Loading

 Life Science Journal 
 (Life Sci J)
 
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 9 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 30), September 25, 2012. life0903
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0903
To get Microsoft Document (doc file): After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from.pdf to .doc or .docx
You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.
Welcome to send your papers to: lifesciencej@gmail.com
 

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Scaling Technique for Web Based Management Systems in Bioinformatics 

 

Syed M. Ahsan, Amjad Farooq, M. Shahbaz, M. Junaid Arshad, M. Aslam 

 

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UET, Lahore, Pakistan

ahsancs@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: With the enormous growth in web based management solutions the number of transactions increases proportionally, as system grows the number of requests increase. With the increase in number of request there introduce scaling concept. There are number of scaling techniques available but all these techniques focus on scaling the server by distribute the load on different servers. Many techniques give solutions to reduce the number of request and load balancing. But all the existing techniques are limited as the number of transactions increases exponentially. As a remedy we introduce new technique, which helps give a scalable solution without server maintenance cost. In this technique all users actions stored in the local java script model which then will saved in the database after some point so that to reduce the traffic. Objective is to make some intelligent client who stores all transaction at the client side and send only one request to server for all transactions.

[Syed Ahsan, Amjad Farooq, M. Shahbaz, M. Junaid Arshad, M. Aslam. Scaling Technique for Web Based Management Systems. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):1-5] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.01

 

Keywords: Techniques; Management System; Web Based; Solutions

Full Text

1

2

Anomalous Pattern Detection Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Data Mining

 

Zahoor ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahbaz1, Muhammad Shaheen1, Sajid Mehmood1, Syed Athar Masood2

 

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-54890, Pakistan

2Department of Engineering Management, NUST, College of E & ME, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

M.shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, Muhammad.Shahbaz@gmail.com

 

Abstract Due to the developments in technology number of applications emerged that produce huge amount of data in the form of streams. Dealing with this and extracting useful information from that data is a real challenge. In this paper, we have developed an architecture that can be used to manage data streaming applications and can extract useful information from that data in online fashion. To achieve mining results online, different phases in our model are parallelized. In this model we have also introduced the concept of context-awareness to improve performance of the proposed architectural model. In this model information from heterogeneous sources is gathered, fuse that information, and generate real-time results. These real-time results can be beneficial in different application area like web usage mining, online monitoring, fraud detection, network security, telecommunication calls monitoring, network monitoring and security, etc. To fulfill the objectives of this research, we incorporate lightweight online mining algorithms to extract useful but hidden information from the data gathered. Contextual information is exploited to detect anomalous behaviors. In this paper we have designed an architectural model to extract frequent patterns in the streaming data.

[Zahoor ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Shaheen, Sajid Mehmood, Syed Athar Masood. Anomalous Pattern Detection Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Data Mining. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):6-12] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.02

 

Keywords- stream mining; context-aware; anomalous pattern mining; ubiquitous data mining

Full Text

2

3

Data Mining Methodology in Perspective of Manufacturing Databases

 

Muhammad Shahbaz1, Muhammad Shaheen1, Muhammad Aslam1, Syed Ahsan1, Amjad Farooq1, Junaid Arshad1, Syed Athar Masood2

 

1 Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

2 Department of Engineering Management, NUST College of E&ME, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Muhammad.Shahbaz@gmail.com, M.Shahbaz@uet.edu.pk,

 

Abstract: In recent years data mining has become a very popular technique for extracting information from the database in different areas due to its flexibility of working on any kind of databases and also due to the surprising results. This paper is an attempt to introduce application of data mining techniques in the manufacturing industry to which least importance has been given. A taste of implement-able areas in manufacturing enterprises is discussed with a proposed architecture, which can be applied to an individual enterprise as well as to an extended enterprise to get benefit of data mining technique and to share the discovered knowledge among enterprises. The paper proposes conceptual methods for better use of different data mining techniques in product manufacturing life cycle. These techniques include statistical techniques, neural networks, decision trees and genetic algorithms. An integrated and unified data mining platform is anticipated then to improve overall manufacturing process.

[Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Shaheen, Muhammad Aslam, Syed Ahsan, Amjad Farooq, Junaid Arshad, Syed Athar Masood. Data Mining Methodology in Perspective of Manufacturing Databases. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):13-22] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.03

 

Keywords: Data Mining, Manufacturing, Industrial application, Data Mining methodologies, Data Warehousing

Full Text

3

4

Evaluating the Factors Responsible for Slow Rate of Technology Diffusion in Livestock Sector of South Asia and Developing a Framework to Accelerate this Process: A Case Study using data analysis for Pakistan’s Livestock Sector

 

Muhammad Shahbaz1, Waqar Saleem1, Ahsen Syed1, Muhammad Aslam1, Junaid Arshad1, Amjad Farooq1, Syed Athar Masood2, Muhammad Shaheen1

 

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-54890, Pakistan

2Department of Engineering Management, NUST, College of E & ME, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

M.shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, Muhammad.Shahbaz@gmail.com

 

Abstract South Asia boasts a large number of livestock populations and is considered as a very important region in context of global milk and meat production. The development of Livestock sector in countries such as India and Pakistan can be considered as a vital source for alleviating poverty and for developing the economy of these countries. However, large number of animal population in this region suffers from low productivity when compared with developed countries. The main reason behind low productivity of this sector is the lack of technology acceptance among farmers. The dissemination of information regarding new innovations and technologies in livestock sector is carried out through agriculture extension services. Technology or innovation diffusion is a complicated process. Many times seemingly beneficial technologies and innovations fail to get large scale acceptance or are accepted at a very slow rate. The process of technology diffusion consists of three basic elements i.e. technology or innovation, communication channel and social system. To accelerate this process it is essential to understand the attributes of both technology and social system and then to built an effective communication channel. This study attempts to identify important factors and attributes that play a vital role in farmer’s decision to adopt or reject a new technology. Through this study an attempt has also been made to determine the effectiveness and reliability of current extension services (communication channel) in livestock sector of Pakistan. Data analysis carried out in different livestock farms shows that both public and private sector have failed to increase awareness about new technologies and innovations among farmers. The analysis also reveals the important role played by technology diffusion attributes such as perceived usefulness, cost, personal innovativeness and social pressure in adoption or rejection of a technology. On the basis of these findings a model has been established to accelerate the process of technology diffusion in livestock sector of South Asian countries.

[Muhammad Shahbaz, Waqar Saleem, Ahsen Syed, Muhammad Aslam, Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, Syed Athar Masood, Muhammad Shaheen. Evaluating the Factors Responsible for Slow Rate of Technology Diffusion in Livestock Sector of South Asia and Developing a Framework to Accelerate this Process: A Case Study Using data analysis for Pakistan’s Livestock Sector. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):23-30] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.04

 

Keywords- Technology Diffusion; Technology Acceptance Model; Livestock of South Asia, Livesock Sector of Pakistan

Full Text

4

5

An Analysis of Relationship between Total Quality Management and Kaizen

 

Muhammad Saleem1, Nawar Khan2, Shafqat Hameed3, M Abbas Ch4

 

National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

ranasaleem096@em.ceme.edu.pk; hameed.shafqat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Total Quality Management (TQM) and Kaizen- a continuous change toward betterment are two fundamental concepts directly dealing with continuous improvement of quality of processes and performance of an organization to achieve positive transformation in mindset and action of employees and management. For clear understanding and to get maximum benefit from both of these concepts, as such it becomes mandatory to precisely differentiate between TQM and Kaizen. TQM features primarily focus on customer’s satisfaction through improvement of quality. It is both a top down and bottom up approach whereas kaizen is processes focused and a bottom up approach of small incremental changes. Implementation of TQM is more costly as compared to Kaizen. Through kaizen, improvements are made using organization’s available resources. For the effective implementation of kaizen, the culture of the organization must be supportive and the result of continuous improvement should be communicated to the whole organization for motivation of all employees and for the success of continuous improvement program in the organization. This paper focuses on analyzing the minute differences between TQM and Kaizen. It also discusses the different tools and techniques under the umbrella of kaizen and TQM Philosophy. This paper will elucidate the differences in both these concepts as far as their inherent characteristics and practical implementations are concerned. In spite of differences in methodology, focus and scale of operation in both the concept, it can be simply concluded that Kaizen is one of the Technique of the T QM for continuous improvement of quality, process and performance of the organization.

[Muhammad Saleem, Nawar Khan, Shafqat Hameed, M Abbas Ch. An Analysis of Relationship between Total Quality Management and Kaizen. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):31-40] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.05

 

Key Worlds: Total Quality Management, Kaizen Technique, Continuous Improvement (CI), Tools & Techniques

Full Text

5

6

Internet Development Opportunities for Small to Medium Sized Enterprises in Ukraine

 

Brendan Dcruz1, Shafqat Hameed2

 

1University of Wales, Newport, UK

2National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Shafqat.hameed@ceme.nust.edu.pk; hameed.shafqat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: It has been argued that the development of the small business sector in Ukraine is central to economic reforms and the creation of wealth and employment. Given the inherent instability and general weakness of the Ukrainian economy to date, there have been many structural and political obstacles to entrepreneurial activity and the development of small enterprises in a variety of business sectors. However, the relatively recent emergence of the Internet as a vehicle for business transformation has already provided opportunities for small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ukraine to enter global markets. The extent to which this has been the case for developing economies is a continuing research issue, given that various studies have already identified tangible benefits for the growth of SMEs in developed economies. This paper looks at the development of SMEs in Ukraine and outlines the factors that have affected their growth. The paper then focuses on the role of the Internet in promoting the development of SMEs in Ukraine, and considers the facilitation of opportunities provided by the available infrastructure. Recent progress towards developing a better infrastructure to support entrepreneurial activity and SME growth are discussed, including the need for further research.

[Brendan Dcruz, Shafqat Hameed. Internet Development Opportunities for Small to Medium Sized Enterprises in Ukraine. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):41-47] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.06

 

Keywords: Internet, Ukraine, SME, Business, Economic Development

Full Text

6

7

Pathology Induced by Sphaerirostris picae (Acanthocephala, Centrorhynchidae) in the Hooded Crow Corvus corone cornix (Aves: Corvidae) from North Delta of Egypt

 

Nahla A. Radwan

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt

nahla_ahmad_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study describes the pathological manifestations of the acanthocephalan, Sphaerirostris picae (Rudolphi, 1819) Golvan, 1960 in the small intestine of the hooded crow "Corvus corone cornix" collected from the northern parts of Nile Delta in Egypt. Histological and histochemical alternations of infected ileum were illustrated using heamatoxylin and eosin stain, alcian blue method for mucin and Malaty's modified simultaneous coupling azodye method for acid and alkaline phosphatases. Examinations of 25 birds showed that the infected ileum only harbored the acanthocephalan worm, no other helminthes were observed. The proboscis of the acanthocephalan pierced the mucosal epithelium, its lamina propria and reached the external muscularis causing compression and erosion of the villar epithelium, shortening and abrasion of the intestinal villi and destruction of the glands (crypts) apposing the everted worm proboscis. Noticeable cellular infiltration, hemorrhage and marked destruction, thickening and vacuolation of stromal connective tissue surrounded the acanthocephalan preasoma, as well as in the submucosa were detected. A marked increase in the number of goblet cells in both crypts and villi was observed. The intestinal epithelium exhibited a detectable increase in acid phosphatase activity in both villi and crypts while alkaline phosphatase showed moderate decrease in the villi and detectable decline in the crypts epithelium.

[Nahla A. Radwan. Pathology Induced by Sphaerirostris picae (Acanthocephala, Centrorhynchidae) in the Hooded Crow Corvus corone cornix (Aves:Corvidae ) from North Delta of Egypt. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):48-56]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.07

Full Text

7

8

Awareness and use of agricultural market information among small scale farmers in Ngaka Modiri Molema District of North West Province

 

 Balarane, A and Oladele, O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa E-mail: oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za, oladele20002001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study determined awareness and use of agricultural market information among small scale farmers in the Ngaka Modiri Molema District in the North West Province. Simple random sampling techniques was used to select 120 farmers from the population of study and data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire and subjected to analysis using frequencies, percentage and multiple regression analysis. The results of the study show that majority of farmers were between the age category of 51-60 years, married (58.8%); Christians (80.7%), males (56.3%), married (58.8%) and had studied up to high school level (47.1%). The results also shows that agricultural market information provides farmers with knowledge of the prices of the produce, provides knowledge of who to buy the produce, the quantity to be produce and knowledge of different outlets such as fruit and vegetables, respectively with 67.2% and 66.4%. Farmers have indicated that they are aware of agricultural market information and they use radio with 68.9% and newspaper with 68.1% respectively. Significant determinant of use of agricultural market information were knowledge (t= 6.464) and awareness (t= 6.963).

[Balarane A and Oladele OI. Awareness and use of agricultural market information among small scale farmers in Ngaka Modiri Molema District of North West Province. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):57-62]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.08

Full Text

8

9

A review of selected theories and their applications to information seeking behavior and adoption of organic agricultural practices by farmers

 

Adebayo S.A and Oladele O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. E-mail: oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za, oladele20002001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper discusses the application of selected theories to explain information seeking behavior and adoption of organic agricultural practices by farmers. The paper begins with a brief description of these selected theories which are the theory of Planned Behavior, diffusion theory and innovation theory. Following the brief description, the application of each of these theories to information seeking behavior and adoption of organic agricultural practices were discussed. Therefore, the paper recommends that in order to ensure adequate dissemination and the adoption of organic agricultural practices, extension officers, change agents, NGOs and the policy makers should adopt the principles in each of these theories to enhance farmers acceptance and implementation on the innovation.

[Adebayo SA and Oladele OI. A review of selected theories and their applications to information seeking behavior and adoption of organic agricultural practices by farmers. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):63-66]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.09

Full Text

9

10

Growth and mineral constituents of prose millet (Pennisetum glaucum) irrigated with sea water

 

AL-Zahrani, H. S. and AL-Toukhy, A. A

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, P. O. Box 80203, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. abdalmenamtoukhy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of different Sea water salinity levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) on seed germination, seedling growth and mineral ion concentration (K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, Fe, Cu, Mn and Mo) of prose millet (Pennisetum glauccum) were studied. Germination of prose millet seed was affected by high salinity levels, the germination percentages were 97, 84, 80, 77 and 57 % for the treatments used 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% sea water, respectively. Plant growth was also affected by salinity; shoot lengths were more pronounced than on root and leaf. The shoot, root and leaf lengths reached their maximum at 50% seawater salinity before them encounter reduction with increasing salinity. The shoot length was reduced 7.2% at 50% and 24.6% at 100% seawater salinity, root length increased 13.9% at 50% and reduced about 4.6% at 100%, while leaf length was only affected by salinity at 100% seawater salinity compared to plants irrigated with freshwater (control). Seawater salinity had a significant effect on mineral ion concentration in prose millet plants. Concentration of K, Ca, Mg and Fe was reduced in the shoot with increasing salinity levels to 39.9- 83.1%, 49.0- 92.2%, 9.9-13.8%, 10.2-33.0%, while Na, Cl, Mn and Mo concentration showed increase in concentration with increasing seawater salinity to 62.3-58.8%, 337.5-4.4%, 0-80%, 22.1-8.1% at 50% and 100% respectively. Also in the root, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, were significantly reduced to values of 56.3-895.3%, 59.4-95.8%, 0-58.5%, 18.5-13.6%, 5.6-85.2%, and that of Na, Mn and Mo increased to values of 64-64%, 25.7-46.6%, 92.7-117.6% at 50% and 100% increase in seawater salinity respectively.

[AL-Zahrani, H. S. and AL-Toukhy, A. A. Growth and mineral constituents of prose millet (Pennisetum glaucum) irrigated with sea water. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):67-72]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.10

Full Text

10

11

Benchmarking of patient satisfaction with physical rehabilitation services in various hospitals of Jeddah

 

Isabelle CN Devreux1, Agnes Jacquerye2, France Kittel2, Enas Elsayed1, Adnan Almazrooa3and Bahjat Al- Awa 3

 

1 Department of Physical Therapy- College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, KSA

2School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B

3Department of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, KSA

icnecol@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Objective: To study patients' satisfaction in rehabilitation services and its relation to staff job satisfaction in public, private and teaching hospitals in Jeddah. Method: A cross sectional survey was used to measure patients' satisfaction with rehabilitation services in ten different hospitals in Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). A validated Monnin and Perneger's questionnaire with a 5-points Likert scale was utilized. At the same time, staff job satisfaction was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model in the same health care facilities. Results: On 725 patients who responded to the survey, 80.6% were overall satisfied with the rehabilitation services they received. Patient satisfaction was significantly different (p= 0.001) between hospital types. In average, 88.5% of the patients of the teaching hospitals were satisfied with the rehabilitation services, compared to 77% of the patients in the public hospitals and 75.7% of the patients in the private hospitals. Moreover there was no statistically significant correlation between staff job satisfaction and patients' satisfaction. Conclusion: Patients' satisfaction with rehabilitation services was the highest in the teaching hospitals in comparison with the other types of health care facilities. Patients' satisfaction was however not significantly correlated with the staff job satisfaction.

[Isabelle CN Devreux, Agnes Jacquerye, France Kittel, Enas Elsayed, Adnan Almazrooa and Bahjat Al- Awa. Benchmarking of patient satisfaction with physical rehabilitation services in various hospitals of Jeddah. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):73-78]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.11

Full Text

11

12

The Influence of Number of Filaments on Physical and Mechanical characteristics of Polyester Woven Fabrics

 

Mofeda Abdul Rahman AL-ansary

 

Fashion Design Department, Design and Art College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. m_ansary2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper different polyester woven fabrics having different number of filaments in its filling yarns were woven. The effect of the number of filaments on the fabric properties was analyzed. The experimental results were assessed using analysis of variance and regression methods via SPSS statistical package. The statistical analysis revealed that properties of polyester fabrics have affected significantly by the number of filaments. As the number of filaments in the cross section of filling yarns increases, fabric thickness, tensile strength, fabric elongation and crease recovery increases. By the contrast, increasing number of filaments leads to a reduction in fabric air permeability, weight loss due to abrasion and fabric tearing strength.

[Mofeda Abdul Rahman AL-ansary. The Influence of Number of Filaments on Physical and Mechanical characteristics of Polyester Woven Fabrics. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):79-83]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.12

Full Text

12

13

Anatomical, Histological and Histochemical Adaptations of the Reptilian Alimentary Canal to Their Food Habits: I. Uromastyx aegyptiaca

 

Moustafa Zaher1, Abdel-Wahab El-Ghareeb1, Hamida Hamdi1, Azza Essa1 and Suad Lahsik2

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, El Margab University, Libya

Hamdihamida@rocketmail.com; Soad_1981@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A series of studies was carried out to elucidate the relationship between the microscopic anatomy of the alimentary canal and the food habits in reptiles. Three reptiles were chosen according to different feeding habits, Uromastyx is a herbivouous, Chameleon is an insectivorous, while Crocodilys is a carnivorous reptile. So, it is obvious that the anatomy as well as the histology of the alimentary tract of reptiles demonstrate certain specific characteristics of functional adaptations as a reflection of the herbivorous, carnivorous and insectivorous mode of feeding. The anatomical and histological study of the alimentary canal of Uromastyx aegyptiaca was carried out. A comparison between the different histological structures found and those known in other reptiles was done. The straight oesophagus is lined with ciliated epithelium and goblet cells, leading to the stomach which consists of two portions, fundic or oxyntic and pyloric or mucous. The small intestine is comparatively short although the animal is purely herbivorous. It consists of the duodenum and ileum. The duodenual mucosa is in the form of leaf-like villi provided with shallow branched Lieberkühn crypts at their bases. The ileum is devoid of found glands. The large intestine is formed of a well developed large caecum, colon and rectum. At the posterior edge of the caecum there is a small blind sac which is considered as the appendix. The caecum which is devoid of glands is lined with simple columnar cells of a special type. While the ileo -caecal valve is in the form of a characteristic well developed protrusion, the caeco-colic valve is formed of a flap arising from one side. The mucosa of the colon is folded and lined with goblet and columnar cells, while that of the rectum is, more or less, straight and is rich in goblet cells and lymph spaces. The distribution and localization of different carbohydrate categories (PAS-positive material, mucopolysaccharides) were studied in the mucosal epithelium of the alimentary canal of Uromastyx aegeptiaca. The goblet cells of the oesophagus are rich in acid mucpolysacharides, those of the small and large intestine contained smaller amounts. Neutral mucpolysacharides were found in small to moderate amounts, being most obvious in the gastric mucosa. Mode of feeding as well as habitat, show, more or less a close similarity in the histochemical pattern of their gut mucosa as regards to the distribution and localization of proteins and nucleic acids.

[Moustafa Zaher, Abdel-Wahab El-Ghareeb, Hamida Hamdi, Azza Essa and Suad Lahsik. Anatomical, Histological and Histochemical Adaptations of the Reptilian Alimentary Canal to Their Food Habits: I. Uromastyx aegyptiaca. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):84-104]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.13

Full Text

13

14

Study of the Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) as a Biomarker of Lupus Nephritis Clinical Status

 

Samia MA Ramadan1, Yasser A Abdel-Hamid1, Hala A Agina2, Khaled M Belal3and Eman A Baraka1

 

1Rheumatology & Rehabilitation, 2Pathology and 3Clinical Pathology Departments. Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha University. khbelal1964@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: SLE is an unpredictable multi-systemic autoimmune life-long disease whose etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. The monocyte chomoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine thought to be responsible for monocyte and T lymphocytes recruitment in acute inflammatory conditions and may be an important mediator in chronic inflammation. Objective: Aimed to measure the serum and urinary levels of MCP-1 in patients with SLE, to find out its relation to clinical disease activity and to explore its role in LN. We also aimed to investigate correlations of these levels with histopathological changes of renal biopsies in order to evaluate their reliability as biomarkers for LN clinical status. Patients and Methods: After an ethical approval, this correlative study was conducted on thirty SLE female patients and 20 apparently healthy volunteers- age and sex matched. Serum and urinary levels of MCP-1 were determined by the ELISA technique, while a transcutaneous renal biopsy was obtained from all patients. Results: There were significant differences in the mean levels of serum MCP-1 (P<0.05) and urinary MCP-1 (P<0.001) between SLE patients and controls. The mean level of the urinary MCP-1 was significantly higher (P<0.001) in patients with active LN versus patients with inactive LN. There were insignificant differences (P>0.05) between the mean levels of C3,C4, ANA, anti-dsDNA and serum MCP-1 regarding the WHO classification system of LN, meanwhile, the mean urinary MCP-1 level showed a significant difference (P<0.05) among the histopathological groups. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the urinary MPC-1 biomarker was greatest when it was combined with anti ds-DNA testing, being 88.8% sensitive and 100% specific. Conclusion: Urinary MCP-1 is a valuable, sensitive and non-invasive biomarker for the assessment of renal disease in SLE patients; it is well correlated with the clinical, laboratory and pathological parameters of LN activity. MCP-1 would be a potential therapeutic target in SLE.

[Samia M. A. Ramadan, Yasser A Abdel-Hamid, Hala A Agina, Khaled M Belal and Eman A Baraka. Study of the Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) as a Biomarker of Lupus Nephritis Clinical Status. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):105-113]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.14

Full Text

14

15

Increased Serum Visfatin Levels in Patients with Type2 Diabetic Patients

 

Osama S. El-Shaer1; Khaled M. Belal1; Hesham A. Issa1 and Tawfik El-Adl2

 

Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt. khbelal1964@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Obesity is highly associated with insulin resistance and the increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Visfatin is a cytokine that is highly expressed in visceral fat. It's expression in visceral fat is increased in obese subjects. Visfatin exerts insulin-mimetic effects and was as effective as insulin in reducing hyperglycemia in insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Objective: To study serum visfatin level in patients with type2 diabetes mellitus and to clarify its possible relationship with insulin resistance and glycemic control. Patients and Methods: Eighty cases (60 type2 diabetic patients and 20 apparently healthy subjects) were subjected for estimation of visfatin and fasting insulin by ELISA technique together with routine laboratory investigations including fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HbA1C. Results: Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, HbA1C and visfatin levels were significantly higher in diabetic than control group. HBA1C, fasting serum glucose and serum visfatin were significantly higher in uncontrolled than controlled diabetic subgroups. Weight, BMI and serum visfatin were significantly higher in overweight diabetic subgroup than normal BMI diabetic subgroup. A positive significant correlation was found between serum visfatin & HbA1C levels in the diabetic group. Conclusion: The increased serum visfatin concentration may be a compensatory mechanism aimed at ameliorating the functional consequences of insulin deficiency. The increased visfatin concentration may also promote insulin sensitivity by its stimulatory effects on insulin receptors.

 [Osama S. El-Shaer; Khaled M. Belal; Hesham A. Issa and Tawfik El-Adl. Increased Serum Visfatin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):114-120]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.15

Full Text

15

16

Calculation of Compressible Flow Past a Joukowski Aerofoil Using Direct Boundary Element Method with Constant Element Approach

 

Muhammad Mushtaq1, Nawazish Ali Shah1, G. Muhammad1, & M.S. Khan2

 

1Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – 54890, Pakistan

2Department of Geological Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – Pakistan

mushtaqmalik2004@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this paper, a steady, inviscid compressible flow past a Joukowski aerofoil has been calculated using direct boundary element method (DBEM) with constant boundary elements the velocity distribution for the flow over the surface of the Joukowski aerofoil which have been compared with the analytical results.

[Muhammad Mushtaq, Nawazish Ali Shah, G. Muhammad, and M.S. Khan. Calculation of Compressible Flow Past a Joukowski Aerofoil Using Direct Boundary Element Method with Constant Element Approach. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):121-127]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.16

Full Text

16

17

Depression and Anxiety among Males Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Predictors

 

Shaher Z. Al-Shehri1, Amr A. Sabra1,2, Attia Z. Taha 1, Ammar H. Khamis1, Ahmed S. Hafez1,3

 

1 Family &Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

2 Primary Health Care Division, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt.

3 Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Egypt

amrsabra_eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Psychiatric disorders in Saudi Arabia, mainly depression and anxiety are estimated to have high prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of depression, and anxiety among Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) attendees in Dammam and Al-Qatif areas, Eastern Saudi Arabia and to identify possible predictors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in ten randomly selected PHCCs. The study sample consisted of 822 adult male attendees. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered validated Arabic version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic characteristics and questions to assess depression and anxiety. The PHQ scoring system was used to derive severity scores for both conditions. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 32.8% with mild depression accounting for 22.9%. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 22.3% with 17.0% of the attendees having mild degree of anxiety. Single marital status, younger age group, lower monthly income, and positive history of psychological and chronic disorders were statistically significantly associated with depression. Single marital status was statistically significantly associated with anxiety. Logistic regression analysis showed that, single marital status and positive history of psychological illness were significant predictors of depression; being single was the only predicting factor for the occurrence of anxiety. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among PHCCs male attendees was relatively high. Therefore, screening of mental illnesses, especially depression and anxiety should be implemented by PHC physicians during their routine activities.

