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 Life Science Journal 
Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Edition 
(Life Sci J)
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 10 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 34), September 25, 2013. life1003, Quarterly
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj1003

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Nephropathy Effects of Intravenous Contrast, Iodixanol, on db/db and eNOS Knockout Mice

 

Luyu Yao1, PhD, Cynthia X. Zhao2, MD, Xin Gu2, MD, Wayne W. Zhang1, MD

 

1Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA

2Department of pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA

Email: wzhan2@lsuhsc.edu

 

ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate, if Iodixnal, an intravenous contrast, causes Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) in db/db and eNOS knockout mouse model, which mimics the patients with underline renal insufficiency. Materials and Methods: Eight-week-old db/db mice and eNOS knockout mice were anesthetized. Iodixanol was retro-orbitally injected into the mice at doses 0.75 gI/kg and 2.75gI/kg, respectively in different treatment groups. Normal saline solution was injected into the mice in the control group (n=3). Three days and 7 days following Iodixanol administration, the animals were sacrificed, and their kidneys were harvested. Kidney injuries were evaluated using Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain) of paraffin embedded kidney sections. Ki67 mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. The Ki67 protein expression level was assessed by an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay of paraffin embedded kidney sections. Results: H&E staining shows no significant evidence of histopathological injuries caused by Iodixanol in both diseased mouse models. There is no increase of Ki67 expression in db/db and eNOS mice following Iodixanol administration, comparing with control group. Conclusions: Iodixanol does not result in CIN even in diabetes mellitus and hypertension mice model based on histological and Ki67 examinations. To study the mechanisms of CIN, Iodixanol alone may not be toxic enough to create a research animal model.

[Luyu Yao, Cynthia X. Zhao, Xin Gu, Wayne W. Zhang. Nephropathy Effects of Intravenous Contrast, Iodixanol, on db/db and eNOS Knockout Mice. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 1-6]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescience site.com. 1

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.01

 

Key Words: contrast-induced nephropathy, iodixanol, db/db mice, eNOS knockout mice

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2

An urodynamic study of solifenacin in female and male patients with symptomatic overactive bladder

 

 Jianguo Wen#1,2,3, Chuanchuan Ren1,2, Yan Chen1,2, Jinsheng Li1,2, Ruili Zhang1, Qingjun Meng1, Weixing Zhang1, Baoping Qiao1, Jinxing Wei1, Shengjun Zhang3, Yrjö T. Konttinen4,5,6

 

1Department of Urology, 2Urodynamic Center, 3Institute of Clinical Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

4Department of Medicine/Invärtes medicin, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland

5ORTON Orthopaedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation, Finland

6COXA Hospital for Joint Replacement, 00029, Finland

Email: wenjg@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effects of solifenacin on the detrusor function in OAB patients without any LUT pathology. Methods A total of 64 out-patients (29 females, 35 males) with symptomatic OAB of 1-5 year duration entered the study. Solifenacin 5 mg q.d. was administered orally for 12 weeks. Before and after medication, filling cystometry, 3-day voiding diary, OABSS, PPBC and AE were recorded. Results: Before and after treatment, the number of patients showing detrusor overactivity (DO) was 38 vs. 27, respectively. The average number of DO wave peaks decreased in women (2.4±2.0 vs. 0.9±1.1, P<0.05) and in men (2.4±2.0 vs. 0.6±1.3, P<0.001). DO disappeared in 11 patients (4 females, 7 males). FDV increased in women (108.0±67.0 ml vs. 178.0±79.0 ml, P<0.001) and in men (98.0±66.0 ml vs. 198.0±89.0 ml, P<0.05). MCC increased in women (189.0±131.0 ml vs. 297.0±86.0 ml, P<0.01) and in men (178.0±127.0 ml vs. 289.0±79.0 ml, P<0.001). BC (DV/DP) and PQmax did not change (P>0.05). Three-day diaries disclosed improvements of urgencies (27.3±9.7 vs. 17.6±12.8, P <0.05) and voiding volumes (127.0±58.9 vs. 289.0±157.9, P<0.001). All patients improved in OABSS (12.4±2.6 vs. 8.6±4.3, P<0.01) and PPBC (5.5±0.5 vs. 2.9±1.6, P<0.001). Mild and moderate dry mouth developed in 29.7% and 35.9% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: Solifenacin urodynamically decreases the overactivity of detrusor, increases bladder capacity and improves life quality in symptomatic OAB patients. Minor patients without improvement may try to modulate mechanosensory pathways of micturition reflexes.

[Jianguo Wen, Chuanchuan Ren, Yan Chen, Jinsheng Li, Ruili Zhang, Qingjun Meng, Weixing Zhang, Baoping Qiao, Jinxing Wei, Shengjun Zhang, Yrjö T. Konttinen. An urodynamic study of solifenacin in female and male patients with symptomatic overactive bladder. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 7-12]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.02

 

Key Words overactive bladder; OAB; detrusor; urodynamics

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Clinical analysis of the etiology of 574 patients with symptomatic epilepsy

 

Yusheng Li1, Xiaojing Liu1, Shengming Huang2

 

1Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2Department of Neurology, the Central Hospital of Luohe, Luohe, Henan 462000, China

Email: yushengli1970@163.com

 

Abstract: Objective The present study describes the etiologic characteristics of symptomatic epilepsy based on a hospital study in China. Methods The etiology of 574 patients with symptomatic epilepsy was analyzed. Epilepsy was diagnosed according to classification of ILAE. Results The initial onset in 57.0% of all subjects was under age of 20 years. The analysis of etiologies showed that brain trauma was in 18.5%, cerebral vascular disease in 17.2%, cerebral infection in 16.2%,developmental abnormalities in 12.2%, perinatal brain injury in 10.6%, brain tumor in 7.1%, mesial temporal sclerosis in 6.8%,and the other in 11.3%. Conclusion Brain trauma, cerebral vascular disease, cerebral infection, developmental abnormalities, perinatal brain injury, mesial temporal sclerosis, and brain tumor were the most common causes of symptomatic epilepsies and the causes for symptomatic epilepsy were significantly different among various ages.

[Yusheng Li, Xiaojing Liu, Shengming Huang. Clinical analysis of the etiology of 574 patients with symptomatic epilepsy. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 13-15]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.03

 

key words: Symptomatic epilepsy; Age; Etiology

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Monoclonal antibody therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

 

Hong Li1, Guru Sharan Sah2, Yusheng Li3*, Avinash Chandra3

 

1Master, Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University Cancer Hospital, Henan Tumor Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

2Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Hospital P. Ltd., Lalitpur, Nepal

3Department of neurology, The first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou university, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

Email: xyt979299@163.com

 

Abstract: Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Till date, surgery is the treatment of first choice for lung cancer. But most of the cases diagnosed in clinics are inoperable, so chemotherapy and/- or radiotherapy are the next option for those cases. Because these treatment modalities have adverse effects and are sometimes lethal to patients, new effective strategies with minimal side effects are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy has recently gained attractions as an adjuvant treatment of patients with NSCLC. Multiple Mabs have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against NSCLC with fewer side effects as compared to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article, focus on MAbs for treatment of patients with NSCLC, with emphasis on evidence based outcome in order to create a knowledge base that is well grounded in clinical reality. We summarize the current experience on the use of these agents for the treatment of NSCLC. Finally, we also highlight the critical questions and challenge in the clinical applicability of the existing MAb therapy and its future implications. We believe that Mab agents alone or with other forms of treatment can be recognized as next modality of lung cancer treatment despite waiting for results of ongoing phase II/III clinical trials.

[Hong Li, Guru Sharan Sah, Yusheng Li, Avinash Chandra. Monoclonal antibody therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 16-24]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.04

 

Keywords: NSCLC, Monoclonal Antibody, Efficacy, Side Effects

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Detection of Stem Cell Populations in Post gestating Mice Liver: Histo-immune Study

 

Awatef M.Ali1, Mai M. Ashgan2, Salh A.Karim2, Fatma M.Alqudsi2

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

 2Biology Departments, Faculty of Science, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, KAU

Awatef-ali@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Cellular therapy with liver stem cells and their progeny is a promising new approach which will contribute to gene therapy of liver diseases.So, the aim of this study was to identify normal structures and cell types within the liver and biliary systems of postgestating liver by light and electron microscope with particular reference to especial type of stem cells (oval cells).Also, the current study was performed to determine whether the hematopoietic cell markers, such as CD+34,were co-expressed by oval cells by using immunohistochemical stain. Two ages of mice were used: 7- and 60-days after birth. Analyses of section profiles revealed that liver hepatocytes at 7-days were organized into hexagonal plates and at 60-days hepatocytes were organized into hepatic lobules with complete portal area.At postgestation, hepatocytes seemed provided with long parallel cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum, developed mitochondria and noticeable amount of glycogen. It was possible to identify large amounts of liver oval cells by using CD+34 antibody and phenotypically define them. It was also possible through this study to prove that the amount of these oval cells decreased with age increase. The present results had led to a reasonably detailed picture derived the presence of oval cells as well as differentiation of the different hepatic cell types.

[Awatef M. Ali, Mai M. Ashgan, Salh A.Karim, Fatma M. Alqudsi. Detection of Stem Cell Populations in Post gestating Mice Liver: Histo-immune Study. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):25-34]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lif esciencesite.com. 5. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.05

 

Key words: stem cells, postgestating liver, mice, histology, histoimmunology

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6

The clinical value of serum tumor markers combined PET / CT diagnosis on non-small cell lung cancer

 

Genlin Shi1, Zhaoyun Xia2, Xixu Zhu3

 

1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Jiangsu Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese Armed People′s Forces, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225003, China

2Department of Radiology, Jiangsu Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese Armed People’s Forces, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225003, China

 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, PM, Nanjing 210002, China

 shinezy@163.com, SGL006811@aliyun.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the clinical value of serum tumor markers combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET / CT) diagnosis on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 65 cases of patients with suspected lung cancer of X-ray examination were considered as NSCLC group, in which 39 cases were males, 26 cases were females, the age was from 38 to 75 years old and the mean one was (56.4±6.5) years old. 30 patients with benign lung disease patients were selected as benign lung disease group, in which 18 cases were males, 12 cases were females, the age was from 34 to 67 years old and the mean one was (55.2±6.0) years old; 30 healthy subjects were as the healthy control group, in which 17 cases were males, 13 cases were females, the age was from 36 to 74 years old and the mean one was (55.3±5.7) years old. The NSCLC patients hospitalized line 18F-FDG PET / CT and serum tumor markers in check, and cells or pathological results. Healthy control group and benign lung disease group, only test serum tumor markers. The detection of serum tumor markers: serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin fragment antigen (Cyfra21-1), neuron-specific enolase enzyme (NSE), the squamous cell antigens (SCCAg), tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (Pro-GRP). Result: Benign lung disease serum TPS, NSE level was significantly higher than the healthy control group (P<0.01), TPS positive rate was significantly higher than the healthy control group (P<0.05). NSCLC group, serum TPS CYFRA21-1, NSE, Pro-GRP, CEA, SCCAg levels and the positive rate was significantly higher than the healthy control group and lung benign disease group (P <0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET / CT combined with tumor markers were higher than simple tumor markers. Conclusion: Serum tumor markers joint 18F-FDG PET / CT imaging has a higher diagnostic value, could better guide clinical treatment of NSCLC.

[Genlin Shi, Zhaoyun Xia, Xixu Zhu. The clinical value of serum tumor markers combined PET / CT diagnosis on non-small cell lung cancer. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 35-39]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.06

 

Key words: serum tumor markers; non-small cell lung cancer; positron emission tomography; computed tomography

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7

Channel Based Resource Allocation Mechanism (CBRAM) in WiMAX

 

Khalid Mahmood Awan, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Khalid Hussain

 

Faculty of Computing, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

E-mail: makhalid2@live.utm.my, hanan@utm.my, hkhalid2@live.utm.my

 

Abstract: WiMAX provides a wide range of growing requirements of services and mobility of user that has made allocation of resources a focusing area for the researcher. The goal of the WiMAX Network, based on IEEE 802.16e standard, is to provide the best available quality of service. Several parameters are considered to ensure QoS and efficient resource allocation in multi classes. Considering deficiency of standard policy for scheduling and resource allocation in IEEE standard. This paper focusees on key issues and the design factors of existing techniques. A new mechanism is proposed for allocation of resources, Channel Based Resource Allocation Mechanism (CBRAM). To achieve this objective an analytical technique is used to derive bounds on system capacity in channel distribution. The research gap is to analyze the performance of the existing resource allocation mechanisms based on channel condition or SNR ratio. To fill the gap an optimal hybrid resource allocation technique is proposed to ensure resource allocation efficiently.

[Khalid Mahmood Awan, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Khalid Hussain. Channel Based Resource Allocation Mechanism (CBRAM) in WiMAX. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 40-46]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescience site.com. 7. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.07

 

Keywords: Resource allocation, SNR, Quality of Service Classes

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8

[Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):47-53]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.08

 Withdrawn

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Exploration of payment based on performance management in clinical practice in nursing unit

 

Hongyan Li1, Libin An 1, Xin Yin2

 

1School of Public Health, Jilin University, Jilin, Changchun 130021, China

2Jilin University School of Nursing, Jilin, Changchun 130021, China

E-mail: anlibin2001@yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract: Objective: To explore the nursing unit based job management performance evaluation of new models for improving care income distribution system, the establishment of long-term incentive mechanism and to promote the scientific management of the care team to provide a favorable basis. Methods: Based on the nursing job management requires "Anlaoquchou, giving priority to efficiency, hard work and excellent labor excellent performance" nurse salary allocation principles, to establish the quality of care, nursing workload, department risk factors and patient satisfaction degree as the main performance evaluation based remuneration scheme nursing unit in the hospital 34 departments, a total of 45 nursing units in nursing clinical practice performance-based compensation allocated discussed, and were assigned to carry out the clinical practice of nursing pay for performance before and after the study, more nurses job satisfaction and patient satisfaction before and after hospitalization differences in nursing in order to evaluate the effectiveness of performance pay distribution reform. Results: Performance distribution reform carried out before and after nursing, nurse job satisfaction and manage the overall average, wages and benefits, personal growth and development, work has been recognized by the four dimensions of satisfaction scores were 3.06±0.25/3.22±0.33, 3.13±0.30/3.50±0.41, 2.98±0.47/3.47±0.38, 2.73±0.56/2.98±0.48, 2.87±0.58/3.09±0.72; performance distribution reform carried out before and after nursing, hospital patient satisfaction overall average score was 9.02±0.44/9.49±0.214, there were significant differences (P <0.05). Conclusion: Nursing unit performance pay distribution reform improves job satisfaction of nurses, nurses work to mobilize the enthusiasm, improve patient satisfaction, care reform for promoting positive significance.

[Hongyan Li, Libin An, Xin Yin. Exploration of payment based on performance management in clinical practice in nursing unit. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 54-57]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.09

 

Keywords: job management; care; organization; Performance

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 User Interface Design Issues for the Autistic Children

 

Zeinab Shams Aliee1, Nazean Jomhari1, Reza Rezaei1, Norlidah Alias2

 

1Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Curriculum & Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

z_shams@siswa.um.edu.my

 

Abstract: One of the most important problems of the autistic children is split attention that avoids them from being able to focus attention on their learning. Because of having higher visual abilities in comparing with ordinary people, visual supports are required to be used for these individuals. With the intention of presenting visual information displays, computers are used among children with autism. On the other hand, many other researches proved that by providing a structured and controlled computer based environments, autistic children could be supported effectively. Thus, specific design issues should be customized for them to facilitate their split attention in learning. Accordingly, This paper aims at providing an application that considers the identified design issues based on Fakih method for the autistic children to manage their split attention.

[Zeinab Shams Aliee, Nazean Jomhari, Reza Rezaei, Norlidah Alias. User Interface Design Issues for the Autistic Children. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):58-62]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.10

 

Keywords: Autistic, Computer Based Intervention, Design Issues, Split Attention

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Eexpression Pattern of CyclinD1, PCNA and HSP70 in Regenerating Liver of Rat

 

Kexue Ma1, Xingzi Xi2, Keshi Ma3

 

1. College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007, China

2. Department of Education Sciences, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China

3. College of Life Sciences, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, Henan 466000, China

xingzixi2003@sina.com

 

Abstract: Adult mammalian liver is best known for its exceptional regeneration ability, in which the remaining liver tissue can recover its original size in a week after 2/3 liver resection. Therefore, the investigation of the molecular mechanism underlying the liver regeneration is of vital importance in the treatment of many liver diseases. In this paper, western blot was employed to examine the changes of cyclin D1, PCNA and HSP70 during liver regeneration. Blot bands were assessed by Bio-Rad software and all data were assessed by SPASS software. The results showed that cyclin D1 was induced at 12h, appeared two peaks at 36h and 96h respectively after partial hepatectomy; Expression of PCNA increased dramatically at 12h, appeared three peaks at 16h, 36h and 96h respectively during liver regeneration; The up-expression of HSP70 occurred at 16h-24h after PH, at which hepatocytes enter S phase of cell cycle. The results indicated that cyclin D1, PCNA and HP70 could interact each other to mediate the cell cycle progression in liver regeneration.

[Kexue Ma, Xingzi Xi, Keshi Ma. Eexpression Pattern of CyclinD1, PCNA and HSP70 in Regenerating Liver of Rat. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 63-66]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.11

 

Keywords: liver regeneration, cyclin D1, PCNA, HSP70

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Safety and efficacy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin in an aplastic anemia adolescent infected by hepatitis C virus

 

Xiaofei Li1, Hua Li2, Xianqiang Zhang 2, Quancheng Kan1, Zujiang Yu2

 

1Department of pharmacology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2Department of the Infectious disease, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

johnyuem@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To analyze on the curative safety and efficacy, we dynamically observed the therapeutic and side-effects from a 43-year-old woman with aplastic anemia(AA) and infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) after the combination treatment of PEG-IFN-α 2a plus ribavirin. During the combination treatment of PEG-IFN-α 2a (Peg-IFN-α,135 μg, weekly) plus ribavirin (900 mg/day) for 72 weeks, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid (HCV RNA), blood bio-chemistry and counts of blood cell(CBC) were detected every 4 or 8 weeks. At the end of the 24 weeks follow up, T leukocytes subsets, level of HCV RNA were assayed and bone marrow aspiration smeared again. From the above detected data, viral-load of HCV were declining at the first 12-weeks, disappeared at the 32th-week and lasted negatively till the end of the follow up; CBC including white blood cell(WBC), neutrophilicgranulocyte (Neu) and blood platelet were changed like “U ” model, that was, decreased at the first 3weeks, fluctuated in the next 44weeks, and elevated in the last 24 weeks; blood chemistry including serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were abnormal before antiviral therapy and recovered after injecting Peg-IFN alfa-2a for 8 weeks; T lymphocyte subsets and bone marrow aspiration smear diagnosis were similar as the pre-treatment in the follow up. These results suggested that chronic hepatitis C patient with AA could acquire sustained virologic response (SVR) and had no permanently affection to bone marrow hemopoiesis, although transient reduction in CBC after the therapy of Peg-IFN plus ribavirin. Otherwise, the delayed early virologic response (EVR) to Peg-IFN may be correlated with aplastic anemia.

[Xiaofei Li, Hua Li, Xianqiang Zhang, Quancheng Kan, Zujiang Yu. Safety and efficacy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin in an aplastic anemia adolescent infected by hepatitis C virus. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 67-71]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.12

 

Key words: Pegylated interferon; Hepatitis C; Aplastic anemia

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Root architecture and development in naturally regenerated and planted Pinus densiflora for. erecta in Korea

 

Sung-Joon Na1, Kwan-Soo Woo1, Ju-Hyung Lee2, Do-Hyung Lee2*

 

1Department of Forest Genetic Resources, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon 441-350, South Korea

2Department of Forest Resources, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan 712-749, Korea

dhlee@yu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: Containerized Pinus densiflora seedlings are regularly produced in South Korea. In this study, we identified differences between the root architecture and spatial development of naturally regenerated and artificially planted P. densiflora for. erecta. saplings at 2 sites in northeastern South Korea. The total taproot length was significantly longer in naturally regenerated stands than in planted stands (P < 0.01); the taproots of naturally regenerated saplings grew to a soil depth of 50 cm, but those of planted saplings grew to a soil depth of only 30 cm. The lateral roots of naturally regenerated saplings consistently developed straight and horizontally, tending to decrease in number and length as the soil depth increased; however, the lateral roots of planted trees developed irregularly, and most roots tended to spiral. The root characteristics of the saplings in planted stands were a factor causing deteriorating stability. Continuous monitoring of the root development of older planted P. densiflora for. erecta in various areas and advanced silvicultural techniques are required to ensure effective growth of these trees.

[Sung-Joon Na, Kwan-Soo Woo, Ju-Hyung Lee, Do-Hyung Lee. Root architecture and development in naturally regenerated and planted Pinus densiflora for. erecta in Korea. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):72-80]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.13

 

Keywords: root architecture; containerized seedlings; planted stand; taproot; stability

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A meta analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials of role of folic acid in cardiovascular risks in chronic kidney disease patients

A shortened version of the paper’s title: a meta-analysis of folate in patients with CKD

 

Yan Ji1, Yuming Xu*1, Yusheng Li1, Bo Song1, Shilei Sun1, Kai Huang2, Rui Zhang1, Xinjing Liu1

 

1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2Medical Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

*Corresponding author: xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Backgrounds: Previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the efficacy of homocysteine- lowering therapy with folic acid for reduction of cardiovascular risk, particularly in populations with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials performed between January 1966 and December 2012 to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation in CKD populations. Data from 10 randomized controlled trials including 8879 patients with CKD were analysed. Results: Different degrees of homocysteine reduction were achieved in all studies. A total of 1619 cardiovascular events were reported, and a beneficial trend but no statistical significance of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid on reduction of cardiovascular events was shown (relative risk [RR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.05; P=0.23). Subgroup analyses of cardiovascular events showed a statistical benefit in populations with end-stage renal disease and no folic acid fortification (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.99; and RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.96, respectively), and a beneficial trend but no statistical significance was shown in populations with a high baseline homocysteine concentration, greater degree of homocysteine lowering, low baseline albumin concentration, and low incidence of diabetes mellitus. There were 1980 deaths, which was not significant (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.10; P=0.46). Nonsignificant results were also observed for myocardial infarction, stroke events, and vascular mortality. Conclusions: A beneficial trend but no statistical significance was observed for reduction of cardiovascular risks with folic acid supplementation in populations with CKD. Statistical benefits were demonstrated in some patients, which should encourage further discussion.

[Yan Ji, Yuming Xu, Yusheng Li, Bo Song, Shilei Sun, Kai Huang, Rui Zhang, Xinjing Liu. A meta analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials of role of folic acid in cardiovascular risks in chronic kidney disease patients. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 81-87]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.14

 

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Folate; Homocysteine; Meta-analysis

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Facilitating Autistic Children’s Split Attention in Designing Computer Teaching Instructions

 

Zeinab Shams Aliee1, Nazean Jomhari1, Reza Rezaei1, Norlidah Alias2

 

1Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Curriculum & Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

z_shams@siswa.um.edu.my

 

Abstract: One of the most important difficulties of autistic children in learning is not being able to focus attention on the relevant information. Considering autistic individuals have higher visual abilities in comparing with ordinary people, visual supports are used to enable learning. Intending to offer visual information displays, computers are used among individuals with autism. Previous researches indicated that autistic children could be supported effectively by providing a structured and controlled environment using computer based intervention. Preparing instructions for the autism spectrum requires customizing specific design issues to facilitate their split attention. Moving forward in this paper, it is concluded that in addition to the design issues to be considered for the autistic children, teaching instructions need to be incorporated. This paper aims to present the specified user interface design issues incorporated with the required teaching instructions for the autistic children to facilitate their split attention.

