintenance stages ( p ˃ 0/05 ).

[Farhadi Abolfazl , Farhadi  Sadegh and Nikpey Alef. Situational Self-efficacy and milk consumption among college students: By using the Transtheoretical model (TTM). Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):172-175] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

 

Key words: Transtheoretical model, change, stages, decisional balance, milk consumption, students.

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Comparative study of "The Rule of law" in the international discipline and in the Nahj of Imam Ali (AS)

 

Hossein Ale Kajbaf 1,Hassan Faraj Donyavi 2

 

1.Assistant professor, Payam-e Nour University.Tehran,Iran

2.Ph.D.Student of international law, Payam-e Nour University.Tehran, Iran

donyavi_h59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ruling of law in its real meaning and with broad concept means people should obey rules and it should be dominant on them. Referring to law concept as a tool to control power has been attractive from past times. The concept of Ruling of law in international level is still completing and has always been a debatable topic. The more important is that Ruling of law should be defined in the term of desired government and help completing and implementing other parameters of desired government. The practical and theoretical emphasize on law mainly Quran orders and prophet’s procedures indicates the theological aspect of Imam Ali’s government. Imam Ali accepted to be governor in order to implement fairness and equity as pronounced manifestation of law and to lead the society toward ideal, growth and maturity. At the present time, there is no global and comprehensive definition o Ruling of law in worldwide. It can be said the main reason is to consider the personal interests by the governors of the different nations, not people interests. But Imam Ali didn’t trade the humanistic values and principles in politic market and he scarified his life for it. No his friends and relatives and their numbers could affect on Ruling of law in his government. In this paper we aim at answering the question whether the concept of Ruling of law is known in international system? And whether it is comparable with concept of Ruling of law in Nahjolbalagheh or not?

[Hossein Ale Kajbaf, Hassan Faraj Donyavi. Comparative study of "The Rule of law" in the international discipline and in the Nahj of Imam Ali (AS). Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):176-184] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29

 

Key Words: Rule of law, Nahj, governing, international system, Imam Ali. 

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Exploration of influencing the service quality on customer satisfaction by the innovation and creativity process approach (Karaj case)

 

Mohammad Nikbakht

 

Payam-e Nour University. Tehran, Iran.

nikbakht448@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In today competitive world, the customers are in the focus of company’s attention and their loyalty is the main factor for reaching to competitive advantage in the organizations. The aim for conducting current research is to explore the relationship between customer loyalty and its key variables meaning service quality and confidence and satisfaction are also considered as intermediate variable and role of innovation and creativity in enhancement of customer satisfaction has been evaluated. The current research is descriptive and in order to measure the questionnaire with 7 points Likert scale has been used.  The population is the non native tourists of Alborz province and sample volume are amounted 67 persons that for sample selection, the simple random sampling method has been used. The research findings imply a significant and positive relationship between service quality based on creativity and loyalty of customer. In order to be survived in such uncertain environment we need to novel thoughts and ideas. The tools that can be useful in this venue are creativity innovation and entrepreneurship. The creativity is to employ mental capability for creation of a thought or new conception, but innovation is the process for converting such thoughts to practice. The creativity is to employ mental capabilities for creation of a though or new concept thus findings of this research indicate that confidence and satisfaction variable play the intermediate role in the service quality and loyalty relationship along with innovation and creativity and influence on the loyalty positively and significantly. Generally this research show that there is a positive relationship between service quality with customer satisfaction.

 [Mohammad Nikbakht. Exploration of influencing the service quality on customer satisfaction by the innovation and creativity process approach (Karaj case). Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):185-192] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30

 

Keywords: customer satisfaction, service quality, behavioral loyalty, sentimental loyalty, intentional loyalty, creativity and innovation.

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Presents a model for Performance Evaluation of Business Process Management

 

Motadel Mohammadreza1 and EsfandyariFard Ghaffar2

 

1-       Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch

2-       Master of Information Technology Management

Department of Information Technology Management,

Electronic Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In the present study a mathematical model has been presented to evaluate the Business process management (BPM) in the inspection departments of Iran MelliBank. In the bank units BPMs are used in order to manage the operations of users and to offer related reports to relevant managers. There are some indicators in the organization that can evaluate BPM Performance. Beside these factors, we will see the effective indicators which can assess the BPM. We will focus on Input and output variables for discussing them according to bankerpoint of view by using Data Envelopment Analysis.

[Motadel Mohammadreza and EsfandyariFard Ghaffar. Presents a model for Performance Evaluation of Business Process Management. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):193-197]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31

Keywords:  Business Process Management, Data Envelopment Analysis,Critical Success Factors, Effective Indicators

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The Study of Intensity and Frequency of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Resulting from War in Ilam City

 

Koorosh Saki1*, Mahmood Rafieian-Kopaei2, Mahmood Bahmani3

 

1.       Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2.       Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

3.       Urmia University of Medical Siences. Urmia, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Koorosh Saki (PhD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Email: kooreshs@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a set of a person’s reactions to stresses which are beyond one’s mental capacity and precedes a severe stress. The aim of this Research was to study the intensity and frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from war in Ilam city. This descriptive- analytic study was investigated the PTSD among the residents of Ilam city who were involved directly or indirectly in the war issues.  The sample size was 5110 people chosen through cluster sampling technique. Data were analyzed through statistical methods such as K2 test, t-test, linear regression test, and variance analysis in SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that 26% of the cases who had residence background in Ilam city during Iraqi war against Iran suffered from mental disorder (PTSD). Most of these patients were married, illiterate, or primary educated people and mostly the young and middle aged housewives. The war-induced posttraumatic stress disorder has had negative effects on different aspects of Ilam city residents’ health. Therefore, identifying the vulnerable groups to apply medical treatment seemed important and necessary.

[Koorosh Saki, Mahmood Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood Bahmani. The Study of Intensity and Frequency of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Resulting from War in Ilam City. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):198-205]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

Key Words: Post-traumatic stress disorder, War, Ilam

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Typology Classification of Water Storages in East of Isfahan (From Azhie to Varzaneh)

 

Samira Tafazol1, Ahmad Salehi Kakhki2 (PhD), Mahsa Foroughi3 (M. Arch) (Corresponding author), Rouhollah Shakoori4

 

1. Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Non-profit Sepehr-Isfahan Institute of Higher Education, Isfahan, Iran

2. Associated Professor, Department for Conservation of Historic-Cultural Objects, Faculty of Conservation, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3. Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Build Environment, Tehran Art University, Tehran, Iran

4. Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

 

Abstract: According to the climate of Iran, water storages were inseparable from the buildings of the arid land. In this paper, these water storages in the east of Isfahan, Ghourtan to Varzaneh area, which are located at the end of the Zayandehrood River, have been studied. Based on the importance of these buildings and the lack of research which done in this field, the need for research in this area is recommended. In this paper, in addition to determining the location of water storages of the area which include five regions, it's tried to prepare architectural documents, including plans, facades, sections and describe aspects of the architectural perspective and examines various aspects of the water storages in terms of physical characteristics, such as form: how access to water, how to ventilate, decorations and etc. Finally, based on the review of five water storages, it's identified that these were belong to Ghajar period and divided to two types. The main difference of these types is their structures; as the first roof is multi-domed with low rise and the second has a high rise dome. Of the buildings, Pachviz, Blan, Ashkehran and Haji Mohammad Jafar water storages are classified in first type and Haj Mirza water storage is classified into second type. The research method was descriptive-analytical- historical and collecting data was on the basis of field research and library studies.

[Samira Tafazol, Ahmad Salehi Kakhki, Mahsa Foroughi, Rouhollah Shakoori. Typology Classification of Water Storages in East of Isfahan (From Azhie to Varzaneh). Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):206-217] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33

 

Keywords: Water storage, East of Isfahan, architecture, physical characteristics

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Investigating the Effect of Tourist Destination on Attracting Tourist: a Case study

 

Tevfik şükrü Yaprakli1 and Reza Rasouli2

 

1 Associate Professor of Marketing Management, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Production Management and Marketing, University of Ataturk, Erzurum, Turkey.

2 (Corresponding Author), Ph.D Student of Marketing Management, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Production Management and Marketing, University of Ataturk, Erzurum, Turkey. E-mail: reza.rasoule@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: Our goal of the present research is to study the impact of tourist destination on tourist attraction in East Azerbaijan province. To achieve this end, one main theory and three secondary hypotheses have been arranged for and for testing the hypotheses, a questionnaire including 12 questions related to the independent variables and 17 questions related to dependent variable were analyzed. After assessing the validity and reliability, the questionnaire was made available for the statistical population. Since the number of the statistical population is highly limited, our statistical sample volume is equal to the statistical population’s volume. The statistical population has been estimated equal to 150 persons. Therefore total counting method has been used. Then, for analyzing the collected data the descriptive and inferential statistical methods (regression test for forecasting level of effect of each one of the independent variables on the dependent ones) were used. The results indicate that tourist destination influences the tourist attraction in East Azerbaijan’s province.

[Yaprakli, T., and Rasouli, R. Investigating the Effect of Tourist Destination on Attracting Tourist: a Case study. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):218-224] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

 

Keywords: Tourist Destination, Tourist Attract, Cultural Dimension, Historical Dimension, Nature Dimension, East Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan-e-Sharqi) in Iran.

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The Study of Usefulness of Different Earnings Forecast Models (Usefulness of Different Earnings Forecast Models by Management Compared to Earnings Forecast through Time Series Models)

 

Shahram1 Abdolahi,  Saleh Hadinia2 and Hasan Babaei Koshteley3

 

1 M.Sc of Accounting, Department of Accounting, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University and Auditor of Supreme Audit Court, Tehran, Iran.

2 (Corresponding Author), M.Sc of Accounting, Department of Accounting, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University and Auditor of Supreme Audit Court, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: saleh.hadiniya@gmail.com.  

3 M.Sc of Mathematical, Department of Mathematical, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: Earning forecast is of particular importance for investors, because it is considered an important factor in the stock assessment methods, and in most cases, it is an essential component of the stock selection methods. The importance of this forecast depends on its deviation from the reality. The less the deviation is, the more accurate the forecast will be and this is considered important for both users and suppliers. Having related and timely information, management tries to estimate the future earning so that it would attract the trust of users. In contrast, the investors can estimate future earnings using other methods such as time series models.  This study compares the accuracy of the managers in forecasting the future earning with forecast of time series models. For this purpose, the forecasts of 19 companies, including 171 observations, were examined between 1999 and 2007. Considering the results of the sub-hypotheses, the result of the main hypothesis suggests that among the three used models, the best model to forecast with the least error in these companies was the moving average method. Also regarding the comparison of management earning forecast with time series forecasting methods, it was concluded that given that the two models out of three used quantitative models (time series model) forecast earnings with less error than the management forecast method. Thus, it can be said that management forecasts is more useful than time series methods. [Abdolahi, S., Hadinia, S., and Babaei, H. The Study of Usefulness of Different Earnings Forecast Models (Usefulness of Different Earnings Forecast Models by Management Compared to Earnings Forecast through Time Series Models). Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):225-232] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

 

Keywords: Earnings Forecast, Management Earnings Forecasts, Earnings Forecasts Through, Time Series Models.

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Organic Waste Feedstocks to Energy

 

Namık Ak

 

Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Sirnak University, Sirnak, Turkey

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-486-216-4008 (2210); fax: +90-486-216-4844

E-mail address: dr.akhoca@gmail.com (N. Ak).

 

Abstract: Waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies convert waste matter into various forms of fuel that can be used to supply energy. Waste feedstocks can include municipal solid waste (MSW); forest and wood industry wastes including bark, chips, sawdust, hardboard dust, mud from paper industry and raw cork; agricultural waste, such as crop silage and livestock manure; industrial waste from coal mining, lumber mills, or other facilities; and even the gases that are naturally produced within landfills. There are four major methods for conversion of organic wastes to synthetic fuels: (1) hydrogenation, (2) pyrolysis, (3) gasification, and (4) bioconversion. Biomass thermo-chemical conversion technologies such as pyrolysis and gasification are certainly not the most important options at present; combustion is responsible for over 97% of the world’s bio-energy production. Some processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion and alcohol production have widely been applied to biomass in order to obtain its energy content.

[Namık Ak. Organic Waste Feedstocks to Energy. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):233-241] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36

 

Keywords: Waste feedstock; Energy; Conversion; Waste management

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The Effect of Time Interval from Index Trauma on Results of Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage in Animal Samples

 

Mohammad Bassir Abolghassemi Fakhree, Amrollah Bayat, Hamed Farhadi, Ramin Azhough

 

Department of General Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

azhough@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is an invasive and highly sensitive diagnostic tool to detect abdominal trauma. Despite recent trend to use non-invasive tools such as FAST and CT scan to detect these injuries, DPL has its place in trauma management particularly for hollow visceral injury. Using RBC count to detect intestinal injuries has had low accuracy rate. WBC count, amylase, and alkaline phophatase (ALP) levels have been useful in this regard but with some controversies. The study was carried out on 90 rats, divided to 3 groups (30 rats each), and every group was subdivided randomly to 15 case and 15 control rats. For case rats, perforations were done in the small intestine using a needle. In all rats a catheter was placed in the peritoneum. Lavage of the peritoneum was done through the catheter 1, 6, and 12 hours after the trauma for first, second, and third group, respectively. WBC count was not different between case and control rats 1 hour post-injury, but was increased 6 and 12 hours after perforation in case rats. Amylase and ALP levels were higher in case rats in all of three groups compared to control rats. Further human studies must be done to clarify the normal and abnormal values of WBC count, amylase, and ALP levels of DPL analysis. Furthermore, the effect of time interval on these parameters must be appreciated and taken into account in interpreting the results of DPL to detect abdominal injuries as soon as possible.