[Shaher Z. Al-Shehri, Amr A. Sabra, Attia Z. Taha, Ammar H. Khamis, Ahmed S. Hafez. Depression and Anxiety among Males Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Predictors. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):128-133]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.17

Full Text

17

18

Mechanical Properties and Morphology Studies of Nanocomposites Based on RSF/Nanoclay Modified /HDPE Nanocomposites

 

Abdel- Hakim A, A.1; Abdel -Salam Sabbah I.2; Metwally M., S.2; El Begawy S.3 and Elshafie E., S3.

 

 1Polymer and pigments Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2Department of chemistry, faculty of science, Al-Azhar, Cairo, Egypt

3Science &Technology Center of Excellence, Ministry of Military Production, Cairo, Egypt

emadsobhy2007@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The use of natural fibers and nanoclay as reinforcement materials in composites has proved the ability of providing several environmental and economical advantages. In this work, two groups of rice straw fibers (RSF) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites were prepared in the presence of 3wt% maleated polyethylene (MAPE) as coupling agent. To the former group, nanomontmorillonite clay (n-MMT) was added after being treated with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), in order to enhance dispersiability, compatibility and interfacial bonding with the polymer. Calcium oxide (CaO) was added as a filler to the second group in fine powder form.These groups have been examined with regard to their mechanical properties and thermal stability. The interfacial adhesion has been also investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Results revealed that, significant improvement was attained for mechanical properties as the modified nanoclay %increases to~ 2.5%.Maximum loaded amount of ca.10% CaO has found to be sufficiently required to enhance tensile strength with reasonable flexural strength.

[Abdel- Hakim A, A.; Abdel -Salam Sabbah I.; Metwally M., S.; El Begawy S. and Elshafie E., S. Mechanical Properties and Morphology Studies of Nanocomposites Based on RSF/Nanoclay Modified /HDPE Nanocomposites. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):134-142]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.18

Full Text

18

19

Cloning of HBV S Gene with Artificial Mutation Sites in ‘a’ Determinant and Analyzing the Protein Antigenicity Expressed

 

Xiaofei Li1, ZujiangYu2, DongliangYang3, Jun Zhang3, Youhua Hao3, Baoju Wang3, Kan Quancheng1

 

1. The department of the Pharmacology, the first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, Chian; 2. The department of the infectious disease, the first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China; 3. Division of clinic immunity, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong Science and Technology University, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China; johnyue70@yahoo.com

 

[Abstract] HBV (hepatitis B virus) vaccine is an effective way to control HBV infection, so viruses must be in variance to escape the clearance of host’s immunity. The mutations induced by HBV vaccine majored in ‘a’ determination. In order to study mutations those how to influence the biologic characteristic of S gene, especially in antigenicity and immunogenicity of HBsAg, We constructed series variant clones of HBV S gene ‘a’ determination according to data of epidemiology. After verified by sequence, we constructed a series variant clone of HBV S gene with “site-mutation method of PCR (gene SOEing PCR, gene splice of overlap extending PCR)”. After cellular expression, the antigen expressed by different mutant clones were all recognized by corresponding monoclonal antibody and not done by common HBsAb with immunofluorescence assay. In a conclusion, the mutations in “a “determination can alter the biologic characteristic of S gene, especially in the antigenicity of HBsAg, in a extend. The series mutant clones of “a” determination, which we constructed, may be provide the basic theory for how to develop new HBsAg detected kit, vaccine or HBV immunoglobulin (HBIG).

[Xiaofei Li, ZujiangYu, DongliangYang, Jun Zhang, Youhua Hao, Baoju Wang, Kan Quancheng. Cloning of HBV S Gene with Artificial Mutation Sites in ‘a’ Determinant and Analyzing the Protein Antigenicity Expressed. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):143-147]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.19

 

Key words: HBV; ‘a’ determination; variance; antigenicity

Full Text

19

20

Implementation of Real-time Handwriting Recognition System Using Touch Panel Based on Neural Network

 

Yi-Sung Yang, Cheng-Fang Huang, Bo-Jhih Hu, Teh-Lu Liao, Jun-Juh Yan

 

1. Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 Taiwan, R.O.C.

2. Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan, R.O.C.

* Corresponding author: Tel: +886-7-6158000 #4806; Fax: +886-7-6158000 #4899

E-mail: jjyan@stu.edu.tw (corresponding author)

 

Abstract: Based on neural network, this study contributes to propose a real-time handwriting recognition system with Arabic numbers and lowercase letters. It includes two parts which are hardware design and software algorithm. In hardware design, after pressing the touch panel surface, analog signals are obtained and transformed into digital ones by A/D converter. In software algorithm, recognition architecture is constructed by three level back-propagation neural network and learning samples of Arabic numbers and lowercase letters are collected from nine schoolmates. Based on the illustration, the proposed handwriting recognition system of this study can achieve about 90% correction rates and satisfy the market standard.

[Yi-Sung Yang, Cheng-Fang Huang, Bo-Jhih Hu, Teh-Lu Liao, Jun-Juh Yan. Implementation of Real-time Handwriting Recognition System Using Touch Panel Based on Neural Network. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):148-154] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.20

 

Keywords: Touch panel, Handwriting recognition, Back-propagation neural network

Full Text

20

21

Changes in psychological states of caregivers of patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease following Memantine therapy

 

Mingyi MaJingtao WangBoai Zhang

 

First Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. jtclay2008@126.com

 

Absract: To assess the psychological states of caregiver of patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease and to explore the effects of memantine therapy for patients on them40 paitients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers were recruited. Patients were treated for 6 months with open-label memantine. Caregivers were assessed at baseline and month 6. Their psychological states were assessed by Symptom Checklist 90Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating depression scale(SDS). Difference of their psychological states between different time points and normal Chinese scale were analysed by T-test..Results showes that there are significant difference in depressionanxietyhostilityparanoia and total SCL-90 scale between baseline and month 6 (all p0.05).When compared to normal SCL-90 scalethere are significant difference in all of items except compulsionphobophobia and psychosis at baseline wherever no significant difference in all of items between month 6 and normal scale. There are significant difference in SDS and SAS scale of caregivers between baselinemonth 6 and Chinese normal scale. In a word,caregivers of patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease may have worse psychological states than normal population and memantine therapy for AD paitents maybe alleviate these problems.

[Mingyi Ma, Jingtao Wang, Boai Zhang. Changes in psychological states of caregivers of patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease following Memantine therapy. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):155-158]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.21

 

Key Words Alzheimer’s disease; caregiver; psychological states;memantine

Full Text

21

22

A survey of quality of life and its associated factors in community-living older adults in Qiqihar

 

Li Guiling1, Wang Jinguo2

 

1Nursing Institute of Qiqihaer Medical University, Heilongjiang, 161006, China.

2The Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

wnllgl@sohu.com

 

Abstracte: Study the quality of life among the old of empty nest and non empty nest in Qiqihar, and analyze of its influence factors. Method: The investigation objects are divided into two groups, which are at least as old as 60 years old from 6 communities. One has three hundred old people of empty nest, so does the other three hundred with non empty nest. All above were surveyed with self-made questionnaire. Result: There are little differences between cultural level, occupation and medical payment(average P>0.05),while great differences between marital status, chronic disease, mental health and somatic pain(average P<0.05). Conclusion: The help and support from the whole society to the old of empty nest is very important.

[Li Guiling, Wang Jinguo. A survey of quality of life and its associated factors in community-living older adults in Qiqihar. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):159-160]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 22

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.22

 

Key words: quality of life; associated factors; community-living

Full Text

22

23

Relationships among the occurrence of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder 0f College Students with Personal Coping Style, Family Environment and parental rearing patterns

 

ZHAO Wei1, LIU Guiping1,ZHAO Yanli1,WANG Jingjing1,ZHANG Hua2, LI Shuanrong3

 

1The Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China

2The Psychiatric ward of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

3The Psychiatric Hospital in Henan Province, Xinxiang, Henan 453700, China

lgping@zzu.edu.cn

 

Objective To explore the relationships among the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder of college Students with personal coping style,family environment and parental rearing patterns. Methods The questionnaires survey was carried out among 94 college studengs with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 102 controls without mental disorder.Using the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire,Family Environment Scale-Chinese Version FES-CV and the Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforsffan EMBU of Chinese Version. Results The scores of case group lower than those of controls in positive coping style, intimacy, emotional expression, entertainment, parents emotional warmth and understandingall P 0.01), but higher than those of normal controls in contradictions,the father's punishment and strictnessP0.01.Differences were significant. Logistic regression analysis showed that the contradictions of the family environment (OR=1.424)is a risk factor for college students with obsessive-compulsive disorder,positive coping style (OR = 0.672), intimacy (OR=0.601) and emotional expression (OR = 0.608) are protective factors. Conclusion Positive coping style, the intimacy of family members,emotional expression and contradictions are impact factors of college students with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

[ZHAO Wei, LIU Guiping, ZHAO Yanli, WANG Jingjing, ZHANG Hua, LI Shuanrong. Relationships among the occurrence of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder 0f College Students with Personal Coping Style, Family Environment and parental rearing patterns. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):161-165]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.23

 

Key words: College studentsObsessive-compulsive disorderCoping styleFamily environmentparental rearing patternsCase-control study

Full Text

23

24

Knowledge about Breast Cancer among Male Medical Students, Jeddah, 2011

 

Samia M. Al-Amoudi1*, Basem S. Eldeek2, 3, Nasra N. Ayuob,2, 3, Wael Alzhrani 4 and Mahmoud S. Alahwal 5

 

1Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University,

2 Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

3 Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4 Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

5 Consultant Oncologists, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

dr.samia_amoudi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To assess the level of breast cancer knowledge among Saudi Male Medical students, which will help in designing breast cancer awareness education programs for the younger generations. Methods: This was a cross sectional study that carried out in the faculties of Medicine at King Abdulaziz University, AlBatarji and Ibnsina, Jeddah Saudi Arabia, between April and June 2011. A questionnaire was distributed to 400 male medical students to assess their knowledge about breast cancer, its risk factors and breast self examination (BSE). Data were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).Results: About 24% of the participants have a family history of breast cancer and only 17.2% knew what mammogram. The use of oral contraceptive pills (43.5%), exposure to radiation (16%), smoking (25.8%), fatty diet (47%), family history of ovarian cancer (30.3%) and of colonic cancer (28.5%) were recognized by the participants as a risk factor of breast ca ncer. 20% Twenty percent of the students knew what is meant by BSE and 18% knew that it has to be carried out after the monthly period and about 8% of them were very enthusiastic to receive a training course on how the BSE should be done. Conclusion: Limited knowledge of breast cancer among male medical students might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, awareness programs and empowering medical students with knowledge is important area to work on through the medical curriculum development to help in the fight against breast cancer.

[Samia M. Al-Amoudi, Basem S. Eldeek, Nasra N. Ayuob, Wael Alzhrani and Mahmoud S. Alahwal. Knowledge about Breast Cancer among Male Medical Students, Jeddah, 2011. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):166-170]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.24

 

Key words: Knowledge, Breast Cancer, Male Medical Students, Jeddah

Full Text

24

25

An Novel Approach for the Assembly of Bio-nanocapsules by Detonation Process

 

1Yeuh-Hui Lin,* and 2Sheau-Long Lee

 

1 Department of Greenergy Science and Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan, ROC

2 Department of Chemistry, Chinese Military Academy, Kaohsiung 830, Taiwan, ROC

*Corresponding Author’s E-mail: lin@cc.kyu.edu.tw

 

Abstract:Carbon bio-nanocapsules, a graphitic structure of nanoparticles with a hollow core, have been synthesized via an enhanced detonation process using a Trinitrotoulene (TNT) explosive with parts of toulene as carbon sources and solvent in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as starting mixtures. Titanium nanoparticles, in stu formed from a detonation-assisted decomposition and rapid reduction of titanium dioxide, show good metal-induced activity for nanocapsule nucleation and for disproportionation reaction of from the TNT detonation. The products of hollow carbon nanocapsules are characterized by XRD, TGA, TEM and EDX techniques. The results shows that surface of hollow carbon bio-nanocapsules displays multilayer wall in structure with 0.35 nm space between the layers and the external diameter of the hollow carbon nanocapsules is 20-90 nm with the thickness of the wall is about 3-10 nm. The method is capable of assembling of the carbon nanocapsules without the participaation of a catalyst. This novel method can be as an alternative technique and may give great potential for the cost-effective ptroduction of hollow carbon nanocapsules.

[Yeuh-Hui Lin, and Sheau-Long Lee. An Novel Approach for the Assembly of Bio-nanocapsules by Detonation Process. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):171-174]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.25

 

Keywords: Synthesis; Nanocapsules; Explosives; Nanoparticles; Detonation; Nanocapsules

Full Text

25

26

Local Recurrence and Distant Metastases after Breast Conservation Treatment in Women with Triple Negative Breast Cancer Subtype

 

Amr Ghannam 1, Omnia Abd el-fattah 1 and Ayman El-Nemr 2

 

1Clinical Oncology and 2Surgical Oncology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

omniaabdelfattah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Recently, gene expression studies using DNA microarrays have identified five common subtypes of breast cancer. The triple negative (TN) phe­notype, which includes tumors that do not express ER, PR, or HER2 serves as a proxy for the basal-like subtype. At the present time, there is little clinical data evaluating whether a particular breast cancer subtype is associated with increased rates of local and/or dis­tant recurrence after BCT.Objective: to evaluate the outcome after breast conservation therapy for triple-negative early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: Between 2000 and 2010, 421 patients with early stage breast cancer patients who treated with BCT were classified as TN (58) if they were negative for all three receptors (ER, PR, and HER2/neu) or as non–TN (363) if they were positive for any of the three markers. These patients were evaluated for isolated local and distant recurrence. Results: The local relapse rates among the TN group were nearly equal to those of the non–TN. (5.2% vs. 3.9% P= 0.63) five-years overall and disease free survival of the TN group were significantly poorer than the other group( 62% vs 85 % p=0.002 ) and (39 % vs 75% p= 0.00 ). The isolated local relapse free survival was 90.3% vs 95.7% between the 2 groups. (P= 0.365) while the isolated distant metastases free survival was 52% vs 84%. (P= 0.00). Conclusions: Although women with TN tumors had a higher rate of local failure and a lower rate of freedom from distant metastases compared with women without TN tumors, the absolute difference was relatively small and is not statistically significant and therefore does not preclude BCT for women with TN early-stage invasive breast carcinoma.

[Amr Ghannam, Omnia Abd el-fattah and Ayman El-Nemr. Local Recurrence and Distant Metastases after Breast Conservation Treatment in Women with Triple Negative Breast Cancer Subtype. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):175-182]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.26

 

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Hormone Receptor Negative, HER-2/neu Local recurrence.

Full Text

26

27

5-HT2c receptors modulate the discharging activities of inspiratory neurons in the medial region of Nucleus Retrofacialis of neonatal rats in vitro

 

QIAN Zhibin1, SONG Xiaorong1, JI Mingli2, LIU Chunxia1, LIU Xiaoli1

 

1 Department of Physiology of Xinxiang Medical University, 2 Department of Pathophysiology of Xinxiang Medical University, 453003, Xinxiang, Henan, China

Corresponding author: Qian Zhibin, qianzhibin@yahoo.cn

 

Abstract Objective To investigate whether 5-HT2C receptors modulate the discharging activities of inspiratory neurons in the medial region of Nucleus Retrofacialis (mNRF) of neonatal rats. Methods Experiments were performed in in vitro brainstem slice preparations from neonatal rats. These preparations included the mNRF with the hypoglossal nerve (XII nerve) rootlets retained. The rhythmic discharge activities of the inspiratory neurons (I neurons) and respiratory-related rhythmic discharge activities (RRDA) were simultaneously recorded by using microelectrodes in the mNRF and suction electrodes at the XII nerve rootlets, respectively. Roles of 5-HT2C receptors on the discharge activities of I neurons were investigated by administration of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist 2-Chloro-6-(1-piperazinyl)-pyrazine hydrochloride, 6-Chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine hydrochloride (MK212), and its specific antagonist 4-dionehydrochloridehydrate,8-[5-(2,4-Dimethoxy-5-(4-trifluoromethylphenylsulphonamido)phenyl-5-oxopentyl]-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decane-2 (RS102221) dissolved in modified Kreb's solution for perfused slices. Results MK212 prolonged inspiratory time (TI), shortened respiratory cycle (RC), enhanced integral amplitude (IA) and the spike frequency (SF) of I neurons. By contrast, RS102221 produced opposite effects. Conclusions 5-HT2C receptors take part in modulate the discharge activities of I neurons in mNRF of neonatal rat.

[QIAN Zhibin, SONG Xiaorong, JI Mingli, LIU Chunxia, LIU Xiaoli. 5-HT2c receptors modulate the discharging activities of inspiratory neurons in the medial region of Nucleus Retrofacialis of neonatal rats in vitro. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):183-186]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.27

 

Key words: the medial region of Nucleus Retrofacialis; 5-HT2C receptors; inspiratory neuron; brainstem slices

Full Text

27

28

Effect of Allium Sativum Extract on Serum Lipid and Antioxidant Status in hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

 

Amal, A. Fyiad and Sanaa, T. El- Sayed

 

Department of Biochemistry, Division of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. amalfayiad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of aqueous garlic extract (AGE, 1 ml/Kg, orally, corresponding to 500 mg/Kg/ day) in heart and liver tissues of rabbits fed with high-cholesterol diet. Twenty-eight male white New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups, 7 rabbits each. The first one, group 1, served as a control, group 2 (hypercholesterolemic group), rabbits fed (2% cholesterol enriched diet) for 4 weeks, group 3, (aqueous garlic extract AGE), rabbits were given orally aqueous garlic extract (500mg/Kg b.w/ day) for 4 weeks, group 4, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol- enriched diet in conjunction with AGE (500 mg/Kg b.w / day) orally for the same period. At the end of the feeding period, rabbits were fasted over night and slaughtered and blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological studies. Obtained results showed that AGE suppressed the high levels of serum lipid profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, while it increased the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The high serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase as well as creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in high-cholesterol rabbits treated with AGE. AGE lowered the high level of cardiac and hepatic lipid peroxidation and raised the low activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the cardiac and hepatic tissues. Histopathological examinations revealed that AGE preserved myocardial and hepatic tissues. It can be concluded that bioactive compounds containing in aqueous garlic extracts might be responsible for both lipid- lowering and antioxidative actions to protect the heart and liver from hypercholesterolemia.

[Amal, A. Fyiad and Sanaa, T. El- Sayed. Effect of Allium Sativum Extract on Serum Lipid and Antioxidant Status in hypercholesterolemic Rabbits. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):187-196]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.28

 

Key words: Garlic; enzymes; hypercholesterolemia; antioxidant activity; rabbits; histopathology

Full Text

28

29

Comparison of Inferotemporal Approach and the Medial Canthus Approach with Short Needle Length in Regional Ophthalmic Anesthesia

 

Mohamed Hesham, Rehab Sami, Mona Raafat, Ashraf Darweesh, and Rashad Aref

 

Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt. rehabmsami@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The usage of short needle in ophthalmic anesthesia is getting more popular with the inferotemporal approach being the most common site tested by the anesthetists. In this study, we compared the efficacy of using short needle (12 mm) in peribulbar anesthesia in two different approaches; inferotemporal approach and the medial canthus approach. Methods: 110 patients undergoing elective cataract surgery under local anesthesia were enrolled in this study. They received single injection peribulbar anesthesia with a 12 mm needle. The needle was inserted either into the inferotemporal area or in the medial canthus. Ocular akinesia was assessed 10 minutes after the block using the simple akinesia score. A score of 3 or less was accepted to provide adequate akinesia for the surgical procedure to be performed. If the block was inadequate for surgery after 10 minutes, supplementary anesthesia was provided using the same needle. Results: There was high statistically significant difference with respect to the volume injected, being higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (7.91±0.92 and 7.350.±97 respectively). No significant differences were noted between groups with respect to supplementation, akinesia and complications. Conclusion: peribulbar blockade performed either in the inferotemporal area or in the medial canthus using a short 12 mm needle is comparable.

[Mohamed Hesham, Rehab Sami, Mona Raafat, Ashraf Darweesh and Rashad Aref. Comparison of Inferotemporal Approach and the Medial Canthus Approach with Short Needle Length in Regional Ophthalmic Anesthesia. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):197-199]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.29

 

Keywords: inferotemporal- medial canthus- regional- ophthalmic anesthesia.

Full Text

29

30

The role of the Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) in knowledge management implementation

(Case study in private banks in Iran)

 

Dr. Seyed Mojtaba Mirlohi *, Mr.Behnam neysari **

 

* Department of Management, Shahrood university of Technology, Shahrood, Semnan, Iran. mirlohism@manage.ut.ac.ir;

** Accounting Undergraduate Department of Sport Science, Shahrood university of Technology, Shahrood, Semnan, Iran. behnamneysari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Many researchers will learn that the knowledge is power. knowledge is an important resource for preserving valuable heritage, Learning new things and new, Solve problems, Create competitive advantage and Establish new positions For the individual and the organization now and for the future. In recent decades has been widely investigated management and knowledge management. At the same time, a wide field of academic research and practical applications has been created. Knowledge management is the process for the flows of knowledge among the people. And it means for achieving innovation in processes, products and services and effective decisions and adapt to the dynamic and competitive market environment. This paper examines the knowledge management and The role of the Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)in knowledge management implementation Case study in private banks in Iran. The chief task of Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) that has been made in this study are:1. Create motivations for employees to share their knowledge with others. 2. Create solidarity among the organization members 3. Understanding and appropriate use of technology 4. Creating a learning organization 5. Creation of strategic thinking 6. Create opportunities for sharing and applying knowledge to employees in the organization. Managers of knowledge regarding these components can be efficiently and effectively implement their knowledge management.

[Seyed Mojtaba Mirlohi, Behnam neysari. The role of the Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) in knowledge management implementation. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):200-206]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.30

 

Keywords: knowledge management, Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO), knowledge sharing

Full Text

30

31

The Influence of an Eight-Week Whirling-Kung Training Course on the Heart Rate Variability

 

Chia-Shen Liao*, Jian-Wei Rau

 

The Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials Development, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97065, Taiwan. brucelcc@ms8.hinet.net

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of an eight-week whirling-kung training course on the heart rate variability (HRV) in order to know whether or not practicing whirling-kung continuously for 5 to 15 minutes three times a week is helpful to physical and mental health, indicated by the HRV indicators of the subjects. Results from paired-samples t tests show that in the whirling-kung group and the walking group, the HRV components such as SDNN, TP and HF did not increase significantly as hypothesized, while LF did not decrease significantly as hypothesized. Perhaps the relatively small sample sizes and the insufficient training courses have led to these consequences. However, the SDNN and TP in the control group has a statistically significant drop (p<0.05), compared to their rise in both the treatment group 1 and 2, though not statistically significant, which might suggest, like the walking group (treatment group 2), whirling might have avoided the dropping of the SDNN and TP.

[Chia-Shen Liao, Jian-Wei Rau. The Influence of an Eight-Week Whirling-Kung Training Course on the Heart Rate Variability. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):207-214] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.31

 

Keywords: heart rate variability, whirling-kung, whirling-kung training course

Full Text

31

32

“It Might Have Been a Slip of Tongue”: Iranian EFL Teachers’ Reaction to their Colleagues’ Linguistic Goofs

 

Reza Pishghadam, Paria Norouz Kermanshahi

 

English Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

PO box 91779-48974, Park Square, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

 

Abstract: This research sought to investigate Iranian EFL teachers’ reaction to their colleagues’ mistakes and the probable factors influencing their response. Moreover, it was momentous to the researchers to figure out whether teaching experience and gender play any significant role in the way the participants respond or not. Therefore, 144 teachers were selected with different teaching experiences. The participants were provided with a Discourse Completion Task (DCT) in which they were asked to imagine themselves in a situation where a colleague makes a mistake, and to respond how they would react with the aid of 7 options and a blank space to write a comment or an answer, which was not included. At the end, their responses were first transformed into tables and bar graphs illustrating the frequency and percentage of each option, and then were deeply analyzed. It was concluded that gender and teaching experience do not have a profound effect on the applied correction method and teachers’ speech act of correction and the way they react to their colleagues’ mistakes is more culture-bound than being related to experience and gender.

[Reza Pishghadam, Paria Norouz Kermanshahi. “It Might Have Been a Slip of Tongue”: Iranian EFL Teachers’ Reaction to their Colleagues’ Linguistic Goofs. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):215-220] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.32

 

Keywords: Corrective behavior, Power status, Correction, Feedback, Teacher

Full Text

32

33

Determination of immediate and long term effects of Earthquake-2005 on Tarbela Dam, Pakistan

 

Mohammad.Saleem Khan1, Mian Ali Gul2, Muhammad Mushtaq3, and Ghulam Muhammad4

 

1. Department of Geological Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore - Pakistan.

2. High Head Power Project, WAPDA, Besham-Pakistan

3. Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-Pakistan

4. Department of Mathematics, Government College, Wahdat Road, Lahore-Pakistan

Email: msaleemkhan1984@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The catastrophic earthquake of 7.6 magnitude on Richter scale hit Northern Pakistan on October 8th 2005 at 084955 PST. The yellow earthquake drill was performed immediately after the earthquake to investigate the effects of this earthquake on the different structures of the Tarbela dam.The earthquake drill comprising of hydrographic survey, monitoring of all the instruments, physical inspection of the major structures, movement survey, and comparisons of seepage. The data indicates changes in the seepage pattern and pore pressures before and after earthquake. The pore pressures rise upstream as well as downstream of grout curtain was observed. The maximum seepage increase up to 1.11 cfs in RDA-22 and drainage adit discharge from l827 to 1913.64 gallons per minute were recorded. No significant change, movement or settlement of expansion joints were observed, however displacement of a retaining wall 13 to 14 mm at the top of’ a retaining wall at construction joint was recorded. Minor movement of top set slope and deposition of sediments in front of tunnels have also been found. Long term monitoring to study the effects in depth such as micro fracturing of the structures, seepage at right abutment and allied problems is suggested to ensure the safety of the dam.