[Zeinab Shams Aliee, Nazean Jomhari, Reza Rezaei, Norlidah Alias. Facilitating Autistic Children’s Split Attention in Designing Computer Teaching Instructions. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 88-96]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.15

 

Keywords: Autistic Children, Computer, Split Attention, Design Issues, Teaching Instructions

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Investigating Causal Relationship between Indian and American Stock Markets

 

M.V.Subha1, S. Thirupparkadal Nambi2

 

1Associate Professor – MBA, Department of Management Studies, Anna University, Regional Centre – Coimbatore, Jyothipuram, Coimbatore – 641047, Tamilnadu, India

2Associate Professor, Guruvayurappan Institute of Management, Palakkad Main Road, Navakkarai, Coimbatore – 641105, Tamilnadu, India

Email: subhamv@gmail.com, nambist@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study investigates the vibrant relationship between the Indian and American Stock markets. Financial markets across the globe are widely integrated, with global investors seeking to invest simultaneously in many markets. The Indian Stock markets have become open to a large extent, thereby attracting investors from overseas markets. The international financial markets have witnessed various crests and troughs due to widespread economic crisis and it can be observed that slowly all the markets are bouncing back to normalcy. With the latest developments in the information and communication technology, information passes in no second across nations and continents. This has led to a situation where the rise and fall in one market has an immediate impact over the other markets, largely due to the presence of global investors. Hence, this paper examines the nature of the relationship between Indian and American markets using the Granger causality test. The Granger causality test is used to detect if there is a cause- and-effect relationship between the popular Indian stock index BSE SENSEX and the leading American Stock indices (NASDAQ and NYSE) during the period 2009-2012. The results confirm that the Granger causality runs in one way, from American markets to Indian market, but not the other way.

[M.V. Subha, S. Thirupparkadal Nambi. Investigating Causal Relationship between Indian and American Stock Markets. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 97-101]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 16

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.16

 

Key words: Stock market interdependence, Causal relations, Granger causality test

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Investigational Study and Manage the Poisonous Emissions in IC Engines by Nano Materials

 

N.Kanthavelkumaran1, P.Seenikannan2, C.Bibin3

 

1Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

2Dean & Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sethu Institute of Technology, Kariapatti, Tamilnadu, India

3Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, The Rajaas Engineering College, Vadakkankulam, India

kanthavelpriya@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In present state of affairs, vehicles are plays an important role in contribution to the pollution. Air pollution is predominately emitted through the exhaust of motor (both light duty and heavy duty) vehicles and the combustion of fossil fuels. Pollution control is playing a important role to control the upcoming generation and noxious emissions like CO, NOX, HC and soot (particulates). Aim of this research study is to diminish the emissions from the automobiles through design and manufacturing of nano catalytic converter by replacing the offered costly metals such as Platinum. Nano Materials like nano Rhodium and nano Palladium were obtained by using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The obtained nano powder was deposited in the honey comb formation structure. By using the nano catalytic converter the pollution is reduced in a marginal level.

[N.Kanthavelkumaran, P.Seenikannan, C.Bibin. Investigational Study and Manage the Poisonous Emissions in IC Engines by Nano Materials. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):102-107]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescience site.com. 17

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.17

 

Keywords: CVD, Nano catalytic converter, Nano materials, noxious emission, IC Engine

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Service delivery in Higher Education (HE): A comparative study between public and private universities

 

Kazi Enamul Hoque1. Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak2, Mosa. Fatema Zohora3

 

Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

1Corresponding Author: tffr2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:This study seeks to find out the effectiveness of service delivery between the public and the private HEIs as perceived by the students; investigating the differences in four areas and the relationship between the management and the administration indicators and other three indicators in the admission, facilities and teaching. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Total 400 students from four different universities were the respondents of the study. The findings reveal that private higher education institutions have fared significantly better in all areas except in the academic teaching aspect in comparison to their public counterparts. With regards to admission, the private HEIs have fared better where students highly rate the website effectiveness and the use of social media as offered by these private education institutions, as to be highly informative to them. The public education institutions view facilities as a mere addition, whereas the private education institutions see them as an initial sizeable investment outlay. In the teaching sector of excellence, however, the findings skewed more positively towards public education institutions. This study recommends public universities to be lenient in the areas of admission procedures and infrastructure facilities and private universities to be attentive to ensure quality teaching.

[Kazi Enamul Hoque. Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Mosa. Fatema Zohora. Service delivery in Higher Education (HE): A comparative study between public and private universities. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 108-117]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.18

 

Key words: Service delivery, Higher Education institutions, management and administrative facilities

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The Trends of Common Pathogens of Nosocomial Infection and Changes of Resistance to Quinolones

 

Shaotong Zheng, Qiyun Fu*, Junzhong Lu

 

Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, Jiangsu 223300, China

* Email: fuqy1969@163.com

 

Abstract: To investigate the distributions of common pathogenic bacteria and the changes of the resistance to quinolones isolated from inpatients during the past 5 years, and explore their resistance mechanisms to guide the clinic doctors to use antimicrobial drugs. Results showed that 5303 strains of bacteria had been detected during Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 in hospital. The top five kinds of bacteria were illustrated as follows: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Pneumonia klebsiella, Acinetobacter baumannii., the total situations of distribution were little changed each year. It could be seen from the results of antimicrobial susceptibility test, resistance of five kinds of bacterial to quinolones were rising year by year. So we should strengthen the monitoring of drugs resistance of pathogens. The clinical doctors should choice the rational antimicrobial drugs according to the results of clinical antimicrobial susceptibility test.

[Shaotong Zheng, Qiyun Fu, Junzhong Lu. The Trends of Common Pathogens of Nosocomial Infection and Changes of Resistance to Quinolones. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):118-120]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescience site.com. 19. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.19

 

Key words: pathogens; nosocomial infection; quinolones; drug resistance; antimicrobial susceptibility test

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Image Ontology Construction using Spatial and Temporal Relationships

 

N.Magesh 1, P.Thangaraj2

 

1Assistant Professor, Dept of Computer Science and Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology

2Professor and Head, Dept of Computer Science and Engineering, Bannariamman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam

 Email: nallasamymagesh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Semantic Web uses ontology structure for annotating any kind of information. The image representation and retrieval is a crucial task in the Semantic Web (Berners-Lee, 2001). Specifically, the Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is used in retrieving the image using low level image features. The semantic gap is an unresolved problem in image retrieval. The ontology based image representation and retrieval methods are used to reduce the semantic gap. An image file consists of various objects in two dimensional space where each object is having some relationship with each other. The present search engines are not considering the relationship between the objects in an image. These relationships are expressed by using spatial methods like Region Connection Calculus (RCC) and Topological relationship. The tool ICONCLASS is used in the identification of various objects present in an image. The temporal data such as time and date are annotated to the ontology structure. This paper provides a method of constructing an image ontology using spatial and temporal relationship exist between the objects present in the image and method of retrieving the images using these relationships.

[N. Magesh, P. Thangaraj. Image Ontology Construction using Spatial and Temporal Relationships. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):121-129]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 20. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.20

 

Keywords: Ontology, Region Connection Calculus, Image retrieval, SPARQL, RDF, Spatial relationship. Temporal relationship and Topological relationship

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A Novel Track-Drive Mobile Robotic Framework for Conducting Projects on Robotics and Control Systems

 

Jamshed Iqbal1,2, S. Riaz un Nabi3, Abdul Attayyab Khan4, Hamza Khan5

 

1Robotics and Control Research Group, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland

3Electronic Engineering Department, NED UET, Karachi, Pakistan

4Department of Electrical Engineering, King Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

5Department of Advanced Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Italy

jamshed.iqbal@comsats.edu.pk

 

Abstract: This paper presents a novel robotic framework to help students to practically grasp the concepts of Robotics and Control Systems in a laboratory environment. The framework is centered on a robotic rover having two tank-like tracks which permit locomotion on uneven terrains. The sensory system consists of encoders for position feedback while the actuation system comprises of six precise DC motors. To enhance the learning outcomes of students and to permit readily realizaion of applications, developed software library supports three different command levels. The efficacy of the framework has been demonstrated by presenting a list of projects conducted on the framework. In particular, as a case-study, a project titled tether tracking and control of robotic rover has been detailed in the paper with presentation of experimental results. The pilot study indicated that incorporating the framework in robotics laboratory resulted in an efficient methodology of imparting interdisciplinary knowledge to engineering students. Additionally, the framework finds its potential in research of advanced robotic and control algorithms.

[Jamshed Iqbal, S. Riaz un Nabi, Abdul Attayyab Khan, Hamza Khan. A Novel Track-Drive Mobile Robotic Framework for Conducting Projects on Robotics and Control Systems. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 130-137]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 21

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.21

 

Keywords: Educational robotic platform; Track-drive robot; Robot control; Robotics project; Tether tracking

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Heat Transfer Behaviourof Electro Deposited Nickel-Tungsten Alloy Coating

 

U.Arunachalam1, N.Shenbaga Vinnayaga Moorthi2, P.Veeramani3

 

1 Assistant professor, Anna University Tirunelveli Region, Tamilnadu, INDIA

2Associate professor, Anna University Tirunelveli Region, Tamilnadu, INDIA

3CSIR- Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, INDIA

arunachalam_u@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Metal and alloys/ ceramic coatings have been widely employed for several decades for protection of components at high temperatures in power plant, gas turbines and oil refineries with great success. The high quality thermal barrier coatings are normally employed for this purpose in the elevated temperature services to protect the base materials from the severe operating thermo cyclic load conditions and to improve their performance. This paper deals with the convective heat transfer performance of nickel- tungsten particles deposited over the mild steel by selecting optimum conditions for the electro deposition technique for a thickness of 10 µm and 50 µm thickness. The characterizations of the coated surfaces were conducted by surface topography (XRD and SEM). The convective heat transfer studies of the nano-sized nickel tungsten alloy coatings reveal that a particle size of around 92 nm, exhibits nearly 10 to 14% of temperature reduction in 50 µm thickness coating, whereas the temperature reduction of 8 to 11% of was observed in 10 µm thickness coating.

[U. Arunachalam, N. Shenbaga Vinnayaga Moorthi, P. Veeramani. Heat Transfer Behaviour of Electro Deposited Nickel-Tungsten Alloy Coating. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):138-143]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescience site.com 22. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.22

 

Keywords: nickel-tungsten coating, alloy coating, thermal behaviour, heat transfer

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Morphological Characteristics and Classification of Selected Populations of Rubus coreanus Miq

 

Sea-Hyun Kim1, Moon-Sup Kim1, Yong-Seok Jang1, Hae-Su Kim1, Do-Hyung Lee2*

 

1 Department of Forest Genetic Resources, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon 441-350, South Korea

2Department of Forest Resources, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea

dhlee@yu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: We surveyed 14 selected populations of Rubus coreanus Miq. that are indigenous to Korea, examining the leaves, fruiting laterals, and fruits, in order to develop superior cultivars of this species. Whereas most of the populations in the Songgye region had large leaf characteristics, populations in the Hannam, Sanghyo, Wonju, and Chiak regions generally had small leaf characteristics. The Songgye region plants also had longer leaves relative to their leaf widths. The number of flowers and number of fruits per fruiting lateral were 19.7 and 19.8, respectively, for the Gochang region, and 19.3 and 18.9, respectively, for the Hannam region. Both these regions exceeded the average numbers of flowers and fruits, which were 17.2 and 16.6, respectively. There were wide variations in fruit length, width, weight, and morphological characteristics. A principal components analysis (PCA) of 24 characteristics revealed that the first principal component value was 9.53 (or 39% of the total variance), the second principal component value was 5.85 (24.3% of the total), the third principal component value was 3.53 (14.7% of the total), the fourth principal component value was 2.00 (8.3% of the total), and the fifth principal component value was 1.20 (5.0% of the total). The proportions of the top five principal components accounted for a high percentage (92.2%) of the total variance.

[Sea-Hyun Kim, Moon-Sup Kim, Yong-Seok Jang, Hae-Su Kim, Do-Hyung Lee. Morphological Characteristics and Classification of the Selected Populations of Rubus coreanus Miq. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 144-151]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.23

 

Keywords: Morphological characteristics; Classification; Rubus coreanus Miq.; Principal component analysis; UPGMA method

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Does Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Predispose Patients to Diabetes Mellitus? Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus after ESWL in 15 Years Follow-up

 

Fahimeh Kazemi Rashed¹, Nader Rash Ahmadi¹, Mohsen Amjadi¹, Alireza farshi², Mahboobeh Gholipour³

 

ESWL department, Shahid Madani Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz Iran

[1] Urology department,Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

2 ESWL department, Shahid Madani Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

3 General Practitioner

Email: naderrashahmadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Purpose: To investigate the hypothesis that extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) increases the risk of new onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or significant changes in FBS. Materials and Methods: A total number of 307 patients enrolled in this study. All of them had undergone ESWL for kidney stone from 1991 to 1994. In 2009, after 15-19 years, we invited patients to check their Blood Sugar. Results there were 307 patients, 19.8% female, and 80.1% male. Mean age of the patient were 44 for female and 42 years for males.47.5% had kidney stone in left side, 42.9% in right side and 9.4% bilateral. The mean FBS increasing was 11.86 g/dl. It was 14.54 g/dl for right side, 8.57 g/dl for left and 16.24 g/dl for bilateral ESWL. Conclusions: The increasing of FBS is more significant in shock wave intensities higher than 15.5 KV. And there wasn’t any significant relationship between age, sex, BMI and total number of shock waves with increasing of FBS. ESWL treatment might associate with increasing FBS without relation to age, sex and BMI.

[Fahimeh Kazemi Rashed, Nader Rash Ahmadi, Mohsen Amjadi, Alireza farshi, Mahboobeh Gholipour. Does Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Predispose Patients to Diabetes Mellitus? Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus after ESWL in 15 Years Follow-up. Life Sci J 2013;10(3): 152-155]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.24

 

Key words: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), Diabetes mellitus (DM), Fasting blood sugar (FBS)

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Allometric scaling relationships for morphology and biomass allocation are mediated by stand ages in Cyclobalanopsis glauca

 

Hao Zhang1,2, Tongqing Song1,2, Kelin Wang1,2, Genxuan Wang3, Fuping Zeng1, 2

 

1Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan 410125, China

2Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, 547100, China

3Institute of Ecological Research, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China

fpzeng@isa.ac.cn

 

Abstract: Metabolic theory of ecology predicts a ‘universal scaling law’ of tree growth. However, this scaling law was continuously debated in both theoretical and empirical studies. It is still unclear that whether this scaling law varies with tree age. In this study, we investigated the allometric scaling relationships for morphology and biomass allocation in young, immature and mature Cyclobalanopsis glauca. The results showed that universal scaling law can not be applied to all the allometric scaling relationships for morphology and biomass allocation across different ages Cyclobalanopsis glauca communities. For morphology, the scaling lines for height vs diameter at breast height (H-D), canopy vs diameter at breast height (C-D), and canopy vs height (C-H) in young age were stepper and higher than those of mature age. While for biomass allocation, except for total biomass vs stem biomass (MT-MS), the scaling lines for total biomass vs leaf biomass (MT-ML), stem biomass vs leaf biomass (MS-ML), total biomass vs root biomass (MT-MR) in young age were flatter and lower than those of mature age. Therefore, it was implied that the allometric scaling relationships for morphology and biomass allocation are mediated by stand ages.

 [Hao Zhang, Tongqing Song, Kelin Wang, Genxuan Wang, Fuping Zeng. Allometric scaling relationships for morphology and biomass allocation are mediated by stand ages in Cyclobalanopsis glauca. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 156-162]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.25

 

Keywords: Allometric scaling; biomass allocation; Cyclobalanopsis glauca; morphological variation; stand age

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 A Hybrid Approach for Single Objective Job Shop Scheduling Problems

 

 S.Gobinath1, Prof. C. Arumugam2, M.Chandrasekaran3

 

1Research Scholar, Anna University Regional Centre, Coimbatore, India

2Coimbatore Institute Technology, Coimbatore, India

3Vels University, Chennai, India

nithnathdeep@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Scheduling problems are usually solved using optimization techniques to get optimal or near optimal solutions because problems found in practical applications cannot be solved to optimality using reasonable resources in many cases. The n-job, m-machine Job shop scheduling (JSP) problem is one of the general production scheduling problems. In this paper, optimization of practical performance measure of makespan is considered. Hybrid approach is proposed to solve JSP problems. The hybrid approach is tested with 10 benchmark JSP problems in finding optimal makespan values. The results of hybrid approach are compared with Artificial Immune System (AIS), Tabu Search Shifting Bottleneck approach (TSSB) approach. The performance of hybrid approach is efficient in finding optimal solutions compared to that of other approaches reported in literature.

[S.Gobinath, Prof.C.Arumugam, M.Chandrasekaran. A Hybrid Approach for Single Objective Job Shop Scheduling Problems. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 163-166]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.26

 

Key words: Job Shop Scheduling, Hybrid Approach, Benchmark Problems

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Comparison of Surgical Intervention in Primary and Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

 

Weihan Li

 

Department of breast thyroid surgery, Nan yang Central Hospital, Nanyang, Henan 43700, China

liweihan666@126.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To compare surgical method for the primary and secondary thyroid cancer. Methods: Among thyroid cancer patients, 71 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma, 61 cases of recurrent thyroid carcinoma, different surgical methods were compared. Results: After ×2 test showed: × 2 = 7.21, P <0.05, which means two treatment modalities are statistically significant different. Indication of primary and recurrent thyroid cancer thyroid cancer surgery between approaches has significant difference. Conclusion In practice, the primary thyroid cancer radical surgery should be based on the principle of recurrent thyroid cancer and it should be possible to cure.

[Weihan Li. Comparison of Surgical Intervention in Primary and Recurrent Thyroid Cancer. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 167-168]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 27

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.27

 

Keywords: thyroid cancer; primary; recurrent

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Project-Oriented Business Process Reengineering for Professional Construction Management

 

Min-Yuan Cheng 1, Chi-An Chang 2

 

1. Dept. of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan

2. Dept. of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan

mtyu2011@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper focuses on developing a “Project-Oriented Business Process Reengineering Model for PCM” (hereafter called Reengineering model)”, which can be applied by Professional Construction Management (PCM) enterprises, when dealing with changing and high knowledge demanding projects. By using this Reengineering model, PCM enterprises can quickly revise their existing service process to meet various goals of specific projects. This Reengineering model is constructed based on both Single-Loop and Double-Loop Knowledge Management (KM) learning concept, and business process reengineering (BPR) tools. This model helps PCM quickly identify and quantify the service and performance gaps, and redesign existing service process. “Construction Cost Change Estimation Process” is used as a case study to validate this reengineering model, which can be a concrete instrument for PCM to reengineer service process, in order to ensure the process meet service demand of a project prior to implementation. Development of this reengineering model provides new input to the research of project-oriented business process reengineering.

[Min-Yuan Cheng, Chi-An Chang. Project-Oriented Business Process Reengineering for Professional Construction Management. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):169-179] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.28

 

Keywords: Project-Oriented, Knowledge Management (KM), Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

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Facing the Challenge of Adapting to a Life ‘Alone’ and Nursing Shortage among the Empty Nest Elderly in Southwest China

 

Hurong Ge 1, Zhizhong Wang 2, Ding Yin 1

 

1. Department of Physical Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China

2. School of Pharmacy, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China

pxwzz@163.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore the empty nest elderly’s states to living a life characterized by aloneness, and the ways to cope with loneliness. A sample of 1200 empty nest elderly were surveyed using the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS), and the Yarnoz’s loneliness classification for the evaluation of social and emotional loneliness in adults was used. Analyses revealed that the majority (93.9%) of empty nest elderly had moderate to high levels of loneliness. The level of loneliness showed significant differences in age, marital status and income. Income was negatively associated with loneliness, whereas being single was positively associated with loneliness for the empty nest group. In addition, the loneliness was mainly expressed by family loneliness and social loneliness, respectively, 84.3% and 15.7%. Family loneliness prevails among empty nest elderly. It may do great harm to the construction of harmonious society and individual harmony. To minimize the level of loneliness among the empty nest elderly, action must be taken in the care for the elderly, especially Senior Associations should be built to increase the chance to organize all forms of group activities suitable for the old people's participation, such as playing chess, painting, outings, group singing and dancing. On the other hand, these findings have implications for nursing in that nurses must seek to identify those who need help in managing their loneliness and give guidance and support. More research is needed to develop interventions that are effective in reducing loneliness among empty nest elderly.

[Ge HR, Wang ZZ, Yin D. Facing the Challenge of Adapting to a Life ‘Alone’ and Nursing Shortage among the Empty Nest Elderly in Southwest China. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):180-183] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.29

 

Keywords: Loneliness; empty nest elderly; nursing; harmonious society; individual harmony; group activities

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Relationship between Central Corneal Thickness, Anterior Chamber Depth and Degree of Myopia in Adult Population in North Egypt

 

Faried M. Wagdy

 

Ophthalmology Department, Menofia University, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University, Egypt.

Faried.wagdy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose (Objective): to study relationship between central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil diameter and degree of myopia in adult population aged between 21 and 38 years in Menofia Governate, Egypt. Methods: In this prospective observational study, sample of 114 eyes of 57 myopic patients aged between 21 and 38 years were enrolled in the study. Pentacam was used to assess central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD) in this group of myopic patients that was divided into 2 groups (Group A: refraction less than – 6.00 D) and (group B: refraction more than -6.00 D). Correlation between these three parameters and degree of myopia was statistically analysed. Results: Mean value for age of this adult myopic population of Menofia Governorate was 33.80 ± 1.20 with 77 eyes in group A and 37 eyes in group B.mean value for entire sample for CCT, ACD was 543.39± 40.61 um,3.50±0.14 mm respectively. There were mild reduction in these parameters in group B more than in group A but it was non significant (p value > 0.05). Conclusion: there was no correlation between CCT, ACD and PD with degree of myopia in adult population.

[Faried M. Wagdy. Relationship between Central Corneal Thickness, Anterior Chamber Depth and Degree of Myopia in Adult Population in North Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):184-186] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.30

 

Keyword: Central Corneal Thickness, Anterior Chamber Depth, Myopia Menofia Governate.

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Vegetative compatibility and strain improvement of some Egyptian Trichoderma isolates

 

Ilham M. El-Refai, Saida M. Amer*, Susan M. W. Assawah and Mohamed S. Draz

 

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

*salmabishr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Vegetative compatibility among 13 isolates of Trichoderma representing seven species were evaluated in vitro in order to provide information on the use of multiple of Trichoderma as biological control agents. The study indicated high degree of vegetative incompatability. The incompatabible interactions represented 80% of the total number of interactions and characterized by zone of inhibition, overgrowth, intermingling, demarcation lines and ridges of conidia which recorded the following occurrence 27, 21,19.15, and 15% respectively. Concerning to compatible interactions which represented 20%, their incidence between self pairings was more frequently (14%) than between non-self pairings (6%). Trichoderma isolates showed non-self compatible interactions were utilized to induce strain improvement through the formation of somatic hybrids by co-culturing. Somatic recombination trial indicated that all the tested fusants were morphologically similar to one of parental species, Variable changes in the mycelial growth, sporulation and pigmentation were observed as well as in biological activity, but no significant increase in the activity was accomplished after fusion. The hybrid being generally less active than their parental species.

[Ilham M. El-Refai, Saida M. Amer, Susan M. W. Assawah and Mohamed S. Draz. Vegetative compatibility and strain improvement of some Egyptian Trichoderma isolates. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):187-197] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.31

 

Key words:Trichoderma, vegetative compatibility, somatic hybrid, strain improvement.

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Hand rubbing and scrubbing in relation to microbial count among surgical team members in a Saudi Hospital

 

Manal Hamed Mahmoud1; Ahmed Morad Asaad2 and Mohamed Ansar Qureshi2

 

1College of Nursing, Najran University, Najran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Dept. of Medical Surgical Nursing), Lecturer in Faculty of Nursing, Benha University, Benha, Arab Republic Egypt

2 Professor, Lecturer of microbiology, College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

dr.manalh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The surgical team members use different methods of surgical hand antisepsis with the aim of reducing surgical site infections. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of povidone iodine hand scrubbing versus alcohol and avagard hand rubbing on reduction of microbial count among surgical team members in a Saudi Hospital. Methods: The outcome measure is the number of Colony Forming Units (CFUs) cultured from 10-digit fingertip imprints on agar plates. Seventy two volunteers underwent 3 hand preparation protocols; Protocol (A) included 3 minutes of traditional scrub by PVP-I, protocol (B) involved 3 minutes of hand rubbing, until dry with ethyl alcohol 70%. Protocol (C) included 3 minutes of hand rubbing, until dry with Avagard. Three sets of fingertip imprints were obtained for each group; before rubbing/scrubbing (R/Sc.), immediately after R/Sc., and after glove removal (GR) ie; after 3 hours. Results: Results were expressed as the number of CFUs per hand by the use of Log10 RF. No significant difference in baseline hand bacterial load was found before and immediately after hand- R/Sc. procedures among the three groups, while there a significant statistical difference in microbial count after GR (p value = 0.01) and microbial count was lesser by the use of avagard than by the use of other solutions after GR. There was a significant statistical relation between participant's occupation and Count of CFUs (p value = 0.05) and the count found to be decreased among nurses after GR. But there was no significant statistical difference between participant's years of experience and counts of CFUs. Results revealed a significant statistical correlation between performance of rubbing/scrubbing and count of CFUs among the three groups immediately post R/Sc. and after GR. Conclusion and recommendations: Surgical hand rub using avagard was significantly more effective in reducing skin colony counts compared to ethyl alcohol 70% and povidone iodine 7.5% and we recommend that avagard hand rubs could be used as a potent hand antisepsis in the operating theatre.