[Fakhree MB, Bayat A, Farhadi H, Azhough R. The Effect of Time Interval from Index Trauma on Results of Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage in Animal Samples. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):242-245] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

 

Keywords: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage; intestinal injuries; amylase; alkaline phosphatase

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The Effect of training materials to help color and light, on the amount of attention and learning Persian language lessons in elementary school girls in the first grade in Sharoud city

 

Dr. Hasan Asadzadeh 1, Dr. Nourali Farokhzadeh 2, Yasamin Amini Moghadam 3

 

1Faculty of Psychology and Education , Allameh Tabatabai University ,Tehran, IRAN.

2Faculty of Psychology and Education , Allameh Tabatabai University ,Tehran, IRAN.

3 Master of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education , Allameh Tabatabai University ,Tehran, IRAN.

moghadam_yasamin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The color images show more details and to raise levels of educational information and is effective in gaining a deeper understanding. Proper lighting also will enhance learning and performance and will help to individual and situational analysis. This study aimed to assess the impact of training materials to help color and light, the amount of attention and learning Persian language lessons in elementary school girls first base began. This type of research was the semi-experimental design in which pre-test - post-test with two independent experimental and control groups, was dealing with Sampling in this study, sampling wascluster. Thus, the first among fifty seven primary schools in two school girls anymore city were randomly selected. Then, between these two classes first elementary school, two classes were selected randomly. Sample obtained consists of two primary first class and the number of students per class, 24 people were. Experimental groups under the influence of experimental (materials and tools for color and light), and control group, influenced by factors different from those (materials and tools for Black and White and no special lighting) groups. Run the test period, 4 weeks and 3 sessions per week (total of 12 sessions for each group).Tool to collect data in this study were:1 - test the research and determine the learning process of students learning in the classroom. 2 - Attention test, to determine the amount of attention Dr fraynd students learning in the classroom. Then, statistical analysis, data collected from samples with statistical tests analysis of covariance were analyzed. In this study, using the scores obtained by students in the learning and test data from tests of attention, to assess student learning and attention was paid. Statistical analysis of data in both the research hypothesis, with 05/0 =α, were confirmed. Statistical results showed: 1-Average scores in the experimental groups according automatically mean scores significantly higher than in the control group was considering. This result shows the effect of light and color is increased attention to students.2 - Average scores of students learning in the experimental group significantly higher than average scores automatically learning students in the control group had. This result shows the effect of light and color is on increasing student learning. Since the color in the learning environment improves visual processing, visual thinking, problem solving process and increase Creativity. Also the proper light increases the body's level of consciousness and cognitive performance. Therefore, research on the effect of training materials to help color and light, on the amount of attention and learning will help significantly improve the quality of teaching and learning.

[Hasan Asadzadeh, Nourali Farokhzadeh, Yasamin Amini Moghadam. The Effect of training materials to help color and light, on the amount of attention and learning Persian language lessons in elementary school girls in the first grade in Sharoud city. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):246-251] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

 

Keywords: color and light, attention, elementary school.

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Acceptability for injury assessment of groundwater resources in plain of Ardakan-Yazd using Drastic Model And GIS

1.S.A.Mirhosseini, 2.H. Zarei Mahmoodabady, 3.Mohsen Bemani

1.Department of Environment, MaybodBranch, Islamic Azad University, Maybod, Iran (Corresponding author).
Tel: 00989132552059 E-mail: mirhosseinid@yahoo.com

2.
Department of Environment, Maybod Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maybod, Iran
3.
M.Scgraduated of Groundwater Hydrology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

Abstract: Yazd-Ardakan plain was placed at Yazd province center and regarding its structure is a part of Iran central plateau, according to the weather conditions, there is not any kind of permanent river in the region and also other regions of province are dependent to the underground waters and due to the development of industries and importance of aforementioned water resource in the supply of required water of industries agriculture and drinking water in this study using the drastic model, aquifer acceptability for injury of Yazd–Ardakan was compared to the pollution. Since the removal of pollution from underground aquifers is a very expensive affaire and somewhat is impossible, preventing from their pollution is a most important work in order to protect the water resources. Main goal of doing this work is to evaluate the Yazd-Ardakan aquifer acceptability for injury in presence of pollution. In this research after classification and weighting for each one of the effective parameters, the drastic index is calculated per region and according to it the various degrees of vulnerability is identified and acceptability for injury plan is drawn based on the drastic method. Then we used of GIS technique to prepare the vulnerability plan. according to the results, 10 % of all region area in our study was in a negligible range, 75 % in a low range and 15 % in a medium range. According to the medium acceptability for injury of aquifer and lack of wastewater treatment system in the region, strategies such as prevention from contaminant units establishment and designing of waste water treatment in the regions with lower acceptability for injury is offered.
[S.A. Mirhosseini, H. Zarei Mahmoodabady, Mohsen Bemani. Acceptability for injury assessment of groundwater resources in plain of Ardakan-Yazd using Drastic Model And GIS. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):252-260] (ISSN:1097-8135).
http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39

Keywords:
Acceptability for injury, aquifer, Yazd-Ardakan, Drastic model,GIS

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Survey of intellectual capital and financial performance of companies in TSE

 

Ghasem Ghasemi1, Reza Tehrani2

 

1: Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University-Sabzevar Branch, Sabzevar, Iran and Ph.D. student in National University of Tajikistan (Corresponding Author)

2: Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University-Sabzevar Branch, Sabzevar, Iran

ghasemighasem14@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In a knowledge-based organization, where, knowledge forms a large part of the amount and quality of organization's profitability, traditional accounting methods, which are based on tangible assets and information of previous operations of the organization, are incapable of valuing intellectual capital as their most valuable assets. Therefore, the intellectual capital approach is the most comprehensive for organizations who want to know their profitability capacities better. The fundamental importance of this study is the lack of intellectual capital items in the financial statements of the companies as well as a huge gap between book value and market value. In the past, tangible assets had higher importance but today, large part of organizations’ assets are intangible assets thus, in today's economy, organizations success depend on the way of managing these assets.

[Ghasem Ghasemi, Reza Tehrani. Survey of intellectual capital and financial performance of companies in TSE. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):261-269] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

 

Keywords: Financial Performance, Iranian Capital Market, Intelligent Capital

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Comparison between lateralization levels of athletes who do exercises actively and their dynamic and static balance and some physical features

1
Dr. Ahmet Gökhan YAZICI, 2Dr. Hüseyin EROĞLU

1.Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Faculty of Kazım Karabekir, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey, agokhanyazici@hotmail.com
2.Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey eroglu1@gmail.com

Abstract: Aim: It is intended to search whether hemispheric differences of athletes who are active in sports lead to difference between dynamic, static balance levels which are sensorial and physical factors and some anthropometric features. Material and Method:  98 athletes doing exercises at least two hours at least for four days were included in study. 44 of them are right handed, 41 are left handed, and 12 are both handed. Dynamic and static balance levels, anthropometric features, anaerobic powers are evaluated before and after a thirty second Anaerobic Test of Wingate Cycle Ergometer. Collected data were analysed by SPSS 20 for Windows package. Results: No important difference was found between lateralization levels of right handed, left handed, both handed athletes doing exercises actively and dynamic and static levels and some anthropometric features. Conclusion: It was concluded that both handed are advantageous in balance, fatigue is not effective as it is accustomed, fatigue affects static balance, there is no difference between left handed athletes and right handed athletes.
[
Ahmet Gökhan, Hüseyin EROĞLU. Comparison between lateralization levels of athletes who do exercises actively and their dynamic and static balance and some physical features. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):270-279] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 41

Key Words: dynamic balance, lateralization, somatotype, sport, static balance.

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Investigation of physical factors and chemical reactions in Roller compacted concrete dams in Russia

Masoud Golshani1, Ali Arash Ronassi2,
Vyacheslav Vatslavovich
Babitsky3

1.
PhD student, Department of Concrete technology and Construction Materials, Belarusian National Technical University, Minsk, Belarus
2.
Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Payam-e Noor University , PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran.
3.
Professor of Technical Sciences, Department of Concrete technology and Construction Materials, Belarusian National Technical University, Minsk, Belarus,

masoudgolshani@yahoo.com 

Abstract: According to the abundant use of engineer and factor designer about the function of concrete in different environmental conditions, it's important to analyze the methods and new technologies of factors and concrete and adopted with environmental condition and function of Russia. One of the main causes of destroyed concrete in RCC dams is the alkali-carbon reaction of the aggregates. In this paper, the aggregates are chosen from three well known RCC dams in Russia. Mortar bar method, accelerated mortar bar test, accelerated concrete prism test were performed on experimental samples and some solutions were expressed for the concrete to be remained properly. According to the results, it is concluded that among these three methods, accelerated mortar bar test (choosing appropriate Expansions criterion (, is the best method to the evaluate Alkali-carbonate reactions.

[Masoud Golshani, Ali Arash Ronassi, Vyacheslav Vatslavovich Babitsky. Investigation of physical factors and chemical reactions in Roller compacted concrete dams in Russia. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):280-285] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42

 

Keywords: Investigation of physical, concrete, RCC dams, experimental, Russia

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A Comparative Study Of Epic Themes in Firdausi and Persian Ancient Narratives

 

Zhila Dehbozorgi, PH.D

 

Professor of Farhanghian University, Tehran, Iran

Pegmo63@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Epic is about the action of lords and great men. The studied subjects in epic, is daring actions and events stored in the old stories and narratives. These stories have those meanings and charms that is the cover of the epic stories.The origins of Persian epics come from the old narratives of Avesta, especially Yashts and also Persian medieval manuscripts like ''Yadegar-e-zariran '' (commemoration of Zariran), ''Khoday Name'' (the book about God) and the histories of Islamic era.Remaining of old subjects could be seen in Islamic era's ''Shahnamehs'' (the book about Shahs) especially, Firdausi's Shahnameh has used a lot of traditional subjects and foundations.

[Zhila Dehbozorgi. A Comparative Study Of Epic Themes in Firdausi and Persian Ancient Narratives. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):286-292] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43

 

Keywords: Themes, ancient sources, narratives, epic, Firdausi's shahnameh

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The Relationship Between Personality Traits and Self-competence with Organizational Commitment of

Teachers of Girl’s Primary Schools of Talesh in Academic Year 2011-2012

 

Javad Khalatbari 1, Shahnam Abolghasemi2, Ziba Saadati2

 

1Department of Psychology, Ramsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran

2Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

  

Abstract:The main aim of the paper is to investigate how Personality Traits and Self-competence are related to Organizational Commitment in teachers working in Talesh primary schools. The research was descriptively (coordinatively) performed. The statitical sample includes all the teachers working in girls primary schools in Talesh totally 442 people. The sample volume was assigned as 205 teachers based on Morgan’s Table; also sampling was performed by random classification. The collection devices were three types of questionaires: New Personality Traits; Sherer’s Public Self-competence; and Allan & Mayer Organizational Commitment. To anlayze the data, there were utilized Focal Coordination Tests and also Pearson’s coordination Coefficient. The results show that personality traits and self-competence are significantly related to primary school teachers’ organizational commitment. Moreover it was shown that there are three focal coordinations between these variables in which the predictor variables identify respectively 48.1, 3 and 22.4 percent of standard variable’s variance . It was also shown that  personality  traits  are  significantlrelated  to  teacher’s  organizational  commitment.  There  can  be  sort  of meaningful and positive relationship between  teacher’s self-competence an their organizational commitment. [Javad Khalatbari Shahnam Abolghasemi, Ziba Saadati. The Relationship Between Personality Traits and Self- competence with Organizational Commitment of Teachers of Girl’s Primary Schools of Talesh in Academic Year 2011-2012. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):293-301](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44

 

Key Words: Personality Traits; Self-competence; Organizational commitment.

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The Relation between Breast Cancer and Reproductive Factors in Women Referring to Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj in 2011-2012

 

Ahdiyeh Parhizkar

 

Nursery and Midwifery Department, Nursery and Midwifery Faculty, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences,sanandaj,iran

parhizkar_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of death in Iranian women. Considering high prevalence of breast cancer at young ages in Iran and problems of the disease for individuals and their families provides enough justification for conducting the present study. Therefore, the present research was aimed at investigating the relation between breast cancer and women’s reproductive factors. Method: The study is case study. Participants were 450 women who referred to Tohid Hospital, Sanandaj. Purposeful sampling was applied. Questionnaire method and interview were applied to collect data. Afterwards, the collected data were analyzed through chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. Findings: Analysis of the collected data showed that there was a significant relation between studies women’s breast cancer, education (OR=1.51, 1.15, 15-2), and occupation (t=1.69, P<0.04). Moreover, there was a significant relation between contraceptive pill taking time (OR=0.86, 0.8-0.93), duration of breastfeeding (OR=1.19, 1.07-1.31), full-term pregnancy (OR=3.34, 1.96-5.65) and breast cancer. Final Results: The results showed that a number of individual characteristics and reproductive factors have significant correlation with breast cancer; therefore, breast cancer and its adverse consequences need to be prevented to a large extent by training and informing women about methods of examination and control of the disease.