[Mohammad.Saleem Khan, Mian Ali Gul, Muhammad Mushtaq, and Ghulam Muhammad. Determination of immediate and long term effects of Earthquake-2005 on Tarbela Dam, Pakistan. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):221-225] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.33

 

Keywords: Large dams, earthquake, monitoring, pore water pressure, seepage

Full Text

33

34

The oncogenicity change and effect on tumor of HL-60 cells with silent nucleostemin gene in nude mice

 

FU Shuzhen 1, SUN Xiaoli1, Abdallah Dlykan1, JIA Yu1, WANG Yuanyuan2, LIU Shuai1, YU Lina3, ZHANG Hui4, YUE Baohong1

 

1. Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2. Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital (Henan Tumor Hospital), Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, China

3. Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou City, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, China

4. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Henan Medical College for Staff and Workers Zhengzhou, Henan 451191, China

ybh2002@163.com

 

Abstract: Objecttive. To investigate the oncogenicity change of HL-60 cells with silent nucleostemin gene in nude mice and the role of NucleosteminNSspecific short hairpin RNA NS-shRNAfor the anti-leukemia effect in nude mice xenograft tumor model. Methods. HL-60 cells were taken as the model, and were directly transfected with one of Nucleostemin short hairpin RNANS-shRNA which its effect of silencing NS gene is remarkable. In addition, negative control group and blank group were set up. The progress of tumors was observed regularly. Tissues of tumor in every group were handled with pathological section and dyed with HE. Determine the NS protein by immunocytochemisty. In addition, the heterogenic nude mice xenograft tumor models of high-oncogenic HL-60 leukemia cells were established. NS-shRNA was synthesized in vitro to prepare lipid inclusion, and was intraperitoneal inoculated into the mice. The volume and weight of the tumor bodys were measured, the slices of xenograft tumor were stained by HE dye, the NS protein inhibiting effect was detected by immunocytochemistry, and the apoptotic cells of HL-60 in the tumor body were examined by Tunel technique. Results. Different groups need different time to progress the tumor. The experimental group need longer than control group, and the tumor was smaller. The final tumor volume of mouse in experimental group was different significantly with other two groupsP<0.05. But the difference between negative control group and blank group was not significantP>0.05. Under microscope, it showed that interstitial connective tissue and blood vessels were fewer than other two groups, and the cells arranged becomes loosely. HL-60 cells were not uniform. The cells with karyorrhexis and small nucleus increased. Pykno-levels of nuclear chromatin were not uniform and tumor giant cells decreased. All mice in our study were successfully transplanted by high-oncogenic HL-60 leukemia cells, and the volume of the tumors was even smaller. After treated with NS-shRNA lipid inclusion for 13 days, the tumor volumeweight and NS protein in the tumor cells were statistically lower than control groups. Large areas of patchy destroyed of tumor tissue and “apoptosis character” changes appeared in treated group. A great deal of apoptotic cells appeared in tumor tissue after therapy, detected by Tunel technique. Conclusion. The oncogenicity of HL-60 cells with silent nucleostemin gene was decreased. It is likely related to the change of cells′ biological characters. The anti-leukemia effect of NS-shRNA in nude mice xenograft tumor model is significant; one of the mechanisms probably induce the apoptosis of leukemia cells by the down-regulation of NS expression.

[FU Shuzhen, SUN Xiaoli, Abdallah Dlykan, JIA Yu, WANG Yangyuan, LIU Shuai, YU Lina, ZHANG Hui, YUE Baohong. The oncogenicity change and effect on tumor of HL-60 cells with silent nucleostemin gene in nude mice. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):226-232] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.34

 

Keywords: Nucleostemin; short hairpin RNA; nude mice xenograft tumor; leukemia; HL-60 cell; oncogenicity

Full Text

34

35

Response of Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Activities to Copper Exposure and Recovery in Freshwater Fish Carassius auratus gibelio var

 

Hongxia Jiang1, Hongmei Yang2, Xianghui Kong1*, Shuping Wang1, Dequan Liu1, Siju Shi 1

 

1College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007, China

2Editorial Board of Journal of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

xhkong@htu.cn

 

Abstract: Phosphatase is known to be sensitive to metal exposures and can be used to predict metal toxicity. In this study, freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio var were exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L) of copper for 96 h, and the group of 2.0 mg/L exposure was then transferred to clean water for different days (1, 4, 8 and 12d) to assess recovery profile. Responses of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities from kidney, liver, gill, spleen, muscle and brain to copper exposure and recovery were investigated. As shown from the results, after a 96-h copper exposure, ACP and ALP activities in different organs/tissues appeared to be different. At the highest copper concentration (2.0 mg/L), compared with the control, ACP activity decreased significantly in kidney, liver, gill and spleen, but increased significantly in muscle and brain. ALP activity decreased significantly in kidney, liver, gill, spleen and brain. However, after removing 2.0 mg/L copper exposure, ACP and ALP activities in different organs/tissues all normalized within 12 days. The observed data suggest that ACP and ALP in spleen of Carassius auratus gibelio var are most sensitive to copper stress and might be used as suitable biomarkers for copper contamination in aquatic environment.

[Hongxia Jiang, Hongmei Yang, Xianghui Kong, Shuping Wang, Dequan Liu, Siju Shi. Response of Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Activities to Copper Exposure and Recovery in Freshwater Fish Carassius auratus gibelio var. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):233-245] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.35

 

Keywords: Copper exposure;acid phosphatase;alkaline phosphatase;recovery;Carassius auratus gibelio var

Full Text

35

36

Remote Sensing as a Tool in Assessing Water Quality

 

Ismail M.

 

RS and GIS Unit, Soils, water and Environment Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza

refatay1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Remote sensing techniques can be used to detect the water quality against different dates. The aim of this study is to determine the relation between the water quality of AL-Abshiet drain and its reflectance using satellite images. Four different dates of SPOT satellite images and an image of World View satellite are used to measure the reflectance of the water through the selected 6 points along Al-Abshiet drain. The results of monitoring the water reflectance of 6 points along Al-Abshiet drain (as polluted water) and one point taken from Nile River (Damietta Branch as clear water) show that there is a high effect of the growth of aquatic plants and suspense-materials in the year 2011 in the all year and there is high difference with the clear water sample (Damietta Branch). There are high differences in the water reflectance which is mainly due to the growth of aquatic plants as well as the suspended water in Al-Abshiet drain. The results of the chemical analyses of Al-Abshiet drian water show that the Nitriate-Nitrogen values in sites 5 and 6 ranged from 18.03 mg/l to 18.68 mg/l were higher than the maxiumum limit value (15 mg/l). The ammonia-N value in sites 5 and 6 ranged from 5.10 mg/l to 5.52 mg/l) was less than the maxiumum limit value (5 mg/l). The ECw of Al-Abshiat drain in all sites (ranged from 2.6 dS/m to 3.2 dS/m) were higher than the maximum limit value (2 dS/m). The Boron element was very high increase in Al-Abshiet drain in all 6 sites (ranged from 5.16 mg/l up to 32.99 mg/l ) than the maxiumum limit (0.75 mg/l). Therefore, the water quality of Al-Abshiet drian is not recomended to be used it for irrigation (Accoding to Ayers and Westcst, 1994).

[Ismail, M. Remote Sensing as a Tool in Assessing Water Quality. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):246-252]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.36

 

Keyword: water and aquatic plant reflectance; water quality and pollution; remote sensing; Al-Abshiet drain.

Full Text

36

37

Anatomical, histological and histochemical adaptations of the avian alimentary canal to their food habits:

I-Coturnix coturnix

 

Mostafa Zaher1, Abdel-Wahab El-Ghareeb1, Hamida Hamdi1 and Fathia AbuAmod2

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, El Margab University, Libya

Hamdihamida@rocketmail.com

 

Abstract:The present work is the first in a series of studies aiming at establishing a connection between the food habits of aves and the anatomical, histological and histochemical structures of their alimentary canal. In this study the gross anatomy, histology and histochemistry of the alimentary canal of common quail, Coturnix coturnix, a granivorous bird, have been investigated. This study revealed that, the oesophagus is not ably long with a well developed crop; thus stomach is differentiated into a glandular proventriculus and a muscular ventritculus or gizzard. The gizzard is much more developed having a thick hard cuticle, its wall consists of two strong smooth muscles, the small intestine is divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum and the transition from the jejunum to ileum is indicated by the vitelline (Meckel's) diverticulum, and the ileum was the longest part of the small intestine. The large intestine consists of paired well developed caeca and a short rectum. The present histological studies revealed that the alimentary tract showed the usual four laminae: serosa, musculosa, submucosa and mucosa. The oesophageal mucosa of the quail was thrown into numerous longitudinal folds. The mucosa of oesophagus is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The proventricular glands are simple tubular to simple branched tubular glands. The mucosal surface of the ventriculus is indented by deep, broad crypts into which simple to branched tubular gastric glands open. A thick gastric keratinoid material covers the mucosa of the ventriculus. The intestinal mucosa is thrown into intestinal villi which show a marked variation in density, shape and size in the different regions of the intestine. The goblet cells gradually increase in frequency from the duodenum to the rectum. Also, the histochemical study revealed the existence of a high amount of mucopolysaccharides in the oesophageal glands, PAS and Alcian blue positive mucin granules as well (neutral and acid mucin, respectively). The ventriculus mucosa is covered by a thick keratinized laminated layer of koilin membrane which is formed of proteinous material similar to keratin and stained positive for PAS and Alcian blue indicating the presence of neutral and acid mucin within its contents. The proventriculus mucosa shows folds lined by simple columnar cells containing PAS and Alcian blue positive mucin granules. The goblet cells and crypts of Lieberkühn have acid and neutral mucopolysaccharide secretions and the luminal surface of the columnar cells and the lamina propria of the intestine contains proteins.

[Mostafa Zaher, Abdel-Wahab El-Ghareeb, Hamida Hamdi and Fathia Abu Amod. Anatomical, histological and histochemical adaptations of the avian alimentary canal to their food habits: I-Coturnix coturnix. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):253-275]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.37

 

Key Words: Anatomical, histological, histochemical, alimentary canal, birds.

Full Text

37

38

[Life Sci J 2012;9(3):276-281] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.38

Withdrawn

Full Text

38

39

Study of Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies in HCV Positive Patients on HD and Its Relation to Vascular Access Thrombosis

 

Mohamed A. Ibrhaim; Mona H. Abdel Salam and Walid A. Bichari

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Elhamed_3@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Although the precise physiological role of B2-GPI is not known. B2-GPI has been shown to inhibit intrinsic pathway activation and prothrombinase activities. Hemodialysis access failure is a leading cause of morbidity and hospitalization for patients with end-stage renal disease. Patients and methods: our study was conducted on forty patients under regular hemodialysis randomly selected from hemodialysis units of Ain Shams University Hospitals. Patients were divided into Group A: 20 patients with positive hepatitis C virus antibodies, and group B: 20 patients with negative hepatitis C virus antibodies. All patients were subjected to: full clinical examination, routine CBC, ESR and quantitative CRP, routine chemistry including (BUN, serum creatinine), serum Na, serum K, serum Ca, serum PO4, serum albumin, and total proteins. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT), routine coagulation profile (PT, INR, PTT), HBsAG and HCVab, B2 glycoprotein I antibodies IgM, IgG titers by ELISA and assessment of fistula flow by Doppler ultrasound were also done. Results: We found that the frequency of B2IgM and B2IgG positive or borderline in group A was 20 % (4 patients), 25% (5 patients) respectively while the frequency of B2 IgM and B2IgG in group B was 30% (6/20 patients), 35% (7/20 patients) respectively. No relation was found between B2-glycoprotein I antibodies and HCV in prevalent hemodialysis patients. Our study revealed the frequency of B2 IgM was 40% and B2 IgG was 40% positive or borderline in patients with AVF with positive history of vascular access occlusion. Elevated B2GPI IgM titre is associated with decreased fistula volume of flow by Doppler.

[Mohamed A. Ibrhaim; Mona H. Abdel Salam and Walid A. Bichari. Study of Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies in HCV Positive Patients on HD and Its Relation to Vascular Access Thrombosis. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):282-292]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.39

 

Key words: Beta2glycoprotein1 antibodies – HCV- HD – Vascular access thrombosis.

Full Text

39

40

Obesity Degree and Cardiometabolic Risk among School Students

 

Nayera E Hassan1, Sahar A El-Masry1, Manal A. Mohsen2, Safaa T. Zaki2, Eman Elashmawy2, Muhammad Al-Tohamy Soliman1, Mehrevan M. Abd El-moniem3

 

1Biological Anthropology, 2Child Health and 3Medical Biochemistry Departments, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. masrysa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rationale: Childhood obesity is a risk factor for developing cardio metabolic diseases in adulthood. Objective: Studying the association of cardio metabolic risk factors in students (7 - 16 years) with different degrees of obesity. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 169 student: 72 obese [body mass index (BMI) > 95th percentile] and 97 extremely obese (BMI > 97th percentile) for age and gender based on Egyptian Growth Reference Charts. Interrelationship between risk factors prevalence: hypertension, high waist circumference (WC), impaired fasting glucose, hyperinsulinieamia, insulin resistance, and dyslipideamia (abnormal TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride), according to age groups and degree of obesity were assessed. A set of cardio metabolic risk factors were defined for each individual, ranging from 0 (no risk factors) to 9 (all risk factors). Results: In younger age group (7 - 11 years), extremely obese students were proven to have higher frequencies of cardio metabolic risk factors in comparison to obese group, with highly significant differences regarding fasting glucose level and WC. Older students aged 12- 16 years recorded insignificant differences in the frequency of cardio metabolic risk factors between obese and extremely obese ones. For both age groups, elevated total and LDL-Cholesterol were significantly linked to disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism; indicated by fasting glucose level. Highly significant positive interrelationships between WC and triglycerides for children, and diastolic blood pressure for adolescents were detected. Among extremely obese students, 81% of younger and 60% of older had a cluster of at least three risk factors or more in comparison to only 56.7% and 48.7% of obese. Conclusion: Cardio metabolic risk factors are associated with degree of obesity in young age (7-11 years), but not in those aged 12-16 years. Elevated triglycerides are the most common risk factors in both age groups.

[Nayera E Hassan, Sahar A El-Masry, Manal A. Mohsen, Safaa T. Zaki, Eman Elashmawy, Muhammad Al-Tohamy Soliman, Mehrevan M. Abd El-moniem. Obesity Degree and Cardiometabolic Risk among School Students. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):293-301]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.40

 

Key words: Obesity; risk factors; children, adolescents.

Full Text

40

41

Occult Hepatitis B Infection in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

 

Abeer Sheneef¹, Laila A. Yousef2, Amal K. Nor El-Din3

 

1Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, 3Internal Medicine Department; Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt. dr_ab_sh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA in the liver tissue or in the serum of HBsAg negative individuals. Although OBI was detected frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis C, the clinical implication of this co-infection is still not fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and the possible clinical impact of occult HBV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A total of 60 chronic HCV patients who were HBsAg negative, were enrolled into the study. Serum samples from the studied patients were tested for the presence of anti-HBs and total anti-HBc antibodies by ELISA technique and HBV DNA by real time PCR assay. The results showed that 8 (13.3%) patients were HBV DNA positive; 6 (75%) patients were anti-HBc positive while 3 patients (37.5%) were anti-HBs positive. There was no significant difference between chronic HCV patients with or without HBV DNA in duration of infection, ALT level, histological score or HCV viral load. In conclusion, a considerable proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis C had occult HBV infection. Occult HBV infection was significantly higher among anti-HBc positive patients. Occult HBV infection did not seem to modify the progression of chronic HCV-related liver disease.

[Abeer Sheneef, Laila A. Yousef and Amal K. Nor El-Din. Occult Hepatitis B Infection in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):302-307]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 41

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.41

 

Keywords: Occult HBV infection; Chronic hepatitis C; HBsAg-negative; HBV-DNA; Real time PCR

Full Text

41

42

Comparative Study of Knowledge and Attitude toward Breastfeeding Practices among Egyptian and Saudi Mothers in Qassim Region

 

Fathia A. Mersal1, Hanan M. Mohamed Tork2 and Hala M. Mohamed Hussein1

 

Department of Community Health Nursing. Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Department of Pediatric Nursing. Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

khomarkh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Approximately 52 % of babies in Saudi Arabia are breast fed for more than 6 months compared with approximately 96% in Egypt. Few studies compared the infant feeding of these two neighboring countries despite the similarities in their social systems. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding practices among Egyptian and Saudi mothers in Qassim region. Methods: A descriptive explorative study was conducted. The data was collected from 340 mothers (191 Egyptian and 149 Saudi) including socio-demographic data, mother’s knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding and the practices. Results: exclusive BF was reported by 74.6% of Egyptian compared to 42.1% of Saudi mothers with highly statistically significant difference. The mean duration of breast feeding was 17.5 months among Egyptian compared to 8.1 months among Saudi mothers. Both Egyptian and Saudi mothers had a high level attitude toward BF practice. Conclusion: Research in infant feeding should be a health priority to improve the rate of breastfeeding and to minimize other inappropriate practices. Most of the Egyptian and Saudi participants who ceased breastfeeding attributed this to return to work; consequently governmental policies regarding longer leave for new mothers and child care centers inside large institutions should be considered. More effort is needed to support and encourage breast-feeding particularly in Saudi Arabia.

[Fathia A. Mersal, Hanan M. Mohamed Tork and Hala M. Mohamed Hussein. Comparative Study of Knowledge and Attitude toward Breastfeeding Practices among Egyptian and Saudi Mothers in Qassim Region. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):308-314]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.42

 

Keywords: breastfeeding, practice, knowledge, attitude, Egyptian and Saudi mothers, Qassim

Full Text

42

43

Effect of High Percentage of Sodium Chloride (Nacl) on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams

 

S. Abd El- salam m. of ASCE1, H. Shehab Eldin2, E.A. El-Shamy3 and Sh. M.M. Shawky4

 

 Str. Eng. Dept., Fac. of Eng., Z.U., Egypt

s.salam@link.net, hshehabeldin@yahoo.com emanelshamy@hotmail.com, shosho602@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: In this paper an experimental investigation is carried out to study the effect of high percentages of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural behavior of R.C. beams. The experimental study contained thirteen of R.C. beams with fixed steel reinforcement and a common concrete mix by adding different high percentages of salts by weight of cement (S/C) to the mixing water of concrete mix. The beams were tested up to failure, and the influence of variable factors on the structural deformations such as, failure loads, strains, cracking behavior and modes of failure were reported. Also, the mass' loss of steel reinforcement bars was studied.

[S. Abd El- salam, H. Shehab Eldin, E.A. El-Shamy and Sh. M.M. Shawky. Effect of High Percentage of Sodium Chloride (Nacl) on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):315-320]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.43

 

Keywords: Experimental method, corrosion, sodium chloride, R.C. structures.

Full Text

43

44

A Smart Algorithm for QoS Support in Ad hoc Networks

 

Seyed Hossein Hosseini Nazhad Ghazani1, R.M.Alguliev2

 

1Ph.D Candidate, Institute of Information Technology of ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan

2Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding member of ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan

1S.HosseiniNejad@gmail.com; 2Secretary@iit.ab.az

 

Abstract: Real-time traffic support is one of the interesting Quality of Service (QoS) issues in Ad hoc networks. The wireless ad hoc networks are severely affected by bandwidth, so, supporting QoS in these networks face problems. In this paper, we have proposed a fully distributed MAC algorithm to support the QoS in ad hoc networks. This algorithm provides delay fairness for real-time flows and services these flows considering current QoS of them. This algorithm could be used in emergency and hospital environments. By simulation, we have shown that our mechanism achieves delay fairness, and functions adequately to support real-time traffic in practical environments where real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic coexist in an identical wireless Ad hoc networks.

[Seyed Hossein Hosseini Nazhad Ghazani, R.M.Alguliev. A Smart Algorithm for QoS Support in Ad hoc Networks. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):321-325] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.44

 

Keywords: Ad hoc, Quality of Service, Differential Service, Back-off mechanism.

Full Text

44

45

Hypoxia and pyruvate/uridine have synergic effect on induction of stemness factors in human esophageal cancer cells

 

Jian Liu1,2, Cheng Chang1, Hongmei Yang3, Liang Ming4, Yanlin Wang5, Huixiang Li2,1

 

1. Department of pathology/anatomy, Basic medical college, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

2. Department of pathology, First affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

3. Editorial Board of Journal of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

4. Department of laboratory, First affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

5. The department of eugenics gentic, Henan Provincial Research Institute for Population and Family Planning, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

huixiang.l@sohu.com

 

Abstract: The present study was to examine our hypothesis that hypoxia and pyruvate/and uridine may have synergic effect on the induction of stemness factors in cancer. Esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE450 and KYSE70 were cultivated under different oxygen tensions with/without pyruvate and uridine addition in medium. In comparison to the cells cultivated in 20% O2 tension, the cells cultivated in 7% O2 and 1% O2 showed higher levels of Oct3/4 and SOX2, which were in parallel with increasing HIF-1a, HIF-2a. A stronger induction of these gene expression could be seen in either pyruvate or uridine treatment under hypoxic condition. The strongest induction of the expression of these genes was repeatedly shown under hypoxia with both chemicals. Although the expressions of stemness factors Oct3/4 and SOX2 were higher in hypoxia than that in normoxia, the cells colony formation ability was reduced in hypoxia. However, addition of pyruvate and uridine in the medium, the cells in hypoxia not only showed highest levels of the stemness genes expression, but also high colony formation capability with highest number of colonies. We conclude that hypoxia and pyruvate/uridine synergistically induce the expression of stemness genes and increase the colony formation capability of esophageal cancer cells in vitro, indicating that esophageal cancer cells stemness can be upregulated in vitro for potential cancer stem cell targeting studies.

[Liu J, Chang C, Yang HM, Ming L, Wang YL, Li HX. Hypoxia and pyruvate/uridine have synergic effect on induction of stemness factors in human esophageal cancer cells. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):326-334] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.45

 

Keywords: Hypoxia; HIF; esophageal cancer; Oct3/4; SOX2; pyruvate; uridine

Full Text

45

46

Effects of Organic Fertilizer on the Contribution of Nitrogen Resource to Protein, Nicotine and PEE in Tobacco Leaf

 

Guo Hong-xiang, Xu Fang-fang, Liu Wei-qun

 

College of Life Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450002, China

Liuweiqun2004@126.com

 

Abstract: Background: Nitrogen is not only an important element for the growth and development of the tobacco plant but also the quality of leaf. The different types of fertilizer have different effect on the contribution of nitrogen resource to protein, nicotine and petroleum ether extract (PEE) in tobacco leaf. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted with 15N-labeled KNO3 to study nitrogen sources in tobacco plants and nicotine, protein and PEE in tobacco leaves. Two treatments were designed: chemical fertilizer was only used in treatment I, and chemical fertilizer mixed sesame seed cake was used in treatmentⅡ. The chemical fertilizer included the 15N-labeled KNO3. From 68 days after transplant, the plants and leaves were sampled per 10 days, and then atom % 15N excess was determined in both the total N and the three compounds in leaves. Results and Discussions: The data showed that the value of N derived from mineral soil N was much more than from fertilizer-N in biomass and the three compounds, and the amount of N from mineral soil was much more in treatment than that in treatment. Although the amount of NO3-N incorporation into soil was 20% more in treatment than that in treatment, the content of NO3-N in the biomass was almost same between the two treatments, whereas the other nitrogen forms in the biomass and the three compounds was much more in treatment than that in treatment. Furthermore, the total NO3-N in protein and petroleum ether extract was obviously lower in treatment than that in treatment, indicating that sesame seed cake fertilizer not only promote N nutrition in soil to be released and utilized, but also improve the utilization rate of NO3-N.

[Guo Hong-xiang, Xu Fang-fang, Liu Wei-qun. Effects of Organic Fertilizer on the Contribution of Nitrogen Resource to Protein, Nicotine and PEE in Tobacco Leaf. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):335-340]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.46

 

Keywords: tobacco, isotope fertilizer, nitric compound, nitrogen resource

Full Text

46

47

Inhibition of neurite outgrowth and promotion of neuronal degeneration by the atropine in Neuro2a cells

 

Mei-Ling Peng1#, Ching-Ju Lee2#, Meng-Lin Lai3, Shyan-Tarng Chen3, Cheng-Yu Tsai3, Chun-Lan Liu4, Chin-Yin Chen3, Jung-Hsien Chu3, Su-Chiu Haung3, Kuang-Wen Tseng1,3*

 

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

2 Internal Medicine, Taipei Hospital, Department of Health, Taiwan, ROC

3 School of Optometry, College of Medical Sciences and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

4 Department of Anatomy, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC

#Contributed equally. E-mail: kuangwen@csmu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Myopia, a very common human eye disorder, affects up to 80% of young adults in some East Asian countries, including in Taiwan. Higher degree of myopia is associated with a number of visual terrorized complications, including retinal detachment, macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. The risk of these complications rises with increasing severity of myopia. Contrasting other blinding disorders such as aged-related macular degeneration, all these myopia-related complications tend to arise mainly in young adult. Atropine, a pan muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, has been used for treated myopia since long time ago. However, the influence of innervation in the eyes was still not known. To address this question, the effect of atropine on nerve innervation and cell character, the pan muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist treated cultured cell were examined. The neuronal neurite lengths were assay with microscopy. To study the relationship between neuronal death and atropine-treated, statistical analysis was examined. Blocked the neuronal transmission caused the cells neurite lengths decreased compared with control. It also detected that the increase in the number of nuclear condensation cells after treated atropine with microscopy. In other words, neuroblastoma cells after atropine-treated, the cultured cell death ratio was increased compared with control. These results indicated that neuronal cells treated with atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, reduced the neurite outgrowth and promoted neuronal degeneration.

[Mei-Ling Peng, Ching-Ju Lee, Meng-Lin Lai, Shyan-Tarng Chen, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Chun-Lan Liu, Chin-Yin Chen, Shuan-Yu Huang, Jung-Hsien Chu, Su-Chiu Haung, Kuang-Wen Tseng. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth and promotion of cell death by the atropine in Neuro2a cells. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):341-346]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 47

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.47

 

Keywords: Atropine, neurite outgrowth, cell death

Full Text

47

48

Effect of Nurses’ Work Hours and Fatigue on Occurrence of Medication Errors in ICU and Medical Oncology Unit –Cairo University

 

Lamiaa I. Keshk1 and Dalia S. Abd El-Moneem 2

 

1Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University

2Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

keshk_lamiaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nurses are responsible for the safety of their patients. So, preventing error and maximizing quality of care for patients requires that those in health care be open to a variety of strategies for modifying work schedules and preventing fatigue that may require changes in long standing behaviors and preferences. Aim: To examine the effect of nurses' work hours and fatigue on occurrence of medication errors. Subject and methods: An exploratory, descriptive design was utilized to accomplish this study. The sample included all available nurses (n=29) were work in the two medical oncology units and (n=20) nurses work in ICU and conducted at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo- University. Tools for Data Collection were five included Socio demographic data, working hours data sheet, (CIS) chronic fatigue instrument, Need for recovery instrument and Medication errors observational sheet. Results: indicated that there was correlation between working hours and fatigue related to physical activity items in both units. There was correlation between medication errors and concentration fatigue subscale, motivation subscale at the ICU unit. Medication preparation errors and concentration fatigue subscale in the medical unit were also correlated. Conclusion: This study concluded that there was no statistical significant correlation between working hours and medication errors with both wings of errors preparation and administration. Also, the study concluded that correlation between medication preparation and administration errors and concentration fatigue subscale.