 [Manal Hamed Mahmoud; Ahmed Morad Asaad and Mohamed Ansar Qureshi. Hand rubbing and scrubbing in relation to microbial count among surgical team members in a Saudi Hospital. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):198-205]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.32

 

Key words: Rubbing/ scrubbing (R/Sc.), microbial count, hand hygiene, colony forming units(CFUs), glove removal(GR).

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Investigating the individual and mixed effects of heavy metals (Copper and Cadmium) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) on growth and reproduction of Scenedesmus obliquus algae

 

Mansoureh Gholami1, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Fatemi1, Maryam Fallahi2, Abbas Esmaeili Sari3, Ali Mashinchian1

 

1: Department of Marine Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2: Institute of Aquaculture, Iran

3: University of Tarbiyate Modarres, Noor, Iran

gholamimansoureh14@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, we investigated the individual and mixed effects of heavy metals (Cu and Cd) and detergent (LAS) on growth and reproduction of Scenedesmus obliquus algae. We have conducted several tests to determine acute toxicity of pollutants in algae in individual and mixed manners through Selenastrum bottle test method. We used five test samples and a control sample and repeated the tests three times. Concentration ranges were determined by the logarithmic method and finally, the obtained results were calculated by probit analysis and the values of correlation coefficient, EC, and LC (10, 50, and 90) for pollutants were obtained in individual and mixed manners. The results obtained in tests of acute toxicity of algae and values of EC (10, 50 and 90) from the individual effects of heavy metals (Cadmium and Copper), LAS detergent and mixed effects of (Cd and LAS) mixture and (copper and LAS) mixture were, respectively, as the following: Cd(0.068, 0.127, and 0.237), Cu (0.53, 1.5, and 4.24), LAS (10.40, 21.53, and 130), LAS + Cd (0.013, 0.066, and 0.33), LAS + Cu (0.035, 0.21, and 1.32). The obtained allowed limits were 0.0127, 0.15, 2.153, 0.0066, 0.021 mg per liter, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 92, 98, 93, 90 and 95 percent, respectively. According to the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis at 95% of confidence level, we can conclude that, there is no significant difference between copper and mixture of copper and LAS in terms of the effects on algae (P < 0.05). In addition, according to the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis at 95% of confidence level, we can conclude that, there is significant difference between LAS and mixture of LAS and copper in in terms of the effects on algae (P < 0.05).

[Mansoureh Gholami, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Fatemi, Maryam Fallahi, Abbas Esmaeili Sari, Ali Mashinchian. Investigating the individual and mixed effects of heavy metals (Copper and Cadmium) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) on growth and reproduction of Scenedesmus obliquus algae. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):205-209] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.33

 

Keywords: Scenedesmus obliquus algae, Copper, Cadmium, detergents, toxicity, LAS

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Isolation of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus from four Pepper Cultivar in Riyadh K.S.A Using RAPD-PCR Technique

 

Jehan Saud Al –Abrahaim

 

Microbiology Department, Princess Nora Bent Abdulrahman University, Riyadh - Saudi Arabia

jsaa336@hotmail.com, highest_alim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) technique was used for isolation and identification of alfalfa mosiac virus (AMV) in homogenates of four common Saudi varieties of pepper Capsicum annum. Two sweet pepper (Sirtaki and S.P.KING) and two hot pepper (Cruise and E48.192). Ten virus specific primers used to amplify DNA fragments. Specific bands of PCR products observed at the position were corresponding to the expected size of DNA amplification product. The results indicated that primers could permit the specific detection of AMV and RAPD-PCR technique is efficient to distinguish between pepper varieties in their infection by alfalfa mosaic virus. Identifying the primary sources of inoculum may help to reduce AMV spread and the severity of effects on pepper production. The observed symbtoms showed two sweet varities are very sensitive to virus infection. Meanwhile the hot varities are tolerant (cruise) or resistant (E48.192) to virus infection. In E48.192 and S.P.king varieties, virus was transferred by seeds.

[Jehan Saud Al –Abrahaim. Isolation of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus from four Pepper Cultivar in Riyadh K.S.A Using RAPD-PCR Technique. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):210-215] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.34

 

Keywords: Pepper, mosiac virus, Infectivity, RAPD-PCR

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Different Patterns of Inappropriate Antimicrobial Use: A Cross Sectional Study

 

Sahar Mohy Ahmed El‑Ashmony1,2

 

1Clinical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt,

2Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al‑Qura University, Saudi Arabia

saharelashmoony@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Because of increasing concern and awareness of antibiotic resistance problems worldwide and frequent inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents in hospitals, these drugs have often been the target of attempts to evaluate and control their uses. A cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of use of antimicrobials in both therapy and prophylaxis at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: All patients in the medical, surgical, as well as ICU wards in the period between September to December 2012 were evaluated. Data were collected with structured questionnaires, and appropriateness was evaluated by local and international guidelines and the decisions were carefully discussed with the infectious disease physicians. Results: 56.8% of patients with antimicrobial therapy, and 55.9% of patients with antimicrobial prophylaxis were judged as inappropriate. Categories of patients with inappropriate prescriptions included: 44.1% incorrect choice, and 12.7% incorrect application. Patterns of inappropriate antimicrobial varied widely in the different hospital units. In the present study as well as other studies, the main problem was in the surgical wards due to inappropriate choice which may be caused by the lack of indication for the antibiotic use. This is probably based on the consideration that potential or possible bacterial infection is more hazardous to the patient than the risk from use of antibiotics. Conclusion: In the present research, the divergence from local and international guidelines was the most frequent error. Based on these results, we recommend improving educational and surveillance programs and being adherent to the antibiotic policies and guidelines.

[Sahar Mohy Ahmed El‑Ashmony. Different Patterns of Inappropriate Antimicrobial Use: A Cross Sectional Study. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):216-222]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.35

 

Keywords: inappropriate, antimicrobials, therapy, prophylaxis, patients

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Assessment of Some Trace Elements: Copper, Zinc and Magnesium and Their Impact on CD3 and CD4 Levels in Children on Chronic Hemodialysis

 

Manal Mohamed Zaher1, Amal Gaber1, Awatef A Alrefaey1, Enas El Sebaee El Said2, Layla Yousef Elshal2and Entisar R Mokhtar2

 

Department of 1Pediatrics and 2 Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls,

 Al-Azhar University. drmanal_zaher@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Infection stills a major cause of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The susceptibility of ESRD patients to infections is typically linked to the immunodeficient state associated with uremia. Changes in essential trace elements may affect the immune system of children on hemodialysis (HD). Aim: To assess the relationships between some trace elements (zinc, copper and magnesium) content and some markers of immune status (CD3, CD4) in children on hemodialysis. This would help better understanding of mechanisms (factors) of immune dysfunction in these patients aiming at development of new therapeutic strategies that improve morbidity and immortality. Methods: The present study included 20 Children with ESRD on regular HD, they were 11 females (55.00%) and 9 males (45.00%) and their ages ranged 4-15 y (mean 8.91±3.46). They were compared with 20 age and sex matched apparently healthy children as control group. The trace elements; zinc, copper and magnesium and CD3and CD4 as well as complete blood picture, serum urea, creatinine and albumin were measured. Results: Significantly decreased zinc level, significantly decreased percentages of CD3 and CD4 T lymphocytes and increased levels of urea, creatinine, phosphorus and copper were observed in hemodialysis patients in comparison to control group. hemodialysis patients had also low levels of albumin and hemoglobin. Conclusions: Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which are potentially harmful as it cause suppression of immune function in ESRD patients as evidenced by decreased percentages of CD3 and CD4 lymphocytes, so continuous evaluation of trace elements is important in chronic hemodialysis patients.

[Manal Mohamed Zaher, Amal Gaber, Awatef A. Alrefaey. Assessment of Some Trace Elements: Copper, Zinc and Magnesium and Their Impact on CD3 and CD4 Levels in Children on Chronic Hemodialysis. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):223-230] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.36

 

Key words: Immune system, trace elements, hemodialysis.

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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Preterm Labor in Health Educational Centers of Northwest Iran (2009-2010)

 

Fahimeh Sehhati-Shafaii1, Maliheh Asadollahy1, Reza Piri2, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad 3, Frorogh Farzollahpour1*

 

1: Nursing & Midwifery Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2: Students' Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3: Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Email: ffarzollahpor@yahoo.com; Tel: +989143536227

 

Abstract: Preterm labor is a major cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Complications of preterm labor may be followed by a lifetime disability; also taking care of premature infant needs a wide range of equipment and services. So calculating the prevalence and defining risk factors of preterm labor can lead to develop preventive methods. Therefore aim of this study is calculating the prevalence and defining risk factors of preterm labor. This is a descriptive-analytic study in which 960 pregnant women referred to clinical-educational centers of Ardabil Province were assessed during a 6 months period; 480 of them had preterm labor and 480 of them had full-term labor. The information was gathered through interviews and patient's medical profile. Finally the results were evaluated with SPSS 15, chi square, Mann-whitney U and regression statistical test. Prevalence of preterm labor was 13.4% and there was a statistically Significant relation between preterm labor and predisposing factors such as types of pregnancy (wanted or unwanted), degree of consanguine, education level, history of infertility, drug consumption, pyelonephritis during pregnancy, eclampsia, multiparity, anemia, uterine anomalies, multigravidity, gestational age, cervical defects, neonate's gender, birth weight and disorders of amniotic fluid. But there was no statistically significant relation between preterm labor and factors such as residence condition (rural and urban), smoking, indirect exposure to tobacco smoke, iron and folic acid supplements, weight, height and age of mother, body mass index(BMI), Vaginal bleeding, urinary and uterine infections, duration of work time, history of preterm labor, rupture of membranes, Apgar score, type of present delivery, periodontal problems, mother’s occupation, psychological pressure, history of abortion and stillbirth and history of surgeries and diseases. Out of this study's findings, multiparity, multigravidity, anemia, drug consumption, type of pregnancy, consanguine, eclampsia have been defined as risk factors of preterm labor. These risk factors are relatively preventable; they can be reduced with pre-marriage consultation, health care before pregnancy and effective prenatal care.

[Fahimeh Sehhati-Shafaii, Maliheh Asadollahy, Reza Piri, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Frorogh Farzollahpour. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Preterm Labor in Health Educational Centers of Northwest Iran (2009-2010). Life Sci J 2013;10(3):231-236] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.37

 

Key words: Preterm labor, Prevalence, Risk factors.

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Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Haemodialysis Egyptian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C 

 

Samah Saad El Dine1, Manal El Said1, Ehab El-Dabaa 2, Emad Abdel Raoof 3, Manar Raafat4, Malak Nabil4, Moataz Hassanein3, Mohamad Saber2, Maisa Omer1 

 

Microbiology1, Biochemistry2, Gastroenterology3, Nephrology4, Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

Manar_raafat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are common nosocomial infections that cause higher rates of mortality and morbidity in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients than in the general population. Occult HBV (OHBV) infection is a clinical form of hepatitis B in which, despite the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum, HBV-DNA is present in both serum and hepatocytes Objective: To determine the prevalence of OHBV infection among HD patients with chronic HCV infection and to compare it with that of HCV-infected patients with normal renal function. Patient and Methods: A total of 32 chronic renal failure patients undergoing maintenance HD (Group1) in the dialysis unit of Nephrology Department at Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) Giza, Egypt and 22 chronic HCV patients with normal renal function (Group 2) who were admitted to Gastroenterology Department at TBRI were included in the present study. Serological markers of HBV infection including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) and anti-HCV antibody were determined using enzyme linked immunoassays. HBV DNA and HCV RNA were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results: OHBV was detected in 71.9% (23/32) of HD patients compared to 0% in group (2). HBV DNA seropositivity and anti-HBc were significantly higher in Group (1) than in Group (2) (P = 0.005, P = 0.03, respectively). HCV RNA positivity by PCR were significantly higher in patients with chronic HCV infection with normal renal function than in HD ones (P = 0.003). Among patients on maintenance HD, no statistically significant differences were detected regarding duration of HD, history of blood transfusion, biochemical parameters and serological markers between HBV DNA positive patients versus negative ones. Conclusions: The prevalence of occult HBV infection is high in HD patients with chronic HCV infection in our institute suggesting a possible risk of procedure –related infection in HD unit. Sensitive molecular diagnosis of HBV DNA is recommended for patients in addition to routine serological tests.

 [Samah Saad El Dine, Manal El Said, Ehab El-Dabaa, Emad Abdel Raoof, Manar Raafat, Malak Nabil, Moataz Hassanein, Mohamad Saber, Maisa Omer. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Haemodialysis Egyptian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):237-245]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.38

 

Keywords: Occult Hepatitis B - Haemodialysis -Chronic Hepatitis C- HBsAg- anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HCV antibody- ELISA- PCR.

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On The Exact Solution Of High Even-Order Differential Equation

 

Abdon Atangana 1, Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie 2

 

1 Institute for Groundwater Studies, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences

University of the Free State, 9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa

2.Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: In this work, the homotopy decomposition method (HDM) was applied to derive exact solutions of High even-order differential equation. The reliability of HDM and the reduction in computations give HDM a wider applicability. In all examples, in the limit of infinitely many terms the HDM yields the exact solution. A comparison with the exact solution reveals that HDM is simple, efficient, reliable, and converge very rapidly. In addition, the calculations involved in HDM are very simple and straightforward. It is demonstrated that HDM is a powerful and efficient tool for FPDEs. It was also demonstrated that HDM is more efficient than the Bernstein Galerkin approximation, Bernstein Petrov-Galerkin approximation, Non polynomial spline method, ADM (Adomian decomposition method), VIM (Variational iteration method), HAM (Homotopy analysis method) and HPM (Homotopy perturbation method).

[Atangana A, Oukouomi Noutchie SC. On the Exact Solution of High Even-Order Differential Equation. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):246-252] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.39

 

Keywords: High even-order differential equation; homotopy decomposition method; complexity; advantages.

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Children and Parent’s Physical Activity

 

* Javid Dehghan Haghighi

Faculty Member of Dept. of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

**Maryam Hormozy (Corresponding Author)

 Faculty Member of College of Health Science, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

***Narjes Sargolzaee

Faculty Member of Dept. of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

****Solyman Saravani

Faculty Member of School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran.

*****Mani Javadimehr

Faculty Member of School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

 

Abstract: Regular physical activity is one of the factors that act positively on health. Nowadays, with highly developed multimedia technologies,such as computers and computer games attract children and teens, as a result children tend to have less physical activity. According to the WHO report one of the ten leading causes of death and disability in the world, is sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity. Given the use of television, computers, computer games and the physical activities of children and their parents were studied. This cross-sectional, descriptive,and analytical study was conducted on 120 elementary school students and their parents, in 2012, in Zahedan city, Iran. Information by using a questionnaire about demographic, and children and their parents’ physical activity and children time spent on watching television and using computers, was collected. The results of this study showed that only 43.7 students had regular physical activity, and meanwhile, only 42.7% of fathers and 24.5% mothers had physical activity. In children the average time of watching television per day was 2.5 hours, and mean time of computer use during a day was 1 hour. Consistent with many studies, this study showed that a significant percentage (56.3%) of children aged 7-12 years had no regular exercise program, On average children engaged 2.5 hours in watching television and 1 hour using computers a day..In a similar study it has been reported students spent about 3 hours watching television a day(14). In another study It has been reported that average time engaged by students in watching television and computer games a day and night was 9 hours (15). This is because, based on research it was found about 15% of adolescents in different regions of Iran, due to physical inactivity are affected by overweight and obesity. If such lifestyle continues in future obesity will be a major health problem in teens and high treatment costs will be imposed on individuals and society in this area. In the absence of proper planning problems will be increased in the future. [Javid Dehghan Haghighi, Maryam Hormozy, Narjes Sargolzaee, Solyman Saravani, Mani Javadimehr. Children and Parent’s Physical Activity. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):253-255] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.40

 

Key words: physical activity, children, parents

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Role of Oxidative Stress and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Liver Steatosis with and without Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

 

Olfat M Hendy1, Gehan Hamdy2, MonaHassouna1,Asmaa I Gomaa3, Mohamed S Hashim3, AzzaEl-Sebaye4

 

1Departments of Clinical Pathology, National Liver Institute, Menoufyia University

2Department of Internal Medicine, faculty of Medicine Cairo University

3Department of Hepatology, National Liver Institute, Menoufyia University

4Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

msaadhh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and aims: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate limiting enzyme in heme catabolism and its three by-products have recently received overwhelming research attention because of their anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. Gene expression of HO-1 is upregulated in response to various oxidative stress stimuli. Patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC) appear to modify the production of oxidants which may affect the disease progression. We aimed to assess the level of HO-1 gene expression in the liver tissues in NAFLD patients with and without HCV in an attempt to shed light on its antioxidant potential and whether it has any relation to the disease severity and progression. Patients and methods: The study included 65 patients, 36 of them had CHC and 29 had NAFLD, as well as 20 healthy volunteers as controls. Physical, clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound, anthropometric measurements and liver biopsy were done for all participants. The level of HO-1 gene expression in the liver tissue and peripheral blood was assayed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.). The association between the hepatic HO-1 mRNA expression and its expression in the peripheral blood, GSH, LIC, HOMA index, and the disease severity by means of NAFLD grade and fibrosis stage were assessed. Results: HO-1 mRNA expression in the liver biopsies of NAFLD patients was significantly higher than that of the controls. Patients with CHC showed significantly lower HO-1 mRNA expression than the controls. On comparing the level of expression in both patient groups, significantly higher levels were observed in NAFLD patients. Significant associations have been observed between hepatic HO-1 mRNA expression and its expression in the peripheral blood, GSH, HOMA-IR, LIC, NAFLD grade and fibrosis stage. Conclusion:Steatohepatitis is associated with oxidative stress; the body defence againstit could be the determinant for disease progression. Bearing in mind its protective antioxidant and possible pro-oxidant effect, proper modulation of the HO-1 pathway may provide a new therapeutic approach to arrest further HCV disease evolution.

[Olfat M Hendy, GehanHamdy, Mona Hassouna,Asmaa I Gomaa, Mohamed S Hashim and Azza El-Sebaye. Role of Oxidative Stress and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Liver Steatosis with and without Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):256-266] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 41

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.41

 

Key wards: Heme oxygenase -1, mRNA, NAFLD, Liver cirrhosis, Glutathione.

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Towards an OPNET Modeler Based Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Using Voice over IP Traffic

 

1Michel Mbougni*, 1Zenzo Polite Ncube and 2Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

1Department of Computer Science, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa

2Department of Mathematics, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa

*Corresponding author: Michel Mbougni

Email: 21248435@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract With the increasing use of mobile devices and advances in wireless technologies, Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) has drawn great attention for being part of ubiquitous networks. MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile and/or fixed nodes that can communicate together over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links, and the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. Unlike the conventional network, MANET is decentralized radio wireless network that can be established in situations where no infrastructure exists or where deployment of infrastructure is expensive or inconvenient. As a result, routing protocols play a crucial role in managing the formation, configuration, and maintenance of the topology of the network. There has been an extensive research on performance analysis of routing protocols in MANETs. However, most of the work done on the performance evaluation of routing protocols is done using the Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic. This paper presents the performance analysis of MANETs routing protocols such as Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic. The performance metrics used for the analysis of these routing protocols are delay and throughput. The overall results show that the proactive routing protocol (OLSR) performs better in terms of delay and throughput than the reactive routing protocols AODV, DSR and TORA.

[Michel Mbougni, Zenzo Polite Ncube and Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie. Towards an OPNET Modeler Based Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Using Voice over IP Traffic. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):267-271] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.42

 

Keywords —MANET, routing protocols, VoIP.

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The Role of Education and Wealth in Health Inequalities in Egypt

 

Eman Ahmed Aly Ismail

 

* Lecturer of Demography, High Institute of Managerial, Sciences- 6th of October City, Egypt

eaismail@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Overall, youth is normally characterized by low level of disease and death. However, it can also be a time of risk and poor health particularly when associated with income distribution and disadvantaged social circumstances. This paper addresses both educational attainment and wealth index as determinants of young people`s health in Egypt. However, the paper examined them separately to try establishing which effect is more important. This paper is used the "Survey of young people in Egypt (SYPE), 2010 data, and focused on young people at two age groups (15 – 21) and (22 -29). One of the most commonly used methods in measuring social inequalities in health is odds ratio which is used in this paper. Two health indicators were used, self-rated health and self-reporting questionnaire. The results show that male education has a large impact on both health indicators than female education. The highest two wealth quintiles had lowest prevalence of poor health among females more than males. On the other hand, the highest two wealth quintiles had the least prevalence of mental disorders among males more than females.

 [Eman Ahmed Aly Ismail. The Role of Education and Wealth in Health Inequalities in Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):272-179] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.43

 

Keyword: Health inequality, social class, education, wealth, youth, Egypt

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Prevalence of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Students in Jeddah city, KSA 

 

Moayyad Homidi1; Yahia Obaidat1; Diala Hamaidi2

 

1Special Education Department, Faculty of Education, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

2Curriculum and Instruction Department, Faculty Education, The University of Jordan, Jordan

mahmaidi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the spread of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as its subtypes, in a sample of primary school children in Jeddah, KSA. The implemented tool was the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Scale. This instrument was administered to 2770 students with a range of 6-12 years. The findings of the study reveal that the prevalence of ADHD was estimated to be 11.6%. The subtypes results indicate: a prevalence of 6.3% for ADD, a prevalence of 2.2% for HD. The third type that is the combined hyperactive/ impulsive and inattentive type of ADHD has a prevalence of 3.1%. The results show that there is a difference between ADHD prevalence among elementary school children due to the difference in age. Furthermore, the total prevalence percentage of ADHD for female students was (4.2%). The total prevalence percentage of ADHD for male students was (7.4%).

[Moayyad Homidi; Yahia Obaidat and Diala Hamaidi. Prevalence of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Students in Jeddah city, KSA. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):280-285]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.44

 

Keywords: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Children, KSA, Prevalence, Primary Students.

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Impact of Substation Automation System on 110 kV Protection and Control Schemes

 

A. H. Almasoud & Khalid Mohammed Omar Al Masmoum

 

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Email: amasoud@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Transmission substations are important parts of the infrastructure of power system networks. These substations have grown extensively over the past few years and become large and complex. The complexity is due to key factors such as the protection and control process, which is connected through hundreds or thousands of copper wires, and reflects considerable increases in project size and maintenance costs. Such systems must be based on an international communication standard supporting the application domain in terms of specific requirements according to the substation lifecycle. For many years, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has been developing the IEC 61850 standard for substation automation, “Communication Networks and System in Substations.” Its impact on control and protection schemes has been considerable, and the need for laying large numbers of copper wires has been minimized, thus bringing large cost reductions. In this paper, we explore substation automation systems (SASs) and compare the costs of SAS-based substations and traditional substations.

[A.H. Almasoud & Khalid Mohammed Omar Al Masmoum. Impact of Substation Automation System on 110 kV Protection and Control Schemes. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):286-291] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.45

 

Keywords: Substation Automation, IEC 61850, Cost Saving, Program.\

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Growth Pattern of Retail Industry: Current Retail Scenario in India

 

Dr. Divya Rana and Dr. Amal Mohammed Sheikh Damanhouri

 

Department of Business Administration, FEA, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

ranadivya84@gmail.com, nmshd@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Over the last few years Indian retail has witnessed rapid transformation in many areas of the business by setting scalable and profitable retail models across categories. Indian consumers are rapidly evolving and accepting modern retail formats. There is a new sense of confidence in Indian business. Faced with fast saturating western markets they are beginning to recognize the Indian consumer mass as the world’s most probable unexplored area. The 2nd fastest growing economy in the world, the 3rd largest economy in terms of GDP in the next 5 years and the 4th largest economy in PPP terms after USA, China and Japan, India is rated among the top 10 FDI destinations, a country with the largest young population in over 867 million people below 45 years of age, more than 50 percent population under the age of 25 years, US$ 130 billion investment plans in infrastructure in next 5 years. Alongside the population growth and its composition (expected to cross China by 2050 and 60 percent of population still below 25 years of age) were also found to attract foreign retailers towards Indian markets. It has made India the cause of a good deal of excitement and the cynosure of many foreign eyes. The results of this study have several implications that should be of benefit to domestic and international investors in the Indian retail industry, and Indian shopping mall’s management teams. The results may also help the present and future food processors and retail outlet owners to understand a diversified set of preferences for products and market attributes, so that they can make better decisions in the emerging organized food and grocery retail environment of urban Indian and also there is a need to spread their business like this in which one can choose the best for them.