[ Ahdiyeh Parhizkar, The Relation between Breast Cancer and Reproductive Factors in Women Referring to Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj in 2011-2012.. Life Sci J 2013;10(s): 302-307](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45

 

Keywords: breast cancer, reproductive factors

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The Relation between Anemia and Postpartum Depression in Pregnant Women Who Referred to Health and Medical Centers of Sanandaj in 2011-2012

 

Ahdieh Parhizkar

 

Nursery and Midwifery Department, Nursery and Midwifery Faculty, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences,sanandaj,iran

parhizkar_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: At reproductive age, women are prone to the risk of postpartum depression. This disease associates with serious complications for mother, baby, and family. The main cause of postpartum depression is unknown. In this regard, a large body of research is devoted to investigating the relation between psychological, social, and nutritional factors. The present study was aimed at determining the relation between women’s anemia and their postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: The study was analytic-descriptive (cross-sectional). It consisted of 400 women who referred to health and medical centers affiliated to Kurdistan University of Medical Science. Data collection was conducted through cluster sampling. Blood test and Edinburgh Depression Scale were applied to collect data. Blood sampling was carried out on the 7th postpartum day. Afterwards, Edinburgh Depression Scale was completed through interviewing on 28th day. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 software. Results: Data analysis showed that the mean hemoglobin concentration in non-anemic group was 13.4±0.78 while for anemic group this figure was observed to be 9.75±0.71. This finding shows that in general 78.8% of participant women were depressed. The results showed that there was a significant relation between pregnant mothers’ anemia and their postpartum depression (p<0.005).Conclusion: Results showed that postpartum depression has a significant correlation with anemia intensity. Therefore, anemic women need more attention and are checked regarding their postpartum depression and treated if necessary.

[Ahdieh Parhizkar. The Relation between Anemia and Postpartum Depression in Pregnant Women Who Referred to Health and Medical Centers of Sanandaj in 2011-2012. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 308-312] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46

 

Keywords: anemia, postpartum depression

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Serologic detection of anti Toxoplasma gondii infection in diabetic patients

 

Shahnaz Shirbazou (PhD) *1 , Ali Delpisheh (PhD, PostDoc) 2 ,Fatemeh   Tabatabaie (PhD)3 ,Rahim Mokhetari (MSc) 4 ,Ghafor Tavakoli (MSc) 5 ,Sara Damghani 6 ,Yaser Tabaraei 7 , laila Aabasian8

 

1 Health Research center ,Baqiyatallah university of Medical Sciences, Department of Parasitology, Tehran,Iran

2 Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries, Research Centre,  Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam-Iran.

3 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of  Medical Sciences, Tehran,Iran.Email:fatemeh_tabatabaie@yahoo.com

4 Health Research center ,Baqiyatallah university of Medical Sciences, Department of Parasitology, Tehran,Iran

5Department of Medical Technology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran- Iran

6 Medical student, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

7 MS in Biostatistics, Public health School-Health School-Sabzevar university of medical sciences (SUMS), Sabzevar, Iran.

8 Department of Parasitology, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam-Iran.

*Corresponding author:  S.shirbazou@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite. The parasite is intracellular and can result in severe complications leading to death in immuno-deficient patients in particular. Diabetes is an important factor that increases susceptibility and risk of various infections in the host. The present study focused on the serologic detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in diabetic patients. Methodology: Through a case-control study, overall 184 serum samples including 91 from diabetic cases and 93 from healthy non-diabetic controls were investigated. Cases and controls were matched for age and gender. Serum samples were tested for sugar by an enzymatic method, and IgG antibodies were tested against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA method. Results: The prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in diabetic patients and healthy controls were 60.43% and 38% respectively. Risk of toxoplasmosis infection in diabetic patients with was two folds higher than healthy controls (RR=2.21, 95%CI; 1.6-3.7, p=0.001). Conclusions: Diabetes may be caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in the pancreas at the same time could directly undermines the pancreas cells. When β cells are destroyed, insulin secretion would then be affected. Probably the destruction of T. Gondii affects nervous system and damages pancreatic cells leading to increased risk of diabetes.

[Shahnaz Shirbazou, Ali Delpisheh, Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Rahim Mokhetari, Ghafor Tavakoli, Sara Damghani, Yaser Tabaraei, laila Aabasian, Serologic detection of anti Toxoplasma gondii infection in diabetic patients. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 313-315](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 47

 

Key words:  Serologic,  diabetic, Toxoplasma gondii , Infection

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High prevalence of lumbar disc herniation among patients referring to the largest MRI center of hormozgan province-Iran

 

S. Parhiz1, M. Afkhami Ardekani2*, M. Salimi2, M. Salami1, K. Bahmanzade1, S.R. Mirsoleymani2

 

1Student Research Committee, Department of Research and Technology, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandare-Abbas, Iran

2*Department of Radiology, faculty of Allied-medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandare-Abbas, Iran

*corresponding Author:  m.afkhami87@Gmail.com

Tel & Fax: +987616685230

 

Abstract: Lumbar Disc Herniation (LDH) occurs due to different reasons and much money allocated to its consequences. Prevalence of LDH in different parts of the world is due to and affected by local specialties such as financial, cultural, behavioral and occupational features, as well as, life style. The present study intends to evaluate prevalence of LDH in Bandar Abbas- Iran, correlation factors. Methods: in this study evaluated patients who referred to the Shahid Mohammadi with complain of backache. Age, sex, stature, weigh, job and living area were recorded medical history containing weight loss; history of fever, incontinency, trauma, systemic disease, child birth, section operation, anesthetics usage and positive family history were recorded. With report of MRI, presence or absence of LDH was considered. Results: in contrast 65.7% reports positive LDH. There were significant relationship between LDH and occupation, living area and high BMI (p<0.05). The most severe type of LDH reported bulging, the radiation of pain stated in thigh and hip mostly (65.9 %). Conclusion: LDH is a multi factorial disorder which could be affected by different variables such as demographic and social specialties. The present study emphasized on the prevalence of LDH in a particular population, and revealed specific risk factor of LDH due to the population differences which cannot be considered in other studies. It finally suggested that LDH is not affected by a fixed set of risk factors worldwide and more study is required to determine the LDH pattern and risk factors in each community.

.[ S. Parhiz, M. Afkhami Ardekani, M. Salimi, M. Salami, K. Bahmanzade, S.R. Mirsoleymani, High prevalence of lumbar disc herniation among patients referring to the largest MRI center of hormozgan province-Iran.. Life Sci J 2013; 10(7s): 316-318](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48

 

Keywords: High prevalence, lumbar disc, MRI center

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Enteric Parasites in Patients Referred to Health Centers of Qom –Iran 2007-2009

Fatemeh Maleki1 ,Lame Akhlaghi2,Shahnaz shirbazou3, Yaser tabaraei4, Saeid Khodadadi 5 , Fatemeh Tabatabaie2*

1 Faculty of Para Medical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat Express Way,Tehran, Iran

2Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran ,Iran

3 Health research center,Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences, Tehran,Iran

4MS in Biostatistics, Public health School-Health School-Sabzevar university of medical sciences (SUMS),Sabzevar, Iran

5Qom Islamic Azad university, QOM Azad university of medical science, Iran

*Correspondence author: dr.f.taba@hotmail.com,fatemeh_tabatabaie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Aim: The current study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in patients referred to health centers of Qom province. Materials and Methods:This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on stool specimens from patients referred to the health centers of Qom province.The samples were tested using formalin-ether concentration and Graham methods.Results:Within the 117,403 fecal samples evaluated; protozoa, Giardia, and then Entamoeba coli were the most frequently observed parasites. The lowest infection rate was related to Oxyuris.The three-year prevalence percentage was determined to be 6.5 %.Most infections occurred in spring and summer, in the age group below 10, and in residents of suburbs and villages. The Infection rates were almost similar in the two sexes. Conclusion: A significant relationship was observed between the rate of infection and age groups,season, and place of residence (P<0.005), but sex was not related to the rate of infection.

[Yaser tabaraei, Lame Akhlaghi,Shahnaz shirbazou, Fatemeh Maleki, Saeid Khodadadi, Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Enteric Parasites in Patients Referred to Health Centers of Qom –Iran 2007-2009. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 319-321](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

 

Keywords: Helminths;Protozoa; Qom;Prevalence.

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Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma Infection in Pregnant Women in Qom Province, Iran (2010)

 

Lame Akhlaghi 1,Shahnaz Shirbazou2,  Fatemeh Maleki3, Alireza Keyghobadi 4 ,Yaser Tabaraei 5,Fatemeh Tabatabaie1*

 

1Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2Health research center,Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran

3Faculty of Para Medical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat Express Way, Tehran, Iran

4Intern, Medical Student, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5MS in Biostatistics, Public health School-Health School-Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Sabzevar, Iran

 

Abstract: Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans. Infection with T. gondii is potentially life threatening in immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, the infection can be detrimental during pregnancy, often leading to abortion of the fetus. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection among Qom's pregnant women in 20l0. Materials and methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 200 serum samples were selected randomly and examined for toxoplasmosis by ELISA and IFA methods.The relationship between seropositivity for toxoplasmosis on the one hand, and some important factors on the other hand, were evaluated. Results: Total prevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma was 45.3%. According to the data reported by patients, toxoplasmosis had direct relationship with residential areas, consumption of semi-cooked meat, consumption of unwashed raw vegetables, and being in contact with cats. There is a statistically significant relationship between age and occurrence of the infection with regard to IgG seropositivity. However, such relationship could not be found for IgM. The highest infection rate was observed in the age range of 2l to 25. Discussion: Education about the routes of the disease transmission and performing toxoplasma test before pregnancy can be effective reducing the prevalence rate. [Lame Akhlaghi, Shahnaz shirbazou,  Fatemeh Maleki, Alireza Keyghobadi, Yaser tabaraei, Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma Infection in Pregnant Women in Qom Province, Iran (2010), Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 322-325] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50

 

Keywords: Toxoplasma; Antibody; Pregnancy; IgM; IgG.

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RBF Network-Based Chaotic Time Series Predictionand Its Application in IRAN stock market

 

Hamid Yazdani1*, Ali Fallah2 ,Fatemeh Khamseh Nezhad3

 

1*Departmentof Electronics, Islamic Azad University, Nour Branch, Nour, Iran

2Departmentof management, Islamic Azad University, Nour Branch, Nour, Iran

3Department of Electronics, maziar University, Nour Branch, Nour, Iran

*Corresponding Author:eng.hamid.yazdani@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The stock market is a chaotic dynamic system. We apply the RBF network-based chaotic time series prediction on the stock market exchange rate in Iran. We apply the RBF network and phase space reconstruction to find the optimal embedding dimension in the Iran stock market from the point view of forecasting. We find that the optimal embedding dimension is 10. Finally, we use the optimal embedding dimension to implement the prediction. [Hamid Yazdani, Ali Fallah ,Fatemeh Khamseh Nezhad. RBF Network-Based Chaotic Time Series Predictionand Its Application in IRAN stock market. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 326-330](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51

 

Keywords: Chaotic time series, Prediction, Phase space reconstruction, RBF network, Iran stock market.

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Crm In Various Dimensions

 

* Prabahar K, ** Dr. Adalarasu B

 

* Research Scholar, Reg No. 11111321024, Anna University Chennai, Regional Centre Coimbatore, Coimbatre 641047. Mobile 9943499458; Email: prabahar.kt@gmail.com

 

** Dean, R.V.S. Faculty of Management, Kumaran Kottam campus,Trichy Road, Kannampalayam, Coimbatore641402, Mobile : 9842079098, Email: dr.adalarasu.b@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Customer Relationship Management is a multi-disciplinary concept. It is no longer a consulting buzzword but reality for many MNCs. As competition in business sector increases and excellent service is a critical success factor, therefore importance of CRM increases. This paper highlights the various dimensions of CRM and contributes to some successful factors in CRM application. It covers E-commerce, WAP mail services and short message services for mobile; E-business,E-business environment, electronic CRM, data mining, education and power supply industry. Firstly, we discuss some basics of CRM integration and its importance for corporate performance. It gives the information that how CRM is useful in the various fields of life. It also focuses on enhancing the e-business aspects of interactions to provide a consistent customer experience. Store of previous data and its mining is very important in the application of CRM. At last, it gives some guidance for future study on CRM, its scope and research area left behind.

[Prabahar K, Adalarasu B. Crm In Various Dimensions. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 331-339] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52

 

KEYWORDS: Customer Relationship Management, E-commerce, power supply enterprise, short message system, wireless application protocol.

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A Study of Relationship between Accruals over Life Cycles of Food and Drug Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

 

Mohammad Reza Abbaszadeh *, Vahideh Jouyban **

 

* Assistant Professor, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

** Master of Accounting and Young Researchers Club, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran.

Corresponding author Email: jouyban_88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Accruals are among important variables often used in accounting studies as a proxy for quality of information. Recently, a number of studies have examined the effects of life cycle stages on accruals. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between accruals over firm life cycles for food and drug companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). The sample used in this study consists of 51 TSE firms selected through systematic elimination and observed over a period of 8 years (408 observation points). Variance analysis and least significant difference (LSD; a post-hoc test) were used to analyze the collected data. Our findings suggest no significant relationship between accruals of the firms over their life cycles.

[Mohammad Reza Abbaszadeh, Vahideh Jouyban. A Study of Relationship between Accruals over Life Cycles of Food and Drug Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. Life Sci J 20133;10(7s): 340-343]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53

 

Keywords: Accruals; Lifecycle; Startup (Fast Growth); Consolidation (Slow Growth); Mature; Declining; Declined.