[Lamiaa I. Keshk and Dalia S. Abd El-Moneem. Effect of Nurses’ Work Hours and Fatigue on occurrence of Medication Errors in ICU and Medical Oncology Unit –Cairo University. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):347-355]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.48

 

Keywords: nurses’ work hours, fatigue, medication errors, CCU.

Full Text

48

49

Simultanious biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon biodegradation by the resident aerobic bacterial flora of oil production skimmer pit at elevated temperature and saline conditions

 

Chuma Okoro*, Akhil Agrawal** and Cameron Callbeck**

 

*Department of Biological Sciences, Caleb University Lagos, Nigeria,

** Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

chuma2k2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Six aerobic thermo and halotolerant bacterial isolates from an oil production skimmer pit were evaluated for their ability to produce biosurfactants and degradepetroleum hydrocarbons simultaneously under elevated temperature and saline conditions. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the six bacterial isolates used in the study (SKP-1, SKP-2, SKP-3, SKP-4, SKP-5 and Skp-6) were most homologous to the gammaproteobacteriaPseudomonas sp. VS-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain S2QPS8, Serratia marcescens strain A4, Pseudomonas stutzeri,Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RA10 and Pseudomonas stutzeri strain BOD-3 respectively. Using previously sterilized skimmer pit sample as the sole nutrient, carbon and energy sources and at an elevated temperature of 450C and salinity (Chloride) level of 6012mg/L, all the bacterial isolates in a mixed culture were able to grow, produce biosurfactants and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons simultaneously by removing about 92% of residual TPH in the skimmer pit within 2 weeks of exposure. This study suggests that in-situ bioremediation procedure using the resident aerobic bacterial flora of the skimmer pit that are thermotolerant and halotolerant can be developed to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in-situ. This bioremediation procedure can be a more attractive and cost effective option than the costly thermal treatment option that is currently in operation in the industry.

[Chuma Okoro, Akhil Agrawal and Cameron Callbeck. Simultanious biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon biodegradation by the resident aerobic bacterial flora of oil production skimmer pit at elevated temperature and saline conditions. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):356-364]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.49

 

Keywords: Biodegradation, Biosurfactant, Skimmer pit, Thermotolerant, Halotolerant, Petroleum hydrocarbon.

Full Text

49

50

Role of gender (man and woman) in predicting occupational stress considering organizational commitment and personality types (Myers - Briggs) in bank staff

 

Maryam khodabakhshi

 

PHD student of psychology in YSU in Armenia

Khodabakhshi23@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research studies effect and role of gender (man and woman) in predicting occupational stress considering personality types (Myers - Briggs) and organizational commitment of staff of Shahr bank of Iran. Statistical Society in this research is all employed men and women in Shahr bank that 96 women and 204 men were selected by random cluster sampling. This study has been conducted using statistical analysis by correlation and stepwise regression methods and Philip L. Rice occupational stress questionnaire, Myers - Briggs personality type's questionnaire and Alan Meyer organizational commitment questionnaire have been used. The results showed that in men group organizational commitment subscales along with introversion and emotional poles are suitable predictors for occupational stress while in women group organizational commitment subscales along with emotional subscale among eight personality pole are suitable predictors of stress. Thus it is expected introverted men with emotional function that have lower organizational commitment suffer from higher occupational stress than other men and women with emotional behavior and lower organizational commitment suffer from higher occupational stress than other women.

[Maryam khodabakhshi. Role of gender (man and woman) in predicting occupational stress considering organizational commitment and personality types (Myers - Briggs) in bank staff. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):365-369]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.50

 

Key words: gender, occupational stress, organizational commitment, personality types

Full Text

50

51

Determinants of Agricultural Intensification in Southwest Nigeria

 

A.S. Oyekale+ and A.O. Adepoju++

 

+Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, 2735 Mmbatho South Africa. asoyekale@yahoo.com

++Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: Declining agricultural production in many developing countries has prompted increased use of some inputs while continuous cropping prevails. This study analysed the factors promoting different forms of agricultural intensification in southwestern Nigeria. Data collected from randomly selected farmers in selected states in southwestern Nigeria were used. Results show that farmers from Osun State have the highest indices of intensification with respect to land use intensity, fertilizer use intensity and crop diversification. The censored regression showed that lost working days, use of fertilizers, crop rotation, and having more inherited land increased land use intensity while use of organic manure, minimum tillage and poverty reduced crop diversification index. Fertilizer use intensity increased with the use of minimum tillage and household size while hired and family labour use intensity increased with household size. It was recommended that in the face of increasing land degradation, farmers’ access to fertilizer must be increased and efforts to reduce their poverty level must be promoted, among others.

[A.S. Oyekale, A.O. Adepoju. Determinants of Agricultural Intensification in Southwest Nigeria. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):370-376]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.51

 

Keywords: cocoa, climate change, technical efficiency, stochastic frontier

Full Text

51

52

Farmers’ assessment of Donor support for Rain-fed Lowland Rice Production in Ashanti and Northern Regions in Ghana

 

Mumuni E and Oladele O.I.

 

Project Regional Counterpart (Land Development) The Project for Sustainable Development of Rain-fed Lowland Rice Production (MOFA-JICA Project) Email: mumunie@yahoo.com. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. oladele20002001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper examined farmers’ assessment of donor support for rain-fed Lowland Rice Production in Ashanti and Northern Regions in Ghana. A simple random sampling due to proportion was used to select 210 participating farmers from the two regions. Data for the study were collected through a structured questionnaire designed based on the objectives of the study and from literature. The sections of the questionnaire include the challenges facing the project, cooperation and adoption levels, its impact on the outputs and the funding requirement for the project. The data collected was subjected to descriptive analysis with the use of bar charts and frequency distribution tables. The results show that prominent challenges indicated by the respondents about the projects are funding, weather dependent, land tenure system, credit implementation challenge, farmer group, work system cohesion and project staff strength. Adoption rate for project interventions was high for rice cultivation activities including land development activities though farmers complained of itsue to its drudgery. Farmers yield increased to an average of 4.9 ton/ha and 2.9 ton/ha level for Ashanti and Northern respectively despite the challenges. The study recommends increase in project fund and also, farmer group strengthening, improving on the activities of farming support systems to bring processors and marketers and further collaboration with other relevant stakeholders to complete the rice value chain.

[Mumuni E and Oladele O.I. Farmers’ assessment of Donor support for Rain-fed Lowland Rice Production in Ashanti and Northern Regions in Ghana. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):377-381]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.52

 

Keywords: Farmer, Donor, Rain-fed, Lowland Rice, Ashanti, Northern Regions, Ghana

Full Text

52

53

The influence of Examinations Stress on Changes in Heart Rate regulatory Mechanism indicators in Students of the First to Third Grades Talented High School

 

R. Goli Skardi1, N.Shahabi Majd2, S. Minasian3 A. Khalilian4, A. Mohseni Kiasari5

 

[1] PhD in Human and Animal Physiology

2 Ph.D. in Physiology and Assistant Professor at Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran

3 Ph.D. in Physiology and Professor at Yerevan University

4 Ph.D. in Statistics and Professor at Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran

5Super specialist and Associate Professor at Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran

 

Abstract: Examinations are of the most important stressful factors in schools and universities and have different psycho-physiologic consequences; however, their effects in students have been less focused. To study the effects of educational pressures and examinations stress on changes in the mechanism of heart function, a test was conducted on 120 students, age range of 15-17 years of both genders. Divided in two groups, each consisting 20 students of first to third grades of high school, 60 boys and 60 girls from two high schools (one boys high school and one girls high school) in three stages (2 months before the examination(normal), 1hour before and 1hour after the examinations) in the same educational conditions in the city of Sari. Activity of heart rate regulatory mechanisms was recorded of ECG and next was processed by the method of Baevsky pulsometry variation. The statistical elaboration of the obtained data from the three stages of test has been carried out using Biostat computer programmer. Based on the results of this study, the least stress effects on changes in the heart function was during 2 months before the examination(normal) and affected activity of vagotonic and normotonic systems and the highest stress effects was observed during 1hour before the examination and affected activity of normotonic and sympathicotonic systems. The effects were significant at differences experimental stages (P<0.001). The effects decreased during 1hour after the examination influenced normotonic system activity. The highest stress effects were observed in examination time in the first grade and third grade high school students. It showed that course volume and pressure, type of course and stress of examination time caused sympathetic system activity which influenced on changes in the mechanism of heart rate function. In comparison, in all test stages, stress effects in boys group were higher than in girl students. The results of this search shows that the factors like age, gender, personality, psychophysiological status, course volume and pressure, type of course, examination time and anxiety, individual typological characteristics and the state of autonomic nervous system affected on changes in the mechanism of heart rate function in students

[R. Goli Skardi, N.Shahabi Majd, S. Minasian A. Khalilian, A. Mohseni Kiasari. The influence of Examinations Stress on Changes in Heart Rate regulatory Mechanism indicators in Students of the First to Third Grades Talented High School. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):382-388] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.53

 

Keywords: examination stress, heart rate function, 15-17years old students

Full Text

53

54

Effects of Mining on Smallholder Agriculture in Asutifi District of the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana

 

1Mumuni E, 2Seidu Al-hassan and 3Oladele O.I.

 

1Project Regional Counterpart (Land Development) The Project for Sustainable Development of Rain-fed Lowland Rice Production (MOFA-JICA Project) Email: mumunie@yahoo.com. 2Center for Continuing Education and Interdisciplinary Research (CCEIR), University for Development Studies, Tamale-Ghana. 3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. Oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The study assessed the socio economic effects of mining on agriculture in the Asutifi district of the Brong Ahafo region. From 117 communities in the district, three communities namely Kenyasi, Ntotroso, and Ola Resettlement were randomly selected. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 farmers for the study. Data for the study were collected through a structured questionnaire designed based on the objectives of the study and from literature. The data collected was subjected to descriptive analysis with the use of bar charts and frequency distribution tables. The results of the socio-economic effect of mining on smallholder agriculture in the area include displacement of people and land, increased migration into mining areas, environmental damages related to water quality water quantity, tailing management, noise and dust pollution as well as ecosystem disturbances, shortage of labour availability to agriculture, and contamination of crops as well as reduction in crops’ yield.

[Mumuni E, Seidu Al-hassan and Oladele O.I. Effects of Mining on Smallholder Agriculture in Asutifi District of the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):389-395]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.54

 

Keywords: Mining, Smallholder, Farmers, Land, Labour Ghana

Full Text

54

55

Scrutiny for barriers to investment in Iran (case study in Investment Center of Khuzestan County)

 

Dr. Gholam Hossein nikokar1, maziar assef 2, mohammad ali erfani3

 

1. Department of Management, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of management, University of Tehran Kish International Campus, Kish Island, Iran

3. Department of management, University of Tehran Kish International Campus, Kish Island, Iran

Gh.H.Nikokar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One way of developing countries is Investment. Investment is use of capital in new or existing economic enterprise after obtaining a license. Attract investment capital is way to accelerate the move towards economic development and job creation, and can be used as a lever for development and economic growth. Due to our economic potential and ability and willingness of investors to attract foreign capital in our country has been unable to successfully acquire necessary. This lack of success due to a series of obstacles on the way in which investors are referred to in this paper.

[Gholam Hossein nikokar, maziar assef, mohammad ali erfani. Scrutiny for barriers to investment in Iran (case study in Investment Center of Khuzestan County). Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):396-402]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.55

 

Keyword: investment, barriers, economics, development

Full Text

55

56

The Association Between Gene Polymorphisms of Homocysteine Metabolism-Related Enzymes and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases in Chinese Henan Han population

 

Li Aifan13) Zheng Hong2) Xu Yuming1) Zhao Xingjuan3) Zhang Xiaoman3)

 

1) Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052; China

2) Department of Cell Biology and Medical Genetics, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052; China

3) Department of Neurology, the First Hospital of Zhengzhou city, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052; China

xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Background and Purpose—During the last years, several studies suggested a role for genetic factors predisposing to thrombophilia and for moderate hyperhomocysteinemia.The mutations in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism-related enzyme genes including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G have been identified as genetic risk factors for thromboembolic events. The evidence of a role for these gene variants in the risk of ischemic stroke is controversial and it has been noticed that these gene mutations have heterogeneous distributions among different ethnic groups or geographic areas. The data on the prevalence of the gene mutations in Chinese population is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between these gene polymorphisms and ischemic cerebrovascular diseases in Chinese Henan Han population in a large case-control study. Methods—We investigated 512 cases (310 males, 202 females; mean_SD age, 60.58 years) as patient group with ischemic cerebrovascular disease in department of neurology in Henan province hospital were enrolled from December 2004 to July 2007 and 500 healthy subjects (274 males, 226 females; mean_SD age, 56.28 years) as control group in the study. All people are Henan Han Chinese and without cancer, epilepsy and hepatic or renal diseases. MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and HinfI digestion and HaeⅢ respectively, while the genotypes of CBS 844ins68 was detected by polymerase chain reaction. ResultsThis investigation showed that MTHFR C677T TT-type 40%, CT-type 42.6% in patient group and TT-type 32.8%, CT-type 34.6%, in control group,and the T allele frequency was 61.3% versus 51.1% in the two groups. The frequencies of the three genetypes were significantly different between patient groups and controls (χ2=30.36, P<0.01). The frequency of T allele was significantly higher in patient groups than that in controls (χ2=24.29, P0.01).But there were no significant differences in the frequencies of CBS 844ins 68 (χ2=0.093, P0.05), MS A2756G (χ2=4.101, P0.05) between the patient the and control groups. Conclusion—The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was associated with increased risk of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and MTHFR C677T may be independent risk factors for ischemic cardiovascular diseases. However, the mutations of CBS844ins68 and MS A2756G was no associated with the ischemic cerebrovascular diseases in Chinese Henan Han population. The prevalences of MTHFR C677T, CBS 844ins68 and MS A2756G may vary with different ethnic groups or geographic regions.

[Li AF, Zheng H, Xu YM, Zhao XJ, Zhang XM. The Association Between Gene Polymorphisms of Homocysteine Metabolism-Related Enzymes and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases in Chinese Henan Han population. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):403-408]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.56

 

Key Words: Ischemic cerebrovascular disease; Methylenetetrahydrofolate eductase; Cystathionine b-synthase; Methionine synthase; Gene polymorphism

Full Text

56

57

Study of tris{2-(benzimidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Aluminum

 

Yu-Feng Lin1, Pin-Wen Cheng2, Shih-Hsuan Chiu1, Chen-Hao Wang1, Anchi Yeh2*

 

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology; 2Department of Chemical and materials Engineering, Chengshiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 833 R.O.C.; E-mail: acyeh@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: An emission material, tris(2-(benzimidazol-2-yl) quinolinato) Aluminum (AlBIQ) used for organic light emitting devices, has been synthesized. The decomposition temperature was observed at 436℃ and no melting transition (Tm) of AlBIQ was observed up to 430℃. The emission spectrum of organic emitting device using AlBIQ as emitted layer exhibits a broad maximum at 596 nm. The color of the emitted light is in the orange region in the CIE coordinate of x = 0.46 y = 0.46.

[Yu-Feng Lin, Pin-Wen Cheng, Shih-Hsuan Chiu, Chen-Hao Wang, Anchi Yeh. Study of tris{2-(benzimidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Aluminum. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):409-412]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.57

 

Keywords: Electroluminescence; orange light; device

Full Text

57

58

A novel approach for preparation of minicircle HSV amplicons by adenovirus mediated Cre-loxP recombination in mammalian cells

 

Jie Zhao, Xinjing Liu, Zhiqiang Han, Qingzhi Wang, Yuming Xu

 

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. Corresponding Author: xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Amplicon is a plasmid backbone based helper-dependent pseudovirion vector of HSV-1 and has been used as a powerful and versatile gene delivery vehicle due to its unique features. However, like plasmid-based vectors, the major drawback of conventional amplicon for gene delivery is its transient transgene expression, which has been demonstrated that the bacteria elements in the vectors are responsible for the transgene loss event, as evidenced, minicircle DNA and minicircle amplicon devoid of bacteria sequences mediated higher and sustained gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, current techniques for MC DNA preparation by inducing MC producer plasmid intra-molecular recombination in bacteria have critical limitations, including their labor-intensive, time-consuming procedure, and high contamination with input plasmids and mini plasmids. We thus herein described a novel simple approach for MC-amplicon preparation by utilizing adenovirus mediated Cre-loxP site-specific recombination and HSV helper virus supplied replication and package function in mammalian cells. This technique allows for pro­duction of MC-amplicons free of bacteria elements, making it feasible to use MC amplicon instead of conventional amplicon in gene delivery studies.

[Jie Zhao, Xinjing Liu, Zhiqiang Han, Qingzhi Wang, Yuming Xu. A novel approach for preparation of minicircle HSV amplicons by adenovirus mediated Cre-loxP recombination in mammalian cells. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):413-420]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.58

 

Keywords: Cre-loxP recombination, Amplicon, Mini circle amplicon, HSV, Gene transfer, Adenovirus.

Full Text

58

59

Explanation of the rate of biological environment health based on social capital components of students in Tabriz Medical and Dentistry University in 2010

 

Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam1,Seyed JamalHosseini2, Zahra Karimi3*,.Atabak Monfaredi 4, Isa abedini5

 

1Assistant Professor, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences,University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Management, Economics, Accounting Payam Noor Universtiy, I.R. of IRAN, Organiztion Studies Center Director of Aras Free Trade- Industiral Zone, PhD. Candidat of Industiral Managementin. AMEA,

3* M.A. Sociology of Tabriz Medical University-Iran.

4 M.A.Health Economic of Tabriz Islamic Azad University -Tabriz –Iran

5Lecturer at Payam Noor University of zonoz

atabak2005azarister@gmail.com*

 

 Abstract: This study examines the relationship between social capital and environmental health of student in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. This study is a survey of the correlation. Statistical population of this research includes 1,700 people (all of the medical and dental students in Tabriz University of Medical and Dentistry Sciences) as reported by the university authorities in 1389, which 313 of them are studied by method of randomly proportion according to Cochran's formula. Students of other majors of the university are questioned by stratified sampling method. The following results were obtained after data collection using achieved questionnaires of social capital and environmental health and content validity measurement (the referees’ opinion) and reliability: there was a relationship between the components of social capital (cohesion - trust - partnership relationship) and social capital in general, with the environmental health. Cohesion and social trust explained 38% in environmental health from the perspective of the students.

[Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam, Seyed Jamal Hosseini, Zahra Karimi, Atabak Monfaredi, Isa abedini. Explanation of the rate of biological environment health based on social capital components of students in Tabriz Medical and Dentistry University in 2010. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):421-426] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.59

 

Keywords: Social capital, biological environment health, cohesion, trust

Full Text

59

60

Devising sustainability criteria in new towns of Iran

 

Mahsa Faramarzi Asli 1, Mohammad Amin Khojasteh Ghamari 2

 

1. Department of Architecture;Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University; Tabriz, Iran.

2. Department Architecture; Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University; Tabriz, Iran.

and Payame noor university of Iran, Tabriz - Member of Young Researchers Club of Tabriz, Iran.

Email: arch_khojasteh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: New towns in Iran tend not to be sustainable and have appropriate structures because of a great deal of problems such as lack of exact determination of legal status for new towns, uncertain construction expenses' supply resources, lack of cooperation and harmony between different organizations and lack of substructure facilities. To compare the present situation in these towns in Iran with the goals considered in this research we can claim that: most new towns have not achieved their goals fully and the confusion dominant in Iranian new towns approves this claim. The aim of this research is to identify the sustainability criteria as the means of measuring the sustainability of Iranian new. To do so, first we carried out library studies based on documents and analyzed them and then the different sustainability approaches were identified according to guidelines 21 of sustainability criteria of Iranian new towns. The results of this research are as follows: introducing sustainability criteria in Iranian new towns and describing the tools of measuring sustainability by identifying sustainability criteria based on pressure framework, present state, and response.

[Mahsa Faramarzi Asli, Mohammad Amin Khojasteh Ghamari. Devising sustainability criteria in new towns of Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):427-434] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.60

 

Keywords: Iranian new towns, sustainability criteria, town sustainability, sustainable envelopment

Full Text

60

61

Iron and folic acid supplements for pregnant women

 

Roghayeh Nasiri Saghayesh1, Seyed Hossein Hosseini Nazhad Ghazani2

 

1Department of Medical, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

2Department of Computer Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

1R.Nasiri60@gmail.com 2S.HosseiniNejad@iau-ahar.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Anemia specially Iron deficiency anemia, and Neural tube defects which are preventable with preconceptional folic acid supplementation and iron supplementation during the second and three trimester, are the most common problems in pregnancy. In a cross-sectional study, 300 delivered mothers who were hospitalized in one of the obstetric hospitals in Tabriz, Iran, 1387, were reviewed. The researcher completed the questionnaires and then the data were analyzed in SPSS software. In this study the mean age of the mothers was 27.5 years old, with a range of 15-45 years. The mean of the pregnancy interval was 2.5 years, 23% of mothers had no insurance. In this study, each mother took 170 of different kinds of iron supplements, during a mean of six months, and took 72 of folic acid supplements (tablets) during 2.6 months. 4.3 percent of mothers have received no iron supplementations. 8.9 percent of mothers did not take any folic acid. In this study 8 percent of them started using folic acid supplements before conception. Most of mothers provided the supplement from drugstore and the often offered to complication. The supplementation was not associated with anemia in this study. There was an association between education level, numbers of children and pregnancy grade with supplementation.

[Roghayeh Nasiri Saghayesh and Seyed Hossein Hosseini Nazhad Ghazani. Iron and folic acid supplements for pregnant women. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):435-439] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.61

 

Keywords: Iron supplement; Folic acid supplement; Pregnant women.

Full Text

61

62

Awareness level of use of Information Communication Technologies tools among Extension officers in the North- West Province, South Africa.

 

Mabe LK and Oladele OI

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. karabo.mabe@nwu.ac.za and oladele20002001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A simple random sampling technique was used to select 169 extension officers to examine their level of awareness of information communication technologies in North West Province, South Africa. Data were collected with structured questionnaire and analysed using frequency counts, percentages and multiple regression analysis. The results show that majority of the extension officers were male (76%) with the mean age of 44.6 years, married (79%) and 82.5% were Christians. Forty one percent of the extension officers had Diploma as their educational qualification and a mean of 16.7 years as working experience. The results revealed that out of the 37 ICT tools listed, extension officers indicated high level of awareness of nine tools, which include mobile phones (1.79), computer (1.68), internet (1.77), overhead projector (1.62), fax machines (1.60), organization e mail (1.58), fixed telephone (1.52), personal email (1.52) and organization website (1.50). Significant determinants of awareness level were were religion (t = 1.91, p = 0.58); constraints to ICT use (t = 1.78, p = 0.78); importance of ICT tool (t = 1.93; p = 0.63) and 2 were significant at 0.05% which were competence on ICT use (t= 3.50; p =.001); (t= 2.0, p =.003). The study recommends that more information communication technologies should be made available to extension officers, so that they will become more aware of the use of ICT in extension work as tools that can gather and disseminate agricultural information.

[Mabe LK and Oladele OI. Awareness level of use of Information Communication Technologies tools among Extension officers in the North- West Province, South Africa. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):440-444] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.62

 

Key words: South Africa, extension officers, information communication technologies, tools, awareness.

Full Text

62

63

The effect of the Extended Parallel Process Model of childbirth education for decreasing the rate of Caesarean section among Iranian women

 

Sepideh Hajian 1, Mohammad Shariati 2, Khadijeh Mirzaii Najmabadi3, Masud Yunesian4, Mohammad Esmail Ajami5

 

1. PhD Candidate in Reproductive Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

2. MD, Assistant professor, Department of Community Medicine, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, Tehran, Iran

3. PhD in Reproductive Health, Assistant Professor, Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing Midwifery, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashsad, Iran

4. MD, Associate professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5. MD, Assistant professor, Department of Obstetrics Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

shariati@sina.tums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Despite the fact that childbirth by caesarean section (CS) does not provide significant health benefits for either the mother or the newborn, there has been a noticeable upward trend in CS births in Iran over the last two decades. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of using the Extended Parallel Process Model for childbirth education on decreasing the number of births by CS among Iranian women. This field study consisted of three steps. In step one; a formative evaluation was conducted using a pre-test questionnaire based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). In step two, a structured childbirth education program was developed based mainly EPPM. In step three, evaluation of the outcome was conducted by comparing the scores from the post-test questionnaire and CS rates between two groups. Two hundred and eighty-four low-risk pregnant women from antenatal clinics participated in and completed the study, and they were assigned to experimental and control groups that consisted of 145 and 139 women, respectively. Follow-up pairwise comparisons using paired t-test between the comparative groups indicated significant statistical changes for the outcome variable, i.e., the intention to have vaginal birth, from the pretest to posttest in the experimental group’s score (p < 0.001, 95% CI = -3/7 – -2/8), but such a finding was not observed in the control group. Furthermore, the rate of caesarean delivery was significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with control group (66.2% and 48.2%, respectively) and the odds of giving birth by CS was 2.1 times greater in the control group (p < 0.001). Using EPPM-based childbirth education was found to effectively lower the rate of intended and actual caesarean births. The findings also indicated that childbirth preparation programs that place emphasis on promoting mothers’ self-awareness and self-confidence increased the probability of their having normal childbirth.

[Sepideh Hajian, Mohammad Shariati, Khadijeh Mirzaii Najmabadi, Masood Younesian, Mohammad Esmail Ajami. The effect of the Extended Parallel Process Model of childbirth education for decreasing the rate of Caesarean section among Iranian women. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):445-452] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.63

 

Keywords: Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM); caesarean delivery; Iran

Full Text

63

64

Concordance of Serum Creatinine to Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Determining Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia

 

Chia Yook Chin 1, Ching Siew Mooi 2

 

1. Department of Primary Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Affiliation: Curtin University, Australia

2. Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia. chiayc@um.edu.my

 

Abstract: Little is known about the accuracy of serum creatinine (SCr) in identifying early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the primary care setting. Thus, this study aims to examine the concordance of SCr to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in detecting early CKD. This is part of a randomly selected 10-year retrospective, observation cohort study of patients registered with the Department of Primary Care Medicine Clinic at the University of Malaya Medical Centre. A SCr 132µmol/L and eGFR < 60 ml/min are used as the cut-off points for impaired renal function. Kappa statistic is used to test the inter-rater agreement of SCr with eGFR. A total of 1100 subjects were recruited. The mean age, SCr and eGFR were 66±9 years, 86±42 µmol/L and 70±30 ml/min respectively. The concordance between SCr and eGFR was poor as 363 (35.5%) patients had normal SCr but abnormal eGFR. Kappa value was 0.022 (p<0.001). Screening for CKD using SCr fails to detect an additional third of patients with impaired renal functions. Hence using eGFR is a better way to identify early CKD.