[Divya Rana and Amal Mohammed Sheikh Damanhouri. Growth Pattern of Retail Industry: Current Retail Scenario in India. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):292-297] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.46

 

Keywords: Retail Growth; Organized Retailing; Store Choice; Indian Retail; Foreign retailers.

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A q-state clock-like phase transition in a coupled XY model

 

Chia-Chi Shih1,*, Ching-Hsing Pei2, Kai-Huang Chen3, Chien-Min Cheng2

 

1 General Education Center, Tung Fang Design Institute, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

2Department of Electronic Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan City, Taiwan

3 Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, TungFang Design Institute, Kaohsiung City

shih560506@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study adopts the Monte Carlo simulation method to investigate a coupled XY model on two-dimensional triangular lattices. The simulation reveals a q-state clock-like phase transition in addition to the original XY phase transition. Analyzing the spin histograms exposes that the strong on-site coupling tends to lock the difference between the phase variables of the two XY order parameters and generates an additional phase transition. The novel discrete q-state symmetry arising from the coupling term is demonstrated to joint the continuous symmetry of the model in this investigation.

[Chia-Chi Shih, Ching-Hsing Pei, Kai-Huang Chen, Chien-Min Cheng. A q-state clock-like phase transition in a coupled XY model. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):298-302] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 47

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.47

 

Keywords: KT transition, coupled XY model, q-state clock model

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Solution of Economic Lot Scheduling Problem: A Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Approach

 

Syed HasanAdil1, Syed Saad Azhar Ali2, Aarij Hussaan1, Kamran Raza1

 

1.Department of Computer Science, 2.Department of Electronic Engineering, Iqra University,

Main Campus: Defence View, Shaheed-e-Millat Road (Ext.) Karachi-75500, Pakistan

hasan.adil@iqra.edu.pk

 

Abstract: In this paper we suggest a hybridization scheme to solve Economic Lot Scheduling Problem (ELSP) using basic period approach. We proposed a hybrid approach based on Tabu Search (TS) optimization to find the optimum value of ki’s and Golden Section Search (GSS) with parabolic interpolation to find the optimum value of basic period T. The proposed hybridized scheme is compared with the best known Genetic Algorithm (GA) [4] on Bomberger’s dataset [1]. This hybrid approach is found competitive and efficient in solving Economic Lot Scheduling Problem and outperform the Genetic Algorithm on problems with higher machine utilization.

[Adil SH, Ali SSA, Hussaan A, Raza K. Solution of Economic Lot Scheduling Problem: A Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Approach. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):303-309] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.48

 

Keywords: Economic Lot Scheduling Problem; Basic Period Approach; Tabu Search; Golden Section Search.

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The p-Metric Space of c2 Defined by Musielak

 

S. Velmurugan1, N. Saivaraju2, and N. Subramanian3

 

1,2Department of Mathematics, Shri Angalamman college of Engineering and Tech, Trichy, India-621 105.

3Department of Mathematics, Sastra Univversity, Thanjavur, India-613 401.

1ksvelmurugan.09@gmail.com, 2saivaraju@yahoo.com, 3nsmaths@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present paper we introduce the p-metric space of c2 multiplier defined by a Musielak modulus function. We study some topological properties and prove some inclusion relations between these spaces. Lindenstrauss and Tzafriri [5] used the idea of Orlicz function to define the sequence space lM which is called an Orlicz sequence space. Another generalization of Orlicz sequence spaces is due to Woo [31].

[S. Velmurugan, N. Saivaraju, and N. Subramanian. The p-Metric Space of c2 Defined by Musielak. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):310-317] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.49

 

Key words and phrases: analytic sequence, modulus function, double sequences, c2 space, difference sequence space, Musielak – modulus function, p– metric space, duals.

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Unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) For Intelligent Pheromone up Gradation. Further Evolution of Neural Augmented Ant Colony Optimization (NaACO)

 

Muhammad Umer1, Dr. Riaz Ahmad2, Dr. Imran Chaudhry3

 

All with School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (SMME), National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

muhammad.umer@smme.nust.edu.pk1, drresearch@nust.edu.pk2,

imranchaudhry-cae@nust.edu.pk3

 

Abstract: The pheromone up gradation potential of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) provides this meta-heuristic ability to reconsider, revaluate and revamp the already derived conclusions and results. In the recent path various attempts have been made to come up with novel implementation plans in which this facet of ACO has been addressed extensively. This research paper takes Pheromone Up gradation as a construct and hence tries to inculcate an intelligent aspect into the basic technique. The unsupervised Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been incorporated to give intelligence to pheromone up gradation phase. The technique thus developed has its roots in combining the strengths of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and the extra ordinary convergence capabilities of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) thus formulating NaACO (Neural Augmented ACO). This paper applies the newly formulated technique on a set of hundred problems related to worker assignment in scheduling environments...The results have been formulated and areas of future research have also been indicated.

[Muhammad Umer, Riaz Ahmad, Imran Chaudhry. Unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) For Intelligent Pheromone up Gradation. Further Evolution of Neural Augmented Ant Colony Optimization (NaACO). Life Sci J 2013;10(3):318-327] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.50

 

Keywords: Pheromone update; Neural Augmented Ant Colony Optimization (NaACO); Unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

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Determining the relationship between science and technology development indicators in private sector industries of Iran via path analysis based on cooperative game theory

 

Mostafa Jafari1, Majid Tootooni2* (Corresponding author), Kamran Shahanaghi3

 

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran

2Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran

3Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran

M_tootooni@iust.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This paper reviews the interactive relationship between science and technology performance indicators used by Iran private sector industry based on balanced scorecard approach, using a combination of path analysis and game theory. There are four dimensions to the evaluation of support provided by development organizations in the Iran Ministry of Industries and Mines to empower the private sector in domains of science and technology based on the scorecard approach. In the first step, evaluation indices were derived based on field studies, and accordingly bilateral questionnaires were developed. These Indicators were grouped into some categories, named strategic issues of that field, followed by the assessment of correlation between them. Next, relationships between these issues were examined by means of the concept of game theory in the form of a multi-factorial structure, and ultimately, executive paths were determined based on priorities to achieve desired goals and objectives. In this study, the concept of scenario building has been analyzed for the first time based on the concept of game theory by means of Shapely value in order to draw effective cause and effect relationships in the form of path analysis process. This study may help managers understand the management of key indicators of success and identify critical paths and the way to deal with critical situations. Ultimately, the calculated results were compared with the results of path analysis using regression analysis and expert opinion to show the closeness of criteria importance between this new approach and the regression method.

[Mostafa Jafari, Majid Tootooni, Kamran Shahanaghi. Determining the relationship between science and technology development indicators in private sector industries of Iran via path analysis based on cooperative game theory. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):328-338] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.51

 

Keywords: balanced scorecard, cooperative game theory, science and technology, path analysis, Shapely value

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A Method for identifying loops in a Workflow using Petri Nets

 

V.R. Kavitha1, N. Suresh Kumar2

 

1. MCA Department, Velammal College of Engineering and Technology, Madurai, India, 625009.

2 Principal, Velammal College of Engineering and Technology, Madurai, India, 625009

kavi_mani14@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the current scenario most of the organizations adopt Business Process Modeling Techniques to represent their Workflow. The process model for the Workflow involves multiple organizations and multiple departments. Decision making will be done by more than one person; this will lead to increase in Workflow complexity. Proper modeling is needed for efficient business decision making. Workflow complexity depicts the presence of loops of any length. Most of the existing algorithms check the loops which is having the length of 1 or 2. The new algorithm featured in this work which automatically checks the boundedness of Workflow by identifying the presence of loops having any length in the Workflow. The algorithm works in two stages. First, it checks for loop-less Workflow. If the first stage detects the presence of loops, then in the second stage, individual loops are identified and proper remedial measures are taken to modify the original Workflow which ensures boundedness.

[V.R. Kavitha, N. Suresh Kumar. A Method for identifying loops in a Workflow using Petri Nets. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):339-343] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.52

 

Keywords: Boundedness; Petri Nets; Workflow

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On the Solutions of Some Systems of Second Order Rational Difference Equations

 

M. Alghamdi1, E. M. Elsayed1,2 and M. M. El-Dessoky1,2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

E-mail: Proff-malghamdi@hotmail.com, emmelsayed@yahoo.com, dessokym@mans.edu.eg.

 

Abstract: In this paper we deal with the form of the solutions of some systems of rational difference equations of order two with a nonzero real numbers initial conditions.

[Alghamdi M, Elsayed EM, El-Dessoky, MM. On the Solutions of Some Systems of Second Order Rational Difference Equations. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):344-351] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.53

 

Keywords: recursive sequence, periodic solutions, system of difference equations.

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Sustainable Resources of Corals for the Restoration of Damaged Coral Reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

 

Fuad A. Al-Horani

 

The University of Jordan-Aqaba Branch, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Dept. of Marine Biology

P. O. Box 2595, Aqaba 77110, Jordan, Tel.: +962-3-2090450- ext. 35072, Fax: +962-3-2090460

E-mail: f.horani@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: During the past decade, the coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba have suffered from continued deterioration as a result of coastal human activities. For restoration of damaged coral reefs, it is important to have continuous supply of corals without causing impairment to the natural reef environment. In the present study, suspended and bottom based coral nurseries were established in situ for the production of large numbers of selected coral species. After one year, the coral nurseries produced colonies that are suitable for transplantation. The corals grown on the nurseries were produced by asexual reproduction through fragmentation. This method improves the status of endangered and/or rare coral species through mass production of colonies originating from the same mother colony. Parallel to this, settlement devices were constructed and deployed in the sea to allow for settling of swimming larvae in the reef. The settlement devices recruited diverse number of settling reef organisms, which helps enhance the biological diversity in the damaged reef areas. Based on the results obtained, it was suggested that the coral nurseries and the settlement devices are efficient tools for providing sustainable resources of corals for use in reef restoration. It is highly recommended to have a combination of both techniques when restoration of coral reefs is considered.

[Fuad A. Al-Horani. Sustainable Resources of Corals for the Restoration of Damaged Coral Reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):352-360] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.54

 

Key words: Coral Reefs, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Restoration, Coral Nurseries, Settlement Devices

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Discussing the Existence of the Solutions and Their Dynamics of some Difference Equations

 

H. El-Metwally1,3, R. Alsaedi1 and E. M. Elsayed2,3

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Rabigh College of Science and Art, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 344, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia.

2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

3. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

E-mail: helmetwally2001@yahoo.com, ramzialsaedi@yahoo.co.uk, emmelsayed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we care about the existence and study some qualitative properties of solutions to the following rational nonlinear difference equation  where b and c are real numbers, k is a non-negative integer number and the initial conditions x-3k-2, x-3k-1,…, x-1, x0 are arbitrary non-negative real numbers. Also, we derive the solutions of some special cases of the equation under consideration.

[El-Metwally H, Alsaedi R, Elsayed, EM. Discussing the Existence of the Solutions and Their Dynamics of some Difference Equations. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):361-370] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.55

 

Keywords: recursive sequence, stability, boundedness, periodicity, solutions of difference equations.

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Value of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Nitric Oxide and Endostatin Measurement in Follow up of Cancer Breast Patients

 

Khadiga A. Abdel-Mageed(1)., Mostafa A. Abdel-Azez(2), Hesham A. Abdel-Baset(1), Omnia A. Mohammed(1), Madeeha Y. Bakheet(1), Ebtsam F. Mohammed((1), Heba A. Abdel-Hafeez(1), Amal M. Abdel-Aal(1), Asma M. Hamed(1).

 

Departments of Clinical Pathology (1) and General Surgery (2), Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background & aim: Angiogenesis is an essential early requirement for both tumor growth and dissemination. This study was designed to measure plasma levels of angiogenesis promoters; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) & nitric oxide (NO) and the angiogenesis inhibitor; endostatin (ES) in patients with cancer breast; preoperative, four weeks after operation and after the end of chemo-radio therapy to evaluate their role in follow up of breast cancer. Also, we aimed to study the correlation between hormonal receptor states of the tumor and these parameters. Patients and methods: This study was performed on twenty two female patients with second stage cancer breast and eighteen apparently healthy females as controls. Both patients and controls were classified according to the menopausal state into pre-menopausal (nine patients and nine controls) and postmenopausal (thirteen patients and nine controls). Patients were sub grouped according to the time of operation and treatment into; preoperative, postoperative and after-treatment groups. All patients and controls were subjected to full clinical examination, chest X-ray, mammography & abdominal ultrasound examination. Bone scan was done for patients only. Histopathological types and assessment of estrogen and progesterone receptors status were done for all sample slides. Routine laboratory investigations and plasma VEGF, NO and endostatin were estimated for all patients and controls. The previous clinical and laboratory investigations were done for all patients during the follow up period. Results: Plasma VEGF, NO and ES levels were significantly elevated in both preoperative groups of patients (pre- and post-menopausal) compared to their respective controls. Postoperatively, plasma levels of VEGF and NO were significantly reduced in pre- and post-menopausal patients compared to their preoperative levels respectively. Whereas, compared to control groups, plasma VEGF levels were significantly elevated in both pre- and post-menopausal patients while NO showed significant elevation only in post-menopausal patients. ES levels showed significant elevation in pre- and post-menopausal patients compared to their respective preoperative and control levels. After chemo-radiotherapy, plasma levels of VEGF in pre- and post-menopausal patients were significantly reduced compared to their respective postoperative levels. However, its level in postmenopausal patients was significantly higher when compared to its respective control level. NO levels showed insignificant difference in pre- and post-menopausal patients compared to their respective postoperative levels but, when compared to control groups, it showed significant elevation. Endostatin levels were reduced in pre- and post-menopausal patients compared to postoperative levels but, its reduction was significant only in postmenopausal group. Compared to control groups, ES levels in both pre- and post-menopausal patients still had significantly elevated levels. There was significant positive correlation between preoperative levels of VEGF and both ES & NO. Also, significant positive correlation was found between preoperative NO and ES levels. Moreover, plasma VEGF level showed significant positive correlation with NO level in postoperative group, and significant negative correlations with ES levels in both postoperative and after-treatment groups. Postoperative VEGF level revealed significant elevation in estrogen receptor (ER) & progesterone receptor (PR) positive patients compared to ER & PR negative patients Conclusion: Elevated levels of VEGF and NO after the end of chemotherapy necessitate the addition of anti-angiogenic therapy which would also be beneficial for cases positive for ER and PR to prevent development of hormonal resistance. High endostatin level may be considered a good prognostic marker after completion of therapy in breast cancer patients.

[Khadiga A. Abdel-Mageed, Mostafa A. Abdel-Azez, Hesham A. Abdel-Baset, Omnia A. Mohammed, Madeeha Y. Bakheet, Ebtsam F. Mohammed, Heba A. Abdel-Hafeez, Amal M. Abdel-Aal, Asma M. Hamed. Value of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Nitric Oxide & Endostatin Measurement in follow up of Cancer Breast Patients. Life Sci. J 2013;10(3):371-378]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.56

 

Keywords:Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Nitric Oxide, Endostatin, Cancer breast, angiogenesis

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Mothers versus Pediatric Nurses’ Attitude Regarding Mothers’ Presence during Invasive Nursing Procedures for Their Hospitalized Children

 

Afkar Ragab Mohammed1; Soheir Abd-RabouMohammed1 and Laila Younis Abu Salem2

 

1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Cairo University

2 Lecturer of Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Mansoura University

afkar_ragab@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Mothers’ presence with the hospitalized child fulfills most the child’s basic needs. Sensitive and emotionally available mother during hospitalization increases her confidence and helps the child to be calmer and to form a secure attachment style which fosters a child's socio-emotional development and well-being. The aim of the present study has two folds; to assess the mothers and nurses’ attitude toward mothers’ presence during invasive nursing procedures; and to detect the differences between mothers and nurses attitude. A descriptive comparative research design was utilized to fit the aim of the study. A convenient sample of 100 pediatric nurses and 100 mothers of hospitalized children were participated in the study. The study was conducted in medical and surgical wards at Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital. Data were collected by a structured interview schedule developed by the researchers; it involved questions pertinent to nurses’ sociodemographic and professional data, data related to mothers and their children, as well as mothers and pediatric nurses’ attitude questionnaire. The results revealed that, the highest percentage of both mothers and pediatric nurses reported positive attitude towards mothers’ presence during invasive nursing procedures for their hospitalized children. Apparently, the mothers had less positive attitude than pediatric nurses. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between the mothers and pediatric nursing attitude concerning the presence of mothers with their hospitalized children during invasive nursing procedures. The study recommended that, mothers should be offered the option to be present with their child during medical and nursing procedures and offered support before, during, and after the procedure.

[Afkar Ragab Mohammed; Soheir Abd-Rabou Mohammed and Laila Younis Abu Salem. Mothers Versus Pediatric Nurses’ Attitude Regarding Mothers’ Presence during Invasive Nursing Procedures for Their Hospitalized Children. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):379-388]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.57

 

Keywords: Invasive nursing procedures-Mothers\ pediatric nurses' attitude- Hospitalized children

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Effect of Nitrogen Sources, Bio-Fertilizers and Their Interaction on the Growth, Seed Yield and Chemical Composition of Guar Plants

 

Ahmed S.H. Gendy1, Hussein A.H. Said-Al Ahl, 2* Abeer A. Mahmoud3 and Hanaa F. Y. Mohamed3

 

1HorticultureDepartment, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

2 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3Botany Department (Plant Physiology Section), Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. Egypt

* saidalahl@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during two successive seasons, 2011 and 2012 aiming to study the effect of utilizing different sources of nitrogen (ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 or ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 with or without adding bio-fertilizers (biogein at 2 kg/fed., nitrobein at 2 kg /fed., or biogen at 1 kg /fed., + nitrobein at 1 kg /fed.) as well as their interaction on the plant growth, seed yield, total protein and total guaran content in seeds as well as some chemical contents in leaves. Results revealed that different sources of nitrogen or bio-fertilizers increased the growth parameters; i.e., plant height, number of branches per plant and dry weight of aerial part and leaves per plant, as well as number of pods/plant, weight of seeds (gm/ plant or kg/ fad.), and chemical constituents such as guaran content, total chlorophyll (a+b), total carbohydrate, total protein and N, P, K compared to untreated plants. Fertilizing plants with ammonium sulphate wasthe most effective in raising the productivity of seeds and the content and yield of guaran and chemical composition than ammonium nitrate.Treating plants by bio-fertilizer (mixture of biogein+nitrobein) was the most effective in this concern followed by nitrobein and then biogein. The interaction treatment of ammonium sulphate at 60 kg N/fad + bio-fertilizer (biogein at 1 kg/fed + nitrobein at 1 kg/fed.) gave the best result in this concern with significant differences if compared to the control and the other treatments under study in both seasons.

[Ahmed S.H. Gendy, Hussein A.H. Said-Al Ahl, Abeer A. Mahmoud and Hanaa F. Y. Mohamed. Effect of Some Nitrogen Sources, Bio-Fertilizers and Their Interaction on the Growth, Seed Yield and Chemical Composition of Guar Plants. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):389-402] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.58

 

Keywords:Nitrogen sources;Bio-fertilizers;Growth;Yield;Guaran and Chemical composition; Guar

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Autologous Conjunctival Autograftversus Intraoperative Mitomycin C In Surgery Of Primary Pterygium

 

Mohammed Iqbal Hafez

 

Ophthalmology Department, Faculty Of Medicine, Sohag University Hospital

dr_m_iqbal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To compare the one-year outcome of primary pterygium excision using intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC) versus the results of suturing a free conjunctivalautograft (CA). Methods: A total of 73 eyes with nasal primary pterygium of 73 patients were included in the study. After randomization into two groups, the eyes were operated on by a single surgeon. After excision of the pterygium, 35 eyes received 0.04% MMC intraoperatively on the bare sclera for 3 min and 38eyes received a free CA sutured using 7-0 Vicryl. Postoperative follow-up was 1 year. Main outcome measures were recurrences, re-operations, surgery time, complications, visual acuity and astigmatism. Results: The recurrence rate was 14/35 eyes (40%) in the MMC group and 2/38 eyes (5.3%) in the CA group (p< 0.05). The re-operation rate of the recurrences was 57.1% in the MMC group and 50 % in the CA group. Average surgery time was13 minutes (range: 6–22 min) in the MMC group and 46 min (range: 28–60 min) in the CA group (p< 0.01). There was no significant change in best corrected visual acuity and astigmatism. The most frequently observed complication was delayed epithelial healing (40%) and mild scleral thinning (20%) in the MMC group and suture-related inflammation in the CA group (10%).Conclusion: Pterygium surgery including free autologous conjunctival grafting is associated with fewer recurrences, re-operations and complications than using the bare sclera technique together with single-dose intraoperative MMC.

[Mohammed Iqbal Hafez. Autologous Conjunctival Autograftversus Intraoperative Mitomycin C In Surgery Of Primary Pterygium. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):403-408] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.59

 

Keywords: pterygium, Autologous; Conjunctival; Surgery

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Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) Reactor as a Novel Post Treatment System for Municipal Wastewater

 

Abdou Saad El-Tabl1, RifaatAbed Wahaab2 and Sara Mohamed Younes1

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University,ShebinElKom, Egypt

2National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

asaeltabl@yahoo.com, ch_sara2011@yahoo.com, rawahaab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Substantial sustainability integrates social, environmental, economic and institutionalaspects, and extends the scope of planning to distant regions and future generations. Inspite of unprecedented advancement in technology and urbanization across the world, a vast number of developing countries are lagging behind in providing basic sanitation and adequate water supply to the people. The present day speedy socioeconomic development of humanity has most vigorously stimulated the change in nature. Technological advancement, if on one hand has bettered the life of humans on this planet; on the other hand it has sharply intensified the pollution in environment. The energy and in view of a huge contamination of municipal wastewater, new technology of processing DHS reactor used to municipal wastewater treatment. The results obtained were compared with traditional activated sludge treatment plant. As far as, the experimental data showed that,97% (190-5.0mg/l) decrease in the total suspended solid in the primary effluent, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 96.4% (230-7.0 mg O2 / l), total biological oxygen demand 97.27% (180-4.0mg/l) and total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) 76% (4.3-1.0mg N/l) respectively.

[Abdou Saad El-Tabl, Rifaat Abed Wahaab and Sara Mohamed Younes. Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) Reactor as a Novel Post Treatment System for Municipal Wastewater. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):409-414] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60.doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.60

 

Key words: DHS, chemical measurements, post treatment, traditional activated sludge, tertiary treatment, municipal wastewater.

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One Stage Treatment of Open Proximal Tibia Fractures by Minimally Invasive Technique Using Locked Plate

 

1Ahmed Hashem Amin and 2Ahmed Saleh Shaker

 

1Orthopedic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Orthopedic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

hashmdr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: This prospective study was performed to evaluate the results of treating open proximal tibia fractures by locked plate as one stage technique. Methods: Twelve patients (9 males and 3 females), the mean age was 38 years, with acute open proximal tibia fractures were treated by aggressive debridement, irrigation and primary definitive fixation by preshaped anatomical locked plate. There were six patients type A, four patients type B3 and two patients type C2 according to AO/OTA classification. There were eight patients type III and four patients type II open fractures according to Gustilo and Anderson classification. Results: All patients were followed clinically and radiologically with a mean of 16.5 months. All fractures united at a mean of 24 weeks. Knee motion ranged from a mean of 1° (range, 0°-5°) to 110° of flexion (range, 100°-140°). There were only two patients with superficial infection, no deep infection developed. At final follow –up ten patients had excellent results and two patients had good results. Conclusion: The use of this method for the treatment of open proximal tibia fractures had promising results. However this technique is not generally used and it needs more clinical work to evaluate its results.

[Ahmed Hashem Amin and Ahmed Saleh Shaker. One Stage Treatment of Open Proximal Tibia Fractures by Minimally Invasive Technique Using Locked Plate. Life Sci. J 2013;10(3):415-421]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.61

 

Keywords: Open proximal tibia fractures, minimal invasive, locked plate.