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Technique for Tracheostoma Closure

 

A.L. Charyshkin, N.V. Vanina, L.M. Lebedeva, Yu.V. Charyshkina

 

Hospital Surgery Department, Ulyanovsk State University, ul. L. Tolstogo 42, Ulyanovsk, 432970 Russia

tel. +79510966093

 

Abstract: An investigation into improving tracheostoma closure using the alloplastic method is conducted. The developed technique for tracheostoma closure is described in this study (RF Patent No. 2 472 455). The results of surgical treatment of patients with tracheal stenosis during the period of 2001–2011 are presented. The proposed technique for tracheostoma closure is evaluated. The proposed method for tracheostoma closure in patients with tracheal stenosis prevents narrowing of the tracheal lumen and ensures tight tracheostoma closure.

[Charyshkin AL, Vanina NV, Lebedeva LM, Charyshkina YuV. Technique for Tracheostoma Closure. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 344-347] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54

 

Keywords: Tracheostoma, tracheal stenosis, alloplastic method, posttracheostomic defect, allograft, cutaneous flap.

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Study of Effects of different levels of irrigation interval and nitrogen on some physiological traits of signet marigold (Tagetes tenuifolia) 

 

Mohammad Kafi*, Zeinolabedin jouyban**

 * Department of Agronomy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1163, Mashhad, Iran
** Young Researchers Club, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran
E-mail: abed_jouyban88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In order to study the effect of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen on some physiological traits of signet marigold (Tagetes tenuifolia), a study was carried out in greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2012 on the basis of a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot was irrigation interval at three levels of 2, 4 and 6 days and the sub-plot was N fertilization at three levels of 0, 15 and 30 g. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation interval was not significant on chlorophyll index, stomatal conductance and leaf area. N fertilization level significantly influenced total leaf area, but its effect was not significant on chlorophyll index and stomatal conductance, so that the increase in N fertilization level significantly increased total leaf area by 3.8%. So, it is recommended to use irrigation interval of 2 days and 30 g N fertilization to achieve the highest level of the studied physiological traits.
[Mohammad Kafi, Zeinolabedin jouyban. Study of Effects of different levels of irrigation interval and nitrogen on some physiological traits of signet marigold (Tagetes tenuifolia). Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 348-350]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).
http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55

Keywords: signet marigold, irrigation, nitrogen, physiological traits.

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Misoprostol versus Surgical Intervention for Incomplete Abortion in Iran

 

Samie Karimi1, Minoo Rajaei2, Mahboobeh Nasrollahi3 , Yaghoub Hamedi2, Kamelia Madani3, Esmaeil Aliabadi4

 

1. Assistant professor, Gynecologic Oncology Fellowship, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS), BandarAbbas, Hormozgan, Iran

2. Associate professor, Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS), BandarAbbas, Hormozgan, Iran

3. Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS), BandarAbbas, Hormozgan, Iran

4. Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS), Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran

mahboobeh_nasrollahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Incomplete abortion is still one of the most important causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Surgical treatment is the standard treatment for incomplete abortion for years, but Misoprostol usage is recently noted and is safe, effective, and low cost treatment especially in areas with low resources. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of misoprostol and surgical treatment in incomplete abortion. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study 150 women with incomplete abortion that referred to Shariati hospital of Bandar-Abbas were evaluated. The patients were divided in 2 groups randomly. Group A received 600 mg misoprostol and D&C was perform for Group B. after 7 days, patients were reevaluated. Successful treatment approved by ultrasonography. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16, descriptive study, Chi-square and T-test. Significant level was set as P<0.05. Results: The mean age of patients was 27.74 ± 5.84 years. Two groups were not different in age, gestational age, and hemoglobin (P>0.05). The success rate after treatment in surgery group (96%) significantly higher than the misoprostol (10.66%) group (P=0.000). The patients who had failure of treatment with 2 course of misoprostol were underwent to D&C surgery and all of them were successful. Conclusion: The results of this study and other study indicate, although the success rate of misoprostol was lower than surgery, but use of misoprostol for incomplete abortion in women is safe and could prevent uterine rupture and unnecessary surgeries, particularly in women who anesthesia or surgery is contraindicated. Large randomized trials focusing on patients with incomplete abortion are needed to confirm these results.

[Karimi S, Rajaei M, Nasrollahi M, Hamedi Y, Madani K, Aliabadi E. Misoprostol versus Surgical Intervention for Incomplete Abortion in Iran. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 351-354] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56

 

Keywords: Incomplete abortion, Misoprostol, D&C surgery

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Development of Superpave Performance Grading Map for Pakistan

 

Kamran Muzaffar Khan1, Tahir Sultan2 , Qazi Umar Farooq3, Kiffayatullah Khan4, Faizan Ali5

 

1.Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan

2. Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Bhauddin Zikriya University, Multan Pakistan

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan

4. Assistant Professor, Iqra National University Peshawar Pakistan

5 Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan

 

Abstract: Binder plays a crucial role in asphalt performance, due to which it has been given immense importance by the asphalt industry. Binder grading systems are used to characterize binders based on their physical properties. Pakistan is facing the problem of rutting in asphaltic concrete due to extreme weather conditions and heavy traffic loadings. This work aims characterization of indigenous binder based on SUPERPAVETM binder requirements. Asphalt performance grades for Pakistan were formulated on the basis of comprehensive air temperature data collection and analysis. The whole country was divided into 7 different performance grade zones on the basis of previous 20 years temperature data collected from 30 weather stations. The recommended grades are PG 76-4, PG 70-10, PG 70-4, PG 64-10, PG 64-4, PG 58-10 and PG 58-4. Also a temperature zoning map has been proposed to be implemented in Pakistan

[Khan K M, et al. Development of Superpave Performance Grading Map for Pakistan. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 355-362] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57

 

Keywords: Binder, Performance, Zoning, Asphalt

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Rutting performance of Polyethylene, Lime and Elvaloy modified Asphalt Mixes 

Kamran Muzaffar Khan 1, Hanifullah 2, Mujaddad Afzal 3, Faizan Ali 4, Afaq Ahmed 5, Tahir Sultan6 

1* Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan. kamran.muzaffar@uettaxila.edu.pk
2 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan. hanif_civilengr@yahoo.com
3, 4 Research Associate, Department of Civil Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan. faceuet@hotmail.com
5 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan. afaq.ahmad@uettaxila.edu.pk
6 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, BZU Multan, Pakistan. chtahir786@hotmail.com

Abstract: A key element in the performance of asphalt is its resistance to rutting. Many modifiers can be used to improve the properties of asphalt and to enhance its rut resistance. This research is aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Polyethylene modified, Lime modified and Elvaloy modified asphalt mixes in improving the performance of asphaltic concrete regarding rutting resistance and to compare it with the performance of conventional NHA (National Highway Authority Pakistan) Class-A mix. In this study the compacted asphalt mixes were tested for resistance to rutting by subjecting all the specimens to 10,000 repetitions of a loaded wheel and the rut depth for each specimen was determined using wheel tracking machine. Polyethylene modified mixes showed better resistance to rutting than all the other mixes and the conventional NHA class-A mix showed the poorest performance. The order of performance is polyethylene modified mix performed best, then lime modified mix, then elvaloy modified mix and then conventional (unmodified) NHA class-A mix. Results indicated that better quality asphalt concrete mixes regarding rut resistance can be prepared using lime modified mixes, polyethylene modified mixes and using polymer modified bitumen (PMB) in the HMA instead of unmodified bitumen.[Kamran M.K, Haniffulah, Mujaddad A., Faizan A., Afaq A., Tahir S. Rutting performance of Polyethylene modified, Lime modified and Elvaloy modified Asphalt Mixes Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 363-371] (ISSN: 1097-8135).] http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58 

Keywords: Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), Rutting, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), hydrated lime, PMB, Wheel tracker.

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Review Needs Of Employees Between Different Demographic Groups In Attitude Of Managers And Employees (Case Study: Department Of Telecommunications)

 

 1 Golnar Shojaei Baghini (PH.D), 2Soheila Rahmati (MA)

1Department of Management , Shahrood Branch , Islamic Azad Univarsity , Shahrood ,Semnan, Iran
golnar.shojaei@gmail.com. (Corresponding Author)
2
Master of Human Resources Management, Department of Management , Shahrood Branch , Islamic Azad Univarsity , Shahrood , Semnan, Iran
soheila_rahmati@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study is to analyze the different needs of employees from the managers’ and employees’ point of view. The population in study is consisted of all the employees in Dameghan’s telecommunications department who worked in that department in 1391. Since the population is so limited then all the population was chosen as the sample in which there were 100 people. This study was a descriptive kind and practical. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory was used as the basis for this study which consists of physiology, safety, social, respect, self-actualization. Data gathering tool was a self-made questionnaire with 60 standard questions about needs of employees. The creditability of the questionnaire was approved by the experts of this major and the reliability was approved using cronbach’s alpha which for this study was 0.76. To test hypotheses SPSS software was used and then the results showed that there is not a significant difference between valuation of employees’ needs and their education level, their grads at work, and their gender. And also there is not a significant difference between employees’ needs and their age in variables like physiology, safety, social needs. There is only a significant difference in variables like respect and self-actualization, which are different in different age group.
[Golnar Shojaei Baghini, Soheila Rahmati. Review Needs Of Employees Between Different Demographic Groups In Attitude Of Managers And Employees (Case Study: Department Of Telecommunications).
Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):372-379] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

Keyword: need, physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs.

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DAO- LEACH: an Approach for Energy Efficient Routing based on Data Aggregation and Optimal Clustering in WSN

 

A.Gopi Saminathan 1, Dr.S. Karthik

 

1. Faculty of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Anna University- University College of Engineering Dindigul, Dindigul, India

2. Professor and Dean, Department of Computer Science and Engineering(UG and PG), SNS College of Technology, Saravanampatti Post, Coimbatore, India

1jeyam_go@yahoo.com, 2profskarthik@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed and dedicated sovereign sensor nodes with confined resources to politely monitor physical and environmental conditions. In recent years, there has been a rising interest in WSN. One of the major confrontations in WSN is developing an energy-efficient routing protocol to enhance the network longevity.  With that concern, this work contributes in providing a novel approach called DAO-LEACH (Data Aggregation based Optimal- LEACH) by which the energy efficient routing in WSN is attained based on effective data ensemble and optimal clustering. Aggregating the data sent by cluster members comprehend in draining network load and amending the bandwidth.  In order to minimize the energy dissipation of sensor nodes and optimize the resource utilization, cluster head is elected for each cluster. Moreover, the energy efficient route in WSN is obtained by combining the nodes having maximum residual energy. Experimental results have shown that the proposed approach furnishes efficient route for data transmission among the sensor nodes in an adept manner, thereby prolonging the network lifetime.
[A.Gopi Saminathan, Dr.S. Karthik. DAO- LEACH: an Approach for Energy Efficient Routing based on Data Aggregation and Optimal Clustering in WSN.
Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):380-389] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60

 

Keywords: CH (Cluster Head), clustering, data aggregation, energy efficient routing, residual  energy.

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Obstacles and challenges of electronic government establishment in virtual age

 

Gholamreza Memarzadeh1, Mehrzad Sarfarazi2 (Corresponding Author), Nasrollah Akbari3

1Faculty of Management & Accounting, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2
Instructor & PhD Candidate, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
3
MA Student of Public Administration, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran 

 

Abstract: Knowledge age or information age which one of its physical symbols is internet, is improving increasingly. Virtual revolution that is the result of virtual age, effects on all affairs related to civilized man tomorrow, and this effect is more than third wave effects that can provide large changes, so far. Electronic government which is the result of virtual age revolution unlike common approach in many developing countries, is not giving computer and put it on government official and managers or staffs desk, bat also, electronic government concluding of using information and communications technology to change government and governance pluses through making it be more accessible, efficient and responsive. Electronic government improves people condition of access to useful information about their life and providing government services, and represents new opportunities for cooperation in political processes. E-Government implementation entails basic and fundamental changes in government and even society. Following challenges of electronic government can be classified in three groups: management challenges, human force challenges and challenges that are derived from new technologies which are related to improvement and development of required infrastructures to enjoy of technologies and communicative instruments. In this article, we have verified definitions and conceptions of E-Government as far as possible, we have tried to discuss about requirements and challenges of E-Government in implementation.
[Gholamreza Memarzadeh, Mehrzad Sarfarazi, Nasrollah Akbari, Obstacles and challenges of electronic government establishment in virtual age.
Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 390-398] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

Key words: Information technology, virtual age, E-Government, challenges of E-Government establishment

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Methodology of customer relation management, necessity in the third millennium

 

Malike Beheshtifar, Masoud Poorkiyani, Nasrollah Akbari (Corresponding Author)

 

Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran

Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

MA Student of Public Administration, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran

 

Abstract: Undoubtedly, in new competition atmosphere and disquiet environment that organization place in there and they rob antecedence ball from each other permanently; only organizations and institutions can find their life continuation and daily development that set main axis of their activity, to amplify quality of services and productions, consumer satisfaction and stability of that. Supply of customer satisfaction in organizations is so important and make organization to use modern directorial schemas and methods such as: consumer relation management, catholic quality management and … . Organizations attend to customer and his satisfaction because, customer pays services and stuffs costs of those and in this global age, customer is imagined as a king. With regarding to matter of this subject, in this research we try to proceed to one of the most important programs of management, CRM and role of that in achievement and consequently, express profits of an organization and challenges and obstacles which masters may face in performance of CRM.