[Chia Yook Chin, Ching Siew Mooi. Concordance of Serum Creatinine to Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Determining Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):453-457] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.64

 

Keywords: Creatinine; Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; Chronic Kidney Disease; Concordance; Malaysia

Full Text

64

65

Effects of lead pollution in SY River on children’s intelligence

 

Chunyu Tang1,*, Anqi Li2, Hui Huang1, Xuemin Cheng1, Yalin Gao2, Hongyang Chen2, Qi Huang2, Yixin Luo2, Yutang Xue3, Qiting Zuo4, Liuxin Cui1,

 

1 Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

2 School of Basic Medicine, Clinical Medicine College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

3 Center for Disease Control of Shen Qiu County, Zhoukou, Henan 466300, China

4 College of Water Conservancy and Environmental Engineering, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

clx@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract To investigate the influence of lead pollution in SY River on children’s intelligence and provide a scientific data for governance of the SY River and protection of the residents, especially children. The polluted area and control area were selected randomly from less than 5 km and more than 20 km away from the SY river basin, respectively. Concentrations of lead in the river water, drinking water, soil, grain and vegetables were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (flame technique). There were 154 children, aged from 8 to 13, were recruited from two areas. Combined Raven’s Test (CRT) was used to measure the intelligence of the children. The concentration of lead in SY River was exceeding the standards of surface water quality. Compared to the control area, the concentrations of lead were significantly higher in the polluted area among drinking water, soil and vegetables (P<0.05). Blood lead levels were significantly higher in children who were living in polluted area than those living in control area (P<0.05). Similarly, children who were living in polluted area had significantly lower IQ than those living in control area (P<0.05). After controlling for confounders, an inverse association was observed between blood lead concentration and IQ scores (β=-0.293, P<0.05). These data suggested that the lead pollution in SY River were still serious and had entered the body by soil, drinking water and vegetables. Finally, our study suggested that environmental lead exposure had affected the children’s intelligence to a certain extent.

[Tang CY, Li AQ, Huang H, et al. Effects of lead pollution in SY River on children’s intelligence. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):458-464] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.65

 

Key words: Water pollution, Lead, Children, Intelligence

Full Text

65

66

The Impact of English Language Development (ELD) on English learning (Case Study in Tehran language schools)

 

Seyed majid abolhassani

 

Professor at Shahrood Payame Noor University, Semnan, Iran

S.M.Abolhassani@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The English Language Development (ELD) program provides services to students who require assistance in gaining English proficiency. Program activities include instruction in learning English, content area classroom support, curriculum development, assessment, staff training, bilingual communication with families, and parent involvement. The purpose of systematic English Language Development (ELD) is to develop a solid English language foundation. The content of ELD follows scope and sequence of language skills in functional contexts. It is a state-mandated program based on English language proficiency levels. ELD is a separate graded class in which students are grouped by proficiency levels. ELD is assessed using the statewide English Language Proficiency Assessment. ELD is usually delivered by an endorsed ESOL teacher. However, there are times when a classroom teacher, trained in ELD, can be expected to teach the subject. In this paper we examine the role of ELD in increasing the score of students in Tehran in language examinations and we prove that ELD has an effective role in the students' language score.

[Seyed majid abolhassani. The Impact of English Language Development (ELD) on English learning (Case Study in Tehran language schools). Life Sci J 2012;9(3):465-474] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.66

 

Keyword: English Language Development (ELD), English learning

Full Text

66

67

The Effect of Nursing Intervention on Eliminating Feeding Problems induced by Deficit Oral-Motor function among Children with Severe Head Injury

 

Fawzia El Sayed Abusaad 1 and Mohammed Ali Kassem2

 

1Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

dr.fawzia_abusaad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Addressing feeding problems induced by deficit oral motor activities is important for preventing or eliminating nutritional concerns among children with severe head injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nursing intervention on Eliminating Feeding Problems induced by oral-motor deficit among traumatic head injury of children. An experimental design (pre- post intervention) was used in a sample of 60 children admitted to Emergency hospital and Mansoura International hospital with severe head injury that were randomly selected. Interview questionnaire sheet including Pediatric feeding evaluation checklist (pre- post format) was used to collect the data. A serial of nursing intervention including modification of the manner of feeding, positioning and posture change for safe swallowing, oral-motor exercises and controlling of drooling were done by the researcher to correct the most evident feeding problems in spoon feeding, biting, chewing, swallowing and drooling induced by deficit oral-motor function. With the exception of biting skill (t= 1.07, p 0.2) a significant improvement are founded in the feeding domains of spoon feeding, chewing, cup drinking and drooling in the intervention group ( t= 3.66,3.52, 1.34, 3.43 and p.001,.001, 0.18,.001, respectively). It is concluded that nursing intervention for severe head injury children using a behavior modification program combining education and exercises has been shown to eliminate feeding problems and enhance oral-motor functions.

[Fawzia El Sayed Abusaad and Mohammed Ali Kassem. The Effect of Nursing Intervention on Eliminating Feeding Problems induced by Deficit Oral-Motor function among Children with Severe Head Injury. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):475-483] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.67

 

Key words: Feeding problems, Oral motor deficit, Children, Severe head injury.

Full Text

67

68

On the Contribution of Shear Reinforcement in Shear Strength of Shallow Wide Beams

 

Mohamed M. Hanafy, Hatem M. Mohamed and Nabil A.B. Yehia

 

Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering Cairo University, Egypt

Hatem_amn@yahoo.com, Hatem_amn@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: One of the common floor structural systems used in the Middle East is reinforced concrete hollow block slab with shallow wide beams (hidden beams). Most of the building codes in the middle east; the current Egyptian Code of practice (ECP 203-2007) for example, require that the applied one way shear stress in the shallow wide beams be less than the concrete shear strength without any shear reinforcement contribution, and the shear strength provided by concrete equals two thirds of concrete shear strength of shallow slender beams. As a consequence; a large cross-sectional areas of concrete shall be provided for these members to resist one-way shear demands which results in a conservative uneconomic design provision. The above mentioned requirements by some building codes in the Middle East were not found in most of other recognized international codes or standards. An experimental program was carried out to investigate the contribution of web shear reinforcement to shear strength of shallow wide beams. The main parameters considered in this investigation were: concrete compressive strengths and vertical stirrups; with varying amount, configuration and spacing. The experimental program consisted of twelve simply-supported reinforced concrete wide beams subjected to two concentrated loads at third points. The specimens were divided into 5 groups. All specimens were typically proportioned so that shear failure would preclude flexural failure. Shear strengths at failure recorded in this experimental program are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to some international codes. Test results clearly demonstrate the significance of the web reinforcement in improving the shear capacity the ductility of the shallow wide beams which is consistent with the recognized international codes and standards provisions.

 [Mohamed M. Hanafy, Hatem M. Mohamed and Nabil A.B. Yehia. On the Contribution of Shear Reinforcement in Shear Strength of Shallow Wide Beams. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):484-498] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.68

 

Keywords: shear strength, shallow wide beams, stirrups, normal strength concrete, high strength concrete, modified compression field theory.

Full Text

68

69

PLEURAL CYFRA 21-1 AND CA 15-3 IN DIFFERENTIATION OF MALIGNANT FROM BENIGN PLEURAL EFFUSIONS

 

Dalia H. Farag1, Eman El Hadidi1, Mohamed O. El Maraghy1 and Maha M Hussein2

 

Departments of Clinical Pathology1 and Internal Medicine2, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University
maraghy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined diagnostic values of CYFRA 21-1 and CA15-3 in pleural fluid for differentiation between malignant and benign pleural effusions. Subjects and Methods: Twenty patients with malignant pleural effusion (17 with primary lung cancer and 3 with breast cancer) were included, in addition to 20 diseased controls with benign pleural effusion (10 with congestive heart failure, 7 with parapneumonic effusion and 3 with tuberculosis). Following radiological investigations, thoracocentesis and pleural fluid examination, pleural CA 15-3 was assessed by chemiluminescence immune assay and pleural CYFRA 21-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Results of the present study revealed a high sensitivity 95% and specificity 90% of CYFRA 21-1 for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion. Combining CYFRA 21-1 and CA 15-3 did not improve diagnostic performance than that of CYFRA 21-1 used individually. Conclusion: CYFRA 21-1 is a non-invasive reliable marker for differentiating pleural effusions of malignant from benign causes. Its high diagnostic performance will help detections of cases possibly missed by routine cytology. This high performance did not benefit from the adjuvant use of CA 15-3.

[Dalia H. Farag, Eman El Hadidi, Mohamed O. El Maraghy and Maha M Hussein. PLEURAL CYFRA 21-1 AND CA 15-3 IN DIFFERENTIATION OF MALIGNANT FROM BENIGN PLEURAL EFFUSIONS. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):499-505] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.69

 

Keywords: CYFRA 21-1, CA 15-3, pleural effusion.

Full Text

69

70

Studies on Prevailing Cestodiasis in Wild African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate

 

Eissa, I. A. M.1; Viola, H. Zaki2, Nadia, G. M. Ali 3 and Mona S. Zaki4

 

1Dept. of Fish Diseases and Management, Fac. of Vet. Med. Suez Canal Univ.

2Dept. of Fish Diseases and Management, Fac. of Vet. Med., Mansoura Univ.

3Veterinary Division, Kafr-Elsheikh Governorate

4 Dept. of Hydrobiology, National Research Center.

Eissavet29@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total number of 200 fish (50 fish in each season) were collected randomly and examined for presence of cestodes. Two species of cestodes were recovered as Polyonchobothrium clarias and Monobothria sp. with infestation rate of 50.5 % (101out of 200) and 14.5 % (29 out of 200) respectively. Seasonally, P clarias was prevalent in spring and summer while Monobothria sp. was prevalent in spring, autumn and winter with no record in summer. There was significant decrease in the total serum proteins, albumin and globulin of infested fish comparatively with non-infested fish. The histopathological alterations were manifested as destruction, desquamation and sloughing of affected tissue mucosa with presence of degenerative changes.

 [Eissa, I. A. M. ; Viola, H. Zaki, Nadia, G. M. Ali and Mona S. Zaki. Studies on prevailing cestodiasis in wild African catfish Clarias gariepinus at Kafr El-Sheikh governorate. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):506-511] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.70

 

Keywords: Cestodes, Clarias gariepinus, Polyonchobothrium clarias, Monobothria sp., histopathology, serum protein, prevalence.

Full Text

70

71

Studies on Crustacean Diseases of Seabass, Morone Labrax, in Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate

 

Eissa I A M, Maather El-Lamie & Mona Zakai*

 

Dept. of Fish Diseases & Management, Fac. of Vet Med., Suez Canal Univ.

* Hydrobiology Dept., National Research Center, Dokki.

Eissavet29@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to detect the parasitic crustaceans affecting marine seabass Morone labrax that collected seasonally from different areas of Suez Canal (Ismailia province). There were no pathognomic signs in infested fish. Some revealed signs and P.M. lesions as bulging of opercula, hemorrhages, abrasions and ulcers on skin, sluggish movement and emaciation. The crustacean parasites were identified as copepods of Lernanthropus psciaenae and Caligus carangis. The total prevalence was (47%) and the summer displayed the highest seasonal prevalence. The relation between fish body weights, lengths and infestation rate were also studied.

 [Eissa I A M, Maather El-Lamie & Mona Zakai. Studies on Crustacean Diseases of Seabass, Morone Labrax, in Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):512-518] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 71

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.71

 

Key words: Seabass, Lernanthropus psciaenae, Caligus carangis, Prevalence

Full Text

71

72

Haemostatic Changes Associated with Thrombosis in Long Term Hemodialysis Treatment

Hanan G. Abd El-Azeem1, Eman Nasr Eldin1, Adel HM Mekawy2, Ahmad F. Thabet2, Nahla Mohamed Elsherbiny3.

Departments of 1Clinical Pathology; 2Internal Medicine and 3Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt. emannasr2000@yahoo.com


Abstract: In end-stage renal disease, particularly when treated with haemodialysis, the function of platelets, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems can be disturbed; those patients may show both thrombotic complications and bleeding abnormalities. Thus, it is essential to investigate haemostatic alterations in patients on hemodialysis so that adequate regime for anticoagulant therapy could be implemented. Haemostatic changes in patients on hemodialysis may result from alterations in vessel wall integrity and platelet function, and reduced blood flow in the native arteriovenous fistula. We study the haemostatic abnormalities associated with thrombosis in long term hemodialytic patients to determine whether coagulation and fibrinolysis are enhanced or not in 42 uremia patients on chronic regular hemodialysis treatment (20 of them had history of thrombotic events "group I" and the remaining 22 patients showed no history of thrombosis" group II") and 20 apparently health control group. Plasma levels of some blood coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured including platelet count, prothrombin time/concentration (PT/PC), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen and D-Dimer, platelet aggregation (induced by adenosine diphosphate, collagen, Ristocetin, and Arachedonic acid), and the levels of natural anticoagulant protein C, protein S and antithrombin-III (AT-III). The mean platelet count was normal in all studied groups, while higher mean value of platelet count was observed among patients in group I than group II. Prolonged PT/sec., aPTT/sec and TT in patients groups were observed; those differences were statistically highly significant in comparison with healthy controls (p < 0.001). The mean plasma fibrinogen (g/l) concentration was normal in all groups although levels above normal limits were noted in group I, fibrinogen level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in group I patients than in normal controls. The mean value of D-dimer (ng/ml) was significantly higher in group I than group II and in comparison with control group (p < 0.001). We did not find differences between group I patients and control group as regard platelet aggregation induced with all agents, while there were statistically significant difference were observed between group II and control except for collagen. In contrast, the level of natural anticoagulants (protein C, protein S and AT III) were significantly reduced in patients groups than control and they were statistically significant, and the levels were lower in group I than group II. In conclusion, our results showed that the long term haemodialysis procedure affects the haemostatic process and may contribute to a thrombotic tendency. Careful weighing of risks and benefits of pharmacological prevention of thrombosis in patients on hemodialysis is crucial and this area certainly warrants further investigation.
[Hanan G. Abd El-Azeem, Eman Nasr Eldin, Adel HM Mekawy, Ahmad F. Thabet, Nahla Mohamed Elsherbiny. Haemostatic Changes Associated with Thrombosis in Long Term Hemodialysis Treatment. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):519-526] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.72



Key Words: Chronic renal failure, Thrombosis.

Full Text

72

73

The Perception of Care- Givers of Mental Retarded Person towards Mental Retardation.

 

Mohebbi Z1, Nooryan KH2, Hashemi Mahmmod Abad N.3, Najafi doulatabad SH4.

 

1 Department of Medical surgical nursing,School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2Department of Mental Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasouj University of Medical Sciences, Yasouj, Iran.

3Department of Pschiatry, School of Medicin, Yasouj University of Medical Sciences, Yasouj, Iran.

4 Department of Medical surgical nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasouj University of Medical Sciences, Yasouj, Iran.

Corresponding author: Najafi doulatabad Shahla, shahlanajafi@gmail.com, shahlaiss@yahoo.com

 

Introduction: The number of persons suffering from retardation has been increased during the recent years. Most of mental retarded individuals are under the care at home and use family supporting services. The negative influences resulted from mental retardation may affect their family and care-givers. Considering that, the perception of care-givers may influences the care that they present therefore, a research was carried out with the aim to determine the perception of care- givers of mental retarded person towards mental retardation. Method: In this descriptive study, one hundred care- givers of mental retarded persons participated randomly. Data were collected using self-made questionnaire of perception of care- givers through face to face interview. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software and x² test. Results: Most of care-givers (56.0%) had neutral perception towards mental retardation. In addition, a significant relation was observed between the education level and occupation of care-givers with their perception connected to mental retardation (P=0.001), while, no significant relation was observed between the age and sex of mental retarded person and age and sex of care-givers with their perception. Conclusion: Care-givers with lower education level and house-keepers had a lower perception towards mental retardation. Therefore, it is necessary to consider supporting programs by health care-givers in order to increase adaptation and reduce tension for aforesaid groups.

[Mohebbi Z, Nooryan KH, Hashemi Mahmmod Abad N., Najafi doulatabad SH. The Perception of Care- Givers of Mental Retarded Person towards Mental Retardation. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):527-532] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.73

 

Key words: Care-givers, Mental retarded, Perception, Mental retardation.

Full Text

73

74

Overcoming Actuators Saturation Problem in Structural Active Control

 

A. E. Bakeri

 

Department of Structural Eng., Faculty of Eng., Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

aebakeri@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Since the actuator capacity is limited, in the real application of active control systems under severe earthquakes, it is conceivable that the actuators saturate, hence the actuator saturation should be considered as a constraint in the design of optimal controllers. In this paper, a new procedure for structural active control is proposed to overcome the actuators saturation. This approach is based on elimination of structural response as early as possible to save the high control force required later due to the response generated from the small recent response taking into consideration the actuator capacity. The proposed approach is formulated and applied to single and multi-story buildings subjected to ground motion. Two types of ground excitations are considered. The first is sinusoidal and in resonance with building. The second type of excitation represented by several real earthquakes. The proposed approach is compared with the traditional optimal control in two manners, when the maximum control force in the two approaches is maintained the same and when the response reduction level is the same. It is found that the proposed approach does not only overcome the actuator saturation, but it also reduces the response for all cases considered, namely, single or multi-story building, light or heavy damped structures, and when buildings are subjected to sinusoidal or real ground motion.

[A. E. Bakeri. Overcoming Actuators Saturation Problem in Structural Active Control. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):533-539] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 74

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.74

 

Keywords: Structural dynamic, Active control, Tendon, Earthquake, Actuator saturation

Full Text

74

75

Designing, construction and evaluation of tractor-back sprayer with Variable Rate Technology (VRT) by using aerial maps information

 

Mehrdad Fouj Lali1, Parviz Ahmadi Moghadam2

 

1 MSc in Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery, Urmia University, Iran

2 Assistant Professor in Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery, Urmia University, Iran

 Mehrdad.lali@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In recent years, concerns about utilizing various chemical toxicants in different sections of agriculture and also environmental pollutions increased and also convinced researchers and scientists in agricultural sector to discuss and offer new methods related to improve the toxicant management. One of the main disadvantages of increase the use of chemical toxicants in agriculture is transfer chemical materials to food through the soil and cause liver or respiratory cancer. Nowadays, in most countries, spraying fertilizer in farm fields is done without regard to changes in soil toxicant and also need of plant to toxicant and carried out uniformly to all parts of the farm and finally toxicant use and environmental pollution would increase. In developed countries, development of precision farming and using Variable Rate Technology (VRT) is growing rapidly. One of the vital nutrients for plant growth is nitrogen (N). Due to the lack of nitrogen in most agricultural soils, utilizing of nitrogen toxicant in agriculture is more than all other toxicants. On the other hand, excessive consumption of nitrogen would have negative effects on water quality and ecosystem of living organisms. In this paper, designing, construction and evaluation of chemical liquid toxicant spray with Variable Rate Technology (VRT) were carried out and it's used two types of electric valves in Variable Rate Technology (VRT). This technology has an intelligent processor system that spread the toxicant based on soil needs. System performance has been evaluated at different temperature and humidity. Finally, it has been concluded that valve opener have a stepper motor and busted water which have higher performance speed rather than analog gas valve cutter. In addition, humidity and ambient temperature had little effect on the system and toxicant spraying by the system saving $15 per acre and also is useful than traditional methods. By accurate available toxicant at the farm level, it's possible to plenty of products would die and has maximum environmental negative effects.

[Mehrdad Fouj Lali, Parviz Ahmadi Moghadam. Designing, construction and evaluation of tractor-back sprayer with Variable Rate Technology (VRT) by using aerial maps information. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):540-543] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.75

 

Keywords: Toxicant spray, Variable rate, Electric valve.

Full Text

75

76

Comparison between Flexible Pavement Damage Due to Conventional and Wide-Base Tires of Heavy Multiple Axles

 

Hassan Salama1, Ahmed Shehata1; Mahmoud Solyman2and Mohamed El Refaey1

 

1Civil & Environmental Engineering Department, Al Azhar University, Egypt

2 Construction Engineering and Utilities Department, Zagazig University, Egypt

elsaied2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Trucks are considered one of the most important means in transporting. Recently, the tire designers introduced new wide-base tires to replace the conventional dual tires system. The objective of this study is to investigate flexible pavement damage due to different heavy multiple axle configurations with wide-base tires. Several axle configurations including single, tandem, tridem and quad with conventional and wide-base tires were considered in this study. Two flexible pavement sections were analyzed, thick and thin pavement sections with thicknesses and material properties representing majority of the pavement cross-sections. To quantify and compare the damage for thick and thin pavement sections due to heavy axle load configurations, the forward analyses were conducted using KENLAYER program to calculate the pavement response. The horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of the hot mix asphalt and the vertical compressive strain on top of the subgrade and at the middle of each pavement layers as well as the six consecutive sub-layers of the subgrade soils were calculated from the structural model. These pavement responses were utilized in the performance models to calculate the two main pavement distress, fatigue cracking and pavement surface rutting. The strain area model for fatigue and VESYS rutting model for rutting were utilized to calculate the pavement damage. The Axle Factors were calculated for each axle configurations to compare the pavement damage due to axles with conventional and wide-base tires. The results indicate that axle loads with wide-base tires impose more fatigue and rutting damage than axles with conventional tires.

[Hassan Salama, Ahmed Shehata, Mahmoud Solyman and Mohamed El Refaey. Comparison between Flexible Pavement Damage Due to Conventional and Wide-Base Tires of Heavy Multiple Axles. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):544-550] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.76

 

Key words: Wide-base tire, dual tire, pavement rutting, pavement fatigue, pavement damage, multiple axles

Full Text

76

77

Simultaneous determination of Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppressing anti-TB immune responses of CD4+, CD8+ and Vγ2Vδ2+ T cells in vitro

 

Jie Qin1, Guangming Gong2*, Shilei Sun1, Bo Song1, Ying Du2, Xuan Yang2, Na Wang2, Sha Zhu2, Xiaoyan Xuan2, Pingping Liu2, Yuming Xu1

 

1. Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Basic Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China. gmgong@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To evaluate the negative regulatory effect of human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) on anti- Tuberculosis (TB) immune responses of T cells including CD4+, CD8+ and Vγ2Vδ2+ T cells simultaneously in vitro, a versatile carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based proliferation assay was exploited to determine the suppressive effect of Tregs on the purified protein derivative (PPD)-specific proliferations of such T-subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of BCG-infected donors. We demonstrated that PPD-stimulation droved synchronously the proliferations of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and Vγ2Vδ2+ T cells in PBMCs. Such PPD-specific proliferations of CD4+, CD8+ and Vγ2Vδ2+ T cells can be prohibited by human Treg concurrently. Similarly, Treg has the ability of suppressing the CD3/CD28 antibody-induced proliferations of such T-subsets. Our results indicated that the versatile CFSE-based proliferation assay can be applied to determine the complicated anti-TB immune response of multi-T-subsets simultaneously, and may facilitate human Tregs as potential tool to down-regulate overdue anti-TB immune responses involved in multiple effective T-subsets to enhance protection against Mycobacterium tb (M. tb) infection.

[Qin J, Gong GM, Sun SL, Song B, Du Y, Yang X, Wang N, Zhu S, Xuan XY, Liu PP, Xu YM. Simultaneous determination of Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppressing anti-TB immune responses of CD4+, CD8+ and Vγ2Vδ2+ T cells in vitro. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):551-555] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.77

 

Key words:CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), anti-TB immune response, T cells, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)

Full Text

77

78

Hasimoto Surfaces

 

Nassar H. Abdel-All, R. A. Hussien and Taha Youssef

 

nhabdeal2002@yahoo.com, tahaussef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present work is to construct a Hasimoto surface from its fundamental form coefficients via numerical integration of Gauss-Weingarten equations and fundamental theorem of surfaces.

[Nassar H. Abdel-All, R. A. Hussien and Taha Youssef. Hasimoto surfaces. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):556-560]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.78

 

Keywords: Evolution of curves, Hasimoto surface, Gauss-Weingarten equations.

Full Text

78

79

A Comparative Study between Virtual Colonoscopy (CT Colonoscopy) and Conventional Colonoscopy in Different Presentations of Suspected Colonic Disorders

 

Wael M. Aref1; Ahmed El-Mazny1 and Farid G. Amin2

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

 2Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

waelaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Virtual colonoscopy is a promising new modality for investigating suspected colonic disorders, it is relatively safe, can be done without sedation and in less time compared to conventional colonoscopy. Aim of this work: to evaluate the application of virtual colonoscopy in different indications of conventional colonoscopy and compare between both procedures as regards sensitivity and specificity of both methods, putting the hypothesis that virtual colonoscopy can replace the conventional colonoscopy. Subjects and Methods: a group of eighty two patients having different indications for colonoscopy were included; all patients underwent full medical history, examination and any needed investigations. Patients were scheduled to undergo both conventional and virtual colonoscopy on the same week, both endoscopist and radiologist were unaware of the other report. Results: Both conventional and virtual colonoscopy detected colonic masses in 18 patients, colonic diverticulae in 5 patients and colonic strictures in 2 patients with no missed or false positive results with 100% sensitivity and specificity; and 100% positive and negative predictive values. Meaning that virtual colonoscopy was accurate in detection of masses, diverticulae and strictures. However detection of polyps by virtual colonoscopy was 88% sensitive and 77% specific with 3 missed polyps (small polyps) and 13 false positive polyps detected by virtual colonoscopy. Virtual Colonoscopy Could not detect any of the following lesions: angiodysplasia (2 patients), ulcerative colitis (without pseudo polyps) (3 patients), flat ulcers and non-specific colitis (11 patients), with a Sensitivity 0%. Conclusion: Virtual Colonoscopy can be used in evaluation of patients presenting with constipation, weight loss or abdominal pain in whom colonoscopic examination was indicated (in these patients colonic lesions were masses, strictures and diverticulae, so virtual colonoscopy is sensitive in detecting these lesions). But the use of virtual colonoscopy is limited in patients presenting with anemia and positive occult blood in stools, bleeding per-rectum and chronic diarrhea (in these patients the colonic lesions were angiodysplasia, flat ulcers and non specific colitis, so virtual colonoscopy is not sensitive in detecting these lesions). Also, virtual colonoscopy is a good diagnostic tool for screening for colorectal carcinoma, however using the recent technology in virtual colonoscopy as new faster CT multi-slice machines with the least possible slice thickness in order not to miss a small lesion is recommended.