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Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in cardiac ischemia preconditioning in mice

 

Xiao-Mei Lu, Li-Li Du, Ling Ma, Yu-Nan Jin

 

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, ShenYang, 110001, China. luxmei@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: objective: Several studies have demonstrated the role of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase in cardiac ischemia preconditioning (IPC). However, the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in IPC is still controversial; the present study was designed to explore the possible involvement of nNOS in cardiac IPC. Methods: nNOS-/- knockout (KO) and wild type C57 (WT) mice were subjected to 45 minutes of ischemia by left descending branch of coronary artery ligation followed 3 hours reperfusion. IPC was induced by 3 cycles of 5 minutes ischemia and reperfusion before 30 minutes ischemia. After 3 hours reperfusion, which plasma was collected for creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nickend labeling (TUNEL) staining and and measurements of activities of caspase-3, -8, -9, phospho-p38, -ERK, -JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Results: IR induced cardiac tissue apoptosis by increases of TUNEL staining and activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9, accompanied with increase of CK and LDH concentration and phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPK in both mouse strains. IPC protected cardiac tissue from apoptosis by reducing TUNEL staining and activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9, with activation of p38 MAPK. However, reduction of TUNEL staining and activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 was disappeared in KO mice accompanied with no activation of p38 MAPK. Conclusions: The data obtained suggest that nNOS mediates IPC-induced protection, maybe involved p38 MAPK activation.

[Xiao-Mei L, Li-Li D, Ling M, Yu-Nan J. Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in cardiac ischemia preconditioning in mice. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):422-426] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.62

 

Keywords: ischemia preconditioning; neuronal nitric oxide synthase; mitogen-activated protein kinase

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The Effects of Standardized Water Accounting: Evidence from the Water Accounting Standards in Australia

 

Hui Hu 1, Yanyang Jiang 2, Qian Jin 3, Jesmin Islam 4

 

1. Economics and Management School, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, P.R. China

2. College of Society, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079, P.R. China

3. School of Tourism, Xi’an International Studies University, Xi’an, Shanxi, 710128, P.R. China

4. Faculty of Business, Government and Law, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia

E-mail: jinqian@xisu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: The Water Accounting Standards Board was formed in 2009 to implement a sustainable water usage plan for Australia. The Board, which is the national water accounting standard setter of whole Australia, has made the definition of water accounting. The present study discusses the Australian government’s decision to create the Board in terms of public interest and stakeholder theories. We also discuss whether the Water Accounting Standards Board is effective and how to make it more effective. It can be concluded that the theoretical perspectives of public interest theory and stakeholder theory are important in developing and encouraging the usage of a water reporting standard. In addition, the theoretical perspectives of public interest theory and legitimacy theory are also vital in determining effectiveness of the standard. Finally, the theoretical perspective of capture theory is critical in highlighting the threat of what would happen if the Board became controlled by the related businesses.

[Hu H, Jiang Y, Jin Q, Islam J. The Effects of Standardized Water Accounting: Evidence from the Water Accounting Standards in Australia. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):427-432] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.63

 

Keywords: Water accounting; standards; public interest; stakeholder theory; legitimacy theory; environmental issues; Australia

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Screening for depressive symptoms and their associated risk factors in adolescent students in South Sinai, Egypt

 

Ebtissam M.Salah1, Gamal A.Yamamah2, Hala S. Megahed1, Samar E. Salem1,Tarek M. Salah El-din1 and

 Abla G. Khalifa1

 

1Child Health Department, Medical Division, National Research Centre, Egypt.

2 Paediatrics Department, Medical Division, National Research Centre, Egypt.

Ebtissam2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Adolescents - one quarter of Egyptian population - often face considerable challenges and dilemmas. They hesitate to disclose their feelings to their parents and rarely seek psychiatric help. In Sinai these challenges are aggravated by the unique quality of life and ecological problems. Objective: To explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and depression associated risk factors in preparatory and secondary school students in South Sinai. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study included 546 male and female students, randomly recruited from preparatory and secondary public schools in South Sinai. Five cities were selected to include Bedouin and Urban students. Self-report questionnaires were applied to all subjects including socio-demographic characteristics, depression risk factors, Paediatric Symptom Checklist—Youth Report (Y-PSC), and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). Results: The total sample mean score of CES-DC was 16.4 + 9.3, for females the mean score was 18.7 + 10.1, for males it was 14.4 ±8.0. Using the cut-off score of CES-DC, 41.9% of the students had important indications of depressive symptoms. There was no significant statistical difference between means of the CES-DC score of students in preparatory and secondary stages. There was a statistically significant predominance of females above the cut-off score compared to males (49.8% versus 35.1%). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that factors associated with depressive disorders were: being female (OR =1.64); Self-perception of weight as obese (OR = 2.3), presence of symptoms of psychosocial disorders (OR =3.88), having a chronic disease or a serious injury during the last year (OR = 2.28) and involved in physical activity for <60 min. /day (OR = 1.6).Conclusion: These results suggest that adolescent students in South Sinai have a high rate of depressive symptoms, with a clear predominance of females over males. Psychosocial disorders and health related variables were associated with symptoms of depression in this population. These findings suggest that it is important to include mental health assessment in School Health Programs for early detection of mental disorders and student counseling.

[Ebtissam M. Salah, Gamal A. Yamamah, Hala S. Megahed, Samar E. Salem, Tarek M. Salah El-din and Abla G. Khalifa. Screening for depressive symptoms and their associated risk factors in adolescent students in South Sinai, Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):433-443] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.64

 

Key words: Depressive symptoms, adolescents, mental health, screening tools, risk factors.

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Isolation of Group B Streptococcus in groundwater in the North West Province, South Africa

 

Masego Moloantoa, Collins Njie Ateba

 

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, North-West University – Mafikeng Campus, P. Bag X2046 Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

atebacollins1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The normal hosts of Streptococcus agalactiae are humans and animals and are highly predominant as normal flora in the female genital tract, male urethra, pharynx as well as in gastrointestinal tract. However, Streptococcus agalactiae has been associated with a number of complications in humans ranging septicaemia, pneumonia, meningitis to still birth. The aim of study was to isolate and characterize antibiotic resistant Streptococcus agalactiae from groundwater in selected areas within the Northwest Province. A total of 25 groundwater samples were randomly collected from selected areas around the Northwest Province. Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar was used to isolate Streptococcus species. Standard preliminary tests (Gram staining and catalase test) and confirmatory tests (Prolex™ Streptococcal Grouping Rapid Latex Agglutination test kit) were used to determine the identities of Streptococcus agalactiae. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined on all positively identified Streptococcus agalactiae. A large proportion (52.5% to 87.5%) of the isolates from Dibate, Ramosadi, Vryburg and Motlhabeng and only 35% of those from Taung were Gram positive cocci. All the isolates from the different sampling stations were catalase negative. Similarly, all the isolates from Taung, Vryburg, Motlhabeng, Stella and Setlagole were oxidase negative. Large proportions (50% to 90%) of the isolates tested were positively identified using the latex agglutination test. A large proportion (71 -100%) of isolates from Taung, Setlagole, Stella and Motlhabeng were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin. Moreover, all the isolates from Stella and Taung were resistant to vancomycin and tetracycline. Despite the fact that a large proportion (75%) of the isolates from Taung were resistant to chloramphenicol, only a small proportion (23% to 37.5%) of the isolates from Stella, Setlagole and Dibate were resistant to this antibiotic. However, none of the isolates from Stella and Setlagole were resistant to clarithromycin. A large proportion (84.6% to 100%) of the isolates from Dibate, Motlabeng and Ramosadi were resistant to erythromycin and clarithromycin.

 [Moloantoa M, Ateba CN. Isolation of Group B Streptococcus in groundwater in the North West Province, South Africa. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):444-449] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.65

 

Keywords: Streptococcus agalactiae; groundwater; antibiotic resistance; clarithromycin

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Renal diseases and Ramadan: A review of the literature

 

Inass Taha

 

 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Madina Saudi Arabia

inasstaha@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background & Aim: Changes in the dietary pattern and the timing of medications during the Ramadan fast could influence the outcomes of renal diseases in fasting patients. The aim of this study was to review the literatureon the effects of fasting during Ramadan on kidney diseases. Methods: Citations were extracted from PubMed and the Medline database from 1991 through 2013using the keywords “renal diseases”, “Ramadan” and “fasting”. The First International Congress on Ramadan and Health was also reviewed. Results: High temperatures, rather than Ramadan fasting, appear to be a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. Ramadan fasting may be injurious to renal tubules in pre-dialysis patients withchronic kidney disease (CKD), but the patients on peritoneal dialysis did not experience any serious complications from fasting. Fasting on non–hemodialysis days may expose patients to weight gain and hyperkalemia with no significant acute complications. The hyperkalemia reported by ESRD patients during fasting was not significant and could be due to insulinopenia and a defective response to epinephrine. Fasting for Ramadan does not appear to adversely affect graft function or increase rejection ratesamong thekidney transplant recipients who have had stable graft function for 1y. Conclusion: There was not enough evidence to suggest that fasting has harmful effects on patients with renal disease or renal transplantation. Most patients with stable renal diseases or a functioning transplant can fast without experiencing significant deterioration in renal function. The patients with CKD with or without dialysis are at risk of hyperkalemia while fasting, especially if they have diabetes. Therefore, CKD patients should be meticulously followed during Ramadan, adhere to a proper diet, continue taking medications and receiving dialysis; they should stop fasting if any deterioration occurs.

[Inass Taha. Renal diseases and Ramadan: A review of the literature. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):450-458] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.66

 

Keywords:Renal diseases, Ramadan, fasting.

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Homotopy Decomposition Analysis of a Tuberculosis Model

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Homotopy Decomposition Method (HDM) is used to analyze both integer and non-integer systems of nonlinear differential equations describing tuberculosis dynamics. We use numerical examples to illustrate the technique and perform some simulations. In particular we show that the approximate solutions are continuous functions of the non-integer order derivative.

[Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. Homotopy Decomposition Analysis of a Tuberculosis Model. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):459-465] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.67

 

Keywords: Nonlinear differential equations; tuberculosis model; fractional order derivative; homotopy decomposition method.

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Analysis of Coupled Korteweg-de Vries Equations with fractional derivatives

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: A Coupled Korteweg-de Vries Equations with fractional derivatives is examined via the Homotopy decomposition method (HDM). We show that this method is more reliable and efficient than earlier numerical techniques. In particular we show the dependence of solutions properties towards the fractional order derivative values.

[Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. Analysis of Coupled Korteweg-de Vries Equations with fractional derivatives. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):466-471] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.68

 

Keywords:.Homotopy decomposition method; system of fractional nonlinear KDV equation; fractional derivative order

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Functional order derivatives with applications to heat convection equations

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The convection heat flow equation is expanded in this paper via the concept of the variational order derivative. The Crank-Nicholson technique will be used to solve the evolution problem. Within the discredited problem domain, the variable internal properties, boundaries, and stresses of the system are approximated. We study stability and convergence analysis of the numerical method. In particular we consider computational examples and discuss their simulations. [Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. Functional order derivatives with applications to heat convection equations. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):472-478] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.69

 

Keywords: Heat flow equation; variational order derivative; Crank-Nicholson scheme; stability; convection.

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Space-Time Fractional Derivatives of Spatially Nonhomogeneous Diffusion Convection Equations

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Mathematical analysis of fractional differential equations containing terms responsible for diffusion and convection are provided analytically and numerically. We derive the solution of the evolution equation in term of Mittag-Leffler functions using Laplace transfrom. In particular we introduce a numerical scheme, perform some simulations and highlight the effects of the fractional derivatives.

 [Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. Space-Time Fractional Derivatives of Spatially Nonhomogeneous Diffusion Convection Equations. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):479-484] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.70

 

Keywords: Space-Time fractional derivatives; Mittag-Leffler function; Analysis; stability; Laplace transform

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Developing Students’ Creativity

 

Mojgan Afshari*, Simin Ghavifekr, Saedah Siraj & Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak

 

Department of Educational Management, Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

afsharimojgan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Creativity is important at both the individual and the societal levels. Creative accomplishments help to build a more interactive world that fortifies human civilization. Many researchers believe that components of creativity can be influenced by schools. In fact, teachers as change agents can stimulate the development of students’ creative potential, and can also help them acquire skills and knowledge necessary to generate novel and useful ideas. This paper reviews writings in an attempt to clearly identify the factors that enhance students creative thinking and hence that need to be taken into consideration when managing creativity in educational organizations. The literature review summarizes two key factors that affect students creativity, namely organizational (effective leadership, culture) and individual factors (personality factors, motivation, knowledge).

[Mojgan Afshari, Simin Ghavifekr, Saedah Siraj, & Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak. Developing Students’ Creativity. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):485-494]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 71

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.71

 

Keywords: Creative thinking, teacher, education, leadership, culture, motivation, knowledge, personality factors, pedagogy

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Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy And Its Adverse Outcomes

 

Amal Ahmed Mohamed(1&2); Afaf Mohamed Fahmy (2&3); Howaida Amin Hassan Fahmy El-Sabaa (4&5); Nadia Abd-Allah Oweedah(6).

 

1Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Taibah University, -Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

2Department of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

3Department Nursing, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Taibah University, -Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

4Department of Maternity and Childhood Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt

6Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine. Taibah University, -Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

 

Abstract: Violence against women by their intimate partners (IPV) during pregnancy may lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. We assess the impact of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its adverse outcomes.The Design: Retrospective study implemented in 14 primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Madinah Al-Menawarh city, KSA for 4 months. Methods: A total number of four hundred and four pregnant women between the age of 15 and 35 years old were included in this study. A pre-constructed interviewing questionnaire and Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) were used for the purpose of data collection. Result: The findings revealed that there was a highly statistically significant association between exposure to IPV and adverse outcomes. Conclusion: IPV should be recognized as a potential cause of abortion, preterm birth and bleeding. Counseling of women experiencing abuse should be provided.

[Amal Ahmed Mohamed; Afaf Mohamed Fahmy; Howaida Amin Hassan Fahmy El-Sabaa and Nadia Abd-Allah Oweedah. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy And Its Adverse Outcomes. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):495-502] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.72

 

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Sexual/Physical/Emotional Abuse, Pregnancy Outcome, Pregnant Women.

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Propelling the Innovation Speed for Malaysian Biotechnology Products

 

Hadi Farid 1,*, Ismi Arif Ismail 1, Zahra Sadeghi 2, Sohel Rana 3

 

1. Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

2. Graduate Institute of Management, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

3. Department of Mathematics / Institute for Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

hd.farid@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of professional expertise, managerial, markets related knowledge and experience on innovation speed of new product performance related to biotechnology companies. Innovation speed is considered as a core element in performance of new product. Many researchers have stated a positive and effective interaction between success of new product performance and speed to market. Another point is that innovation speed provides a firm and sustainable competitive advantage. And at last, innovation speed for each biotechnology company is valuable resource and tries to have close relationship between customers and their requirements. The innovation speed cannot be developed easily just by project managers, technological developments and competitors in all around the world; in many results of researches it can be seen that innovation speed has been absent in marketing strategies, especially in biotechnology companies. Bringing innovation speed in biotechnology companies to increase profit of the company is big challenge in marketplace.

[Farid H, Ismi AI, Sadeghi Z, Rana S. Propelling the Innovation Speed for Malaysian Biotechnology Products. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):503-510] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.73

 

Keywords: Biotechnology companies; innovation speed; marketing; performance; policy makers; speed to market

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A Comprehensive Review on Routing Metrics for Wireless Mesh Networks

 

Michel Mbougni and Obeten Ekabua

 

1Department of Computer Science, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa

Email: 21248435@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Generally, routing protocols are very important in the field of networks, and particularly in wireless networks. Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are analogous to Ad-hoc networks, therefore routing protocols for Ad-hoc networks can be implemented in WMNs. Unfortunately, these traditional routing performs poorly in WMNs because they use minimum count as routing metric. Minimum hop count metric does consider the fact that Mesh routers are equipped with multi radio interfaces which could produce interferences during the operation of WMNs. This paper presents an organized and systematic review on routing metrics for WMNs.

Michel Mbougni, Obeten Ekabua. A Comprehensive Review on Routing Metrics for Wireless Mesh Networks. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):511-516] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 74

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.74

 

Keywords: MANET, routing protocols, VoIP.

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Strategic Orientation of Small to Medium Scale Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country: A Case of Auto Parts Manufacturing Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan

 

Yasir Ahmad, Muhammad Danial Saeed Pirzada, Muhammad Tanveer Khan

 

 Department of Engineering Management, Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering (CASE), Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

yasir299@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In today’s industrial world, SMEs contribute significantly in almost all the sectors especially manufacturing. Business and functional strategies of these SMEs are important research areas. In this qualitative research, multiple case study method has been utilized to explore the business strategies of SMEs operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Today most of the business strategies are analyzed with respect to the prospectors, analyzers, defenders and reactors, and these can be completely catered to with the help of Miles and Snow typology. The researchers investigate that how this business strategy is linked to functional strategies of SMEs operating in business environment marked with limited domestic market and low export orientation. Though operating in same business environment, SMEs vary in their competitive priorities and methods to achieve organizational goal in not so thriving auto parts sector. Manufacturing, Human Resource Management (HRM) and marketing being important functional strategies are explored to find the differences and similarities even when SMEs follow the similar strategic posture. The use of multiple methods for finding the business strategies of SMEs has been resorted to understand the implicit and explicit ways of conducting business.

[Ahmad Y, Pirzada D.Saeed, Khan MT. Strategic Orientation of Small to Medium Scale Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country: A Case of Auto Parts Manufacturing Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):517-527] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.75

 

Keywords: Business Strategy; Miles and Snow Typology; SMEs.

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Inventory Control System For Determining Optimal; Quantity, Cost And Cycle Time Under Retroactive Holding Cost.

 

Karikari Emmanuel, Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This work addresses the problem of inventory management of an organization. The objectives of this study includes: (a) to model an inventory as a Retroactive Holding Cost problem, (b) to determine optimal order quantity, optimal total inventory cost and cycle time using Retroactive solution algorithm. We use real data (processing times, random yield factors, etc) from a poultry feed manufacturing company, providing simultaneously the model validation and the evaluation of the relative performance of the company. The holding cost per unit of the item per unit time is assumed to be an increasing step function of the time spent in storage. Retroactive holding cost increase as a time-dependent holding cost increase step function model is considered. Procedures were used for determining the optimal order quantity and the optimal cycle time using retroactive solution algorithm.

[Karikari Emmanuel, Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie. Inventory Control System For Determining Optimal; Quantity, Cost And Cycle Time Under Retroactive Holding Cost. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):528-532] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.76

 

Keywords: Inventory, Inventory model, Retroactive holding cost, stock-level dependent demand, variable holding cost, optimization

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Stability and Convergence of a Time-Fractional Blood flow equation in a Deformable medium

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The medium through which the blood moves varies in time and space. In this paper we capture the effects of the moving boundary conditions by including time-fractional derivatives into the evolution equation. The modified equation is solved numerically via the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The stability and convergence of the numerical scheme is highlighted.

[Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. Stability and Convergence of a Time-Fractional Blood flow in a Deformable medium. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):533-538] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.77

 

Keywords: Nonlinear differential equations; blood flow; fractional order derivative; deformable medium.

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Shobha De's Urban Indian Women - A Probe into Women's Psyche

 

G.Gayathiri Devi1, S.N.Mahalakshmi2

 

1. Assistant Professor, Department of English, R.M.D. Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, 601206, India

2. Assistant Professor, Department of English, Anna University Regional Centre, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India gayathiri77@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Traditional society focuses women to sacrifice their individuality to lead a life serving the men folk. Vast majority of Indian women silently suffer for ages at the hands of establishment, with no means of expressing or fulfilling their secret wishes. But modern women have their own room, aspirations, dreams and desires. This urge has made them redefine the life style which provides an individual sustenance as well as scope for liberation and self-discovery. Many women writers have portrayed this changing image of women and Shobha De’s works are significant with unique style and reality. This study is an attempt to analyse how Shobha De probes deep into the inner feeling of women characters and brings out how the women characters finally freed themselves from the clutches of male dominance and social norms to emerge as a free women. Thus in the present Indian scenario, the study of her novels surely helps to realise the changing attitude of modern women.

[Gayathiri Devi G, Mahalakshmi SN. Shobha De's Urban Indian Women - A Probe into Women's Psyche. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):539-544] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.78

 

Keywords: Shobha De, Patriarchal, Intrepid, Sexual Liberation, Orthodox

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Adenoid hypertrophy and its relation with right ventricular function

 

Waleed M. Elguindy1 and Tamer S. Sobhy2

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

2Department of Otorhinlaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

tamshok2008@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Many studies had previously shown a reduction in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) post adenoidectomy in children with adenoid hypertrophy (AH) causing upper airway obstruction. However, it is not obvious whether this could significantly be reflected on the right ventricular performance. Aim of the study: to determine if there were any detectable changes in the RV functions post adenoidectomy in children with adenoid hypertrophy. Methods: Thirty children with AH (female/male: 9/21) aged between 2.5 and 12 years (median: five years) were included in this study. Adenoidectomy was performed using adenoid curette and cold instruments. All children had echocardiography one day pre and one month post adenoidectomy. Velocity time integral of tricuspid valve flow (VTItv) and pulmonary valve flow (VTIpa); E/A ratio of tricuspid valve flow; RV end diastolic diameter (RVEDd) and left ventricle fraction shortening (FS) were measured. Heart rate (HR) was also recorded. Results: Preoperatively VTItv, VTIpa, E/A ratio, RVEDd, FS, and HR were 17.4± 3.0 cm, 20.2± 3.1 cm, 1.20± 0.30, 11.5± 2.2 mm, 34.1± 4.1%, and 110± 17, respectively. Postoperatively VTItv, VTIpa, E/A ratio, RVEDd, FS, and HR were 21.7± 2.5 cm, 24.4± 4.3 cm, 1.44± 0.31, 9.3± 2.5 mm, 32.9± 3.1%, and 102± 28, respectively. There were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative VTItv (p = 0.03), VTIpa (p = 0.01), E/A ratios (p = 0.04), and RVEDd (p = 0.01). FS and HR were not significantly changed. Conclusions: This study concluded that in children suffering from AH, relieving upper airway obstruction by adenoidectomy may result in improvement of RV filling and RV function, associated with the reduction in mPAP.

[Waleed M. Elguindy and Tamer S. Sobhy. Adenoid hypertrophy and its relation with right ventricular function. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):545-550] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 79

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.79

 

Key words: Adenoid hypertrophy, pulmonary artery pressure, RV function.

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A Comparative Study: Dexmedetomidine/Ketamine versus Propofol/Ketamine Combination for Sedation in Patients Undergoing Dacrocystorhinostomy (DCR) Surgery under Local Anesthesia

 

Ashraf Darwish, Rehab Sami Dalia Samir and Osman Hefzi

 

Department of Anesthesia, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt

ashrafdarwish1962@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine and propofol-ketamine combinations on hemodynamics, respiration, sedation level, and the recovery period in patients undergoing DCR under local anesthesia. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy surgery under regional anesthesia were divided into two groups. The first group received Dexmedetomidine plus ketamine (group DK, n = 25. The patients received an infusion of 0.5 ug/kg/h of Dexmedetomidine and 0.5 mg/kg/h of ketamine. The second group received Propofol plus ketamine (group PK, n = 25), the patients received 0.5mg/kg/min of Propofol and 0.5mg/kg/h of ketamine by infusion. Hemodynamic data, respiratory rate, and sedation scores were recorded. Sedation level was titrated to a Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) every 5 minutes. Postoperative Aldrete score recovery time were assessed. Results: Both groups provided a similar significant reduction in heart rate and mean arterial pressure compared with baseline. The oxygen saturation values of Dexmedetomodine/Ketamine (DK) group were higher than those of Propofol/ Ketamine (PK) group. The respiratory rate values of the Dexmedetomidine/Ketamine (DK) group were higher than those in the Propofol/Ketamine (PK) group. The time required to achieve targeted levels of sedation was significantly longer in the Dexmedetomidine/ ketamine (DK) group. Postoperatively the time to achieve an Aldrete score of 10 was higher in Propofol/Ketamine (PK) group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine combination with small-dose of Ketamine may prove to be a valuable adjuvant for sedation in patients undergoing DCR surgery, and it may be a valuable alternative to Propofol/Ketamine combination.