[Malike Beheshtifar, Masoud Poorkiyani, Nasrollah Akbari. Methodology of customer relation management, necessity in the third millennium. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 399-406] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

 

Key words: customer relation management, satisfaction, stability and loyalty of customer

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The Study of Intensity and Frequency of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Resulting from War in Ilam City

 

Koorosh Saki1*, Mahmood Rafieian-Kopaei2, Mahmood Bahmani3

1.       Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2.
       Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
3.
       Urmia University of Medical Siences. Urmia, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Koorosh Saki (PhD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Email: kooreshs@gmail.com

 

 Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a set of a person’s reactions to stresses which are beyond one’s mental capacity and precedes a severe stress. The aim of this Research was to study the intensity and frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from war in Ilam city. This descriptive- analytic study was investigated the PTSD among the residents of Ilam city who were involved directly or indirectly in the war issues.  The sample size was 5110 people chosen through cluster sampling technique. Data were analyzed through statistical methods such as K2 test, t-test, linear regression test, and variance analysis in SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that 26% of the cases who had residence background in Ilam city during Iraqi war against Iran suffered from mental disorder (PTSD). Most of these patients were married, illiterate, or primary educated people and mostly the young and middle aged housewives. The war-induced posttraumatic stress disorder has had negative effects on different aspects of Ilam city residents’ health. Therefore, identifying the vulnerable groups to apply medical treatment seemed important and necessary.
[
Koorosh Saki, Mahmood Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood Bahmani. The Study of Intensity and Frequency of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Resulting from War in Ilam City. Life Sci J 2013; 10(7s): 407-417]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

Key Words: Post-traumatic stress disorder, War, Ilam

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RSSE: A Paradigm for Proficient Information Retrieval using Semantic Web

 

Sridharan. K1, M. Chitra2

 

1.Department of Computer Science, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, India

2.Department of Information Technology, Sona College of Technology, Salem, India.

 

Abstract: In today’s scenario, due to the rapid growth of content volume over the internet, the conventional search engines hardly do afford the required content relevant to the user’s query. This can be effectively solved by enforcing semantic web search methodologies. On addressing that, this paper proposed an efficient prototype Relevancy-based Semantic Search Engine (RSSE). Moreover, the framework enables the users to locate relevant resources and services through semantics and domain expertise. A novel algorithm called Query Similarity Prediction Algorithm (QSPA) has been developed for proficient information retrieval with minimized processing time consumption and simultaneously, serving multiple remote users. Ranking is also performed based on the relevance score of retrieved documents to aid users for finding which documents are most likely to be relevant documents to the given queries. The experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed work with respect to the parameters such as precision, recall, F-measure, and time required to retrieve the results for queries.

[Sridharan. K, M. Chitra. RSSE: A Paradigm for Proficient Information Retrieval using Semantic Web. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 418-425] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

 

Keywords: Cache Server, information retrieval (IR), service level agreement (SLA), semantic web, query similarity prediction algorithm (QSPA), ranking.

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Personal health status of urban and rural primary schools students of Sistan and Balouchestan province

 

 Kiani, Fateme. Health promotion research center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran (Corresponding author)
Hesabi, Nasrin. M.Sc student of Health Education, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

 

Abstract: The primary purpose of elementary education is physical development of children and creating correct health behavior for them. Since promotion and proper change of children health habits needs the knowledge of their present health status, this study was done to evaluate the health status of students at elementary schools of Sistan and Balouchestan province. In this descriptive analytical study 750 elementary school students (325 girls and 325 boys) were selected by cluster sampling method. The data were collected via check list. They were analyzed by SPSS 15 and statistical tests (t &). Results showed that 84.6% of urban girls and 89.6% of urban boys had a desired health status while only 70% of rural girls and 79.9% of rural boys had desired health status. There was a significant statistical relation between the mean score of health status of urban and rural students (p<0.001). Fascinating results  demonstrated there was  not a significant statistical difference between the mean score of personal hygiene of students regarding the absence or presence of school health officials based on T test (p<0.001). Results of the study also showed that 25.9% of girls and 12.8% of boys had lice eggs. 18.9% of girls and 10.1% of boys had pediculosos. 39.3% of boys and 57.6% of girls have had tooth decay and 19.2% of boys and 27.2% of girls have had bleeding gums. The results of the study showed that there is not any relationship between children's personal health status and the existence of school health official that it is considerable. The rural students' hygiene status was much lower than the urban ones, so some strategies would suggest at the end of study to promote the students' health status especially that of rural ones. 
[Kiani, Fateme, Hesabi, Nasrin, Personal health status of urban and rural primary schools students of Sistan and Balouchestan province.
Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 426-429] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

Keywords: Personal health, Rural, Urban, Primary Students

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Assay of pharmacological features of phoenix Dactylifera in the view of traditional and modern medicine

 

Sahar, Rabani Khorasgani¹(Corresponder), Fatemeh, Saboktakin Rizi², Sayid Mahdi, Mirghazanfari ³

 

1. Medical Student, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2. Medical Student,
School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3. Assistant Professor
, MD-PhD of Physiology, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: Date palm is used in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) and some other Complementary Medicines to prevent and treat some diseases such as limbs and face paralysis, renal and rheumatic diseases. Stanching diarrhea and revealing malignant wounds are some usages of the seed; however since the adverse effect of excess date palm usage has not been studied precisely, we decided to gather more information about date palm. Method: The aim of article is to collect scientific information about pharmacological effects of date palm published in the medical journals indexed in electronic references Medline, SID, PubMed, Google scholar. Articles published about date palm show traits like antioxidant, ant mutant, antiulcer, ant diarrheal, gastrointestinal transit and blood sugar and lipid effect. Liver and kidney protective, sexual stimulator and also allergic consequence are approved. In the view of Traditional Iranian Medicine, the excess use can cause liver and spleen dysfunction, headache, toothache and mouth ulcer. Result: the review shows that date palm affect the gastrointestinal transit, blood sugar, progress of pregnancy and memory. More researches are suggested about clinical effects and side effects of date palm utilization.
[Sahar, Rabani Khorasgani, Fatemeh, Saboktakin Rizi, Sayid Mahdi, Mirghazanfari. Assay of pharmacological features of phoenix Dactylifera in the view of traditional and modern medicine. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):430-435] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesites.com. 66

Key words: date palm, Traditional Iranian Medicine, pharmaceutical effect

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Attributes of Job-Creativity in Female Students

 

Rezazadeh, Shekofeh-al-Sadaat, Master in Curriculum, School of Educational sciences and psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.  Email: r shekofe@gmail.com
Tabatabaeijebeli,Foruzan-Sadaat, Master of Science. Department of Industrial on System Management and Productivity, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, Iran.   Email: f_taba1361@yahoo.com
Arbabisarjou, Azizollah( Corresponding author), Assistant professor, Faculty member, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.  Email: derranneh2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attributes of job-creativity in female students in Isfahan University. It was a kind of survey research in which the descriptive method was  used. In order to gather the data a researcher-made questionnaire was applied according to the aims of the study. The questionnaire’s validity was assigned through the experts’ point of views. Reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was also at 85%. The statistical samples included 154 female students of Isfahan University in 2010-11 who were chosen through clustered random sampling. In order to analyze the data, the descriptive-inferential method was applied. The data were analyzed through SPSS software; moreover, to test the questions the T-test and ANOVA was applied accordingly. Findings showed that the attributes of job-creativity in female students in case of risk-taking, searching for independence, creativity and success inclination were above the average level. However, the scores gotten from internal control was lower than the average standard criterion score. Furthermore, the average scores of female students in engineering group was above the average level in all the mentioned elements comparing to humanities, science and economy groups.

[Rezazadeh, Shekofeh-al-Sadaat, Tabatabaeijebeli,Foruzan-Sadaat, Arbabisarjou, Azizollah. Attributes of Job-Creativity in Female Students. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 436-442] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

Keywords: students’ job creativity, job creativity attributes, higher level education, students

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Corporate Governance and Executive Remuneration in Malaysia

 

Maryam Taghizadeh

 

Master of business administration (MBA) Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia

 

Abstract: It is explained based on the reforms agenda contained in the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance, Capital Market Master Plan and Financial Sector Master Plan. By highlighting the mechanisms that normally used in the academic research, the paper identifies some of the important mechanisms applied in the reforms of the Malaysian corporate governance. It is found that the mechanisms that have been put in place are comprehensive and covers a wide spectrum of corporate governance internally and externally. The paper also examines some arising pertinent and puts forth some recommendations on how the future direction of the development of corporate governance in ASEAN countries with respect to directors’ remuneration shall take shape.
[
Maryam Taghizadeh. Corporate Governance and Executive Remuneration in Malaysia. Life Sci J 2013;10(7S): 443-446] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68

 Keywords: Corporate Governance, Executive ,Director’s Remuneration, CEO, BOD.

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An Security Architecture for Campus Virtual Organization Using Role Based Access Control

 

M.Nithya1 and Vijaykumar Varadarajan2
 

1. Associate Prof & Head, Dept of CSE,V.M.K.V.Engg College, SALEM, INDIA.

2. Professor, Department of CSE, S.A. Engineering College, Chennai, India

nithya.ph.d@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Many research efforts are being undertaken to improve shared resources security between Virtual Organizations (VO) in a grid environment, but user security is threatened as organizations in VO keep changing dynamically. VO access should be established only through trust relationships between VO and local users. Generally, there is no trust relationship between classical organization and VO or external members. Access to VO resources by organizations users is only when they possess a Certifying Authority (CA) provided certificate. Additional computing overheads increasing computational overheads are a disadvantage of using public-key for authentication. This paper proposes a novel authentication mechanism through the use of a public key concept being generated from the local Community Authorization Service (CAS) and not CA for increased speed. The proposed architecture accesses resources with dynamically generated keys and a token instead of signing in with credentials for every access by users. Simulation results prove that VO performance improves with the proposed mechanism.

[M.Nithya, Vijaykumar Varadarajan. An Security Architecture for Campus Virtual Organization Using Role Based Access Control. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 447-453] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69

 

Keywords: Virtual Organization (VO), Security, Role Based Access Control (RBAC), Community Authorization Service (CAS), Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)

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Improvements in RBF Kernel using Evolutionary Algorithm for Support Vector Machine Classifier

 

1N.T.Renukadevi and 2P.Thangaraj

 

1Assistant Professor, Dept.of CT-UG, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Tamilnadu

2Professor and Head, Dept. of CSE, Bannariamman Institute of Technology, Sathy, Tamilnadu

renuka.kec@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The automatic medical image classification is useful in building a content-based medical image retrieval system. In this paper, a classification system for CT Medical Images is presented. Coiflet wavelets are used to extract feature from the CT images. The extracted features are then classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Radial Basis Function (RBF). The accuracy of the SVM depends on the parameters C and gamma of the RBF kernel. The parameter selection is treated as an optimization problem wherein a search technique is used to the optimal parameters to maximize the SVM performance. In this work, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is implemented to select the values of two SVM parameters for classification problems. The PSO is further modified using Genetic Algorithm to achieve optimal parameter values for the RBF kernel.

[N.T.Renukadevi and  P.Thangaraj. Improvements in RBF Kernel using Evolutionary Algorithm for Support Vector Machine Classifier. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 454-459] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

 

Keywords: Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), Computed Tomography (CT), Coiflet wavelets, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO),  Genetic Algorithm

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Genetic Algorithm optimized SVM for Tumor Prediction in Mammogram

 

P.Ezhilarasu1, Dr.J.Suganthi2

 

1. Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore,

Tamilnadu, India-641 032. ezhilarasu29@gmail.com

2. Professor & Head, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,

Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India-641 032.

 

Abstract: Screening mammography is the best available radiological technique for early breast cancer detection. But due to the huge number of mammograms requiring analysis, radiologists can make false detections. Hence, new solutions regarding automatic detection pertaining to analysis problems should be explored. Microcalcification detection/segmentation helps computerized mammogram screening to classify clusters as either malign or benign. In this paper, Gabor filter with Walsh Hadamard Transform (WHT) is applied to extract microcalcification features from mammograms. This was tested through the use of Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) mammographic databases. The mammograms were classified using a genetic-based SVM (GA-SVM) model that can automatically determine the optimal parameters, C and Gamma, of SVM with the highest predictive accuracy and generalization ability simultaneously.

[P.Ezhilarasu, Dr.J.Suganthi. Genetic Algorithm optimized SVM for Tumor Prediction in Mammogram. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 460-465] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 71

 

Keywords: Breast cancer; Mammogram; Microcalcification; Gabor filter; Walsh Hadamard Transform; MIAS Database; Genetic Algorithm

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A Trust Based Ant Colony Optimized Grid Scheduling

 

E. Saravana Kumar 1, A. Sumathi 2

 

1. Research Scholar, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

2. Professor/ECE, Adhiyamman College of Engineering, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India

 sarankr.info@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Resources discovery and scheduling, a core grid service impacts overall system performance and service quality directly. In grid computing services, the system in addition to attempting to locate an optimal resource to improve overall system performance also aims to use resources efficiently. Most scheduling and resource selection algorithms fail to consider resource characteristics resulting in reliability and security issues which in turn affect service quality. This work proposes implementation of a Trust Ant colony optimization (TACO) module, forecasting trust throughout a network grid. The proposed approach computes each entity’s Trust Factor value to determine the self-protection capability and reputation weightage. When the trust module is integrated with dynamic scheduling, lower task failure ensures secure resource utilization.

[E. Saravana Kumar, A. Sumathi. A Trust Based Ant Colony Optimized Grid Scheduling. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s): 466-470] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72

 

Keywords: Grid Computing; Resource Selection; Trust, Reputation; Ant Colony Optimization

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Hybrid techniques for Privacy preserving in Data Mining

 

J.Paranthaman1, Dr. T Aruldoss Albert Victoire 2

 

1. Assistant Professor in Computer Science and Engineering, University College of Engineering,

Pattukottai Campus, Rajamadam- 614 701.

2. Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Regional Centre-Coimbatore,

Anna University, Coimbatore - 641 047.

 

Abstract: With the technology advancements, most of the corporations maintain their huge amount of electronic data in the databases and these databases are accessible using internet. These data are used by data miners to extract useful information. There is a threat to the privacy of the data while performing data mining tasks. Anonymization is one of the methods that transform actual data using generalization or suppression techniques, so that private information of individuals is masked. K-Anonymity transforms data into a set of equivalence classes and each class has a set of K- records indistinguishable from each other.In this proposed work, k-anonymity is used for privacy preserving while applying data mining algorithms. Hybrid technique simulated annealing with a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the feature selection. For evaluation, the mushroom data set anonymized to different levels for preserving privacy and hybrid technique for optimization is used. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieve satisfactory results.

[J.Paranthaman, Dr. T Aruldoss Albert Victoire. Hybrid techniques for Privacy preserving in Data Mining. Life Sci J 2013; 10(7s): 471-475] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

 

Keywords: Privacy preserving data mining; k-anonymity; simulated annealing; Genetic algorithm

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Enhancing Geographical Routing Protocol Using Swarm Intelligence

 

A. Tamizhselvi 1, Dr. R.S.D. Wahida Banu 2

 

1. Department of Information Technology, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Anna University, India

2. Principal, Government College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, India

phd.tamizhselvi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Network) which ensures wireless connections between cars/vehicles is called Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). Though geographic routing in VANETs was recently the cynosure, developing multi-hop communication in such networks is challenging due to changing topology and network disconnections resulting in failures/inefficiency in traditional MANET routing protocols. As GPS (Global Position System) use increases, progress on self-configuring localization mechanisms and VANETs geographic routing provides message delivery solutions. The need to study VANETs routing protocols is linked to data exchange expansion in vehicles which aims to provide dedicated applications for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). This paper proposes the use of Particle swarm Optimization (PSO) to improve Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP) efficiency. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed modified GRP using PSO, effectively improves the packet delivery ratio, and reduces the end to end delay.

[A. Tamizhselvi, Dr. R.S.D., Wahida Banu. Enhancing Geographical Routing Protocol Using Swarm Intelligence. Life Sci J 2013; 10(7s): 476-481] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 74

 

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET), Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET), Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP), Particle swarm Optimization (PSO)

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Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Women without Family History in North West of Iran

 

Ali Pourzand 1, Homa Farajkhah 2, Ramin Azhough 1, Mohammad Bassir Abolghassemi Fakhree 1

 

1. Department of General Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2. Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

BassirF@tbzmed.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. This study aimed to investigate risk factors for non-familial breast cancer in the northwest of Iran. A case-control study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 in Tabriz, Iran. Two hundred women with breast cancer and 200 age-matched healthy women were included. Demographical data and risk factor related information were collected using a short structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using conditional logistic regression with the forward elimination method and odds ratios (ORs) with related 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The mean ± SD ages of cases and controls were 50.05±11.47 and 49.91±11.83 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that low to moderate socioeconomic status (OR=6.19, 95%CI: 2.92-13.11), previous genital surgery (OR=3.97, 95%CI: 1.53-10.33) and no history of miscarriage (OR=2.41, 95%CI: 1.14-5.09) were risk factors for breast cancer. These findings indicate that low to moderate socioeconomic status, previous genital surgery and no history of miscarriage are factors significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk among Iranian women within Northwest of Iran.

[Pourzand A, Farajkhah H, Azhough R, Fakhree MB. Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Women without Family History in North West of Iran. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):482-489]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75

 

Keywords: Breast cancer; case-control study; risk factors; Iranian women

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Floating Power Station With Emergency Rescue Passenger Space For Life Saving As Part Of The Ship

 

Sivakumar M 1, Santhosh kumar. S. M 2, Arthanari. M3

 

1 Research Scholar, Anna University, India

2 B.E Student, Anna University India

3Department of Science and Humanities Nehru Institute of Technology, Kaliyapalayam, 105, Coimbatore, India

sivala@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper relates to the ship having tethered wind turbine system for power generation and emergency rescue passenger space for passengers to save their life during an emergency situation. It is a lighter system that rotates about a horizontal axis in response to sea breeze and wind produced during sailing is used to generating electrical energy. This electrical energy is transferred to the ship for immediate use. Helium (an inert non-reactive lighter than air) sustains the Air Rotor which ascends over stern deck to an altitude for best wind and its rotation with the sailing causes the Magnus effect. This provides additional lift, keeps the device stabilized, and keeps it positioned within a very controlled and restricted location. Commercial ships will use this electrical energy for their ship auxiliary power system additional to their fuel. Virtually all emission from the vessel including NOx, SOx and CO2, are reduced by using power generated from this turbine. Whenever, the ship is at risk, this Helium filled gas turbine can raise the emergency rescue passenger space and save passengers.

[Sivakumar M, Santhosh kumar. S. M, Arthanari. M. Floating Power Station With Emergency Rescue Passenger Space For Life Saving As Part Of The Ship. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):490-498]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76

 

KeyWords: High altitude winds energy, Tethered wind turbine system, capacity factor, Ship auxiliary power system.

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Load Frequency Control of Hydro-Hydro System with Fuzzy Logic Controller Considering DC Link

 

B. Anand

 

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, 641032, Coimbatore, INDIA

E-mail: b_anand_eee@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: This paper describes the dynamic performance of two area interconnected hydro-hydro power systems when subjected to 1% step load perturbation. For this present study, the system is incorporated with conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The dc link is used as system interconnection in parallel with ac tie-lines. The dc link is considered to be operating in constant current control mode and the power flow deviation through dc link is modeled based on frequency deviation at rectifier end. To investigate system performance, optimum PI controller gains are obtained using integral square error (ISE) technique. The responses with these controllers are sluggish. To overcome this drawback FLC is proposed. Time domain simulation is used to compare the dynamic performance. Finally, simulation results shows that FLC has better dynamic control performance than PI controller.

[B. Anand. Load Frequency Control of Hydro-Hydro System with Fuzzy Logic Controller Considering DC Link. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):499-504].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77

 

Keywords: area control error, automatic generation control, fuzzy logic controller, load frequency control.

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Novel Security Mechanism to Improve QOS in MANET

 

P. Saravanan 1, Dr. S. Chitra 2

 

1. Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur, India

2. Principal, Er.Perumal Manimekalai College of Engineering, Hosur, India

saravancse@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nodes cooperate to provide connectivity and operate without centralized administration in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET). Routing is crucial for any network as nodes transmit traffic in multihop fashion since communicating nodes might be out of range. Consequently, each node in the network not only works for itself, but must also be cooperative with other nodes. The presence of selfish nodes degrades the security and quality of service (QoS) due to its non-cooperative nature. Secure and reliable communications in MANETs due to the presences of selfish/malicious nodes, unpredictable wireless media, and host mobility is widely researched. In this paper, the concept of trust is incorporated in the routing protocol to enhance the security and QoS of the network. Managing trust in a MANET is challenging when cooperation is critical to achieving system goals. Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is enhanced with the addition of trust metrics in this study. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhanced AODV to perform satisfactorily even in the presence of selfish nodes.

[P. Saravanan, S. Chitra. Novel Security Mechanism to Improve QOS in MANET. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):505-509]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

 

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Selfish Nodes, Trust.

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A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Elitist Ant System in Grid Scheduling

 

Radha1 and Dr. V. Sumathy2

 

1. Asst.Professor, Dept. of Computer Applications, Sri Ramakrishna College of Engg, Coimbatore-641 022,

2. Prof., Dept. of ECE,Government College of Technology,Coimbatore-641 022, INDIA

radhakbr10@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Services like resource discovery, monitoring and scheduling are more complicated in a grid environment due to the resource pool being large, dynamic and architecturally diverse. A Grid scheduler ensures resource selection decisions in an environment where it cannot control local resources, as the latter are distributed, and systems information is limited/dated and such interactions are closely linked to Grid Information Services functionality. This paper addresses dynamic scheduling of jobs to distributed computing resources. No single scheduling method is enough as scheduling problems have richness and variety. Makespan is the most common objective function of task scheduling problems. Makespan minimisation ensures jobs to level differences between each phases’ completion time. In this paper, a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) with incorporates Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) for grid scheduling is proposed. The proposed Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Elitist Ant System (HGAEAS) demonstrates its effectiveness for Grid Scheduling.

[Radha and V. Sumathy. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Elitist Ant System in Grid Scheduling. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):510-515]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 79

 

Keywords: Grid Computing, Grid scheduling, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Makespan.

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Genetic Algorithm based Feature Selection for Ontology based Information Retrieval of Semi Structure Data

 

N. Vanjulavalli1, Dr. A. Kovalan 2

 

1. Research Scholar,Department of Computer Science and Applications,PMU, Vallam, Thanjavur

2. Assistant Professor (S.S), Department of Computer Science and Applications,PMU, Vallam, Thanjavur.

vanjulavallisn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The increasing volume of web pages in World Wide Web in the form of free-text makes information retrieval difficult. The retrieval is more challenging due to the ambiguous nature of the unstructured information found in these pages. Ontologies help to overcome the disambiguate nature of the natural language by the use of standard terms that relate to specific concepts. Thus, the knowledge of ontology is used to match object and queries based on semantics improving information retrieval. In this paper, the features from the web pages are extracted based on ontology and semantics of the XML tags. Genetic Algorithm is applied for selecting optimal subset of features based on correlation. Experimental results for the proposed feature extraction method demonstrate the effectiveness of the optimization of the feature selection.

[N. Vanjulavalli, A. Kovalan. Genetic Algorithm based Feature Selection for Ontology based Information Retrieval of Semi Structure Data. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):516-521]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 80

 

Keywords: Information retrieval (IR), World Wide Web, Ontology, Feature Selection, Genetic Algorithm, Bagging.

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Review of Al Metal Matrix Composite and Basalt Fiber as a New Reinforcement for MMC

 

R. Karthigeyan1, G. Ranganath2, S. Ezhil Vannan3, S. Paul Vizhian4, K.Annamalai5

 

1 Research scholar - Anna University, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, India.

2 Principal, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, India.

3 Research scholar - UVCE, K.R. Circle, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India.

4 Chairman & Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, UVCE, K.R. Circle, Bangalore   University, Bangalore, India.

5 Assistant Professor (SG) MIT, Anna University

karthikaeri@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The development of high-performance engineering products made from natural resources is increasing worldwide, due to renewable and environmental issues. Among different types of natural resources, hard, and dense volcanic rocks can be found in most of the countries across the globe. These hard and dense volcanic rocks have been extensively exploited over the past few years. By using the volcanic rock basalt fiber is produced, this paper presents an overview of the developments made in the area of basalt fiber reinforced composites. This study, for the first time investigates the applicability of basalt fiber as a new reinforcing material for Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) in terms of their availability in market, manufacturing methods, and overall properties through various experimental work for thermal stability and mechanical properties. It includes several critical issues and suggestions for future works, which underscore the roles of material scientists and manufacturing engineers and for the bright future of this new fiber material through value addition to enhance its uses.

[R. Karthigeyan, G. Ranganath, S. Ezhil Vannan, S. Paul Vizhian, K.Annamalai. Review of Al Metal Matrix Composite and Basalt Fiber as a New Reinforcement for MMC. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):522-527]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 81

 

Keywords: Basalt fiber; Al Metal Matrix Composites.

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Comparison of 3 Different Rest times in Resistance Training Plan of Footballers Maximum Power in Leg Squat and Bench Press

 

Abuzar Mohamadimofrad1, Dr. Masoud Nikbakht2, Dr. Abdolhamid Habibi2, Dr. Saeed Shakerian3

 

1. MSc of physical education and sport sciences, Shaid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

2. Associate professor of physical education and sport sciences, faculty member of Shaid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

3. Assistant professor of physical education and sport sciences, faculty member of Shaid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare different rest times in squat and bench press performance and to calculate footballers’ maximum power. 40 male footballer volunteers with BMI=22.79 were invited to the study. The athletes put in groups C 1; n = 10, C 2; n = 10, C 3; n = 10 and C 4; n = 10. 8 weeks training with an intensity of 70% 1RM was started; each session included warm-up and 4 sets of squat and 4 sets of bench press. Rest time between sets for the four groups: C1, S=45; C2, S=90; C3, S=180; and C4 a combination of the three. The result with respect to P<0.05 showed that strength program with different relaxation times increases 1RM, but there was no significant difference between the groups.

 [Abuzar Mohamadimofrad, Masoud Nikbakht, Abdolhamid Habibi, Saeed Shakerian. Comparison of 3 Different Rest times in Resistance Training Plan of Footballers Maximum Power in Leg Squat and Bench Press. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):528-533] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82

 

Keywords: rest times, maximum power, squat, bench press.

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Prevalence of goiter among high school students in Sanandaj, Iran in the year 2012.