[Wael M. Aref; Ahmed El-Mazny and Farid G. Amin. A Comparative Study between Virtual Colonoscopy (CT Colonoscopy) and Conventional Colonoscopy in Different Presentations of Suspected Colonic Disorders. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):561-567] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 79

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.79

 

Key words: Virtual Colonoscopy - Conventional colonoscopy – Lower GIT symptoms - Colorectal carcinoma

Full Text

79

80

Studies on Coccidia of Egyptian Balady Breed Chickens

 

Ahmed A. Al-Gawad1; Olfat A. Mahdy1; Aida A. N. El-Massry1 and Mohamed S. A. Al-Aziz 2

 

1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University. Department of Parasitology

2Middle East Business Unit Manager Pfizer Animal Health

dr.olfat.mahdy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A total of 711 Balady breed chickens of different ages and sex were collected from houses and farms of 4 localities: Cairo & Giza, governorates Western delta governorates; El-Gharbiyah, El-Behiera, Kafer El- Sheikh, Eastern governorates; El- Sharqiyah, Ismailia & Upper Egypt governorates; Qina and Aswan, during the period between September 1999 - August 2003 were sacrificed and their intestine were examined for the presence of Eimeria species. Microscopical identification of Eimeria oocysts species revealed that 21.24% of these chickens were found infected with five species of Eimeria; which were E.necatrix (58.27%), E.tenella (25.82%), E.acervulina (19.20%), E.mitis (10.59%) and E.maxima (4.66%), respectively. It was found that chickens of 1-21 day old were found free from infection (0%), while chicken of 64 – 84 day old showed high infection rate (62.37%).The high rate of infection was noticed in winter season (45.13%), while the lowest rate was recorded during summer season (1.86%). The highest incidence of Eimeria species (37.16%) was found in (Cairo & Giza).While, the lowest incidence (7.32%) was found in Delta areas. The prepatent period, age resistance beside histological examination of the five previously identified Eimeria species, which were experimentally isolated and propagated, was also studied.

[Ahmed A. Al-Gawad; Olfat A. Mahdy; Aida A. N. El-Massry and Mohamed S. A. Al-Aziz. Studies on Coccidia of Egyptian Balady Breed Chickens. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):568-576] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 80

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.80

 

Keywords: Five Eimeria species - Egyptian Balady Breed Chickens – Incidence – Histopathology

Full Text

80

81

Reliability Equivalence of Independent Non-identical Parallel and Series Systems

 

Yousry H. Abdelkader1,3; A. I. Shawky2 and M. I. Al-Ohally1

 

1Dept. of Math., Faculty of Science, University of Dammam, KSA

2Dept. of Statistics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

3Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt

 yabdelkader@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The reliability equivalence factors of parallel and series systems with n independent non-identical components are obtained. Three different methods are used to improve such systems: (i) improving the quality of several components by decreasing their failure rates, (ii) adding a hot component to the system, and (iii) adding a cold redundant component to the system. The survival function is used as a performance measure of the system reliability to compare different system designs. The rth moment time to failures will be derived in parallel and series systems in Weibull Distribution.

[Yousry H. Abdelkader; A. I. Shawky and M. I. Al-Ohally. Reliability Equivalence of Independent Non-identical Parallel and Series Systems. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):577-583] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 81

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.81

 

Key words: Reliability; Series and Parallel Systems; Reduction method; Hot duplication; Cold duplication; Weibull Distribution.

Full Text

81

82

Cytogenetic and molecular variation on Vicia faba treated with creatine monohydrate

 

Nora H. Al-zahrani, Kadija H. Alamoudi and Salha M. Al-shamrani*

 

Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Kingdom

Corresponding author*: nlalzhrani@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The cytogenotoxicity of creatine monohydrate conc. (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3g/100 ml) were examined on Vicia faba plant, i:e: meiotic division behavior, leaf protein by using SDS-PAGE protein electrophoresis and changes in DNA of M2 faba bean plant by using RAPD analysis. All creatine monohydrate treatments showed abnormal pollen mother cells (PMCs) which increased as the concentration and treatment period increased. The most common abnormalities were stickines, disturbed, laggard, bridges and micro-multi nuclei. The electrophoretic study of leaf proteins showed alteration of some minor protein bands after creatine treatments. The highest concentration of creatine showed a polymorphic number of genetic bands by using RAPD-PCR product comparing with control. Results strongly suggested that creatine monohydrate is clastogenic.

[Nora H. Al-zahrani, Kadija H. Alamoudi and Salha M. Al-shamrani. Cytogenetic and molecular variation on Vicia faba treated with creatine monohydrate. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):584-590] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.82

 

Key words: Vicia faba plant, RAPD analysis, SDS-PAGE protein electrophoresis

Full Text

82

83

Cardiovascular Diseases in Mena Hospital during Hajj (1429H) at Makkah, Saudi Arabia

 

Abdulhalim Salim Serafi and Abdulmonim Ahmad Alqasim

 

Faculty of Medicine, Umm al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

ASSerafi@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Background: The numbers of Hajj pilgrims are increasing yearly. During Hajj period of 1428H (2007G), cardiac problems have been reported as one of the commonest causes of admissions in hospitals. However, the data regarding the commonest presentations and types of cardiac diseases were not reported in the literature. Objectives: To identify the cardiovascular diseases in Hajj pilgrims for the year 1429H (2008G) In Mena Hospitals. To determine the proportion of heart diseases most common among the pilgrims, with a focus on patients with heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is known that patients who suffer from HF have elevated some of cardiac enzymes, that originated the idea of this research is trying to reach an early signs in patients with HF and try to diagnose their condition and refer them to a cardiologist early to treat and prevent complications of the disease. Methods: Analysis of the data was carried out for all patients, who were admitted at Mena Emergency Hospital over a period of 15 days in Hajj season 1429H (2008G). A questionnaire has been filled out and blood samples were taken from all patients admitted to Coronary care unit (CCU) and cardiology wards in the hospital. Results: A total number of 507 patients were admitted to the hospital including 120 patients with heart diseases, 85 of them were admitted in CCU and 35 in cardiology ward. The patients suffering from various cardiac diseases were in the following order: heart failure cases 70%; ischemic heart disease 20%; and valvular heart disease 10%. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) was significantly increased in all patients with heart failure. By analyzing the questionnaire in patients who have HF with high BNP we found that 80% of them admitted to the hospital after they perform physical effort and more than 50% of them had started the symptoms they have after they throwing pebbles. Conclusions: Most common cardiac diseases were found in hospitalized patients for Hajj 1429H, belonging to different countries over the globe. Circulating levels of the BNP can help in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and provide prognostic information not only in patients with HF but also the general population and other patient groups. The BNP test is used as an aid in the diagnosis and assessment of severity of heart failure (HF). BNP testing on clinical outcomes of patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnea could be helpful and may lead to a decrease in admission rates and decrease in mean length of stay. The BNP test is also useful for the risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndrome.

[Abdulhalim Salim Serafi and Abdulmonim Ahmad Alqasim. Cardiovascular Diseases in Mena Hospital during Hajj (1429H) at Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):591-596] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.83

 

Key words: Cardiovascular disease, Hajj, BNP, pilgrim, Makkah

Full Text

83

84

Developing skills in managing Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)

 

Samira Alsenany1 and Amer Al Saif 2

 

1Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Salsenany@kau.edu.sa.

2Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Aalsaif@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was originally developed in 1975 by Harden to avoid the many disadvantages of the traditional clinical examination and to improve feedback between staff and students; in making the examination more objective, a marking strategy was decided in advance. Furthermore, clinical competence assessment is an important issue in clinical health education: assessing clinical practice is long-standing and receives substantial attention in health care education. The OSCE mode is very useful to monitor the abilities students, and stations can be designed to address different skills and knowledge. OSCEs are valuable way of assessing proficiency in range of clinically- focused skills and knowledge, so they are widely used as fundamental assessment strategy in across the world. The greatest advantage of using OSCE is that it can be set up to integrate theory and practice in forms of small scenarios, simulations, case studies, standardized patient (SP) and the students can improve their own learning and reflection in a safe environment. In the OSCE evaluation of clinical skills is essential feedback and it plays an important motivating role between students and teachers to ensure the quality and appropriateness of a learning process. It may be used for exploration of the relationship between competence and knowledge as an assessment method through meeting specific objectives of the teaching process and integrating technical and theory “stations” to advanced clinical practice. However, OSCE can also be used in a formative way, as problem-based exercises to enhance skill acquisition and integrate other key skills (e.g. critical thinking, communication, and reflective practice). There are a number of methods to evaluate the knowledge, skill and attitudes of students in academic program such as written examinations, projects / papers / presentations, and clinical examinations. The Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) is a clinical examination, utilizing a standardized patient (SP) setting in order to test the student’s understanding and performance knowledge, skills and attitudes. Additionally, OSCEs involve the Year Coordinators, Instructors, Examiners, Standardized Patients Students. Each of these stakeholders has a particular role and set of responsibilities towards an OSCE. During an OSCE, the students are evaluated on their skill sets of communication, assessment and treatment, safety, and patient feedback and education. Examiners and Standardized patients receive additional training to ensure continual quality of the OSCE. However, the potential of OSCE as a flexible teaching and evaluation method to avoid examiner variation has been recognized in health education. The greatest advantages of using OSCE are that it can be set up to integrate theory and practice in the form of small scenarios, simulations, case studies and standardized patient (SP), and the students can improve their own learning and reflection in a safe environment, as has been identified. Although there are a few drawbacks in using OSCE, such as time, cost, number of clinical instructors requested with the high number of students, we should not neglect it. Several studies were found in the literature review that are on assessment of clinical competence and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Studies were reviewed from the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); MEDLINE and ASSIA were searched using Ovid and CSA.

[Samira Alsenany and Amer Al Saif. Developing skills in managing Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE). Life Sci J 2012;9(3):597-602] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.84

 

Keywords: OSCE, assessment clinical competence, change, evaluation and performance.

Full Text

84

85

Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Reducing Toxicity of Aflatoxin B1 on the Ovary of Young Female Rats

 

Ismail, N. H.

 

Zoology Dept., Faculty of Girls for Art Sciences and Education, Ain Shams University

nadia-hussein@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds produced by some species of Aspergillus, especially A. flavus and A. parasiticus. This study was designed to investigate the possible therapeutic dose of Vit. A on ovary of young female rats treated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Animals were divided into 5 equal groups each group contains 6 rats. Group I animals of this group had been kept as normal without any treatment and considered as controls. Group 2: Animals of this group were orally administered vehicle 50% DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) alone.Group3: Animals of this group were orally administered vehicle with Vitamin A (132 IU double the human therapeutic dose).Group4: Animals of this group were orally administered.0.05 μg AFB1 per kg dissolved in 50% DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide).Group 5: Animals of this group were orally administered 0.05 μg AFB1 per kg with Vitamin A (132IU double the human therapeutic dose).The experiment lasted for 14 weeks, animals were dissected 24 hours after last doss. Ovarin sections of treated female rats showed pathological changes represented by reduction number and deformed follicles, with Absence of mature follicles. In addition, semithin ovarian sections exhibited, follicles without oocytes, residual in zona granulosa cells with reduction in theca layer. Also serum follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH) levels were decreased and estradiol level was increased. Vitamin A showed a partial improvement of histopathological as regards ovary sections observed with numerous follicles in various stages of development (primary, secondary and Graafian follicle,corpora lutea), with presence of some deformed follicles. Also serum follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH)and estradiol levels were improved with supplementation of vitamin A. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that AFB1 adversely indirectly damages ovarian tissue through increasing estradiol, while vitamin A treatment effectively attenuates the toxic effect of AFB1 in the ovary

[Ismail, N. H. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on the Ovary to Reduced Toxicity of Aflatoxin B1 on Young Female Rats. L Sci J 2012; 9(3):603-312]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.85

 

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1- Vitamin A- Ovary - young female rats

Full Text

85

86

Combined Effect of Systemic Bisphosphonates, Calcium and Vitamin D on Alveolar bone in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Females having Chronic Periodontitis Following Surgical Periodontal Therapy

 

Basma Mostafa1, Ebtehal Hamdy2 and Nermeen Nasif1

 

1Department of Surgery and Oral Medicine, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

boshta@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the systemic use of Alendronate (ALN), an aminobisphosphonate in combination with calcium and vitamin D supplementations on the alveolar bone in osteoporotic postmenopausal females following surgical periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis. Subjects and Methods: Forty postmenopausal osteoporotic females having chronic periodontitis were divided into two groups. Group (1) which is the control group (n=20) received systemic ALN for 6 months. To group (2) which is the study group (n=20) systemic ALN was given in combination with calcium and vitamin D for 6 months. Initial therapy including scaling, root planning and oral hygiene instructions followed by surgical periodontal therapy using the modified Widman flap procedures was performed. The pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) in addition to radiographic linear, density and angular defect measurements were done at baseline before starting the initial therapy and at 6 months postoperatively. The results revealed a significant gain in clinical attachment level and reduction of pocket depth in both groups with presence of a significant improvement of all the radiographic measurements at the end of the study period. The study group always showed higher percentages of improvement than the control group in all the measurements. It can be concluded that systemic ALN in combination with calcium and vitamin D administration to postmenopausal osteoporotic females is a valuable treatment modality in adjunct to surgical therapy in the management of chronic periodontitis.

[Basma Mostafa, Ebtehal Hamdy, Nermeen Nasif. Combined Effect of Systemic Bisphosphonates, Calcium and Vitamin D on Alveolar bone in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Females having Chronic Periodontitis Following Surgical Periodontal Therapy. L Sci J. 2012;9(3):613-622] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 86

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.86

 

Keywords: Alendoranate, calcium, vitamin D, osteoporosis, periodontitis, alveolar bone

Full Text

86

87

Evaluation of tourism climate comfort in order to attract more tourists - Case study: Sanandaj city in Iran

 

Mohammad Azad Ahmadi

Sama technical and vocational college, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Sanandaj, Iran

Tel: 0098-918-8711988 E-mail: mo.aahmadi@yahoo.com

Post Code: 66177-66869, 1st unit, no. 1320, Havarinasab St., Villashahr area, Sanandaj, Iran

 

Abstract: Sanandaj is ready for tourism industry considering all aspects by having ancient and enduring culture consists of tribes, ethnic groups, and climate variability, historical, cultural and natural attractions. But one of the required information for tourists to travel is climate conditions of the destination, namely tourist chooses a time for travelling when the climate conditions are favorable. The climatic conditions that the tourist is interested in are temperature, humidity, radiation and air flow and these climatic conditions factors provide an index called comfort in relation to the reaction of human to thermal environmental conditions that all these factors must be considered altogether. The study area has the ability to attract and attend tourist in national and international level due to the Zagros Mountains, vegetation, local winds and latitude. Therefore, in this article, using climate data from weather stations, first meteorological parameters, hydrological phenomena, summary of regional climate based on various climatic methods (Blair, Gorsczynski, modified koppens, Goussen, silyaninof, Domarton, Barat, Emberger and the best climate in the region were studied and determined, and then climatic conditions of Sanandaj city were evaluated based on tourism comfort climate, to identify the best times and provide the tourists. According to the conducted studies in this area, the best time for tourists in which they can be physically and mentally in comfort is from late May to late October. Generally, it can be said that 6 months of the year has comfort climate conditions for recreational programs in the city of Sanandaj.

[Mohammad Azad Ahmadi. Evaluation of tourism climate comfort in order to attract more tourists, Case study: Sanandaj city in Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):623-629] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 87

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.87

 

Keywords: Tourism, climate, Sanandaj city, tourism comfort

Full Text

87

88

Designing, manufacturing and evaluating microwave –hot air combination drier

 

Amin Hazevazife1*, Parviz Ahmadi Moghadam2, A. Mohammad Nikbakht3, Farough Sharifian4

 

1MSc in Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery, Urmia University, Iran

2Assistant professor of mechanic agriculture machinery urmia University, Iran

3Assistant professor of mechanic agriculture machinery urmia University, Iran

4Phd student in mechanic agriculture machinery, Urmia University, Iran

Amin.hazervazife@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, one microwave-hot air drier was designed and manufactured and then was evaluated. In the manufactured drier, one circuit was employed for feeding Magnetron lamp with nominal power of 1.3 kW and frequency of 2.45 GHz in order to produce microwaves. Hot air was produced using six 700 W heaters and a 175 rpm fan. The drier container volume was 30625 cm3 and hot airways blown into the container through its bottom face and microwaves were injected inside through its side face. This drier is capable of controlling microwaves power and temperature and flow rate of inlet air. Also during drying process, changes in mass and moisture of the product, inlet and outlet air temperature and total consumption power can be simultaneously measured. In order to evaluate operation of the manufactured drier, apple slices were dried up to their 20% moisture content using both microwaves and hot air. The results showed that increasing microwaves power causes the drying time to considerably reduce and drying rate to increases. On the other hand, increasing inlet air temperature had a significant effect on increasing drying rate while inlet air flow rate had a negligible effect on drying rate. Comparing operation of the device in two conditions indicated that comparing to hot air flow drying; drying rate can be increased up to approximately 10-fold by using microwaves.

[Amin Hazevazife, Parviz Ahmadi Moghadam, A. Mohammad Nikbakht, Farough Sharifian. Designing, manufacturing and evaluating microwave –hot air combination drier. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):630-637] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 88

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.88

 

Key Words: Drier, Microwaves, hot air flow, drying time, drying rate, apple

Full Text

88

89

The association of environmental fluoride, trace elements and urine fluoride in adults living in endemic fluorosis villages in Henan Province

 

Ruirui Cui1, Lijun Ren 2, Liuxin Cui 1, Shihong Li2, Xuemin Cheng1, Yu Xi3Mingxu Zhao1, Liju Duan1, Jiaxiang Hou1, Jie Liu1, Yue Ba1*

 

1Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001,China; 2 Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Kaifeng, Henan, China; 3 Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Tongxu county, Kaifeng, Henan, China. bayue1963@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective. To analyze the relationship of environmental fluoride level, urine fluoride concentration and trace elements in adults living in endemic fluorosis villages. Methods. Fluoride concentrations in drinking water, vegetables, crops, soils and urine were determined using fluorine ion selective electrode method. The concentrations of the Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) in drinking water and serum in adults were detected using the flames atom absorption method. Results. The concentrations of fluoride in drinking water were 2.15±1.97mg/L, 0.46±0.05mg/L and 0.38±0.15mg/L in the endemic fluorosis villages (EFV), villages conducted defluoridation project (DFPV) and control villages (CV) respectively. The fluoride concentration in drinking water of EFV was significantly higher than that of CV and DFPV (P<0.05 respectively). The concentration of fluoride in the plough layer in the high fluoride village was higher compared with control villages (p<0.05). There were no statistical differences of fluoride concentrations in vegetables, grain and plow pan layer of soil among EFV, DFPV and CV (P>0.05). The concentrations of the fluoride in the urine were 2.50±1.50 mg/L, 1.42±0.97mg/L and 0.98±0.50 mg/L in adults from EFV, DFPV and CV respectively. There were statistical differences between any two of the three groups (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in drinking water of EFV, DFPV and CV. There was negative correlation between blood Ca2+ and urine fluoride (r=-0.183, P=0.022). Conclusion. Individuals who have higher urine fluoride level tend to have lower blood Ca2+ concentration.

[Ruirui cui, Rupu yang, Liuxin cui. Yu Xi, Xuemin Cheng, Shihong Li, Liju Duan, Jiaxiang Hou, Jie Liu, Yue Ba. The association of environmental fluoride, trace elements and urine fluoride in adults living in endemic fluorosis villages in Henan province. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):638-642 ] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 89

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.89

 

Key words: fluoride, urine fluoride, calcium, magnesium

Full Text

89

90

A Design of Fault Tolerant­ Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit

 

Parisa Safari 1, Majid Haghparast 2, Asgar Azari 3

 

1. Young Researchers Club, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

2. Department of Computer Engineering, Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Electrical Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

p-safari@iau-ahar.ac.ir, haghparast@iausr.ac.ir, azari@iaut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Since the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is one of the essential components of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), its well performance is the most important factor in obtaining the high reliability. The reversible logic has also found emerging attention in nanotechnology, optical computing, quantum computing and low power CMOS design. In this paper we are going to propose and analyze a basic model of fault tolerant reversible ALU and show that the realization of an efficient fault tolerant reversible ALU is possible with both minimum constant inputs and garbage outputs. The proposed fault tolerant reversible ALU is a versatile approach to the implementation of quantum computing with having both a remarkable low power consumption and nano scaling.

[Parisa Safari, Majid Haghparast, Asgar Azari. A Design of Fault Tolerant­ Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):643-646] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 90

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.90

 

Key words: Reversible Logic, Parity Preserving, Fault Tolerant, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology based systems, Nanometric Circuits.

Full Text

90

91

Diagnostic Value of Flow Cytometry in Cases with Myelodysplasia

 

Islam M. Hussien1, Samia F. El-Belbessy1, Shereen M. El-Maghraby1, Amani F. Sorour2 and Nahla Farahat2

 

1Hematology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University

shereenmaghraby36@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a term used to encompass a spectrum of clonal (neoplastic) myeloid disorders The combination of obvious marrow dysplasia and clonal karyotypic abnormalities is considered diagnostic for MDS, with each technology confirming the other. However, not all patients with MDS will have this combination of findings. In this study, we evaluated the utility of flow cytometric immunophenotyping in the diagnosis of MDS. Material and Methods: We studied 20 patients with MDS, two of them were chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) (as diagnosed by morphologic evaluation of the initial bone marrow specimen) and compared results with those obtained in healthy controls subjects. All patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, Clinical examination, complete blood count, Bone marrow aspirate,iron stain and immunophenotyping using a panel of antibodies CD13, 33, 34, 38, 16, 14,45,56 and CD11b to analyze dyspoiesis by quantifying the expression of each monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) on blasts,granulocytes and monocytes with respect to controls. Bone marrow biopsy was done in some cases. Results: The results are classified according to the gate into blast, granulocytes and monocytic gates. On blast gate, we found statistically significant increase in expression and percentage of CD34 + cells, also decrease in CD 38 expression on CD34 + cells in cases of MDS in comparison to control group. Granulocytic gating revealed statistically significant increase of CD13 expression and decrease in CD56 expression in cases in comparison to control group, while the differences in expression of CD45, CD14, CD33 and CD11B were statistically insignificant. Monocytic gating revealed statistically significant decrease of CD38 expression in cases of RA and increase of CD14 & CD11b expressions in cases in comparison to control group, while the differences in expression of CD45, CD13, CD33 and CD56 were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: We emphasis on the role of flow cytomerty in MDS for accurate blast count and identification of abnormal myeloblasts on the basis of antigenic profiles, even in the marrow with less than 5% of myeloblasts. Also recognition of immunophenotypic dysplastic changes in mature myeloid cells and monocytes. No one single simple immunophenotypic parameter has been proved to be diagnostic of MDS.

[Islam M. Hussien, Samia F. El-Belbessy, Shereen M. El-Maghraby, Amani F. Sorour and Nahla Farahat. Diagnostic Value of Flow Cytometry in Cases with Myelodysplasia. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):647-656] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 91

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.91

 

Keywords: MDS, Flow cytometry

Full Text

91

92

Is hyperuricaemia one of the cardiovascular risk factors clustering in type 2 diabetic patients?

 

Sabry Shoeib1; Ehab Abdel-Atti1; Ashraf G. Dala1 Mohamed El-Noamany 2; Samar M. Kamal3 and Hala M Gabr4

 

1. Internal Medicine, 2Cardiology, 3Clinical Pathology and 4Community Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menofiya University hospital, Egypt. ehab_abdelatty@hotmail.com.

 

Abstract: Background & Aim: The prevalence of hyperuricaemia (HU) in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) and its relation with diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications has been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HU and both micro and macroangiopathies (IHD and diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The cohort of this cross-sectional study was sixty T2 diabetic patients (26 men and 34 women, aged 52.4±8.6 years). They have been recruited from the Outpatient Department of Menofia University Hospital between January and June, 2010. In addition to comprehensive clinical examination, they were subjected to laboratory check-up for serum uric acid, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum lipids, 24-hours urine collection for microalbuminuria (µA), stress ECG and coronary angiography as indicated. Results: HU was detected in 18 out of out 60 (30%) type 2 diabetic patients. The frequency of hypertension (HT), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), peripheral neuropathy (PN) and µA were significantly higher in diabetic patients with (78%, 67%, 78% and 78%, respectively) than in those without HU (48%, 5%, 38% and 33% respectively) (P=0.04, 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). We also observed a significantly higher FBG, PPBG and HbA1c in the diabetic patients with compared to those without HU (P=0.02, 0.01 and 0.01 respectively) have. Likewise, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and creatinine levels in diabetic patients with HU were again significantly (P=0.02, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively) above their counterparts values in diabetics without HU. Conclusion: The cheap, basically available and modifiable serum uric acid level we observed to prevail in T2 diabetic patients would be a useful investigational tool to prompt a cost-effective search for other cardiovascular risk factors known to cluster in them.

[Sabry Shoeib; Ehab Abdel-Atti; Ashraf G. Dala; Mohamed El-Noamany; Samar M. Kamal and Hala M Gabr. Is hyperuricaemia one of the cardiovascular risk factors clustering in type 2 diabetic patients? Life Sci J 2012;9(3):657-666] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.92

 

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, microangiopathy and ischaemic heart disease.

Full Text

92

93

Rassf1a Methylation Status in Paired Tissue and Serum Samples Together with Rassf1a Protein Expression in Breast Cancer Patients (An Egyptian Study)

 

Heba H. Gawish 1, Hoda A. Hagrass1 and Eman H. Abdel Bary2

 

1Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Recently genetics and epigenetics alterations have been found to be characteristic of malignancy and hence can be used as targets for detection of neoplasia. RASSF1A gene hypermethylation has been a subject of interest in recent researches on cancer breast patients. Design and methods: We investigated 30 breast cancer patients and 10 control subject diagnosed with benign lesions of the breast for RASSF1A methylation status in paired tissue and serum samples using MSP and we evaluated RASSF1A protein expression in tissues by IHC.Results were studied in relation to known prognostic clinicopathplogical features in breast cancer. Results: We evaluated 30 breast cancer patients mean age ±SD (50.9±7.7) years and 10 control patients mean age ±SD (38.4±8.6 years). Frequency of RASSF1A methylation in tissues, serum were 73% and 63.3% respectively and RASSF1A protein expression showed frequency of 46.7%. There was an association between RASSF1A methylation in tissues, serum and loss of protein expression in tissues with invasive carcinoma, advanced stage breast cancer, L.N metastasis, ER/PR negativity and HER2 positivity.RASSF1A methylation in serum showed high degree of concordance with methylation in tissues (Kappa =0.851, P <0.001). Conclusion: RASSF1A hypermethylation in tissues and serum and its protein expression may be a valid, reliable and sensitive tool for detection and follow up of breast cancer patients.