[Ashraf Darwish, Rehab Sami Dalia Samir and Osman Hefzi. A Comparative Study: Dexmedetomidine/Ketamine versus Propofol/Ketamine Combination for Sedation in Patients Undergoing Dacrocystorhinostomy (DCR) Surgery under Local Anesthesia. Life Science Journal 2013; 10(3):551-554]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 80. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.80

 

Keywords: Dexmedetomidine, propofol, sedation, DCR surgery.

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Investigation of the Relationship between Body Mass Index and Motor Abilities in Children

 

Emrah ATAY

 

School of Physical Education and Sport, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur 15100, Turkey

emrahatay@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine of the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and motor abilities in children. 354 middle-school students existing in 11-14 age group participated to research voluntarily. Height and body weight of participants were measured and BMI values were established as body weight/height*height formula. Vertical jump, dominant handgrip strength, flexibility, balance, plates tapping and standing long jump tests were applied to determine motoric skills. One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis H, Pearson Correlation and Spearman Correlation analyzes in SPSS 15.0 for Windows Package program were used in analyze of data obtained. In result of committed analyzes, it was established that thin children showed the best performance in vertical jump, dominant handgrip strength, balance, plates tapping and standing long jump tests. In flexibility test, children having normal body weight showed the best performance. It was established that their motoric skills were decreased as long as participants’ BMI values were increased (p<0,05). According to the findings of this study, it was concluded that the increase of BMI has an adverse effects on motoric skills.

[Atay E. Investigation of the Relationship between Body Mass Index and Motor Abilities in Children. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):555-560] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 81. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.81

 

Keywords: body mass index, child, motoric skills, student

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Running title: Robo4 Expression in Mouse Liver Kupffer Cells

 

Expression of Robo4 in Mouse Liver Kupffer Cells and Its Relationship with Macrophage Phagocytic and Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation

 

Huahai Chen1, 2, Fuchu He2, Ming Zhang1*, Ying Jiang2*

1, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresource, Animal Reproduction Institute, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China; 2, State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 102206, China.

jiangying304@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Robo4, which occurs predominantly in endothelial cells, is an important immunoglobulin receptor with major roles in cell migration, angiogenesis, and the maintenance of vascular integrity. The aims of this study were to observe the expression of Robo4 in mouse liver Kupffer cells and investigate its expression pattern related to macrophage phagocytic and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. A two-step collagenase perfusion and magnetic bead sorting (MACS) methods were used for the isolation and purification of mouse Kupffer cells. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of robo4 in Kupffer cells and macrophages RAW264.7. A real time PCR was selected to investigate the relationship of robo4 expression with macrophage phagocytic and lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The results of RT-PCR and Western blot showed that we can detect the expression of robo4 at mRNA and protein levels in Kupffer cells and RAW264.7, respectively. Macrophage phagocytosis of latex-bead or E. coli increased robo4 expression. However, the expression pattern affected by LPS stimulation related to the LPS exposure time. It was down-regulated at the first six hours and then restored to control level after 12 hours of exposure. In summary, the expression of Robo4 was found in liver Kupffer cells and RAW264.7 cells, and was affected by macrophage phagocytosis and LPS stimulation.

[Chen H, He F, Zhang M, Jiang Y. Expression of Robo4 in Mouse Liver Kupffer Cells and Its Relationship with Macrophage Phagocytic and Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):561-567] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.82

 

Key words: Kupffer cells; macrophage; Robo4; phagocytosis; lipopolysaccharide

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Microstructure Variation and Mechanical Behavior of Aged AZ61 Wrought Magnesium Alloy

 

Abdel-Wahab El-Morsy 1, Ahmed I. Z. Farahat 2

 

1. Mechanical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering-Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University,

P.O. Box 344 Rabigh 21911, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1. Mechanical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering-Helwan, Helwan University, Egypt

2. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Egypt

elmorsya@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The microstructural variation and mechanical behavior of aged AZ61 wrought magnesium alloy were investigated. The solid solution treatment was carried out at 410°C for 24hrs followed by water quenching. Subsequent aging treatments were carried out at 200°C with various aging time intervals from 0.2hr to184hrs. The changes in microstructure due to aging were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the aged specimens were subjected to tensile testing and hardness measurements. The results showed that the solid solution and aging treatments of AZ61 alloy are essentially a microstructure transformation processes in which the discontinuous precipitate (Mg17Al12) at the grain boundaries in the as-received specimens was dissolved into the matrix after 24hrs solution treatment and then reprecipitates during the aging treatment. After prolonged aging time (up to 34hrs), a notable increase in the hardness was observed when aging treatment was implemented. Thereafter, with additional increases in the aging time (up to ~167hrs), the dependence of hardness values and the tensile properties on the aging time became more pronounced due to precipitation of β-phase. The formation of discontinuous precipitate Mg17Al12 was recognized as the major reason for the observed changes.

[El-Morsy A, Farahat A. Microstructure Variation and Mechanical Behavior of Aged AZ61 Wrought Magnesium Alloy. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):568-574] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.83

 

Keywords: Solid Solution, Aging Treatment, Precipitates Mg17Al12 Phase, AZ61 alloy, Mechanical Properties.

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Shoot Organogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Aloe saponaria

Soo Cheon Chae1, Sun-Ok Chung2,*, and Sang Un Park3,*

 

1Department of Horticultural Science, College of Industrial Sciences, Kongju National University, Daehoe-ri, Yesan-kun, Chungnam, 340-720, Korea

2Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

3Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

Sun-Ok Chung: sochung@cnu.ac.kr, Sang Un Park: supark@cnu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: The medicinal values of Aloe make it a very popular genus, with various commercial products of Aloe being available throughout the world nowadays. In the current study, a micropropogation system was developed from cultures of Aloe saponaria meristem explants. Cytokinins [BAP (benzylaminopurine) and kinetin], along with the combined application of BAP and auxins, had a significant influence on shoot initiation and growth. Shoot initiation increased with increasing BAP and kinetin concentrations up to concentrations of 2 mg/l. BAP performance was optimal for initial shoot regeneration at 2 mg/l; with 5.4 times greater shoot initiation and 2.6 times greater shoot length per explant compared to the control treatment. BAP combined with any concentration of IBA generated higher shoot initiation and shoot growth compared to the control treatment. Among the treatment combinations, that of BAP with 0.5 mg/L IBA produced the highest shoot growth (37% higher) per explant and the greatest shoot length compared to the control. This result indicates that the micropropagation of Aloe might be as effective as using meristems for plant regeneration.

[Chae SC, Chung SO, Park SU. Shoot Organogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Aloe saponaria. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):575-578] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.84

 

Keywords: Aloe saponaria; meristem explants; micropropagation; cytokinins, auxins

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Enhancement of the In Vitro Root Regeneration Efficiency of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Stem Explants by Different Carbon Sources

 

Aye Aye Thwe1, Soo Cheon Chae2, Sun-Ok Chung3,*, and Sang Un Park1,*

 

 1Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764, Korea

2Department of Horticultural Science, College of Industrial Sciences, Kongju National University, Daehoe-ri, Yesan-kun, Chungnam, 340-720, Korea

3Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

Sun-Ok Chung: sochung@cnu.ac.kr, Sang Un Park: supark@cnu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: The success of plant tissue cultures is influenced by plant growth regulators, nutrient supply, and the carbon source in the medium. We investigated the most suitable carbon source and concentration for the in vitro rooting of Rehmannia glutinosa. Stem segments of R. glutinosa were cultured in vitro with 30 g/L of seven different carbon sources (sucrose, dextrose, mannose, glucose, sucrose, galactose, fructose, and maltose) for adventitious root regeneration. Subsequently, the best carbon source for regeneration was selected, and the optimal concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, or 5.0%) for promoting root regeneration was determined. Three percent sucrose was found to be the most suitable carbon source and concentration for adventitious root regeneration.

[Thwe AA, Chae SC, Chung SO, Park SU. Enhancement of the In Vitro Root Regeneration Efficiency of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Stem Explants by Different Carbon Sources. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):579-582] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.85

 

Keywords: carbon source, in vitro root regeneration, Rehmannia glutinosa, stem segment

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Combining Chemical Treatment and Sand Filtration for the Olive Mill Wastewater Reclamation

 

M.M. Al-Enazi1,2, M.A. El-Khateeb*3,4 and A.Z. El-Bahrawy3

 

1. Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Collage of Applied Medical Sciences, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2. Vice Rector of Graduate Studies & Scientific Research, Al Jouf University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3. Faculty of Science, Environmental Sciences Department, Al Jouf University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

4. National research Center, Water Pollution Control Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Corresponding author: M.A. El-Khateeb, e-mail: elkhateebcairo@yahoo.com, maelkhateeb@ju.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Olive oil production is a significant agricultural activity with great economic importance. The growth of the olive oil production in Al-Jouf region in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the volume of associated processing waste. This work aims to reduce the impact resulted from the discharge of olive mill wastewater (OMW) without treatment. Combination between chemical treatment using ferric chloride aided with lime, Fenton and photo-Fenton with sand filter was carried out. The obtained results indicated that the coagulation sedimentation (using ferric chloride aided with lime) reduced the concentration of organic load represented by COD, BOD and TSS reduced from 117900, 22174 and 15977 to 8965, 5463 and 453 mg/l, respectively. The Fenton and photo-Fenton processes showed efficient removal of organic load than the coagulation sedimentation process. The residual concentration of COD, BOD and TSS was 4563, 2683 and 378 mg/l for Fenton process and 3647, 2167 and 339 mg/l for photo-Fenton, respectively. Sand filter was used for polishing the effluent. The scheme consisting of photo-Fenton followed by sand filtration was found to be much efficient for the treatment of OMW. The residual concentration of COD, BOD and TSS was 1150, 645 and 40 mg/l. respectively. The final effluent could be discharged safely to the sewerage system.

[M.M. Al-Enazi, M.A. El-Khateeb and A.Z. El-Bahrawy. Combining Chemical Treatment and Sand Filtration for the Olive Mill Wastewater Reclamation. Life Sci J 201310(3):583-592]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 86. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.86

 

Key Words: Olive, wastewater, Coagulation, Fenton, Photo-Fenton, Sand filter

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Agricultural extension and rural advisory services: Proactiveness or reactiveness on climate change for food security in Africa

 

Oladele O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This paper presents cases of methodologies of the use of agricultural extension and rural advisory services for mainstreaming climate changes issues for the enhancement of food security in different parts of Africa. This is predicated on the fact that majority of actors in the food security chain are in rural areas in Africa and the most prominent source of information is through agricultural extension services. Agricultural extension services is used to depict all the different activities that provide information and advisory services that are needed and demanded by farmers and other actors in agri-food systems and rural development. In this paper, these includes technical knowledge and involves facilitation, brokering and coaching of different actors to improve market access, dealing with changing patterns of risk and protecting the environment. This takes place within complex systems involving old and new service providers and even information and communication technologies (phones and mobile phones, internet, radio and television). The ‘extension systems’ are generally not very systematic and reflect the diverse priorities and accountabilities of a wide range of public, private and civil society organizations that are providing advice and information. In fact, some of these providers would not even classify themselves as “extension” but rather as community developers, innovation brokers, natural resource planners among others, however, they are all linked by a primary focus on providing advice and information. The full paper explores the methodologies such as cyber extension, community radio, drama, stakeholder platforms among others and highlights the application of these methodologies in different western and southern African countries.

[Oladele O.I. Agricultural extension and rural advisory services: Proactiveness or reactiveness on climate change for food security in Africa. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):593-597] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 87. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.87

 

Keywords: climate change, advisory services, food security, extension programming, extension planning

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Anexiety and Agression Disorders of Children with Chronic Kidney Disease on Regular Hemodialysis

 

Sanaa. M El Sadek 1, Taghread El Shafee2, Manal M Zaher1, Manal Abd El-Salam1, Maha A Nouh3

 

Pediatric Department, 1, Psychiatric Department2 Faculty Of Medicine For Girls,, Al-Azher University, Cairo Egypt

3Pediatric Department, Faculty Of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

sanasdk5@Gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: chronic hemodialysis is an established treatment of end stage renal disease which maintains the lives of individuals who otherwise would have succumbed to a uremic death. However, this method of treatment raises certain psychological, social and ethical issues, anxiety and aggression are the most common disorders. Aim: to evaluate psychological problems including aggression and anxiety disorders in children with chronic kidney disease(CKD) on regular hemodialysis compared to children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and healthy children. Patients And Methods: this study included 20 children with CKD on regular hemodialysis, and 20 children with ADHD, they were selected from hemodialysis unit and psychiatric departments of AL –zahraa hospital, Al-Azher university.Also the study included 20 healthy children age and sex matched as a control group. Aggression and anxiety scores (CAS) were assessed for all the participated groups. Results: the mean aggression scores sowed higher degrees in children with ADHD and CKD patients compared to the control group. Anxiety score was higher in CKD patients on regular hemodialysis compared to children with ADHD and the control group. Aggression and anxiety has been found in 100% of CKD patients. A significant positive correlations between the presence of aggression and anxiety and the duration of hemodialysis. Conclusion: psychiatric disorders, mainly anxiety are prevalent in our CKD patients on regular hemodialysis.A significant positive correlation between aggression and anxiety scores and the duration of hemodialysis so bring attention to the severity of medical illness that can be of great influence in the child behavior and planning treatment strategies is essential to improve treatment outcome.

[Sanaa.M El Sadek, Taghread El Shafee, Manal M Zaher, Manal Abd El-Salam, Maha A Nouh. Anexiety and Agression Disorders of Children with Chronic Kidney Disease on Regular Hemodialysis. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):598-603] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 88. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.88

 

Keywords: Aggression, anxiety, ADHD, CKD,hemodialysis.

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Efficient Retrieval Technique for Microarray Gene Expression

 

J Jacinth Salome 1, Dr. R.M Suresh 2

 

1. Department of Computer Science, L.N Government College, Ponneri-601204, Tamil Nadu, India

2. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jerusalem Engineering College, Chennai-600100, India

jsalomej@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The DNA mciroarray gene data is in the expression levels of thousands of genes for a small amount of samples. From the microarray gene data, the process of extracting the required knowledge remains an open challenge. Acquiring knowledge is the intricacy in such types of gene data, though number of researches is arising in order to acquire information from these gene data. In order to retrieve the required information, gene classification is vital; however, the task is complex because of the data characteristics, high dimensionality and smaller sample size. Initially, the dimensionality diminution process is carried out in order to shrink the microarray data without losing information with the aid of LPP and PCA techniques and utilized for information retrieval. In this paper, we propose an effective gene retrieval technique based on LPP and PCA called LPCA. The technique like LPP and PCA is chosen for the dimensionality reduction for efficient retrieval of microarray gene data. An application of microarray gene data is included with classification by SVM. SVM is trained by the dimensionality reduced gene data for effective classification. A comparative study is made with these dimensionality reduction techniques.

[J Jacinth Salome, R.M Suresh. Efficient Retrieval Technique For Microarray Gene Expression. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):604-609] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 89. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.89

 

Keywords: Information Retrieval, Gene classification, microarray gene expression, dimensionality reduction, Locality Preserving Projection (LPP), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Support Vector Machine (SVM)

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The Structural Consequences after Protein Domain Duplication Events

 

Jun Lin*, Leping Feng

 

Guilin Medical University, Guilin, 541004 and State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and EvolutionKunming Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China

* Correspondence should be addressed to J.L. (E-mail: linj@mspil.edu.cn)

 

Abstract: Protein structures involving gene duplication and gene fusion events can be highly illuminated, and researchers have long sought fundamental explanations for evolutionary origins of duplicated protein structures. How a peptide containing two similar domains, we called it Gemini gene/protein, evolved. For examples, the structure of 1vk6 (NADH pyrophosphatase) consists of two structurally similar domains, and the N-terminal domain holds a rudiment Nudix fold, while the C-terminal domain has the canonical Nudix fold. In this paper, we show several examples of two similar domains in one single peptide. Our work focused on the protein structural consequences after the duplication-fusion events in gene innovation, which may help further understand a gene or protein domain’s evolutionary fate after gene duplication event.

[Jun Lin, Leping Feng. The Structural Consequences after Protein Domain Duplication Events. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):610-614] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 90. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.90

 

Keywords: domain duplication; duplication-fusion; Identical Domain Insertion (IDI); Circular Permutation (CP); origin of new genes

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A theoretical analysis of large scale water pollution of oceans and lakes

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Water contamination (sea, ocean) has been a seriously challenge for decades. This paper provides a mathematical framework for understanding water pollution. We make use of a hydrodynamic advection dispersion to fully describe the phenomenon. The equation is solved via two analytical technique; the homotopy decomposition method and the differential transform method. The numerical simulations of the approximated solutions are presented. [Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. A theoretical analysis of large scale water pollution of oceans and lakes. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):615-621] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 91

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.91

 

Keywords: Nonlinear differential equations, Pollution; fractional order derivative; diffusion, convection.

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Time-Fractional Epidemiological Models with Applications

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Epidemiological models are characterized by the fact that events happen at different time scales. Fractional derivatives are sensitive enough to capture the uncertainties induced of the models. In this paper we investigate the time-fractional derivatives of compartmental models and discuss some examples. The evolution equation is solved numerically via the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The stability and convergence of the numerical scheme are explored. [Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. Time-Fractional Epidemiological Models with Applications. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):622-630] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.92

 

Keywords: Nonlinear differential equations; epidemiological model; fractional order derivative; homotopy decomposition method.

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Prevalence of health disorders among students with intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia

 

Abdulhade Issa Haimour

 

King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Education, Special Education Department, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: This is a descriptive study aimed to provide prevalence rates of health disorders among students with intellectual disability (ID) in Saudi Arabia within segregated and included school sittings. This study also aimed to find differences of prevalence rates depending on students age and level of (ID).Revision of school medical records of (278) students of (ID) leads to different prevalence rates of health disorders affected by students with (ID). Results indicate that epilepsy, cardiac disorders, and visual-motor coordination disorders, were the most prevalent health disorders among students with (ID). Results also indicated that students within the age group (9-12 years) had the most frequent health disorders in comparison with other age groups. Furthermore, students with sever (ID) had the highest prevalence rate of health disorders, followed by students with moderate (ID), and then students with mild (ID).

[Abdulhade Issa Haimour. Prevalence of health disorders among students with intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):631-637]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 93

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.93

 

Keywords: prevalence; health disorders; intellectual disability

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM): Induced by Environmental, genetic and immunity factors

 

Najat Jabbar Ahmed Berwary1,,Fadzilah-Adibah Abdul-Majid2,4., Salehhuddin Hamdan1,4, Shahpour Khangholi2, Nabil Elia Waheda3

 

1Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

2Bioprocess Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

3College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil – Iraq.

4 Institute of BioproductDevelopment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

najat_mlt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: T1DM is progressively common among children and youths. The combination of environmental factors and immunological disturbances form a sensitivity risk factor that induces T1DM, especially in the presence of genetic factors. The current study focuses on the role of relationship between immune system, viruses and genetic factors with T1DM occurrence. 230 T1DM patients were sampled, based on absolute dependence on insulin with another 130 healthy individuals as control group. Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA), Immuno fluorescent and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - SSP technique were used for detection of HLA-DR3 and DR4. Significant differences in mean values was observed between the T1DM patients and control group in the quantitative measurement of anti-Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody (Ab), rubella, CSV-B, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD), insulin receptor (IR) Ab, IL-4, IL-10, CD4, CD8, and the ratio of CD4:CD8 (P-value < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that there are overload of immune responses (cellular &molecular-genetic) among T1DM patients. The presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes showed significant relationship to viruses that induce T1DM. It also showed an existing link between T1DM occurrence, HLA genes and environmental factors (viruses and consumption cow milk during infancy).

[Berwary, N. J. A., Abdul-Majid. F-A., Hamdan, S., Khangholi, S., Waheda. N.E. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM): Induced by Environmental, genetic and immunity. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):638-646] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 94. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.94

 

Keywords: 1 Diabetes, Viruses induced T1DM, Immunity, GAD, HLA.

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On Some Systems of Three Nonlinear Difference Equations

 

M. M. El-Dessoky1,2, E. M. Elsayed1,2 and Ebraheem O. Alzahrani¹

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

E-mail: dessokym@mans.edu.eg, emmelsayed@yahoo.com, eoalzahrani@kau.edu.sa.

 

Abstract: We consider in this paper, the solution of the following systems of difference equations:  with initial conditions are nonzero real numbers.

[El-Dessoky, MM, Elsayed EM, Alzahrani EO. On Some Systems of Three Nonlinear Difference Equations. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):647-657] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 95

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.95

 

Keywords: difference equations, recursive sequences, periodic solutions, system of difference equations, stability.

Mathematics Subject Classification: 39A10.

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Prevalence of intestinal parasitosisamong male youth in Qena Governorate (Upper Egypt), and its relation to socio-demographic characteristics and some morbidities

 

Sameh SH. Zaytoun1, Osama H. AbdElla2, Ali AR. Ghweil3, Salah M. Hussien4, Hesham A.Ayoub5, Ashraf M. Alkabeer6 and Mohamed A.A.Taha7

 

1,3Public Health and Tropical Medicine Departments,South Valley University, Egypt

2,4,7Parasitology Departments,South Valley University and Al AzharUniversity, Egypt

5,6General Medicine Departments, Military Medical Academyand Al Azhar University, Egypt

samehzaytoun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Despite of the continuing improvement in the economic status, standard of living, sanitation and ecology of the Egyptian society, yet parasitic infections continue to be among the most common and persistent public health problems. Methods: A group of 1000 adult males aged from 18 to 25 years attended to Qena University Hospital for different gastrointestinal symptoms with or without anemia during a time period of a year (2011-2012) were enrolled in this study. Laboratory investigations including: complete blood count and stool analyses. Stool samples were examined by direct fecal smear and formal-ether sedimentation techniques to detect parasitic infestations among the studied groups. RESULTS: The present study included 1000 young adult men, 44.4% of overall had parasitic infection. Young people living in rural areas had a marked significant association with parasitic infection than those living in urban areas (P<0.001). The commonest detected parasite were as following: Entamoebahistolytica (18.4%), Blastocystishominis (11.2%), Gardialambilia (8.2%), Enterobiusvermicularis(8%), Hymenolepis nana (6%), Ascarislumbricoides (5.8%), Taeniasaginata (4.4%), Entamoebacoli (4.2%), Cryptosporidium parvum (3.2%), Isosporahominis (2.2%), Endolimax nana (2%), Dientamoebafragili (2%), Iodamoebabutschlii (1.4%), Trichocephalustrichiuris (0.8%), Fasciola (0.2%), Heterophyesheterophyes (0.1%), and a larva (maggot) of house fly (0.1%). According to blood analysis; anemia was present in 9.8% of studied young adults, esinophilia in 13.8%. It was obvious that there was a significant association between parasitic infection from one side and each of anemia and eosinophilia from the other side (P<0.0001). Parasitic infection was present among 62.3% of those with low social class as compared to only 16.7% of those of high social class with a statistically significant difference (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Rural residency and low social class were the most significant risk factors associated with parasitic infestation.

[Sameh SH. Zaytoun, Osama H. Abd Ella, Ali AR. Ghweil, Salah M. Hussien, Hesham A. Ayoub, Ashraf M. Alkabeer.and Mohamed A.A. Taha. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among male youth in Qena Governorate (Upper Egypt), and its relation to socio-demographic characteristics and some morbidities. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):658-663] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 96

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.96

 

Keywords: parasites, demographic, socioeconomic, rural, urban.

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Clinical Utility of Serum Glycodelin as a Novel Marker for Ovarian Cancer

 

Ibrahim H. A. Badr*a, Helmy M. El Sayedb, Hala Abdel Alc, Mohamed S. Hegaba 

a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo, Egypt.

b Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

c Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Mohamed1010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary. It has been called "Silent killer" because it frequently causes non-specific symptoms. CA- 125 was the first tumor marker available for detection of ovarian cancer but the major problem is its poor sensitivity and specificity as it is elevated in only 40-50 % of patients with stages І and ІІ ovarian cancer. Glycodelin consists of 180 amino acid and it is a glycoprotein belonging to the lipocalin family. In the present study, ELISA technique is utilized for the selective detection of Glycodelin. The detection of Glycodelin, utilizing ELISA technique, indicated a significantly high glycodelin levels in group one (ovarian cancer) as compared to either control group or benign ovarian disease group. Glycodelin was found to be highly sensitive as well as an early diagnostic marker for ovarian cancer. The utilization of the Glycodelin detection in addition to the current and standard tests available for diagnosis of an early and recurrent ovarian cancer would significantly improve the ability to identify patients who might be missed by the current diagnostic strategies and thus might provide a better therapeutic outcome.