 

Jafar Moballeghi1, Hossein Mohamadzadeh2, Fardin Gharibi3*, Mozhdeh Zarei4, Alireza Gharib5

 

1Department of Surgery, Besat Hospital, Kurdistan University of Medical Science, Sanandaj, Iran

2Assistant Profesor of Sociology, Department of Social Science,Payam Noor University

3*Ms PH Health Management. Deputy of Research and Technology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

4Ms PH Midwifery. Deputy of Research and Technology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

5 MSc in Midwifery, Deputy of Research and Technology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

*Corresponding Author: fardin.gharibi@muk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a prevalent, yet easily preventable cause of brain damage. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of goiter among high school students lower than twenty years of age in the city of Sanandaj, knowing that iodized salt program began twenty years ago. Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was conducted on 700 high school students in Sanandaj during 2011-12 academic years. Sampling method was multistage. Data were collected by referring to the chosen schools in coordination with high school principals. Demographic information of were collected after interviews and were recorded in the questionnaire. Height and Weight measurement students'. The diagnosis of goiter is based on clinical examination and is graded in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS 16, and then chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and goiter grades. Results: In our study the prevalence of goiter in high school students was 11.7%; females 16% and males 7.4% (p=0/0001). The frequency of grade one goiter in students that had mothers with high school education was 15.2% and in students that had fathers with university education was 13.5%. Prevalence of grade one goiter in students with normal body mass index was 11.2%. Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that in view of the descending trend of goiter prevalence during the past 20 years, the iodine deficiency disorders control program in Sanandaj has been highly successful. Therefore for the purpose of maintaining a successful control monitoring program the iodine deficiency disorders program needs to be strengthened.

[Hossein Mohamadzadeh, Fardin Gharibi, Mozhdeh Zarei, Alireza Gharib. Prevalence of goiter among high school students in Sanandaj, Iran in the year 2012. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):534-538](ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

 

Keywords: Iodine deficiency- goiter -high school students

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Evaluation of Positive Culture during the Initial Healing of Penetrating Ocular Trauma

 

Bahman Sharifi 1, 2, Hamid Reza Ghaffarian Shirazi2, 3*, Seyyed Hossein Malek-Hosseini1,2, Esmat Afzalian 2

 

1 - Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences.

2 - Cellular and Molecular research center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, I. R. Iran.

3- School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I. R. Iran.

*Corresponding Author:  gshr3@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Endophthalmitis is usually a devastating complication, followed by penetrating eye injuries that often causes severe loss of vision. Bacterial and fungal cultures were used to evaluate the primary healing of penetrating ocular trauma which is positive in the diagnosis of endophthalmitis. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 105 patients with penetrating eye trauma during the initial healing, in which, bacterial and fungal cultures were obtained from wounds, vitreous, aqueous humor and intraocular foreign body The positive culture rate of endophthalmitis was compared in eyes with and without clinical diagnoses. In addition, factors affecting in causing positive culture and endophthalmitis was studied. Results. About 24% of patients had positive culture of wound, vitreous, aqueous humor and the intraocular foreign body. Thirteen percent (13%) of clinically diagnosed endophthalmitis were developed during treatment. 50% of patients enjoyed positive culture with clinical diagnosis of endophthalmitis. Despite positive cultures, 18 eyes (20%) had not any sign of endophthalmitis.  Sclera rupture was observed in 25 patients with 48% positive culture and also in 20 patients with 25% negative culture. 32% of 25 patients with the positive culture enjoyed iris prolapse and 80 patients with 11% negative culture enjoyed iris involvement.  Patients with 40% positive culture and also patients with 10% negative culture had a foreign body in the eye Of 14 cases of positive culture of pathogenic organisms, 43% faced endophthalmitis. Discussion. Despite the positive bacterial cultures during primary healing of penetrating ocular trauma, clinical infection is not created. So, bacterial culture during the initial healing is not helpful in diagnosis of the next endophthalmitis. Iris involvement, sclera laceration and intraocular foreign body increases possibility of positive bacterial cultures during the initial healing significantly. Possibility of risk of endophthalmitis is increased in case of entrance of microorganisms with more virulence during penetrating ocular trauma to the eye.

[Sharifi B, Ghafarian Shirazi H.R, Saniee F, Delaviz H. Evaluation of Positive Culture during the Initial Healing of Penetrating Ocular Trauma. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):539-544] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84

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The Estimation of Regression Models with Censored Data Using Logistic and Tobit Models

 

Atefeh younesi a, Elham Kamangar b

 

 a Department of Mathematics, Master of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran

(atefehyounesi1363@gmail.com)

b Department of Mathematics, Payam Noor University of Tehran

 

Abstract: In statistics, censoring occurs when the value of an observation is only partially known. The aim of this paper is estimation of a regression model with censored data using Logistic and Tobit models. We have compared two models based on goodness of fit and forecasting accuracy criteria. We have used the data of rate of return and volatility of Tehran Stock Exchange. Results indicate that Based on Akaike info criterion, Schwarz criterion, Hannan-Quinn criterion and Log likelihood, the model of Tobit has better goodness of fit than Logistic model. Criteria of RMSE and MAE indicate that the Tobit model has more accuracy of forecasting than Logistic Model.

[Atefeh younesi, Elham Kamangar. The Estimation of Regression Models with Censored Data Using Logistic and Tobit Models. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):545-550] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

 

Keywords: Regression Models, Censored Data, Logistic, Tobit.

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The study of tendency and passion of sport among the sport college students in Ataturk University

 

Süleyman Erim ERHAN

 

Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences,  Ataturk University, Erzurum, TURKEY

 

Abstract:  The main aim of this study was to evaluate students' passion at sport and physical education, sport passion gender and sport type in Ataturk University School of Physical Education and Sports, Sports-type (individual or team), Sports Structure (Basic, struggle and recreational sports) according to the related parameters. The study populations were consisted of 320 females and 550 males studying at Ataturk University School of Physical Education totally 870 students during 2011-2012 in this regard. In a study carried out on 118 women (age = 20.97+-2.01) and 205 men (age = 21.79+-2.51) that they totally were students at Ataturk university school of physical education and sport. Participants were in the category of individual and team sport, and the difference of physical education and sports school students were consisted of dealing with branches. The Survey is subjected to participants' passion at sport, (The Passion in Sport Scale; Vallerant et al, 2003), and determining age, sex, department, and for information on sports-type,"Personal Information Form" was given in this regard. Obsessive passion at sport with tendency, harmonious passion questionnaire is consisted of two sub-dimensions. The passion for the sport with the type of sport participants, sports structure, partition and one-way analysis of variance is applied for testing the gender difference that MANOVA test was used in this case. MANOVA analysis of the scores of men and women in participants of harmonious passion is (Wilkes 'Lambda T = 0.984, F (2,320) = 0.67, P < 0.05) and sport type (individual and team) and obsessive passion scores (Wilkes' Lambda =0 .982 T, F (2,320) = 0.44, P < 0.05) showed no significant difference in this study. Yet the analysis section (Wilkes 'Lambda T = 0.962, F (6.636) = 0.18, P> 0.05) and sports structure (basic, fighting and recreational sports) (Wilkes' Lambda T = 0.992, F (4,638) = 0.83, P > 0.05), and revealed that there was no significant difference between the scores of sporting passion. Finally, the relationship between gender and the selected columns, Chi-square analysis was used to analysis of the results in this case. There is found a relationship between gender and the selected branch. As a result, the findings of this study differ according to the type of sport; the sport is related to passion and sex, but depending on the sport section and the difference revealed in this case. [Süleyman Erim ERHAN. The study of tendency and passion of sport among the sport college students in Ataturk University. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):551-555] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 86

 

Keywords: Sport, Sport Passion, Sport type.

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Coaching Practices of First and Second League Women-Men Volleyball Coaches in Turkey

 

Assist. Prof. Dr. Hakan SUNAY

 

School of Physical Education and Sport, Ankara, Turkey

hsunay@ankara.edu.tr

 

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the approaches of the coaches in the First and Second Leagues in Turkey in their coaching methods and, to state the differences in their applications. A questionnaire consisted of 10 sections and 61 questions were applied to the coaches that took part in the study. The research is limited to first and second league trainers, which is set of 120 trainers. The sampling of the research is 80 coaches (2 female, 78 male) in the First and Second Leagues in Turkey. In order to collect the data, the book of Rainer Martens named “Successful Coaching” and its sample questions and expertise opinions were referred and 5 scale Likert type questionnaire questions for coaches was determined as α :.86. The arithmetic medium of the research results was investigated by using T-test for p< 0, 05 between independent variables. Besides, in order to determine if there are significant changes between the groups, Variance Analysis (ANOVA) was applied, and the difference between the two groups was determined by using Post Hoc-Tukey test. Consequently, there were seen significant changes in the coaching approaches of the coaches in the First and Second Leagues in Turkey.

[Hakan SUNAY. Coaching Practices of First and Second League Women-Men Volleyball Coaches in Turkey. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):556-561] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 87

 

Key words: volleyball, coach, coaching practices.

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Analyses Of The Energy Sources Used By Turkish Referees During Ninety Minutes Soccer Match

 

Alpaslan  Kartal1, Hayrettin Gümüşdağ1, Ali Gürel Goksel2, Emre Bellı3, Muharrem Alparslan Kurudırek3, Emrah Cerıt1

 

  1. Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hithit University, Çorum, TURKEY

  2. School of Physical Education and Sport, Marmara University, Istanbul, TURKEY

  3. School of Physical Education and Sport, Ataturk University,Erzurum, TURKEY

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to predict the percentages of various energy sources used by volunteer 5 official soccer Turkish Referees  ( mean age: 38.40 ± 1.1 years, height: 178 ± 0.5 cm, body mass: 85.20 ± 2.5 kg)  and to analyze the locomotor motions during 90min amateur soccer a match expressed in anaerobic threshold level (ATL). Each subject's heart rate was monitored during a match using a shortrange radio telemetry (Sport TesterTM PE3000), and was sampled at 5s intervals.Percentage of heart rate (x= 181.8 beats/min) and estimated anaerobic threshold level (x= 171.2 beats/min). The locomotor movements (walking, jogging, fast running, backward running and sideway running) of each subjects were recorded on the field by using hand-notational system for whole match period. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the dis­tance covered by the referee. The result indicated that the mean work ratio below A.T.L. was 77.04% , there was no significant differences between heart rates recorded in the first and second halves and the mean value of total distance covered was 6166 meter; significant fall in the work rate was noted in the second half (p<.05). According the results of this study referees doesn't need vigorous training for officiating a match.  But they should participate in aerobic conditioning programs on regular basis and also should be abrupt acceleration and deceleration, charges of direction and angles runs. Additionally, muscle glycogen levels should not be lowered by strenuous activities the day before or the morning of soccer match to be officiated.

[Alpaslan  Kartal, Hayrettin Gümüşdağ, Ali Gürel Goksel, Emre Bellı, Muharrem Alparslan Kurudırek, Emrah Cerıt. Analyses Of The Energy Sources Used By Turkish Referees During Ninety Minutes Soccer Match. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):562-567] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 88

 

Key words: Movement-analysis, radio telemetry, referees’ heart rate, soccer, anaerobic threshold.

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 Certain Improvements in Optimization Techniques for Grid Scheduling

 

N. Krishnamoorthy1 and Dr. R. Asokan2

 

1. Assistant Professor (SG), Department of CSE, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode-638052,

2. Principal, Kongunadu College of Engineering and Technology, Tholurpatti, Thottiam-621215, INDIA

krishnamoorthyer@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Grid computing is a computing framework based on large-scale resource sharing to run grid enabled applications. The grid system’s efficiency and quality of service depends upon core functions such as resources discovery and scheduling. The system attempts to optimize scheduling to enhance system performance and also aims to use resources efficiently. This work proposes implementation of a hybrid optimization algorithm based on Memetic and Fish School optimization module, for optimal grid scheduling in a network grid. The proposed Memetic - Fish Swarm Optimization (MFSO) scheme incorporates local search techniques in the standard Fish Swarm Optimization algorithm, resulting in an efficient and effective optimization method. The proposed approach aims to dynamically create an optimal schedule to finish jobs within minimum time duration.

[N. Krishnamoorthy and R. Asokan. Certain Improvements in Optimization Techniques for Grid Scheduling. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):568-572]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 89

 

Keywords: Grid; Resource Selection; Grid Scheduling; Memetic optimization; Fish Swarm Optimization (FSO).

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The Level of Adiponectin in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Suffering Metabolic Syndrome

 

Sara Jafari *1, Mitra Niafar 2, Sajjad Hejazi3

 

 1*Resident of Internal Medicine, Imam-Reza Hospital, Endocrine Research Team, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2Associated Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Imam-Reza Hospital, Endocrine Research Team, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3Department of Anatomy, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

*Corresponding author: sara_jafari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders which occurs in 6.5-8 percent of in reproductive women and is characterized by creating disorder in ovulation and hyperandrogenism. Adiponectin is one of the cytokines which is secreted by an adipose tissue; it has an anti-inflammatory effect and decreases when polycystic ovary and metabolic syndromes occur. The present study was aimed at assessing the level of Adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome patients who suffered metabolic syndrome. Method: The study was an analytic-descriptive one. Ninety polycystic ovary syndrome patients, 45 of whom also suffered metabolic syndrome, were selected as the study participants. Their level of Adiponectin and some other endocrine biomarkers were assessed and compared with each other. Results: Mean age of the studied patients was 24.61±6.9. Patients’ mean systolic blood pressure was 22.98±18 mmHg. The mean waist diameter in the patients was 87.2±13.34 cm. The mean level of triglyceride was 115.42±74.53mg/dl. Mean level of HDL was 48.34±16.75 mg/dl. Patients’ mean level of fasting blood glucose was 90.65±7.98 mg/dl. Mean BMI was 26.89±6.01 kg/m2. Level of Adiponectin was 11.03±3.56 mg/dl and 8.01±2.69 mg/dl in patients suffering polycystic ovary syndrome and those with polycystic ovary and metabolic syndromes, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study and comparing them with those of other studies showed that level of Adiponectin in patients suffering polycystic ovary syndrome is lower compared to laboratory indices which specify the normal range. Moreover, suffering metabolic syndrome in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome reduces level of Adiponectin; and comparing these two showed that there was a significant statistical difference between them (P=0.00).