[Heba H. Gawish, Hoda A. Hagrass and Eman H. Abdel Bary. Rassf1a Methylation Status in Paired Tissue and Serum Samples Together with Rassf1a Protein Expression in Breast Cancer Patients (An Egyptian Study). Life Sci J 2012;9(3):667-675] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 93

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.93

 

Key words: RASSF1A; hypermethylation; MSP; cancer breast; Egypt

Full Text

93

94

Modulatory Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Nucleic Acids Alterations and Oxidative Stress in Experimentaly Hepatitis Rats

 

Amal, A. Fyiad; Monira, A. Abd El-Kader and Abeer, H. Abd El-Haleem

 

Biochemistry Dept. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. amalfyiad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to test whether the pre-treatment with pomegranate juice could attenuate the nucleic acids alterations and oxidative stress that produced in D-Galactosamine /lipopolysaccharide induced hepatitis in rats. Animals were dosed with D-Galactosamine / lipopolysaccharide (300 mg kg-1 b.wt, i.p / 30 µg kg-1 b.wt, i.p) with or without pretreatment of pomegranate juice. The protective role of pomegranate juice was evaluated on the aspects of the release of hepatic enzymes into serum, the nucleic acids alterations, the formation of malondialdehyde, and the histopathological changes in hepatic tissues. Obtained results revealed that D-Galactosamine / lipopolysaccharide led to increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, while there was a significant inhibition in deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and protein contents in liver tissues. Oxidative stress was also increased in hepatic tissue represented by increased malondialdehyde and decrease of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione). which accompanied with histopathological changes in the hepatic tissue.In addition; pretreatment with pomegranate juice (20 ml kg-1 b. w. day-1 for 14 days) effectively hindered the adverse effect of D-Galactosamine / lipopolysaccharide and protect against hepatic damage via suppression of oxidative stress. Histopathological studies of the liver of different groups also support the protective effects exhibited by pomegranate juice through restoring the normal hepatic architecture. In conclusion, pomegranate extract could afford a significant protection in the alleviation of D-Galactosamine / lipopolysaccharide –induced hepatiis.

[Amal, A. Fyiad; Monira, A. Abd El-Kader and Abeer, H. Abd El-Haleem. Modulatory Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Nucleic Acids Alterations and Oxidative Stress in Experimentaly Hepatitis Rats. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):676-682] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 94

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.94

 

Key words: lipid peroxidation; antioxidants; D-galactosamine; nucleic acids; histopathology

Full Text

94

95

The Sun as a large Hydrogen Atom

 

Salah Eid

 

Faculty of Arts, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Salaheid050@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The solar planets orbit the Sun with velocities less than the velocity of an electron orbiting a proton in the fifth level of energy in hydrogen atom, while if a body B takes place at the hydrogen surface of the sun, this supposed body will orbit the Sun with the same velocity of this electron according to the gravitational law  with which we calculate the orbital velocity of any planet. The velocities of solar planets from Mercury to Pluto, therefore follow that of B, each according to its distance from the Sun's center. The Sun which is a hydrogen star therefore behaves as a large hydrogen atom with number of 'constant' levels of energy, the mentioned velocities being obtained from gravitational law means the disappearance of the borders between gravity and electromagnetism as gravity itself creates the electromagnetic bonds in the structure of the Sun where at its hydrogen surface the electron is at its fifth and last level of energy with its mentioned orbital velocity.

[Salah Eid. The Sun as a large Hydrogen Atom. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):683-684] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 95

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.95

 

Key words: hydrogen surface of the Sun, hydrogen atom, gravity, electromagnetism

Full Text

95

96

Community Participation in Community-based Prevention Programs; A Short Review of the Literature on Challenges to Breast Cancer Prevention Programs or Activities

 

Maryam Ahmadian1&Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah2

 

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding Authors: marydian50@yahoo.com 1 & asnarul_n9@yahoo.com 2

 

Abstract: This article reviews the potential of widely used psycho-social factors affecting community participation in community-based prevention programs among diverse communities. Besides, we specifically appraised the previous literature to look into the psycho-social, structural, and demographic factors which create latent challenges to community participation in breast cancer prevention programs. We believe communities with lack of behavioral and psycho-social change components are likely to have low motivations to participate in health programs against diseases such as breast cancer. Additionally, certain demographic characteristics and potential structural factors control a distinct participation in health programs. Clarification of participation in public health programs and its psycho-social, structural, and demographic attributes are keys to explicate why and how socio-cultural, behavioural, and multifaceted interventions should be main concern in the evaluation of community participation in health promotion programs. The idea here is rather to emphasize on community participation in breast cancer prevention activities for community development undertakings.

[Maryam Ahmadian & Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah. Community Participation in Community-based Prevention Programs; A Short Review of the Literature on Challenges to Breast Cancer Prevention Programs or Activities Life Sci J 2012;9(3):685-694] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 96

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.96

 

Keywords: Community development; Community participation; Community-based prevention programs, Breast cancer

Full Text

96

97

Relationship of some risk factors and symptoms in patients with acute coronary syndrome

 

1Hamid Sharif Nia (MScN, BScN), 2Ali Akbar Haghdoost(PhD), 3Mitra Hekmat Afshar, 4Rogheyeh Nazari,

5Samieh Ghana(BSc), 6Mohammad Ali Soleimani, 7Nasim Bahrami and 8Zahra Beheshti(MScN, BScN) *

 

1 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Amol, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. PhD Student of Nursing at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Email: h.sharifnia@mubabol.ac.ir

2 Assistant of professor Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Research Center for Modeling in Health Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Email: ahaghdoost@kmu.ac.ir

3 Msc of critical care Nursing, Golestan University of medical sciences, Gorgan, Iran

Email: m.hekmatafshar@yahoo.com

4 MSc, BSc in nursing. Mazandaran University of medical science, Sari, Iran

Email: Roojayanaz@yahoo.com

5 Bachelor of midwifery Golestan University of medical science, Gorgan, Iran

6 Nursing and midwifery faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran & PhD student of nursing, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, Iran. Email: soleimany.msn@gmail.com

7 MSc, BSc in midwifery. Nursing and midwifery faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. Email: Nbahrami87@gmail.com

8 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Amol, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

 

*Corresponding author: Zahra Beheshti, Email: Zahrabeheshti2003@yahoo.com

 Tel: +981212221919 Fax: +98 (0121) 2151220

 

 Abstract: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the major causes of death in the worldwide. Clinical manifestations are different. So it's necessary to have knowledge about the types of symptoms experienced by patients with ACS. This study was performed to assay the Relationship of some risk factors and symptoms in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This cross-sectional study, were studied 294 patients with acute coronary syndrome at least 24 hours after admission had survived. Data was collected by a questionnaire that included demographic data form and check list of some symptoms and history of risk factors. There was a significant relationship between STEMI with vomiting (OR=1.94) and anxiety (OR=1.83) and UA with vomiting (OR=0.42). Between sex with weakness (OR=2.29) and anxiety (OR=1.82), diabetes with dyspenea (OR=1.8), weakness (OR=1.02) and tinnitus (OR=2.06) and hyperlipidemia with weakness (OR=2.35) and tinnitus (OR=2.49) was available significant difference. The findings of this study indicate that the appearance of symptoms of acute coronary syndrome were different as for ECG changes and risk factors, and more focused on those symptoms that they are common with any other diseases. Since, many of the symptoms of acute coronary syndrome can be potentially dangerous and life threatening, accurate diagnosis and timely action is crucial for the patients.

 [Hamid Sharif Nia, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mitra Hekmat Afshar, Rogheyeh Nazari, Samieh Ghana, Mohammad Ali Soleimani, Nasim Bahrami and Zahra Beheshti. Relationship of some risk factors and symptoms in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):695-701] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 97

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.97

 

Key words: Acute Coronary Syndrome, Risk factors, Symptom

Full Text

97

98

Cohort Study on Hemolysis Associated with G6PD Deficiency in Jaundice Neonates

 

Seyed Hesamedin Nabavizadeh 1, Mehrdad Rezaie 2, Parisa Sabzali 3, Abdolhamid Barati 3, Mohammad Zoladl 1

 

1. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

2. (Corresponding author) Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran and Department of Neonate Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3. Students Research Committee, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

md_rezaie@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency as an X-linked disorder is the most common human enzyme deficiency in the world. A Meta analysis regard G6PD deficiency showed its prevalence in Iran was between 2.1 to 7.6 percent. With regard to the fact that Iran is located in area with high prevalence of G6PD deficiency, and with respect to information that some other studies consider the role of hemolysis less important in the incidence of jaundice, therefore this cohort study was aimed to determine the relationship between hemolysis and G6PD enzyme deficiency by compare related data between 107 neonates suffering from jaundice having G6PD deficiency as experiment group, and the control group consisted of 127 neonates having normal G6PD enzyme activity. Result showed that the mean of bilirubin in the experiment group was 18.1 gram per deciliter, and 16.4 grams per deciliter in the control group (p=0.018). It can be concluded that there was no evidence of higher hemolysis among neonates suffering from jaundice having G6PD enzyme deficiency compared to neonates suffering from jaundice having normal G6PD enzyme activity. It also can be concluded that hemolysis is not an important factor in the incidence of jaundice in children having G6PD enzyme deficiency.

[Nabavizadeh S H, Rezaie M, Sabzali P, Barati A, Zoladl M. Cohort Study on Hemolysis Associated with G6PD Deficiency in Jaundice Neonates. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):702-705] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 98

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.98

 

Keywords: Hemolysis; neonate; Hyperbilirubinemia; G6PD deficiency

Full Text

98

99

Pathogenetic Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Matrixmetalloproteinase-9 in Behcet's Disease

 

Sahar S Ganeb1, Howyda M Kamal2 and Ayser A Fayed3

 

Rheumatology, Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine1, Clinical & Chemical Pathology2 and Ophthalmology2

Departments, Benha University, Faculty of Medicine, Egypt

sahar_ganeb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To assess serum levels of Matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMPs-2) and MMP-9 in Behcet’s disease (BD) patients to investigate the possible association between MMP-2 and MMP-9 serum levels with clinical manifestations and disease activity. Methodology: Thirty BD patients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. Thorough clinical examination with stress on dermatological, locomotor, neurological and ophthalmologic manifestations. Assessment of disease activity was done. We compared the activity scores of patients with their serum levels of MMP2 and MMP-9. Assessment of ESR, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 serum levels by ELISA were performed. Results: A statistical significant increase (P<0.001) in MMP-9 levels was found in BD patients in comparison with the control group, while there was non-statistical significant difference (P>0.05) in MMP-2 levels in BD patients in comparison with the control group. Within the BD patients' group, there were elevations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 serum levels in BD patients with vascular lesions, CNS lesions and disease activity (P<0.05). There were statistical significant positive correlations between MMP-2 and MMP-9 serum levels with disease activity score (r= 0.425, P<0.05), (r= 0.413, P<0.05) respectively and vascular lesions (r = 0.394, P<0.05), (r = 0.458, P<0.05) respectively. Conclusion: Increased serum levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in BD patients can be considered as a pathogenetic marker of BD disease activity. These higher levels correlated with systemic involvement and were associated with various clinical manifestations.

[Sahar S Ganeb, Howyda M Kamal and Ayser A Fayed. Pathogenetic Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Matrixmetalloproteinase-9 in Behcet's Disease. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):706-712] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 99

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.99

 

Keywords: Behcet's disease, Matrix metalloproteinases, disease activity of Behcet's disease.

Full Text

99

100

Prevalence of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction among Hypertensive Adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia

 

Ching Siew Mooi1, Chia Yook Chin2, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad3, Mehrdad Jalalian4

 

1. Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia

2. Department of Primary Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Affiliation: Curtin University, Australia

3. Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

4. Editor In-Chief, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran

chingsmlcl2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A large number of patients with heart failure suffer from Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction (LVDD), but little is known about its prevalence among hypertensive adults, especially in the primary care setting. Thus, this quantitative study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with LVDD. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 359 hypertensive patients who underwent echocardiography tests to define their cardiac structure and function. The ratio peak of early to late diastolic filling velocity was used to assess the LVDD. The Framingham risk score was derived from the most recent blood test available in the previous year. SPSS version 19 was used to analyze the data. Echocardiography LVDD was found in 68% of the participants. Of the 243 hypertensive subjects who had LVDD, 69.5% had no left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while 30.5% had LVH. Age (odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.15), fasting blood sugar (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37), poor blood pressure control (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.12-3.32), central obesity (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.17-3.64), and LVH (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.29- 5.90) were found to have a significant positive relation with LVDD. Poor hypertension control, diabetes, older age, central obesity, and LVH are the predictors for the development of diastolic dysfunction.

[Ching Siew Mooi, Chia Yook Chin, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad, Mehrdad Jalalian. Prevalence of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction among Hypertensive Adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):713-719] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 100

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.100

 

Keywords: Prevalence; left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; hypertension; Malaysia

Full Text

100

101

A Factor Component Analysis of the Sources of Income Inequality in the Limpopo River Basin of South Africa

 

**Abayomi Samuel Oyekale and Sibongile Sylvia Vutela-Tekana

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa. asoyekale@yahoo.com. ** Corresponding author

 

Abstract: Income inequality is detrimental to economic development because of its direct linkage to crimes, political unrest and corruption. This study analyzed the contributions of different sources of income to inequality in the South Africa’s Limpopo River Basin. The data used were for 704 households that provided information on sources of their income. The decomposition method proposed by Stark et al (1996) was used. The results show that incomes from crops, livestock and non-farm assets constitute the highest proportions of rural households’ income. Inequality is generally high in all the districts with Rustenburg and Witrivier having the highest Gini coefficients. Out of the income sources, crop and livestock sources increased inequality. It was recommended that efforts to redress inequality should include promotion of non-farm enterprises and ensuring conducive environment for people to work in any part of the country without fear of molestation irrespective of race, among others.

[Abayomi Samuel Oyekale, Sibongile Sylvia Vutela-Tekana. A Factor Component Analysis of the Sources of Income Inequality in the Limpopo River Basin of South Africa. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):720-725] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 101

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.101

 

Keywords: Inequality, income sources, factor component, Limpopo River Basin

Full Text

101

102

CLIMATE CHANGE AND COCOA PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY LOSSES IN ONDO EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT, NIGERIA

 

A. S. Oyekale

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho, 2735 South Africa. abayomi.oyekale@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Effect of climate change on cocoa agriculture cannot be underestimated. This study assessed efficiency differentials in cocoa production under with and without climate change scenarios. The data were collected using multi-stage sampling method. Data were analyzed with simple descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier approach. The results show that cocoa farmers are ageing (µ = 54 years) and many owe small farms (µ = 9.15 ha). Also, production input elasticities when under normal climate are all positive, while those for chemical and spraying hour are negative when there is climate change. Return to scale under climate change is higher (2.097075) than without climate change (1.825603), although lower output under the former still implies low productivity. Average production efficiency with climate change is 65.14 percent while it is 83.75 percent without climate change. The study recommended development of viable and cost effective chemicals to curtail increasing incidence of pests and diseases as a result of climate change, among others.

[A.S. Oyekale. Climate Change and Cocoa Production Efficiency Losses in Ondo East Local Government, Nigeria. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):726-732] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 102

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.102

 

Keywords: cocoa, climate change, technical efficiency, stochastic frontier

Full Text

102

103

Field Studies on Caligus Disease among Cultured Mugil Cephalus in Brackish Water Fish Farms

 

1Noor El- Deen, A. E; 1Abdel Hady, O.K; 2Shalaby, S. I and 1Mona S. Zaki

 

1Department of Hydrobiology, Vet. Div, NRC

2Department of Reproduction, Vet. Div, NRC

dr_ahmednoor2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study deals with clinical, post-mortem examination and parasitological identification of Caligus sp affecting infested Mugil cephalus, at Kafr El Sheikh Governorate fish farms. Histopathological examination of gills was investigated and recorded. Some treatment trials with freshwater, Metriphonate and freshly prepared Potassium permanganate were done. Freshwater with a 20-min immersion was successfully killed all copepods. While, short-term treatment for 30­-min and 50-min immersion treatments with Metriphonate (20mg/l) and freshly prepared Potassium permanganate (10 mg/l) respectively, against Caligus sp infested Mugil cephalus were less effective than fresh water. These results concluded that, fresh water considered an effective in elimination of Caligus sp in Mugil cephalus.

[Noor El- Deen, A. E; Abdel Hady, O.K; Shalaby, S. I and Mona S. Zaki. Field Studies on Caligus Disease among Cultured Mugil Cephalus in Brackish Water Fish Farms. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):733-737] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 103

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.103

 

Keywords: Caligus disease, Mugil cephalus, Trichlorfon, Potassium permanganate, freshwater

Full Text

103

104

Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Changes in Severely Malnourished Children before and after Treatment.

 

Ashraf M. El-Sherif1, Gihan M. Babrs2 and Ahlam M. Ismail3

 

Departments of Radiology1 and Pediatrics2- Faculty of Medicine, Minia University

Department of Pediatrics3, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Egypt

gihanbabrs@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Protein energy malnutrition is an important problem in developing countries. Neurological changes is associated with sever malnutrition. Aim of Work: Our study seeks to document the morphological changes in the brain of infants suffering from severe malnutrition of both edematous and non-edematous types and to follow up these changes and its outcome after nutritional rehabilitation according to the WHO regimen using cerebral MRI imaging. Patients and Methods: Seventeen children suffering from severe malnutrition were included in this study. Patients included 7 males and 10 females and their ages ranged from 2 to 24 months who had attended Minia University outpatient clinic. All the children were evaluated and treated in hospital according to WHO standardized protocol for management of severe malnutrition. Patients were referred to Radiology Department for MRI of their brains on admission and again after 90 days of treatment. Results: Cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilatation are common findings in the brains of children suffering from moderate and severe PEM. Children with both edematous and non-edematous types of PEM are almost equally affected. However, the changes are reversible in most cases when nutritional rehabilitation is undertaken. Brain myelination process doesn’t show significant delay in these patients and the brain stem and cerebellum were normal in all of them. Conclusion: Severely malnourished children should be evaluated by Z score and treated by WHO recommendation. Cranial MRI findings in these patients include brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation but these changes are reversible so, early treatment is very important and can help to prevent permanent neurological derangements.

[Ashraf M. El-Sherif, Gihan M. Babrs and Ahlam M. Ismail. Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Changes in Severely Malnourished Children before and after Treatment. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):738-742] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 104

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.104

 

Key Words: Protein energy malnutrition – Cerebral imaging - Brain atrophy - MRI – Pediatrics

Full Text

104

105

On some lower bounds and approximation formulas for  

 Mustafa A. OBAID

 

King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department,

P. O. Box 80111, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

drmobaid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we present the following new inequality of   Also, we deduce that the approximation formula  has rate of convergence equal to for Thus, we can choose the approximation formula that we want it convergence to by a known rate.

[Mustafa A. OBAID. On some lower bounds and approximation formulas for  Life Sci J 2012;9(3):743-] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 105

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.105

Key Words: Bounds of  rate of convergence, approximation formulas.

Full Text

105

106

Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Culture for the Diagnosis of Corneal Ulcer

 

Rania A. Khattab1, Salwa A. Rasmy1, Yasser M. Ragab1, Dalia G. Said2, Maha M. Abdelfatah2, Mohamed A3. Shemis, Dalia M. Ezzat3 and Fatma Elzahraa S. Abdel Rahman3

 

1Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Corneal unit and Microbiology Department, Cairo, Egypt

3Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

Khattab500@yahoo.com lady_ok@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to microbial culture for the detection and identification of bacterial and fungal microorganisms in microbial keratitis. Methods: Corneal scrapings from 150 patients clinically diagnosed as microbial keratitis, who attended the Research Institute of Ophthalmology cornea clinic were cultured, analysed by PCR and the results were compared. Results: Of the 150 patient samples, 104 (69.3%) were culture-positive (76 for bacteria, 19 for fungi and 9 were mixed culture); and 46 (30.7%) were culture-negative. Of these 150 patient samples, 130 (86.7%) were positive by PCR (74 bacterial, 18 fungal and 38 mixed infection); and 20 (13%) were PCR-negative. Of the 76 culture-positive for bacteria, 73 (96%) were positive by PCR; 17 (89.5%) out of 19 samples culture-positive for fungi were positive by PCR and 8 (89%) out of 9 samples culture-positive for mixed infection were PCR-positive. Of the 46 culture-negative samples, 32 (69.5%) yielded pathogen deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) products and 14 were PCR-negative. The sensitivity of PCR in detecting bacterial, fungal, mixed culture and no growth keratitis was 94%, 86%, 88%, 79% respectively while the specificity was 90%, 82%, 95% and 83% respectively. Conclusion: PCR detects microbial DNA in the majority of bacterial and fungal corneal ulcers, and identifies microorganisms in a high proportion of culture-negative cases. PCR may be used as an adjunct to culture to identify microorganisms in microbial keratitis. Although being expensive, PCR remains a promising tool for faster and highly sensitive diagnosis of microbial keratitis.

[Rania A. Khattab, Salwa A. Rasmy, Yasser M. Ragab, Dalia G. Said, Maha M. Abdelfatah, Mohamed; Shemis, Dalia M. Ezzat and Fatma Elzahraa S. Abdel Rahman. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Culture for the Diagnosis of Corneal Ulcer. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):746-755] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 106

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.106

 

Key words: diagnosis- microbial keratitis- PCR- culture.

Full Text

106

107

Meretrix Meretrix: Active Components and Their Bioactivities

 

Xiaoying Zhang 1, Chen Chen 2, Bo Wang 1, Wenyan Xie 1, Maocang Yan 3

 

1. College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China;

2. Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Resource Biology, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723000, China;

3. Zhejiang Mariculture Research Institute, Wenzhou 325005, China.

E-mail: zhang.xy@nwsuaf.edu.cn

 

Abstract: The clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus (M. meretrix, Veneridae), is a popular edible shellfish with abundant nutrition and valuable medical properties widely distributed in eastern Asia. As a kind of popular sea food diet, many bioactive components such as peptides, proteins, enzymes, polysaccharide, minerals, essential vitamins, essential amino acids and enzyme inhibitors, have been purified from M. meretrix, which are considered to be responsible for its nutritional and medicinal functions including anticancer, antioxidant, antihyperglycemia, antihperlipemia, reduce swelling and detoxification effects. This article reviewed the nutritional constituents, bioactive compounds and pharmacological effects of M. meretrix to provide further support and evidence for its medicinal and nutritional use.

[Xiaoying Z, Chen C, Bo W, Wenyan X, Maocang Y. Meretrix Meretrix: Active Components and Their Bioactivities. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):756-762] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 107

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.107

 

Keywords: Meretrix meretrix (M meretrix); clam; nutrition; bioactive components

Full Text

107

108

Presenting the model of inter-region freight transportation in Iran Road transportation network

 

Gholam Ali Shafabakhsh1*, Mohsen Sadeghi2, Ehsan Kashi3*

 

1 Semnan University, Faculty of Civil Engineering Assistant Professor, Semnan, I. R. of Iran

2 Semnan University, PHD student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan, I. R. of Iran

3 Semnan University, PHD student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan, I. R. of Iran

shafabakhsh@semnan.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Interregional trips include passenger and freight trips. To predict passenger trips, four- stage method is used including trip production, trip distribution, modal split and assignment. Four-stage model is not more efficient for freight transportation. In this paper, mathematical modeling is presented based on entropy and reduction of intervals and freight transportation time. For this model input-output relationships between the regions and road transportation network flows were considered. To solve this model, the data from the Iran's transportation master plan has been used. Finally, the results of solving model were compared with the observations and the model was evaluated. The results showed that the presented model had good accuracy in estimating the percent of different kinds of transported freight and the accuracy of the model in estimation of freight transportation matrix between the regions and with the separation of different freight were suitable.

[Gholam Ali Shafabakhsh, Mohsen Sadeghi, Ehsan Kashi. Presenting the model of inter-region freight transportation in Iran Road transportation network. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):763-769]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 108

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.108

 

Keywords: Freight transportation, distribution model, Entropy, math modeling

Full Text

108

109

Investigation and Design Seawater Desalination with Solar Energy

 

Saeed Daneshmand 1, Ali Mortaji 2, Z. Mortaji 3

 

1,2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Majlesi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

3. University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada

s.daneshmand@iaumajlesi.ac.ir

 

Abstract: While the global population rises, the supplement of fresh water is becoming a major concern. A number of seawater desalination approaches have been designed during the decades to contribute for overcoming fresh water shortage. Two kinds of these system have been introduced in this paper to be installed close the sea and in second one in dried regions such as deserts. This system is environmental friendly and cost effective. All the system equipment is designed to make from recycling materials.

 [Daneshmand S, Mortaji A, Mortaji Z. Investigation and Design Seawater Desalination with Solar Energy. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):770-773] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 109

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.109

 

Keywords: Seawater desalination; Fresh water; Energy; Solar evaporation; Recycling material, Wind catcher

Full Text

109

110

Conceptualization of a Patient Safety Management Model as Practical Approach toward Benchmarking and Improving Healthcare Outcomes

 

Bahjat Al-Awa1, Isabelle Devreux2, Agnes Jacquerye3, Abeer Alhazmi1, Hussam AlBaz1, Hamed Habib4 and Osama Rayes4

 

1King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah

2Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University

3 Ecole de Santé Publique, Université Libre de Bruxelles

4Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz University

alawabahjat@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Patient safety is a major concern in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Organizations and investigators are alike in searching for ways to improve delivery and safety of patient care. Many have reported that the existence of a patient safety and risk management system will have an effective impact on the overall patients’ outcomes. Aims: To study the effectiveness of a patient safety model on patient safety indicators when implemented in a university hospital. Methods: A task force constituted by various patient safety experts was established to design a practical concept of patient safety management based on a nine steps model and applied by all hospital departments. Patient safety indicators (780) were monitored over a four years period and the model’s effectiveness was analyzed on 40 selected indicators. Results: A statistical significant improvement by 67.5% (27/40) of initially measured patient safety indicators was evidenced mainly in the domains of peri-operative mortalities, neonatal mortality, return to surgeries, healthcare associated infections, safety and medication use, blood transfusion reactions, cardio pulmonary resuscitations, patient adverse events, and occurrence variance reporting. However, 12.5% (5/40) of the indicators of hospital standardized mortality and specific mortality were not improved by the model’s implementation while others, 20% (8/40) of the patients safety indicators were maintained as their initial baselines were satisfactory. Conclusions: The implementation of a patient safety management model was found to be effective in improving patient safety practices (PSP) as well as patient safety indicators (PSIs) and finally patient outcomes.

[Bahjat Al-Awa, Isabelle Devreux, Agnes Jacquerye, Abeer Alhazmi, Hussam AlBaz, Hamed Habib and Osama Rayes. Conceptualization of a Patient Safety Management Model as Practical Approach toward Benchmarking and Improving Healthcare Outcomes. Life Science Journal 2012; 9(3):774-780]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 110

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.110

 

Key words: patient safety indicators, patient safety model, risk management, health care associated infection, patient's adverse events.