[Ibrahim H. A. Badr, Helmy M. El Sayed, Hala Abdel Al, Mohamed S. Hegab. Clinical Utility of Serum Glycodelin as a Novel Marker for Ovarian Cancer. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):664-670]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 97. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.97

 

Keywords: Benign ovarian diseases, Glycodelin, Ovarian cancer, CA-125, Progesterone.

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Seed Progeny Population of Wild Banana Musa acuminata ssp.malaccensis for Fusarium Screening

 

Kamaludin Rashid1, Mahassan Mamat1, Abu Bakar Mohd Daran1, Arash Nezhadahmadi2, Fazli Ruslan2, and Fatimah Kayat3

 

1Center for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur-50603, Malaysia

2Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur-50603, Malaysia

3Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, Kelantan University of Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia

nezhadahmadi.arash@gmail.com, kamalrashid@um.edu.my

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to produce wild banana plant Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis from seeds which were resistant to Fusarium wilt. Experiments were carried out on four samples of different banana seeds from three populations taken from various locations. Seeds were germinated through in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro method was used for embryo rescue technique and in vivo method was used for seed germination in a greenhouse. In order to identify which method is able to produce a large number of wild banana plants within a short period of time, a comparison was made between in vitro and in vivo methods. Result showed that germination rate of embryo observed from in vitro (embryo culture) was higher (60%) and faster compared to in vivo method (seed germination) which was 3%. Plantlets produced by in vitro method were better than those which were generated by in vivo method. This is because they could live longer, more than 90 days. Contaminations in culture revealed that Fungi and Bacteria are the main polluters. It was found that scarification and small crack in banana seed coat and mixture of soil and sand (2:1) increased the germination rate of seed, but immersion of banana seed with the use of water bath technique did not rise the germination rate.

[Kamaludin Rashid, Mahassan Mamat, Abu Bakar Mohd Daran, Arash Nezhadahmadi, Fazli Ruslan, and Fatimah Kayat. Seed Progeny Population of Wild Banana Musa acuminata ssp. malaccensis for Fusarium Screening. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):671-679]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 98

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.98

 

Keywords: Seed progeny; Wild banana; Fusarium; Screening

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Attitudes of Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA) academic staff members Toward the Use of Computers Technology in their job

 

K. Hulela and Oladele O.I.

 

Botswana College of Agriculture, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, khulela@bca.bw Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus. South Africa oladele20002001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine attitudes of Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA) lecturers towards using computer technology in their work and how often lecturers use classical educational technology resources, modern educational technology tools, computer technology resources, and laboratory technology tools in their work. A sample of 70 lecturers was surveyed using a 5-point Likert–type questionnaire with statements giving descriptions of how lecturers perceived the use of technology and the extent of use. Findings of the study based revealed that majority of the participants had positive attitudes towards technology integration.

[K. Hulela and Oladele O.I. Attitudes of Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA) academic staff members Toward the Use of Computers Technology in their job. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):680-684]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 99

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.99

 

Keywords: lecturers, teaching, technology computer, integration, attitude

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Influence of Medium and Auxin Concentration on In vitro Rooting of Rehmannia glutinosa L.

 

Aye Aye Thwe1, Soo Cheon Chae2, Sun-Ok Chung3,*, and Sang Un Park1,*

 

 1Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764, Korea

2Department of Horticultural Science, College of Industrial Sciences, Kongju National University, Daehoe-ri, Yesan-kun, Chungnam, 340-720, Korea

3Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

Sun-Ok Chung: sochung@cnu.ac.kr, Sang Un Park: supark@cnu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: Plant tissue culture plays as an important role in plant biotechnology. Therefore, timesaving and cost-effective protocols have been needed to be constantly developed. Here, we investigated whether hormone-free media alone or in combination with auxins—influence in vitro rooting in Rehmannia glutinosa L. In vitro culture shoot explants were grown on different media for 4 weeks, after which rooting frequency, number of roots per explant, and root length were measured. Of the media tested, Schenk and Hildebrandt medium resulted in the highest rooting efficiency (100%), the highest number of roots (4.5 per explant), and the longest root length (32.2 mm). A 4-fold dilution of Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (¼ Schenk and Hildebrandt) was found to be the best condition providing the highest number of roots (5.3 per explant) and the longest root length (42.3 mm) compared to other Schenk and Hildebrandt medium dilutions. Supplementation of Schenk and Hildebrandt medium with different auxins at different concentrations did not improve root regeneration compared to controls. These findings provide useful information for future industrial scale root production.

[Thwe AA, Chae SC, Chung SO, Park SU. Influence of Medium and Auxin Concentration on In vitro Rooting of Rehmannia glutinosa L. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):685-688] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 100

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.100

 

Keywords: Rhemannia glutinosa, root regeneration, auxin, excised stem

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Factors that influence access to health care services in students of Semey State Medical University, Kazakhstan

 

Natalya Glushkova1, Tolebai Rakhypbekov1, Madina Madiyeva1, Goremykina Maya1, Guliya Kamasheva1, Alma Bayrkhanova2, Noboru Takamura3

 

1. Department of Public Health and Informatics, Semey State Medical University, Semey 071400, Kazakhstan

2. Kazakh Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Almaty 050000, Kazakhstan

3. Department of Global Health, Medicine and Welfare, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852–8523, Japan

ssmu_2000@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Medical students have close contact with health care services and possess special knowledge about health risk factors, but, all too frequently, they remain unhealthy. In this study, we determined the factors that influence access to health care services in Kazakhstan through identification of the differences in students based on access quality measured as a score of barriers to health care services, and assessment of the association of factors that influence access and quality of access to health care services. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire of medical students from their first to the fourth year. The obtained results represent a response rate of 99.24% (1178 out of 1187 students). A half of the students, 51.7% (609), showed “Normal” and 48.3% (569) “Poor” access to health care services. There are significant differences of sex (p = 0.067), residency (p = 0.004), form of education (p = 0.029), perception of financial status (p < 0.001), scholarship assistance (p = 0.033), and self-assessed health status (p < 0.001). We performed multiple logistic analysis on confounding factors, which indicated that students who live alone were much more likely to have “Poor” access to health care services (OR: 1.37, p = 0.037), as well as to subjectively evaluate both their financial (OR: 1.67, p < 0.001) and health statuses (OR: 2.84, p < 0.001) as “Bad.” Factors that influence access to health care services include demographics, residence, form of education, financial status and scholarship assistance, self-assessed health status, and access barriers to health care services. Association of residency, financial and self-assessed health statuses identified that those factors can be associated with access to health care services in medical university students. Further study is needed to confirm the association of these factors with access to health care services.

 [Glushkova N, Rakhypbekov T, Madiyeva M, Kamasheva G, Goremykina M, Bayrkhanova A, Takamura N. Factors that influence access to health care services in students of Semey State Medical University, Kazakhstan. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):689-695] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 101. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.101

 

Keywords: Young adults; students; delivery of health care; access; health services

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Reproduction and histomorphology of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus collected from two different water sources

 

Mariam Mahmoud Sharaf

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

mariam_sharaf2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nile Tilapia were collected from of two sites. El- Takadom lake (site A) -lies at the east of Suez Canal- which receives fresh irrigation water from Ismailia lake though a siphon underneath the Suez Canal. Baloutha bank (site B) -lies at the south of Sahl El- Tina- which receives agricultural drainage water out of lands irrigated with El- Salam lake fresh water. Heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn and Zn) were significantly higher in the agriculture drainage water and the bioaccumulation of these metals was elevated in the muscles of the studied fishes. The condition factor of site B fishes were significantly (P<>0.05) higher in both males (3.85 ± 0.14) and females (3.84 ± 0.10) comparing with fishes of site A. Gonadosomatic index mean values were 0.48 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.02 for the collected fish males from site A and B respectively, while females GSI from site B was higher (1.57 ± 0.19) than that of site A (1.05 ± 0.17). The mean values of egg diameters (49.68 ± 2.98) and the absolute fecundity (1121.97 ± 73.75) in ovaries of the females from the drainage water site were higher than those of site A. Histopathological changes in liver, kidneys, gills, ovaries and testis of Nile tilapia were described in details. The main alterations found in the liver of Nile tilapia collected from (site B) were cytoplasmic vacuolaion of the hepatocytes, vacuolar degenerated nuclei, blood congestion and dilatation of hepatic vein. While pyknotic nucleus and yellow brown granules of bile stagnation in the cytoplasm were identified in the liver samples of (site A). The male testis showed degenerated spermatogenic cells (site B) and vacuoles within the seminiferous lobules (site A). As for the ovary from fishes of both sites showed necrotic ova and degenerated stroma. The most gill deformed structures were lymphocytic infiltration, epithelial lifting congestion and fusion of gill lamellae (site B) and club shape filaments in (site A). Kidney alterations of tilapia from the two study sites were atrophy of glomerulus and hyperplasia of some renal tubules (site A), besides to expansion of space inside the Bowmans capsule, hematopiotic tissue depletion and degeneration in renal tubules (site B). In conclusion, the present study aims to investigate the effect of irrigation and agricultural drainage water on the reproductive parameter of Nile tilapia besides to the histological alterations of some organs due to the presences the heavy metals.

 [Mariam Mahmoud Sharaf. Reproduction and histomorphology of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus collected from two different water sources. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):696-703] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 102. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.102

 

Key words: Tilapia, heavy metals, reproduction, histology, agriculture. drainage, irrigation water

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[Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 704-709]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.life sciencesite.com. 103. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.103. Withdrawn

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Current status of community based diabetes education in China: A Shanghai Sample

 

Liebin Zhao1,2, Bin Dong1, Yingxia Zhou1, Luo Lu1, Yu-dong Li3, Li-qiang Li3, Mingyen Cheung4, Mingyao Zhao3, Haiyan Sun3, Dandan Zhao3, Yingyao Chen5

 

1Center of Diabetes, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Disease, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, China

2College of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

3Wu Li Qiao Community Health Center and Bureau of Health, Luwan District, Shanghai, China

4China Primary Care Co., Ltd. China

5College of Public Health, Fu Dan University, China

Email: zhaoliebin@126.com

 

Abstract: The study analyzed the status of diabetes education at community in a developed city. A community with sixteen health clinics was enrolled in the study. Questionnaires were used and qualitative interview applied to four clinics and their physicians in the area. Investigation focused on the plan, educator, program, costs, evaluation, obstacles, and satisfaction in diabetes education. The survey was based on the National Diabetes Education Practice Survey (AADE 2008) and Chinese Diabetes Prevention and Care Guideline (CDA 2004). In the survey community, there were inconsistencies in the diabetes educator training curriculum, education method and evaluation. The frequency of education and the percentage of educated patients with diabetes differed depending on the staff to patient ratio. No dietician enrolled in diabetes education at community. The education courses were mainly developed by clinic with different method. The sessions mainly included basic information of disease, nutrition, treatment and complications, but little emphasis on behavioral supporting. Investment of financial and human resource for diabetes education still is a major challenge at community. The results indicate the areas for improvement of diabetes education at community in China, especially in evaluation and standardization. It is an important and necessary step to promote the effect of diabetes control for China in the future.

[Liebin Zhao, Bin Dong, Yingxia Zhou, Luo Lu, Yu-dong Li, Li-qiang Li, Mingyen Cheung, Mingyao Zhao, Haiyan Sun, Dandan Zhao, Yingyao Chen. Current status of community based diabetes education in China: A Shanghai Sample. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):710-716]. http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 104

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.104

 

Keywords: diabetes education; community; China

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A modified end sequencing method for identifying the gene fragment (>40 k base pairs) inserted in fosmid

 

Jianfei Luo#, Guoliang Tian# and Weitie Lin*

 

College of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China

* Corresponding author. E-mail: wtlin@21cn.com. (# These are co-first author)

 

Abstract: End sequencing was usually applied to the identification of the gene fragment (>40 k base pairs) inserted in fosmid. However, the obstacles of low plasmid copy and high plasmid DNA purity requirement usually led to the difficulty and cost of end sequencing. To overcome these problems, we proposed a mortified end sequencing method. The protocol of this method consists of three steps: 1) fragmentation of fosmid circular DNA; 2) temperature gradient PCR by using fosmid specific primer coupling with random primer; 3) DNA band isolation and sequenced by fosmid specific primer.

[Jianfei Luo, Guoliang Tian and Weitie Lin. A modified end sequencing method for identifying the gene fragment (>40 k base pairs) inserted in fosmid. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 717-720]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 105. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.105

 

Keywords: Metagenomic; End sequencing; Fosmid; Random primer

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EFFECT OF PUBLIC SPACE ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING

 

Kayode Oloruntoba1, Mohd Hisyam Rasidi2, Ismail Said3

 

1Doctoral Candidate, 2Senior Lecturer, 3Associate Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

kayodetoba@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigates the role of the public space in the development of knowledge sharing among the residents of Cyberjaya (science city) Malaysia. Thus, Cyberjaya Malaysia was selected as the study area based on its concept as a technological city that footholds on knowledge sharing towards it knowledge based development. The study adopted validated measuring tools and developed a theoretical framework that link public space utilization with the knowledge sharing determinant factors. Survey questionnaires were administered on the residents in the study area and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to validate the research framework. The finding indicated that public space utilization demonstrated significant influence on knowledge sharing.

[Kayode Oloruntoba, Mohd Hisyam Rasidi, Ismail Said. EFFECT OF PUBLIC SPACE ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):721-729].(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 106

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.106

 

Keywords: Public space, Knowledge sharing, Cyberjaya Malaysia, Theoretical framework

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Total health care expenditures in “perfect health service systems” and the GDP

 

Zhifang Lu1,2*, Xiaoyan Zhao2, Huilin Yang1*

 

1 Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China

2 Department of Orthopedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210003, China

Email: huilinyangcn@yeah.net

 

Abstract: Background: The increasing total expenditure on health (TEH), as identified by the development of social economics, has consequently increased the pressure on the national health service systems (NHSSs) of several countries and regions. Methods: The features of the TEH of a NHSS may be beneficial for dealing with this kind of pressure. The NHSS can be divided into the “public health” (PH), “basic health care” (BHC), and “enjoying health care” (EHC) systems. In this paper, we focused on the total EHC expenditure. A “perfect health service system” (PHSS) should have the following features: universal availability; = 2 \* GB3 \* MERGEFORMAT capacity to address various patient needs; = 3 \* GB3 \* MERGEFORMAT reasonable resource allocation; and = 4 \* GB3 \* MERGEFORMAT efficient management. Mathematical models were constructed to calculate the total EHC expenditure in a PHSS. Results: A specific relationship was found between the total EHC expenditure and the gross domestic product (GDP). The total EHC expenditure increases with the GDP. Furthermore, its growth rate is lower than that of the GDP in a PHSS. Conclusions: The total EHC expenditure in a PHSS will not reduce the health security of the citizens, which makes it similar to the total PH and BHC expenditure. Efforts to improve an NHSS are important to have a PHSS and to distinguish EHC from PH and BHC.

[Zhifang Lu, Xiaoyan Zhao, Huilin Yang. Total health care expenditures in “perfect health service systems” and the GDP. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 730-735]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 107

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.107

 

Keywords: national health service system; total expenditure on health; enjoying health care; perfect health service system

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Perioperative Nursing in Laparoscopic Resection of Rectal Cancer

 

Shuxia Wang

 

Department of Cancer Surgery, People's Hospital Gastrointestinal Xingtai City, Hebei Province, China

 hebeisx@163.com

 

Abstract: ObjectiveTo investigate the perioperative nursing in laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer. Methods: 112 patients treated in hospital with rectal cancer using laparoscopic surgery. Postoperative care in different ways were based on randomly divided into observation group and control group. 56 cases were observed in patients given perioperative targeted nursing interventions and patients in control group were given routine anorectal care measures. Results: The postoperative recovery was significantly better in observation group than the control group of patients (P <0.05), and the incidence of postoperative complications was significantly lower than the control group of patients, the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusions: Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer perioperative use of targeted rehabilitation nursing interventions can accelerate postoperative recovery and reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. It is worthy of promotion.

[Shuxia Wang. Perioperative Nursing in Laparoscopic Resection of Rectal Cancer. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 736-738]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 108. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.108

 

Keywords: cancer; Laparoscopy; Perioperative; Care

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Characteristics of Forest-based Recreation in Korea and the Case of Natural Recreation Forests

 

Ju Hyoung Lee1, Renate Bürger-Arndt2

 

1Department of Forest Resources, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, 712-749 Republic of Korea

2 Department of Nature conservation and landscape management, Georg-August University Göttingen, 37077 Germany

E-mail: jhlee9@yu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: Comprehensive opportunities for urban populations to enjoy outdoor recreation are a major indication of the quality of life and the well-being of people in industrial nations. Forests can play a major role in providing these opportunities and can provide physical and emotional benefits to recreational users. Not only are the quality and quantity of forests crucial, their accessibility is also important. Access includes ways for people to enter forests, the existence of recreation facilities, opportunities to use forests, and customs that include forest recreation. This article analyzes forest recreation opportunities and practices in South Korea that have been introduced as a new concept during the last three decades, in the wake of massive reforestation of the mountainous areas after the Korean War. The analysis is based on available Korean forest visitor data, the designated homepage of the Korean Natural Recreation Forests, and interviews with experts. Forest recreation in Korea is compared with that in Germany. The study shows that although Korea has become one of the best wooded industrial nations worldwide and embraces forest recreation, opportunities for the general public to use forests are still limited for various reasons. Thus, we propose a more integrated and multifunctional approach for future forest management.

[Ju Hyoung Lee, Renate Bürger-Arndt. Characteristics of Forest-based Recreation in Korea and the Case of Natural Recreation Forests. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 739-747]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 109

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.109

 

Keywords: Forest recreation; forest functions; multi-functional forest management; nature tourism

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Eye structure and Biological Risk factors in Diabetic Retinopathy

 

Ke Zhang1, Qi Guo2, Weimin Wang1, Jiang Li3, QipingLi3

 

1Third Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China

2Third Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College, Operating room, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China

3Yellow River Technical College Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, Henan 450063, China

Email: zhangkedafu@163.com

 

Abstract: Objective To investigate the occurrence of biological structure change of the eye and its risk factors diabetic retinopathy. Methods In our hospital in January 2009 to December 2012, 100 cases were treated of diabetic patients with retinopathy study group, and at the same period 100 cases of diabetic retinopathy in patients were selected with non-control group. The two groups of patients with clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results Both corneal diameter and corneal curvature was not statistically significant (P>0.05); axial length and anterior chamber depth comparison with a significant difference (P<0.05). Diabetic retinopathy through single factor Logistic regression analysis, axial length, anterior chamber depth, duration of time are risk factors for diabetic retinopathy, (OR = 12.241,8.213,9.631, P<0.05). After other factors Logistic regression analysis was not statistically significant (P> 0.05). Conclusions Patients with diabetic retinopathy single course of time the main factors and C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, and axial length and anterior chamber depth, and axial length, anterior chamber depth, duration of time are risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy has a variety of factors, clinical should be taken seriously enough, as soon as the intervention of the relevant factors, thereby reducing diabetic retinopathy happen.

[Ke Zhang, Qi Guo, Weimin Wang, Jiang Li, Qiping Li. Eye structure and Biological Risk factors in Diabetic Retinopathy. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 748-750]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 110

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.110

 

Key words: diabetic, retinopathy, biological structures, risk factors

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Above- and below-ground biomass of Abies holophylla under different stand conditions

 

Do-Hyung Lee*

 

Department of Forest Resources, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan 712-749, Korea

dhlee@yu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: Effective forestry management requires the selection of appropriate tree species that are able to grow under a range of environmental conditions. Here, we aimed to determine how a single tree species grows under different biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. Specifically, we quantified the total biomass of the above- and below-ground parts of ten 18-year-old Manchurian firs (Abies holophylla Max.) located in one stand in Gyeongsan City and one stand in Gyeongju City, Gyeongbuk Province, Korea. The Gyeongsan stand exhibited more growth in diameter, volume, and total biomass. In addition, the roots of this stand grew farther from the stump compared to the Gyeongju stand, resulting in a difference in root growth between the two stands. The S/R rate of the trees was 3.49 and 2.99 in the Gyeongju and Gyeongsan stands, respectively. However the growth pattern of each tree part was similar in both stands. Hence, we demonstrate that planting A. holophylla under different biotic and abiotic conditions, such as soil composition, temperature, and humidity, potentially influences initial growth rates; thus, environmental conditions should be considered when deciding which species should be used for afforestation, and appropriate forestry practices should be regulated.

[Do-Hyung Lee. Above- and below-ground biomass of Abies holophylla under different stand conditions. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):751-758]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 111. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.111

 

Keywords: Abies holophylla; Manchurian fir; above-ground parts; below-ground parts; biomass

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Applied Research of CA19-9 in the diagnosis of early pancreatic cancer

 

Yubing Yang, Zhan Song, Gengze Wang, Jianwen Liu

 

Department of General Surgery, Central Hospital of Nanyang, Nanyang, Henan 473009, China

Email: nyzxyyyyb@163.com

 

Abstract: Objective To investigate the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 in the diagnosis of early pancreatic cancer (PCA) and to find the value and significance of early diagnosis. Methods In our hospital from February 2010 to October 2012, 35 patients among treated with pancreatic cancer, it is set to the observation group, while 40 patients healthy subjects were set as the reference group. Chemiluminescence immunoassay method for the observation group and the reference group of healthy patients with pancreatic cancer by measuring tumor markers carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 levels, and clinical correlation. Results The group of 35 patients with serum CA19-9 levels were significantly higher than the reference group of healthy subjects, the positive rate of 86.9% of the observation group, the positive rate of 7.3% in the reference group, two groups, the difference was statistically significant sex significance (P <0.05). Conclusion Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, on the determination of CA19-9 is very important in the clinical value, is deemed reliable indicators can improve the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

[Yubing Yang, Zhan Song, Gengze Wang, Jianwen Liu. Applied Research of CA19-9 in the diagnosis of early pancreatic cancer. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 759-761]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 112

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.112

 

Key words: early pancreatic cancer; tumor markers carbohydrate antigen CA19-9; early diagnosis

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Coagulation Effect on Ovarian function in Laparoscopic Ovarian cyst Excision

 

Jianjuan Gu1, Hongxia Cheng2

 

1 Department of gynaecology and obstetrics, Subei People's Hospital of Jiangsu province, China

2Department of clinical laboratory, Subei People's Hospital of Jiangsu province, China

Email: gujianjuan088@163.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the laparoscopic ovarian cyst excision coagulation effect on ovarian function. Methods: From January 2009 to December 2011 80 cases of ovarian cysts were collected among which were divided into were randomly divided into study group and the control group. 40 patients taking hemostasis were study group and 40 patients taking coagulation bleeding were observed application effect. Results: The comparative analysis of the two groups, the study group operative time and blood loss were (35.7 ± 12.3) min, (13.3 ± 7.4) mL; control group operative time and blood loss were (77.6 ± 23.5) min, (135.2 ± 12.3) mL; difference between the two groups was statistically significant data (P <0.05). Preoperative study group and the control group E2, FSH, LH, and P and T indicators showed no significant difference (P> 0.05). After 1 month and 3 months after the P and T groups than before treatment did not have any change, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05); postoperative January E2, FSH, LH than before treatment significant improvement, the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05), but no difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P>0.05), both groups 3 months after return to normal levels. Study group after menstrual abnormalities was 12.0% in the control group after menstrual abnormalities was 10.0%, compared two groups of data showed no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusions: The clinical effective method is to grasp coagulation little effect on ovarian function, long-term effects are more obvious, and can effectively shorten the operation time and reduce blood loss, worthy of clinical application and promotion.

[Jianjuan Gu, Hongxia Cheng. Coagulation Effect on Ovarian function in Laparoscopic Ovarian cyst Excision. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 762-764]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 113

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.113

 

Key words: laparoscopy; ovarian cyst excision; coagulation; hemostasis; ovarian function

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Root development of 18-year-old Abies holophylla under different densities of red pine overstories with different stand aspect

 

Do-Hyung Lee

 

Department of Forest Resources, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan 712-749, Korea

dhlee@yu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to clarify the difference growth of underplanted Abies holophylla, which affected by overstory density and stand aspect. The overstory density needs to be considered as an interspecific competition factor that controls young Abies growth, not only by radiation limitation but also through root competition of the underground. In this study we clarify the differences in root system growth and architecture of underplanted Abies holophylla that is primarily influenced and controlled by the density of the overstory. Each research site represented a different overstory density class and also some differences in stand and slope aspects (valley plane with 500 trees/ha; east slope with 780 trees/ha and west slope with 1220 trees/ha). A total 15 firs, 5 representatives from each site were studied for their root shape, number of vertical and horizontal roots, root length, and root weight. The shape and growth increments of the roots in each stand were influenced by various environmental factors such as constitution, soil nutrients, gravel content, and slope angle. Roots of trees on the planes tended to be heart-shaped and grew around the gravel in a depth of 30-40 cm. The sample trees from the east-facing stand had the second largest growth increment; their roots were straight taproot with a deep and well-developed center. The samples from the west-facing stand showed the least growth and had straight taproots, but with a bent center and lesser tiny roots than those found in samples from other stands. This difference appeared to be important and indicates that light availability becomes limited with density and species of the overstory, and that other site conditions and stand factor conditions, particularly soil characteristics, need to be considered for obtaining stable secondary forests by underplantation. Therefore, when A. holophylla is used for afforestation, slope aspect and overstory density should be considered as important factors.