[Sara Jafari, Mitra Niafar, Sajjad Hejazi. The Level of Adiponectin in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Suffering Metabolic Syndrome. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):573-577] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 90

 

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic syndrome, Adiponectin.

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Frequency of type 1 fimbriae among E.coli subtypes isolated from patients with urinary and gastrointestinal tract infection 

 

Hosein Heydari 1, Mohmmad Reza Shokrollahi1, Zahra Movahedi 1*

 

1- Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Qom, Iran

*Corresponding author:  movahedizahra@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The gut constitutes an important reservoir of bacteria causing extra intestinal infections such as urinary tract infection (UTI). According to the fecal–vaginal–urethral hypothesis, E. coli strains causing UTI usually derive immediately from the host’s own fecal and perineal flora. We assessed multiplex PCR assays to detect type 1 fimbriae among E.coli subtypes in children with symptom of urinary tract or gastrointestinal infection. Material and Methods: We used multiplex PCR assays that detect enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolates, enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) isolates, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) isolates, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) isolates, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) isolates. Also the isolates were examined for type 1 fimbriae. The targets selected for each group were eae for EPEC isolates, aggR for EAEC isolates, and the genes encoding heat-labile and heat-stable toxins for ETEC isolates, stx1 and stx2 for EHEC isolates, invE for EIEC isolates and fimH for detection of type 1 fimbriae. Results: In this study more than 80% of E. coli isolates from the Urine and rectal swab samples of childrens have the genes for type 1 fimbriae. Among 101 rectal swab specimens tested, 48.5% had fimH gene, 2% were EHEC, 3% ETEC and 4% EAEC; we also detected mixed infections, 1% with ETEC and EHEC, 4% EHEC with fimH gene, 11.9% ETEC with fimH gene, 5.9% EAEC with fimH gene, 6.9% EHEC with ETEC with fimH gene, 1% EHEC and EAEC with fimH gene, 2% ETEC and EAEC with fimH gene. EIEC and EPEC were not found among the isolates tested. From 101 urine specimens tested 56.4% had fimH gene, 2% were EHEC, 2% ETEC, 3% EAEC; we also detected mixed infections, 1% with EAEC and EHEC, 7.9% EHEC with fimH gene, 9.9% ETEC with fimH gene and 3% EAEC with fimH gene. EIEC and EPEC were not found among the isolates tested. Discussion: As our understanding of the molecular aspects and detection of more than 80% fimH gene in E. coli strains it has been possible to design vaccines that target adaptive responses against specific bacterial proteins such as FimH tip adhesin of type 1 fimbriae. The antibodies produced can interfere with the function of essential bacterial virulence factors and can prevent the bacteria from adhering to and invading the host.

[Hosein Heydari, Mohmmad Reza Shokrollahi, Zahra Movahedi. Frequency of type 1 fimbriae among E.coli subtypes isolated from patients with urinary and gastrointestinal tract infection. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):578-582] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 91

 

Key Word: E. coli subtypes, multiplex PCR, type 1 fimbriae.

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Late histopathological findings in the thoracic irradiation: A preliminary study in the animal model

 

A. Takavar1, B. Minaei1, GH. Hadadi2, S. Khoei1, S. Refahi1,3*, Z. Behrouzkia4, M. Pourissa5, G. Ghamami1

 

1Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.

3Ardebil University of Medical Sciences, Ardebil, Iran.

4Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

5Neurosciences research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Corresponding Author: refahi@razi.tums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: To investigate late histopathological alterations in rat lung cells following single-dose of irradiation. Methods and materials: The thoracic cage of entire lung of Wistar rats was exposed to 17 Gy 60Co gamma rays. The animals were sacrificed at 32 weeks after irradiation. The lungs were dissected and blinded histopathological evaluation was performed. Results: When the lungs were removed at 32 weeks after whole thoracic irradiation, histopathologically inflammation and mononuclear infiltrate in the interstitium, Intraalveolar hemorrhages, dilatation in the alveolar space with alterations of the alveolar wall, congestion of the dilated vessels, foam and dust cells and superimposed collagen were noted in all animals. Conclusion:  At the end of the histological examination, it was seen that all of the animals had severe superimposed collagen and a large fibrous area. We conclude that, in the rat lung model with single dose of 17 Gy, the most interesting finding in this study was in the expression of late fibrosis.

[A. Takavar, B. Minaei, GH. Hadadi, S. Khoei, S. Refahi, Z. Behrouzkia, M. Pourissa, G. Ghamami. Late histopathological findings in the thoracic irradiation: A preliminary study in the animal model. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):583-585] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92

 

Keywords: Thoracic irradiation, Lung histopathology, Pulmonary fibrosis.

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Response Rate to One-step Operation of Exotropia with over Sixty Prism Diopters of Deviation at Imam

Khomeini Hospital, Urmia

 

Naser Samadi Aidenloo1, Qader Motarjemizadeh1*, Arash Alivand2

 

1Department of ophthalmology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

2Department of ophthalmology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Dr.maher@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Information about the results of strabismus surgery conducted in accredited domestic educational and medical centers can result in knowing medical status of strabismus surgery in the country. The present study was aimed at specifying the results of exotropia surgery with over 60 prism diopters of deviation. Method: The present study is  a  descriptive-retrospective study that  was  conducted over  two  years (2007-2008) at  Imam Khomeini Hospital, Orumia. Random sampling was utilized. The study consisted of forty patients who were diagnosed with symptoms of over-60 prism diopter horizontal ocular deviation of exotropia and underwent surgery. Findings: In the  present  study,  40  patients  with  exotropic  deviation  of  over  60  prism  diopters  and  with  a  mean  age  of 25.27±11.89 received resection and recession (R&R). Twenty-four patients (60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female. The operation was conducted on the right eye and the left one for thirteen (32.5%) and 7 (17.5%) patients, respectively. However, alternative exotropia was conducted for  20 patients (50%). Conclusion: Generally, the results of exotropia resection and recession surgery at Imam Khomeini Hospital of Orumia has been acceptable and satisfactory. However, selecting patients for operation plays an important role in reaching better results after the operation.

[Naser  Samadi  Aidenloo,  Qader  Motarjemizadeh,  Arash  Alivand.  Response  Rate  to  One-step  Operation  of

Exotropia  with  over  Sixty  Prism Diopters  of  Deviation  at  Imam  Khomeini  Hospital,  Urmia.  Life  Sci J

2013;10(7s):586-588] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 93

 

Keywords: Iodine deficiency- goiter -high school students.

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The Effect Of Ascorbic Acid On Protection Of Hepatic Injury Consequence Effective Isomers Of Pentanedioic Acid In Rats

 

1Ramin Amin Abad*, 2Naiyereh Haerifar, 3Eilyad Issabeagloo

 

1- DVM, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

2- Department of physiology, Medical Sciences Faculty, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

3- Department of Pharmacology, Medical Sciences Faculty, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

ramin.abad@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Pentanedioic acid derivatives such as Methotrexate are anti-neoplastic agents and are widely used in treatment of auto immune disorders and malignant diseases, but their use is limited because of several side effects including hepatotoxicity. As one of the important mechanisms involving in the pathogenesis of methotrexate toxicity, some of anti-oxidant agents have been used to reduce its side effect. Ascorbic acid (Vit. C) is an important anti-oxidant drug and in this research we aimed to study vitamin C effect on methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=10). First group was control group, the second group was Methotrexate group (represent pentanedioic acid derivatives) in which received, and the third group was methotrexate plus vitamin C group whom received methotrexate and vitamin C. On 6th day, the rats were anesthetized and liver tissue removed for pathologic studying and plasma isolated for measuring ALT and AST (P<0.05). Results showed that vitamin C treatment decreased liver tissue injury and elevation of ALT and AST after methotrexate administration. Regarding increasing use of methotrexate and the results of this research Vitamin C may be helpful in suppressing methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity and it is suggested to do this research on other animal models and study the underlying mechanisms.

[Ramin Amin Abad, Naiyereh haeri Far, Eilyad Issabeagloo. The Effect Of Ascorbic Acid On Protection Of Hepatic Injury Consequence Effective Isomers Of Pentanedioic Acid In Rats. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):589-592]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 94

 

Key words: hepatotoxicity; ascorbic acid; pentanedioic acid derivatives; Methotrexate; Rat.

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Obstacles and challenges of electronic government establishment in virtual age

 

Gholamreza Memarzadeh1, Mehrzad Sarfarazi2 (Corresponding Author), Nasrollah Akbari3

 

1Faculty of Management & Accounting, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Instructor & PhD Candidate, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

3MA Student of Public Administration, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran

 

Abstract: Knowledge age or information age which one of its physical symbols is internet, is improving increasingly. Virtual revolution that is the result of virtual age, effects on all affairs related to civilized man tomorrow, and this effect is more than third wave effects that can provide large changes, so far. Electronic government which is the result of virtual age revolution unlike common approach in many developing countries, is not giving computer and put it on government official and managers or staffs desk, bat also, electronic government concluding of using information and communications technology to change government and governance pluses through making it be more accessible, efficient and responsive. Electronic government improves people condition of access to useful information about their life and providing government services, and represents new opportunities for cooperation in political processes. E-Government implementation entails basic and fundamental changes in government and even society. Following challenges of electronic government can be classified in three groups: management challenges, human force challenges and challenges that are derived from new technologies which are related to improvement and development of required infrastructures to enjoy of technologies and communicative instruments. In this article, we have verified definitions and conceptions of E-Government as far as possible, we have tried to discuss about requirements and challenges of E-Government in implementation.

[Gholamreza Memarzadeh, Mehrzad Sarfarazi, Nasrollah Akbari. Obstacles and challenges of electronic government establishment in virtual age. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):593-601] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 95

 

Key words: Information technology, virtual age, E-Government, challenges of E-Government establishment

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Investigate the possibility of establishing a parliamentary system Rights in Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Sajad tavakoli

 

MA Student of Law , Tehran University, Iran

Sajad.tawakolli@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Political systems in the world to head a democratic, parliamentary and mixed into Political system can be mixed semi-parliamentary semi-Chairman and understood. The political system of parliamentary feasibility study will form the subject matter.The possibility of political change in Iran's parliamentary officials often discussed and analyzed in the context of the research behind it can be a viable solution. Possible establishment of a parliamentary system is the political system of the Islamic Republic of Iran? And if you act on this background is required in any case, what would be the effects of such change?

[Sajad tavakoli. Investigate the possibility of establishing a parliamentary system Rights in Islamic Republic of Iran. Life Sci J 2013; 10(7s): 602-606] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 96

 

Keyword: Political system, parliamentary system, political parties, constitutional rights to Iran

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Improving the Software Quality by Designing an Effective Test Cases with an Unit Testing

 

Nirmal Kumar A 1, Dr. B.G. Geetha 2

 

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Christian College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamilnadu - 624619, India.

2 Professor & Head, Department of Computer Science and Engineering , KSR College of Technology, Thiruchengode, Tamilnadu - 637215, India.

Corresponding Author Email: nirmal15483@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Software systems are playing vital role in human lives and they are becoming more challenging for the software developers. People cannot do anything in the world without software in our day-to-day life. Software industries are developing the software projects in the domains like Health Care, Financial Management, Banking, Insurance, Retail Management, etc. New methodologies, new techniques, new tools and new standards are increased day-by-day to build the high quality software. So there is a pressure for software builders to produce the high quality software. Both the developers and the testers of the software should focus on the quality issues. Only the effective software testing can deliver the quality software products and satisfying the user’s requirements, needs and expectations. The software testing contains several steps. Test Case design is one of the steps in Testing Life Cycle (TLC). The testers should concentrate on this test case design process carefully. In this research, the Health Care Software is as example and explained briefly about how to improve the quality of that software by classifying and designing the effective test cases.

[Nirmal Kumar A, Geetha B G. Improving the Software Quality by Designing an Effective Test Cases with an Unit Testing Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):608-610] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 97

 

Keywords: Software Quality, Software Testing, Test Cases, Unit Testing

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The study of informal residence of Mashhad Qoli in Conurbation of Mashhad, Iran

 

M. A. Shokouhi 1, M. R. Mabhoot 2*

 

1. Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2. PhD Student of Geography and Urban Planning in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, International Branch

* Corresponding author Email: rmabhoot@stu.um.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Urbanization is wide and complex in the current world and it is considered metropolis or Conurbation. Mashhad with the population of 2.4 million people is the second metropolis after Tehran and the population of its instable margin is more than 800 thousand people covering it as a belt in Mashhad Conurbation. Motahari Township (Mashhad Qoli) is one of the informal residences in Mashhad Conurbation being faced with many social, economical and structural problems including housing, the lack of housing, low quality of housing, proximity with inconsistent use with residential, etc. the current study is performed with the objective to achieving a strategy to organize and improve the condition of housing and residential. The study was descriptive-analytical method and the data collection was done by attribute-library studies and field studies were done by observation, filling out questionnaire and photograph. Based on the results of the study, the great part of housing in informal residential of Mashhad Qoli were repaired with low durable materials, second hand without build license. Also, establishing low income rural immigrants caused the dominance of unprofessional mechanisms, long building period and reduction of housing construction in this region. Thus, any attempt to remove poverty from this residential can be considered an effective step to reduce housing problems.

[M. A. Shokouhi, M. R. Mabhoot. The study of informal residence of Mashhad Qoli in Conurbation of Mashhad, Iran. Life Sci J 2013;10(7s):614-621] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 98

 

Keywords: Slum; informal residential; Conurbation; housing

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