[Do-Hyung Lee. Root development of 18-year-old Abies holophylla under different densities of red pine overstories with different stand aspect. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):765-774]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescien cesite.com. 114. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.114

 

Keywords: Abies holophylla; Root system; Slope aspect; Soil characteristics; Light availability

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Assessment of the surface water quality in Tajan river basin, Iran

 

Yousefi Zabihollah1*, Tarassoli Ahmad2, Nasirahmadi Kamran3, Yaghobzadeh Younes4, Yadollahi Aliakbar5

 

1Department of Environmental Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor-Mazandaran, Iran

3Young Researchers and Elite Club, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran

4Environmental Science Faculty Member of Allameh Mohaddes Noori, Institute of Higher Education, Noor, Iran

5Depatment of Environment, Mazandaran Branch, Iran

zyousefi2004@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the research, multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were used to identify characteristics of water quality and to assess spatial and seasonal variations of water quality in Tajan River Basin. Water quality data collected from ten sampling stations in river during Six years were analyzed for 14 parameters. Cluster analysis grouped stations into three clusters and the characteristic of clusters was agreed to the spatial pattern human activities in the Tajan river basin. In this investigation, cluster three (station 10) matches to highly polluted sites. The principal component analysis/factor analysis helped to extract and recognize the factors or origins responsible for water quality variations in four seasons. The temperature (natural parameter), BOD5, COD, FC, NO3- and PO4 (anthropogenic activities) were the most significant parameters contributing to water quality variations for all seasons.

[Yousefi Zabihollah, Tarassoli Ahmad, Nasirahmadi Kamran, Yaghobzadeh Younes, Yadollahi Aliakbar. Assessment of the surface water quality in Tajan river basin, Iran. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 775-780]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 115. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.115

 

Keywords: Water quality, Tajan river basin, component analysis, cluster analysis, sari

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Changes in Endotoxin- and Platelet-activating Factor of Rats at Different Periods after Acute Small-bowel Obstruction Occurrence

 

Peige Wang1, Lei Wang2, Shikuan Li,1 Guode Sui1, Peng Gao1, Guang Cheng1

 

1Department of Emergency General Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China

2Department of Thyroid gland Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China

Email: pgcgcn@163.com

 

Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to investigate the levels of endotoxin and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in plasma and tissue homogenates during different phases of acute small-intestine obstruction of rats. Methods: Seventy-two specific pathogen-free Wistar rats were completely and randomly divided into the control, sham-operated, and acute small-intestine obstruction groups. Operation was performed on rats in each group after intraperitoneal administration of anesthesia. After the operation, venous blood was phlebotomized at four different time points for examination, and part of the ileum was taken for the tissue homogenate. The levels of endotoxin and PAF in venous blood and tissue homogenate were examined by ELISA. Results: The levels of plasma endotoxin increased evidently after operation, achieved its peak value after 24 h, and then decreased, showing a double-peak curve. The levels of PAF in both plasma and tissue homogenates as well as the endotoxin in the tissue homogenate increased evidently after operation compared with that of the normal control group (P < 0.01). The level of endotoxin had a positive correlation with PAF (r = 0.656, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The levels of plasma endotoxin can be used to evaluate the function of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and as a sensitive cytokine, PAF can determine disease progression and offer evidence for early intervention.

[Peige Wang, Lei Wang, Shikuan Li, Guode Sui, Peng Gao, Guang Cheng. Changes in Endotoxin- and Platelet-activating Factor of Rats at Different Periods after Acute Small-bowel Obstruction Occurrence. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):781-785]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 116. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.116

 

Keywords: Acute bowel obstruction, endotoxin, platelet-activating factor, ELISA, intestinal barrier

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Benefits and Problems in Caged Rearing of Lates Calcarifer, Oreochromis Niloticus and Pangasius Sutchi: The Case of Entrepreneurs in Pekan, Pahang

 

Khairuddin Idris2, Azmariana Azman1, Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva1, Norsida Man2 and Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril1

 

1 Institute for Social Science Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

2 Faculty of Education, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

3 Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

majudesa.desa2@gmail.com; kidin@putra.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: As marine sources are consistently depleting, turning to aquaculture as an alternative source is seen as a vital step. However, little academic interest has been paid to aquaculture, particularly the social part of it. This study aims to identify the benefits and problems faced by entrepreneurs in Pekan Pahang who run caged aquaculture activities, particularly regarding three species: Lates calcarifer (sea bass), Oreochromis niloticus (red tilapia) and Pangasius sutchi (patin). To gain the required data, two Focus Group Discussions are conducted using a total of 12 respondents; five respondents in Tanjong Gosong and seven respondents in Pulau Keladi Village in Malaysia. In terms of the benefits of aquaculture activities, four main themes emerge, namely increasing their income, a sense of hard work, creatively solving problems and creating a norm of cooperation. In terms of problems faced by the entrepreneurs, four main themes emerge, namely relating to financial, environmental, seedling and diseases, and human and animal factors.

[Khairuddin Idris, Azmariana Azman, Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva, Norsida Man and Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril. Benefits and Problems in Caged Rearing of Lates Calcarifer, Oreochromis Niloticus and Pangasius Sutchi: The Case of Entrepreneurs in Pekan, Pahang. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 786-792]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 117. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.117

 

Keywords: Aquaculture entrepreneurs; social development; economic development

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Integrated Semi Groups And Cauchy Problem For Some Fractional Abstract Differential Equations

 

Mahmoud M. El-Boraia and Khairia El-Said El-Nadib

 

aDepartment of Mathematics, faculty of science, Alexandria university, Alexandria

bDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of science, Alexandria University, Alexandria

Email: m_m_elborai@yahoo.com; khairia_el_said@hotmail.com

 

AbstractLet  be a linear closed operator defined on a dense set in a Banach space  to . In this note it is supposed that  is the generator of  times integrated semi group, where  is a positive number. The abstract Cauchy problem of the fractional differential equation: With the initial condition, is studied, where , and  is a given abstract function. An application is given.

[Mahmoud M. El-Borai, Khairia El-Said El-Nadi. Integrated Semi Groups And Cauchy Problem For Some Fractional Abstract Differential Equations. Life Scie J 2013; 10(3):793-795]. (ISSN: 1097-8035).http:www.lifesciencesite.com. 118. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.118

 

Keywords: times integrated semi groups, abstract fractional differential equations. 2000 mathematics subject

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Investigation Of Body Attractiveness In Adult Males And Sedentary Males Who Are Interested In Body Building

 

KUMARTASLI Mehmet

 

Süleyman Demirel University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Isparta, Turkey

 Email: mehmetkumartasli@sdu.edu.tr

 

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate body attractiveness in adult and sedentary males who are interested in body-building. Totally 66 males were participated in the study voluntarily, 32 of whom were amateur body builders (experimental group) having average of age as 27.25 ± 7.683 years and average of height as 177.22 ± 7.857 cm and 34 of whom do not do physical activities regularly (control group) having average of age as 23.35 ± 6.714 years and average of height as 172.82 ± 8.196 cm. Anthropometric measurements were applied on all subjects participated in the research and Body Attractiveness Subscale of Physical Self-Perception Profile, PSPP developed by Fox and Corbin (1989) was used. In the analysis of data, Paired Samples t – test and Independent Samples t – test were used. The results were evaluated whether they have 0.05 level of significance or not. As a result, a significant difference was found between pre-test post-test values of attractiveness, Body Mass Index and weight belonging to body builders (experimental group). Moreover, a significant difference was not found between pre-test post-test values of attractiveness, Body Mass Index and weight belonging to males not doing any exercises regularly (control group). In the comparison of experimental and control groups, a significant difference was not found between attractiveness pre-test values. However, a significant difference was determined between attractiveness post-test values.

[KUMARTASLI Mehmet. Investigation Of Body Attractiveness In Adult Males And Sedentary Males Who Are Interested In Body Building. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 796-799]: (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 119

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.119

 

Key Words: Sedentary men, body building and attraction

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Performance Analysis of Emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)

 

Gulistan Raja, Awais Khan, Abdur Rashid and Ahmad Khalil Khan

 

Department of Electrical Engineering, UET Taxila, Pakistan

Email: gulistan.raja@uettaxila.edu.pk

 

Abstract: High definition video is becoming popular day by day due to desire for superior level quality and high resolution video. The upcoming High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard is designed to serve diverse range of applications like HDTV, video conferencing, fast internet streaming and videophone. This paper describes the performance analysis of HEVC with H.264/AVC video coding standard. Various 1920x1080 resolution high definition sequences are used to check the efficiency of HEVC. Simulation results show that HEVC in comparison to H.264 results in 52 % (average) bit rate improvement without significantly affecting the subjective and objective quality of video.

[Gulistan Raja, Awais Khan, Abdur Rashid and Ahmad Khalil Khan, Performance Analysis of EmergingHigh Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 800-803]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifescience site.com. 120. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.120

 

Keywords: HEVC, H.264/AVC, high definition video

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Real-Time Target Detection and Tracking: A Comparative In-depth Review of Strategies

 

Javed Iqbal1, Mustafa Pasha1, Riaz-un-Nabi2, Hamza Khan3, Jamshed Iqbal1

 

1Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Department of Electrical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

3Department of Advanced Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Italy

Email: jamshed.iqbal@comsats.edu.pk

 

Abstract: This survey reports the approaches for object detection and successful target tracking based on image acquisition for real time applications. Moving target detection and its tracking is an important research topic in computer vision and robotics. Complexity of algorithms for this purpose ranges from simple, single and stationary targets tracking to complex, multiple and moving targets handling. Their applications range from basic object detection and pick & place task using a simple robotic arm to complex surveillance using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). Depending upon the application scenario, various algorithms have been proposed. The objective of this research is to present a comprehensive survey on reported multipurpose algorithms for target real time detection and tracking. Particular consideration has been paid to the underlying norms of each algorithm and its ability to tackle various situations. The paper, besides introducing relevant algorithms and key terminologies, presents a comparative analysis of various associated techniques. It is anticipated that the present review will provide a very useful framework for researchers working in the area of computer vision. The review, in addition to helping them in choosing a particular algorithm, will offer guidance to tailor an existing technique for a specific problem in hand.

[Javed Iqbal, Mustafa Pasha, Riaz-un-Nabi, Hamza Khan, Jamshed Iqbal. Real-Time Target Detection and Tracking: A Comparative In-depth Review of Strategies. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 804-813]. http://www.lifescience site.com. 121. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.121

 

Keywords: Object detection, Target tracking, Image processing, Computer vision, Robot control

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Effect evaluation of different inlay restorations

 

Yong Mi

 

Department of Denture Process, Jinan Stomatologic Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250001, China

Email: yongmicn@yeah.net

 

Abstract: Objective This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of gold alloy inlays, porcelain inlays and Ceramage polymerization porcelain inlays in restoring molar defects. Materials and methods Gold alloy inlays, Ceramage polymerization porcelain inlays and porcelain inlays were used to restore 59, 54 and 51 molar defects, respectively. All restorations were evaluated 6, 18 and 30 months after restoration according to the modified standards proposed by the American Public Health Association. Results No significant differences in inlay discoloration, marginal adaptation, secondary caries and food impaction were observed among these groups (P > 0.05). Both gold alloy inlays and Ceramage inlays were significantly more resistant to fractures than porcelain inlays (P < 0.05). Conclusions Gold alloy inlays, Ceramage inlays and porcelain inlays all produced satisfactory restorative effects on molar defects, although some differences were observed. An appropriate method should be determined according to patient conditions.

[Yong Mi. Effect evaluation of different inlay restorations. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3): 814-818]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 122

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.122

 

Keywords: gold alloy inlays; Ceramage polymerization porcelain inlays; porcelain inlays; molar defect

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Characterizations of rectifying, normal and osculating curves in three dimensional compact Lie groups

 

Zehra Bozkurt 1*, İsmail Gök 2*, O. Zeki Okuyucu 3, F. Nejat Ekmekci 4*

 

* Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey

3. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Bilecik, Turkey

1zbozkurt@ankara.edu.tr, 2 igok@science.ankara.edu.tr, 3 osman.okuyucu@bilecik.edu.tr 4ekmekci@science.ankara.edu.tr

 

Abstract: Position vector of a curve provides us some advantages in mechanics, kinematics and differential geometry for characterizations of curves. So, some authors [1, 4, 5, 6] have studied curves whose position vectors always lie their rectifying, normal and osculating plane, respectively. In this paper, we study the rectifying, normal and osculating curves in a three dimensional compact Lie group G with a bi-invariant metric. We give some new characterizations for these curves. Moreover, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for them using their harmonic curvature functions.

[Zehra Bozkurt, İsmail Gök, O. Zeki Okuyucu, F. Nejat Ekmekci. Characterizations of rectifying, normal and osculating curves in three dimensional compact Lie groups. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):819-823] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 123. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.123

 

Keywords: Primary 53C40; Secondary 22E15; Rectifying curves, normal curves, osculating curves, Lie groups

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Comparison of Ghrelin Level between On and Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

 

1- Ali Asghar Moeinipour, MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: MoinipoorA1@mums.ac.ir

2- Mohammad Abbasi Tashnizi MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: abbasitashnizim@mums.ac.ir

3- Hossein Ayatollahi MD, Associate Professor of Pathology, Department of Hematopathology and blood bank, Imam Reza Hospital, Cancer molecular Pathology research centre,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: Ayatollahih@mums.ac.ir

4- Nahid Zirak, MD, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: zirakn@mums.ac.ir

5- Alireza Sepehri Shamloo, Research Administrator, Student Research Committee, School of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: sepehria871@mums.ac.ir

6- Farnaz Ahmadpour, Medical Student, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: AhmadpourF891@mums.ac.ir

7- Farzaneh Akbari, Medical Student, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: AkbariF891@mums.ac.ir

8- Mohammad Sadegh Basir, Medical Student, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: BasirMS841@mums.ac.ir

9- Vahid Ghavami Ghanbar Abadi, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad, Iran. Tel: +98511 8829262. E-mail: GhavamiGhV1@mums.ac.ir

10- Ahmad Amouzeshi, MD, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: AmouzeshiA901@mums.ac.ir

11- Jamil Esfahanizadeh, MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: EsfahanizadehJ@mums.ac.ir

12- Mostafa Mirshapanah, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: MirSHM861@mums.ac.ir

13- seyed Hamid Reza HoseiniKhah Manshadi, MD, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +985118525311. E-mail: HoseiniKhahHR881@mums.ac.ir

14- Mohsen Nematy*, MD, PGDip., PhD. Associate Professor, Department of Nutrition, Biochemistry and Nutrition, Endoscopic & Minimally Invasive Surgery, and Cancer Research Centers, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

*Corresponding author: Mohsen Nematy

 

Abstract: Background: Malnutrition is a considerable problem after major surgeries in hospitalized patients. Moreover, increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases leads to an augmentation in number of cardiovascular surgeries. Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone that can prevent malnutrition. This study aimed to evaluate ghrelin levels in coronary artery bypass graft patients in two methods, on- and off-pump. Method: In this prospective cohort study, 40 patients who underwent off- and on-pump operation were designated during September 2011 through March 2012 at Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Written informed consents were obtained from patients before entering the study. Patients with HIV, HCV, HBS, malignancy, and weight loss of >50% in last three month were excluded. Nutritional status and ghrelin level were evaluated for three times: (0, 5th and 40th day after surgery). SPSS 11.5 software was used for data analysis by t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Thirty-four patients were divided into two groups: off-pump (17 patients, mean age 64±1) and on-pump (17 patients, mean age 65±2). Mean value for ghrelin after 40 days was 62.00 (pmol/dl) and 44.00 (pmol/dl) in off and on-pump groups, respectively, with no significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusions: Ghrelin levels were not remarkably changed in off and on-pump methods after the surgery.

[Ali Asghar Moeinipour, Mohammad Abbasi Tashnizi, Hossein Ayatollahi, Nahid Zirak, Alireza Sepehri Shamloo, Farnaz Ahmadpour, Farzaneh Akbari, Mohammad Sadegh Basir, Vahid Ghavami Ghanbar Abadi, Ahmad Amouzeshi, Jamil Esfahanizadeh, Mostafa Mirshapanah, Seyed Hamid Reza HoseiniKhah Manshadi, Mohsen Nematy. Comparison of Ghrelin Level between On and Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):824-829] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 124. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.124

 

Keywords: Ghrelin levels- coronary artery bypass grafting- on-pump- off-pump

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Generalized tanh method extended with the Riccati equation for solving the some of nonlinear equations

 

Zeliha Sarıateş Körpınar 1, Münevver Tuz 2

 

1,2. Department of Mathematics, Firat University, 23119 Elazig, Turkey

zelihakorpinar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we find new exact traveling wave solutions of the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation, Lax's fifth-order KdV equation and Drinfeld-Sokolov-Wilson equation system by using generalized tanh method. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation which has more new solutions.

[Körpınar Z.S., Tuz M. Generalized tanh method extended with the Riccati equation for solving the some of nonlinear equations. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):830-838] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 125

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.125

 

Keywords: Generalized tanh function method; Riccati equation; Travelling wave solution; Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation; Lax's fifth-order KdV equation; Drinfeld-Sokolov-Wilson equation system.

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Prevalence and Causes of Recurrent Abortion among Women in Beni-Suef Governorate

 

Khadiga M.Abou-Gabal1, Hoda El-Fayoumi2, Ekram El-Shabrawy3, Amani Hammed1 and Amal Roshdi4

 

1Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University

2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University

3Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University

4Maternal and Neonatal Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Beni-Suef University

khadiga20047@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The current study searched for prevalence, causes or risk factors and how to prevent recurrent abortion among women in Beni-Suef Governorate. In women, progesterone is a hormone produced mainly in the ovaries. After an egg is released by the ovaries (ovulation), progesterone helps make the uterus ready for implantation of a fertilized egg. Peri-implantation pregnancy loss contributes to more than 20% of unexplained infertility. Deficient hormone levels result in aberrant growth and support of the uterine lining making it un-ideal for implantation. Polymorphisms within the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene, allele and genotype frequencies of patients with repeated abortions were compared also to a control group. Design: Risk factors of abortion like age, consanguinity, drug abuse, hormonal disturbances, and exposure to fever, X-rays or smoke during their pregnancies in a group of 40 women with repeated abortions compared with controls matched in number and whom their pregnancies were completely normal. Serum progesterone and the locus rs590688 of their PGR were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Results: There was a significant difference between patients and control groups in risk factors and in the serum progesterone levels (p<0.001). The SNP was detected (locus rs590688). The more frequent wild type (*1) allele and the rarer (*2) allele were found in the control group and in the study group at different frequencies (control group: *1/*1: 70%, *1/*2: 27.5%, *2/*2: 2.5%; patient group: *1/*1: 35%, *1/*2: 47.5%, *2/*2: 17.5%). The genotypes distributions differed significantly from each other (P<0.001). Conclusions: The data suggest that the rarer PGR allele may be associated with an increased likelihood of repeated abortions to its multi-factorial causes. Couples who experience recurrent pregnancy loss may benefit from a medical evaluation and psychological support.

[Khadiga M. Abou-Gabal, Hoda El-Fayoumi, Ekram El-Shabrawy, Amani Hammed and Amal Roshdi. Prevalence and Causes of Recurrent Abortion among Women in Beni-Suef Governorate. Life Sci J 2013; 10(3):839-845] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 126. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.126

 

Keywords: Abortion; Toxoplasma; HCMV; risk factors; progesterone receptor gene; SNP; allele.

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An Overview on Dynamic 3D Character Motion Techniques in Virtual Environments

 

Ismahafezi Ismail, Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ahmad Hoirul Basori

 

ViCubelab Department of Computer Graphics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Skudai (81310) Malaysia, ismahafezi@yahoo.com, shahinkey@yahoo.com, shahrizal@utm.my, hoirul_basori@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper presents a survey of dynamic motion manipulation for 3D character movement in the virtual environment. The survey is regarding the latest methods that have been used by researchers to transform dull motions into more dynamic and interactive movements. Comparisons of various motion algorithms used by other researchers are also presented. The survey focuses on dynamic 3D motion editor to get real 3D character movement which is a long standing problem in 3D animation industry. By utilizing motion capture technology, input data for character movement can be manipulated. Interested researchers on this area can obtain better understanding on the main issues and relevant techniques that have been used by recent researchers. This paper also reports on the highlighted evolutions of 3D motion techniques for dynamic motion in the virtual environments, focusing on three main parts; 3D character hierarchy, motion editing techniques and motion dynamic control.

[Ismail I., Kolivand H. Sunar M.S. Basori A.H. An Overview on Dynamic 3D Character Motion Techniques in Virtual Environments. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):846-853] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 127

doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.127

 

Keywords: 3D Character; computer animation; dynamic motion; realistic motion data, motion technique

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Generalized Space Fractional Variable-Order Schrödinger Equation

 

Suares Clovis Oukouomi Noutchie

 

Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa

23238917@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The Schrödinger equation is a partial differential equation that describes how the quantum state of some physical system changes with time. In this paper we generalize Schrödinger equation by including fractional variable. We solve the evolution equation numerically via the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The stability and the convergence of numerical scheme are highlighted.

[Oukouomi Noutchie, SC. Generalized Space Fractional Variable-Order Schrödinger Equation. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):854-859] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 128. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.128

 

Keywords: Generalized Schrödinger equation; variable-order derivative; Crank-Nicholson scheme; convergence; stability.

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A Comparison between the Impact of Two Different Exercise Protocols on Advanced Glycation End Products in Type 2 Diabetic Rats 

 

Mahmoud E. Salama 1&3, Magdi A. El-Damarawi 1&4, Afrah F. Salama2

 

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and 2Chemistry Department, Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

On Sabbatical leave to Departments of Physiology, 3 Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Qassim University and 4 Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

magdy.ali@med.tanta.edu.eg, magdidamarawi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: AIM: This study was designed to compare the impact of two different exercise protocols on the serum level of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: This study was performed on 40 male albino rats, weighed 200-250 g. At the start of the study, 10 male rats were separated and used as a control group (group I). Induction of diabetes in another 30 rats was done by a single intravenous injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups: group II (sedentary group) (n = 10) and group III (exercised group) (n = 20). Then, the exercised group was further subdivided into two subgroups: IIIa (were subjected to chronic regular moderate exercise protocol for 8 weeks and IIIb faced another protocol in the form of irregular strenuous exercise for the same period. RESULTS: The data in group II (sedentary group) as compared to group I (control group), showed that the injection of streptozotocin resulted in significant increase in the fasting blood glucose, serum AGEs and insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Also, there was significant decrease in the extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme serum level. Meanwhile, in subgroup IIIa (as compared to group II), regular moderate exercise protocol in diabetic rats produced significant reduction in the fasting blood glucose, serum AGEs and insulin levels and HOMA-IR. At the same time, there was significant increase in serum level of superoxide dismutase. Lastly, in subgroup IIIb (as compared to group II), the irregular intense exercise protocol in diabetic rats caused significant reduction in fasting blood glucose but there was insignificant decrease in serum AGEs and insulin levels and HOMA-IR. This was associated with insignificant increase in the superoxide dismutase serum level. CONCLUSION: In type 2 diabetes, regular moderate exercise protocol is more valuable program to reduce serum level of advanced glycation end products than irregular severe one. This regular moderate protocol will be very helpful in the prevention of development of diabetic complications.

[Mahmoud E. Salama, Magdi A. El-Damarawi and Afrah F. Salama. A Comparison between the Impact of Two Different Exercise Protocols on Advanced Glycation End Products in Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Life Sci J 2013;10(3):860-869] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 129. doi:10.7537/marslsj100313.129

 

Key Words: Diabetes, AGEs, regular moderate exercise, irregular intense exercise.

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