Full Text

110

111

Relation of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Over-commitment of Rehabilitation Staff in Saudi Arabia

 

Isabelle C.N. Devreux 1, Bahjat Al-Awa 2, Khaled Mamdouh 1, Enas Elsayed 1

 

1 College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University-Jeddah.

2 King Abdul Aziz University Hospital- Jeddah.

devreuxic@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Physical and occupational therapy professions are perceived as physically demanding. Occupational positions, patients handling techniques and therapeutic applications may result in job-related and postural stresses. Objectives: The research aimed at identifying the musculoskeletal disorders reported by physical and occupational therapists in the region of Jeddah and the relation to the level of Over-commitment and work factors. Demographic variables, productivity and job stress were studied in correlation with the musculoskeletal problems expressed by the therapists. Methods: A cross sectional survey approach by questionnaire identified the musculoskeletal disorders and related Effort-Reward Imbalance and over-commitment amongst therapists in various physical rehabilitation departments of public, profit making and teaching hospitals. Results: Results indicated that 50.6 % of the surveyed staff (N=166) reported to experience physical stress related to their work and whilst 39 % of the staff claimed to suffer from physical symptoms regularly after their working day. It was found that 56.6 % of the staff felt their symptoms were proportional with the workload intensity and severe enough to force them to take time off work. The main work- related complaints were back, neck and shoulder pain and for 25 % of the staff myalgia in different areas of the body. Complaints were significantly correlated to the Over-commitment score and to the number of patients treated when associated to absences from work. The incidence of the musculoskeletal problems appeared higher amongst males and in teaching and private rehabilitation departments. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders expressed by rehabilitation staff in the area of Jeddah appeared to be strongly related to the level of Over-commitment in work. The work-related complaints varied according to gender, age and hospital type. The main symptoms were back pain and generalized myalgia which were severe enough to lead to sick leave and medical consultations. The prevention of exaggerated efforts at work and recognition of the hardship related to the professional occupation could be emphasized in management strategies of physical rehabilitation services.

[Isabelle C.N. Devreux, Bahjat Al-Awa, Khaled Mamdouh, Enas Elsayed. Relation of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Over-commitment of Rehabilitation Staff in Saudi Arabia. Life Science Journal 2012;9(3):781-785]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 111

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.111

 

Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorders, work stress, over-commitment, Effort-Reward Imbalance measure, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, occupational injuries.

Full Text

111

112

Some Studies in Baraki Sheep Intoxicated with Cadmium.

 

Mona. S. Zaki* and Mohamed M.I**

 

*. Department of Hydrobiology National Research Center, Egypt

** Department. of Animal Poultry Nulrition and Production National Research Center, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Eighteen rams (27 - 28 kg. B.wt and 6-10 months old) were divided into 3 equal groups (gps. 1-3) and kept on a basal ration to evaluate the cadmium toxicity on the digestibility, blood picture and reproductive status, beside the hepatic and renal fuctions. Gp. (1) was the control. Gps. (2 and 3) were orally given 50 and 100 mg. Cadmium chloride/kg. Bwt respectively for 4 weeks. Heparinized and non-heparinized blood samples were collected for blood picture and serum separation, respectively. The serum was used for the determination of some biochemical blood parameters. Atrophy and necro&is of the testes, liver and kidneys were associated with clinicopathological changes. A significant decrease was detected m the"values of RBCs, PCV, Hb, LH, FSH, Testosterone, total proteins, zinc concentration and digestion coefficient. On the other hand, there was significant increase in levels of ESR, WBCs, ALT, AST, Ure, Creatinine, Sodium, Potassium and Cadmium.

[Mona. S. Zaki and Mohamed M.I. Some Studies in Baraki Sheep Intoxicated with Cadmium. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):786-790]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 112

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.112

 

Keywords: Baraki Sheep, Cadmium toxicity, liver function, kidney function.

Full Text

112

113

In vitro Effect of Pomegranate Peel Extract on Trichomonas tenax

 

Gehad T. El-Sherbini1 and Nahla M. Shoukry2

 

1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, October 6 University Cairo, Egypt.

2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez, Egypt.
nahla_shoukery@yahoo.com and gody_55@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The incidence of Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax) in patients with acute ulcerative gingivitis has been demonstrated in several published reports. Metronidazole was known as the most effective drug for human trichomoniasis, however, drug resistance and toxicity appeared. This study was designed in vitro to investigate the inhibitory activity of Punica granatum (P. granatun) ethanol extract on the growth and motility of T. tenax in comparison to metronidazole. Pomegranate ethanol extract group was treated with concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml. Metronidazole group and blank control were included. At 12 h, 24 h 48 h and 72 hr after drug treatment, the anti-T. tenax effect of pomegranate ethanol extract was tested by microscope counting method. The results showed 60% motility of T.tenax trophozoite after treatment with 12.5µg/100 ml of pomegranate ethanol extract group and 25 µg/ml showed higher anti-T. tenax (P<0.01). The ethanol extract of pomegranate peer has a remarkable effect on T. tenax, and among the groups, 60% ethanol extract shows the best anti-T. tenax activity.

[Gehad T. El-Sherbini and Nahla M. Shoukry. In Vitro effect of pomegranate peel extract on Trichomonas tenax. Life Sci J 2012; 9(3):791-797]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 113

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.113

 

Keywords: Trichomonas tenax, Punica granatum, Metronidazole, Herbal medication

Full Text

113

114

First Isolation and Identification of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever Outbreak in Egypt

 

Iman M. Bastawecy1 and Abd El-Samee, A.A.2

 

1Dept. of Virology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza

2Dept. of Int. Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Vet. Med. Cairo University

imanbaz@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Ovine herpesvirus 2 (Ov HV-2) was isolated for the first time from cattle and water buffalos during an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in Egypt, 2012. The isolated virus was characterized as herpesvirus with negative staining electron microscopy (EM). Further identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequencing of the PCR product. GenBank confirmed it as ovine herpesvirus 2, complete genome with query coverage 100% and maximum identity 100% and ovine herpesvirus 2 strain BJ 1035, complete genome with query coverage 100% and maximum identity 99%. Separation of susceptible animals from sheep and goats specially during lambing is recommended and euthanasia of animals which were clinically infected with MCF is advised.

[Iman M. Bastawecy and Abd El-Samee, A.A. First Isolation and Identification of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever Outbreak in Egypt. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):798-804]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 114

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.114

 

Keywords: Ovine herpesvirus 2, malignant catarrhal fever, isolation, electron microscopy, sequencing.

Full Text

114

115

Feed and Water Consumptions, Digestion Coefficients, Nitrogen Balance and Some Rumen Fluid Parameters of Ossimi Sheep Fed Diets Containing Different Sources of Roughages

 

Hamed A.A. Omer, Mohamed A. Tawila and Sawsan M. Gad

 

Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

hamedomer2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Five digestibility trials were carried out to investigate the effect of different roughage sources on feed and water intakes, water metabolism, nutrient digestibility coefficients, nitrogen utilization and some rumen fluid parameters. Twenty mature male Ossimi sheep were randomly assigned to five experimental groups (four animals in each treatment). Animals were fed on 3% DM of live body weight and received one of the following diets. All the experimental diets contained 50% concentrate feed mixture (CFM) plus 50% roughage. Control diet contained berseem hay (BH), while the other four experimental diets were replaced BH in control diet by peanut vein hay (PVH); beans straw (BS); kidney beans straw (KBS) or linseed straw (LS). Results showed that, source of roughage were affected on the chemical composition of the experimental diets. Diet contained BH showed the highest value of CP (15.69%), followed by PVH and LS diets (14.52 and 14.23%, respectively. On the other hand CP content of BS and KBS diets were in the same range (12.65 and 12.42%). Beans straw recorded the highest value of neutral detergent fiber (53.16%), acid detergent fiber (37.84%) and cellulose contents (28.30%), however, PVH diet showed the lowest value of ADL (7.30%). Inclusion PVH, BS, KBS and LS in sheep diet significantly increased (P<0.05) feed consumption as DM, TDN, CP and DCP intakes compared to the BH containing diet. Sheep received BS diet significantly increased (P<0.05) drinking water (4650 ml/h/day), total water intake (4829 ml/h/day) compared to the other diets. Inclusion different sources of roughage in sheep diet had no significant effect on DM digestibility. While, sheep received KBS diet significantly (P<0.05) increased OM, CP and CF digestibilities compared to the other different diets. Introduce PVH, BS, KBS and LS in sheep diets significantly decreased (P<0.05) total digestible nutrient and digestible crude protein values compared to the control diet. All groups were positive nitrogen balance and sheep received LS diet recorded the highest values of nitrogen retention (21.7 g) and nitrogen retention % of digested nitrogen (81.61%) compared to the other diets. Dietary treatments significant affected (P<0.05) on pH value, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA’s) concentrations. Three hrs post feeding significantly (P<0.05) decreased ruminal pH value, while, it significantly (P<0.05) increased both ruminal NH3-N and TVFA’s concentrations. It could be concluded that we can using alternative sources of roughage successfully in sheep diets as a good sources of roughages instead of berseem hay with better feed intake, digestion coefficient, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation. Also we can use the tested materials to formulate cheap diets for sheep.

[Hamed A.A. Omer, Mohamed A. Tawila and Sawsan M. Gad. Feed and Water Consumptions, Digestion Coefficients, Nitrogen Balance and Some Rumen Fluid Parameters of Ossimi Sheep Fed Diets Containing Different Sources of Roughages. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):805-816]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 115

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.115

 

Keywords: Sheep, roughage sources, feed and water intakes, water metabolism, digestibility coefficients, nitrogen balance, ruminal fermentation.

Full Text

115

116

Outcome of Sublingual Immunotherapy with Multiple Allergens in Asthmatic Patients with and without Allergic Rhinitis

 

Emara M.M.1, Mansour H.A.2, Shehata M.T. 3 and Zakia Abu-Zahab4

 

Departments of 1Thoracic Medicine and (2)Clinical Pathology, Mansoura University

3Department of ENT, Ain Shams university

4Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty Of Medicine For Girls, Al Azhar University, Egypt.

omima468@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disorder that is characterized by reversible obstruction of the airways. Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are chronic inflammatory conditions that frequently co-exist, both with hallmark eosinophils. Immunotherapy is an established treatment of allergic diseases. Non-injective routes for immunotherapy such as the sublingual route are thought to be valuable therapeutic options for respiratory allergy and have the primary aim of minimizing the risk of adverse events and of improving the compliance of the patients. Sublingual immunotherapy is now officially accepted as a viable alternative to the traditional subcutaneous route. Aim of the work: In the present study, a trial has been made to administer the sublingual immunotherapy using multiple allergens in allergic asthmatic Patients with and without allergic rhinitis and to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and changes in allergen-specific antibodies during sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Patients and methods: This study was conducted at Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The present study comprised two groups; group I included 20 asthmatic patients (13 males and 7 females) with a mean age of (29.05± 8.27 years). Group II included 20 male asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis with a mean age of (33.61 ± 6.43 years). All patients were subjected to careful history taking and careful clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations, chest X ray PA, X ray paranasal sinuses, eosinophilic blood count and total IgE in serum by ELISA technique before start, after 6 months and after one year of the course of the sublingual immunotherapy, skin prick test and specific IgE to food and inhalants, Pulmonary function testing (spirometry) before start and after one year of the course of the sublingual immunotherapy. Results: Our results revealed that 8 out of 20 asthmatic patients group (40%) had nocturnal asthma and 11 patients (55%) had asthmatic attacks. On the other hand, 12 patients (60%) of asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis had nocturnal asthma and asthmatic attacks. Our study revealed that, there were statistically significant decreases in blood eosinophils one year after SLIT compared to that before SLIT in both asthmatic patients with and without allergic rhinitis. Our study showed there were statistically insignificant decrease in total IgE in asthmatic patients group and statistically significant decrease in total IgE in asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis one year after SLIT compared to that before SLIT. Results of specific IgE to food and inhalants revealed that, there were statistically significant reduction of number of allergens from 3.65±1.60 to 1.55±1.27 in asthmatic group and from 3.95±2.11to 1.35±1.34) in asthmatics with allergic rhinitis group (P<0.05) one year after SLIT compared to that before SLIT. Results of skin prick test revealed that, there were statistically significant reduction of number of allergens from (3.31.30 to.55±1.19) in asthmatic group and from (4.1±2.1 to 1.1±1.33) in asthmatics with allergic rhinitis group (P<0.05) one year after SLIT compared to that before SLIT. The majority of asthmatic patients group were sensitive to mites (60%), followed by mixed grass pollens (30%), Penicillium notatum (25%), house dust (20%), Cockroach (20%) respectively. On the other hand, the majority of asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis group were sensitive to mites (75%), house dust (40%), mixed grass pollens (40%), mixed pollens (30%), cat epithelium (30%), Penicillium notatum (25%), Cockroach (25%), dog epithelium (20%), and sheep wool (20%). Results of Pulmonary function in both asthmatic patients group and asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis showed statistically significant increase in FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25%, FEF50% and MVV one year after SLIT compared to that before SLIT. As regard the duration of sublingual immunotherapy one patient (5%) of asthma group discontinued treatment after one year, two (10%) after 18 months, 3 (15%) after 2 years, and 14 (70%) continue > 2 years. Two patients (10%) of asthma allergic rhinitis group discontinued treatment after one year, 2 (10%) after 18 months, 4 (20%) after 2 years, and 12 (60%) continue > 2 years. Local reverse reactions (throat itching) were reported in one (5%) patient of asthma group. No other local side effects or systemic side effects were reported in both asthmatic patients and asthmatic with allergic rhinitis group. From the twenty asthmatic group, 11 patients (55%) tolerated sublingual immunotherapy therapy very well, 7 (35%) good, 2 (10%) moderate. On the other hand, 10 asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis (50%) tolerated therapy very well, 6 patients (30%) good, and 4 patients (20%) moderate. Our results revealed that 13 out of 20 (65%) asthmatic patients group had reduction of symptoms, 7 out of 8 patients (87.5%) had reduction of nocturnal asthma, 7 out of 11 patients (63.63%) had reduction of asthmatic attacks and 14 out of 20 patients (70%) had reduction of need to rescue treatment one year after the course of sublingual immunotherapy. On the other hand, 15 out of 20 (75%) asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis group had reduction of symptoms, 11 out of 12 patients (91.66%) had reduction of nocturnal asthma, 9 out of 12 patients (75%) had reduction of asthmatic attacks 15 out of 20 patients (75%) had reduction of need to rescue treatment, and 13 patients (65%) had reduction of nasal symptoms one year after the course of sublingual immunotherapy. Conclusion: From this study we concluded that sublingual immunotherapy is a safe treatment which significantly reduces symptoms and medication requirements, improves lung function in both asthmatic patients with and without allergic rhinitis. SLIT using multiple allergens lowered the allergen burden in both asthmatic patients with and without allergic rhinitis.

[Emara M.M., Mansour H.A., Shehata M.T. and Zakia Abu-Zahab. Outcome of Sublingual Immunotherapy with Multiple Allergens in Asthmatic Patients with and without Allergic Rhinitis. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):817-829]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 116

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.116

 

Key words: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) multiple allergens, Bronchial asthma, and Allergic rhinitis.

Full Text

116

117

Novel Antisickling, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Prenylated Flavonoids from the Bark of Morus alba L

 

K.M. Meselhy1, Lamiaa N. Hammad2 and Nahla Farag3

 

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University & Misr International University, Egypt

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Egypt

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Egypt

kmeselhy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Two novel prenylated flavonoids and quercetrin were isolated from extract of the bark of Morus alba L. The structures of these compounds were established based on physicochemical data, UV spectral data, 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC and EIMS. Extract and isolated compounds exhibited a significant antisickling activity, a powerful antioxidant activity and remarkable cytotoxic activity. Both antioxidant & cytotoxic activity were supported & evidenced by docking structure of isolated compounds in the receptor binding site and estimation of binding affinity into 17beta-hydroysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) (3HB5) and glutathione reductase (1XAN) as a standard docked model.

[K.M. Meselhy, Lamiaa N. Hammad and Nahla Farag. Novel Antisickling, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Prenylated Flavonoids from the Bark of Morus alba L. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):830-841]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 117

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.117

 

Keywords: prenylated flavonoids, flavonol, Morus alba, antisickling activity, antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, docking

Full Text

117

118

Assessment of correlation between Brain Natriuretic Protein test and early prognosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome

 

Ashkan Tabibzadeh 1, Gholamreza Hemassi 2, Hamidreza Mahboobi 3,4, Reza Yazdani 1, Oveis Salehi 1, Mehrdad Jalalian 5

 

1. Trauma and Medical Emergencies Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandarabbas, Iran

2. Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3. Research Center for Behavoural and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandarabbas, Iran

4. Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

5. M.D., Editor In-Chief, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran

hamidrezamahboobi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine; the relationship between Brain Natriuretic Protein (BNP) and early prognosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). In this analytical study, 158 patients with ACS admitting to Emergency Department of Rasul Akram hospital in Tehran entered in study. For each patient, information include of demographic, past medical history, drug therapy, presenting symptoms and signs, results of serum chemistry test, radiographic studies, electrocardiography and NT-proBNT test that measured using immunoassay were collected. Totally 158 patients with mean age of 59.7 ± 0.95 that 86(54.4%) of them were male included in study. The ROC curve showed that BNP more than 612 (pg/ml) had sensitivity and specificity of 98% in predicting the outcome (discharged vs. CCU admission) which had a Positive predictive value (PPV) of 99% and Negative predictive value (NPV) of 96%, while in another ROC curve analysis BNP greater than 3200(pg/ml) had a sensitivity of 81%,specificity of 92% in predicting heart failure, fatal arrhythmia or death as an outcome with a PPV of 37.5% and NPV of 98.5%. Results demonstrate NT-proBNP for strongly predicted short-term outcomes in subjects with chest pain, with 1.2 increases in risk for death by 7 days among those with marked elevation in NT-proBNP concentration. Other studies have found similar results.

[Ashkan Tabibzadeh, Gholamreza Hemassi, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Reza yazdani, Oveis Salehi, Mehrdad Jalalian. Assessment of correlation between Brain Natriuretic Protein test and early prognosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):842-845] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 118

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.118

 

Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndrome; Brain Natriuretic Protein (BNP); Prognosis

Full Text

118

119

Design of a Reversible Ripple Carry Adder for Excess-3 Code

 

Vida Abdolzadeh 1, Nasser Lotfivand 2, Siamak Haghipour 3

 

1. Department of Computer Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2. Department of Electronic Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

S.V.Abdolzadeh@iaut.ac.ir, Lotfivand@iaut.ac.ir, Haghipour1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the main characteristic in VLSI circuits is power dissipation. Due to the information loss, conventional logic circuits result in energy dissipation. Reversible circuits because they do not lose information, have zero internal power dissipation. This paper proposes a reversible 4-bit parallel adder for Excess-3 code. Excess-3 is an unweighted and self-complementing code. Excess-3 coding over BCD coding has various advantages. The primary superiority is that a decimal number can be nines' complemented (for subtraction) as facilely as a binary number can be ones' complemented by inverting all bits. The proposed Excess-3 adder in the number of reversible gates and garbage outputs, allowing high-speed and low-power reversible circuits, covers all favorable characteristics of reversible circuits.

[Abdolzadeh V, Lotfivand N, Haghipour S. Design of a Reversible Ripple Carry Adder for Excess-3 Code. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):846-849]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 119

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.119

 

Keywords: Excess-3 adder; Parallel Adder; Reversible Excess-3 adder; Reversible adder

Full Text

119

120

Training Periodization in Lower Limb Performance and Neuromuscular Controlling in taekwondo athletes

 

Yen Ke-tien

 

Department of sports, health and leisure, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

ktyen2006@gmail.com

 

Background: Taekwondo is a powerful sport in which the maximal performance relies on anaerobic metabolism and explosive power. Aims: to determine the dedication of different strength and power training programs (off-season, pre-season and in-season) to lower limb performance and physiological modulation during a 20-week training period. Methods: Eight male collegiate taekwondo athletes completed 20-week systemic training programs divided into a linear training mesocycle (general conditioning, muscular recruitment, and hypertrophy) from 1 to 12 weeks, and two microcycle (maximum strength, explosive power, agility, speed) from 13 to 20 weeks in periodized fluctuation. Subjects were evaluated biochemical index, forearm total vascular occlusion test and muscular stiffness test six times during Training program: at the beginning (week 0, date1, T1), in the middle (week 2, Date 13, T2; week 8, Date 55, T3; week 14, Date 97, T4; week 18, Date 125, T5) and at the end (week 21, Date 143, T6) of the training program. Squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and continuous jump bent leg (CJb) were tested before and after the systemic strength training period. Results: There were significantly increasing in the SJ (7.8(2.7)%), CMJ (18.3(4.1)%) and CJb (8.7(4.7)%) after the totally training programs. Training increased creatine kinase levels from T1 to T4 (327.8%) and recovered at T6 (99.4%). Muscle damage and muscular recruitment function recovered at T6 after taper. Conclusion: The conjunction of systemic periodized 20 weeks training programs would increase lower limb performance and strengthen neuromuscular controlling in taekwondo athletes.

[Yen Ke-tien. Training Periodization in Lower Limb Performance and Neuromuscular Controlling in taekwondo athletes. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):850-857]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 120

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.120

 

Key words: taekwondo, periodization, neuromuscular controlling, muscle mechanical properties

Full Text

120

121

The Impact of Good Governance in Increasing Efficiency of Fars Economic and Finance Organization, Iran

 

1Fatemeh Farhadi Ayoubloo, 2Saeed Mazloomiyan, 2Mohammad Hassan Seif, 3Mehrzad Saeedikiya

 

1MA of Public Management, Payame Noor University, I.R.IRAN

2Department of Educational Psychology, Payame Noor University, I.R.IRAN

3MSC of Management

 

Abstract: To explore the relationship between components of good governance and improving the efficiency of the administrative system in Fars Economic and Finance Organization, 125 employees from this organization were selected as the sample regarding the general purposes of the present study and they were asked to complete two questionnaires; one dealing with good governance model while the other was related to the efficiency of the administrative system. The results obtained through investigating the research hypotheses, generally, indicated that there is a significant and positive relationship between good governance model along with its indicators and the efficiency of the administrative system in Fars Economic and Finance Organization (p < 0.001). The result derived from these findings will be discussed at the end of this study.

[Fatemeh Farhadi Ayoubloo, Saeed Mazloomiyan, Mohammad Hassan Seif, Mehrzad Saeedikiya. The Impact of Good Governance in Increasing Efficiency of Fars Economic and Finance Organization, Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):858-863] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 121

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.121

 

Keywords: good governance, efficiency of the administrative system, control of corruption, political stability, freedom of speech and accountability

Full Text

121

122

Karyological Study of Marsh Frogs (Rana Ridibunda)

 

*Ashraf Jazayeri, Forogh Papan, Amin Ismaili

 

Shahid chamran university of Ahwaz

Corresponding author: jazayeriashraf@Ymail.com

 

Abstract: Tailless amphibians, including frogs, the dead are an important part of food chains and networks are in most ecosystems. This special place, further studies are necessary to identify a more complete way to prove this. Currently, few studies in the field survey in Iran biosystematics and tailless amphibian biodiversity has been done. Accordingly, in this research study Karyological a dead frog in the city of Ahvaz - Iran has taken place. Study based on conventional methods on bone marrow tissue was performed in both sexes. Results showed that the chromosome number of this species in the study area has 26 chromosomes. Chromosomes based on arm ratio and the locations of the centromere in the two groups were including seven pairs of chromosomes and 6 pairs of sub metacentric were. Furthermore, based on giemsa staining clearly recognizable sex chromosomes and two sex chromosomes that males Homomorphous XY and XX sex chromosomes in females Homomorphous and had two. Also check the number of chromosomal arms (Fn) of this species, 52 showed the arm. [Ashraf Jazayeri. Karyological Study of Marsh frogs (Rana ridibunda). Life Sci J 2012;9(3):864-866]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 122

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.122

 

Keywords: Karyological, Rana ridibunda

Full Text

122

123

Comparing the Incidence of Pulmonary Edema in Anesthesia (with or without use of morphine and lasix) in Children Undergoing PDA Surgery

 

A. Ebadi 1, M. Deghani Firooz abadi2, M. Soltan zade 3, A. Emmami Moghadam 4. SH. Nesioonpour 5, R.Akhondzadeh6, K. Behaien7, A. Ghorbani8, SH. Beladi behbahani 9

 

1,3.Associate Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology MD, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapour University, Ahvaz, Iran

2. Assistant Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology MD JundiShapour University, Ahvaz,

5, 6- Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology MD JundiShapour University, Ahvaz.

7- Assistant Professor of JundiShapour University, Ahvaz

4- Assistant Professor of Cardiac pediatric MD, Of Jundishapour University, Ahvaz

8, 9. Resident of Anesthesiology MD of Jundishapour University, Ahvaz

 

Abstract: Introduction: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital cardiovascular disorder found in patients of all ages, from tiny premature infants to older adults (1). Persistent patent ducts arteriosus often cause hemodynamic and respiratory disorders, which require use of inotropic drugs and respiratory support in the full term infants.. Surgical ligation should be considered for patients when medical therapy fails (2). The aim of this study was two anesthesia techniques evaluation for pulmonary edemas reduce in PDA surgery. Methods and Materials: In this study, 120 patients underwent PDA surgery, Patients were divided into two groups of 60, the patients in first group received morphine and lasix during anesthesia but second group received nothing. Results: The average age of the patients in the case and control groups was 32.8 and 31.36 months. Frequency of Male and female in case and control groups was 38.3%, 61.7% and 45%, 55%, respectively. In control group, from 60 patients, 18.3% had pulmonary edema and 5% of them had loss of consciousness. There was significant difference between case and control groups about patients with pulmonary edema. Also, RR (0.001), Pao2 (p=0.005), PH (p=0.01) and PR (P= 0.003) had significant difference in cases and controls. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the use of morphine and Lasix is useful for reduction of pulmonary edema after PDA surgery. Further studies are needed to find the better management method.

[A. Ebadi. The Comparing the Incidence of Pulmonary Edema in Anesthesia (with or without use of morphine and lasix) in Children Undergoing PDA Surgery. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):867-870]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 123

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.123

 

Key words: patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary edema, morphine, lasix, anesthesia

Full Text

123

124

Effects of acupressure on nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy surgery for infertility investigations

 

Mansoor Soltanzadeh,: Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Fax:+98-611-3743017 Tel:+98-611-3743050

 

Kaveh Behaeen: Assistant professor of anesthesiology, Ahvaz jundishapur university of medical sciences, Imam Khomeini hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Tel: +98-611-2222114

 

Zahra Pourmehdi: Assistant professor of anesthesiology, Ahvaz jundishapur university of medical sciences, Razi hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Tel: +98-611- 3335936

 

Abdolah Safarimohsenabadi: Anesthesia Resident, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Tel: +98-611-2222114

 

Corresponding author:

Mansoor Soltanzadeh, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

Email: sultanman84@yahoo.com

Tel: +98611-3743050; Fax: +98611- 3743017

 

Abstract: Background: Laparoscopic gynecological procedures have nearly an 80% incidence of Postoperative nausea and vomiting. Acupressure is a non-invasive and non-pharmacological method of preventing nausea and vomiting. In this study we used of Korean hand acupressure method for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomized into three groups of 40 female for laparoscopic gynecological procedures base on type of interventions prior operation: Group I (control), Group II (acupressure) and Group III (metoclopramide). Results: The incidence of nausea within 24 hours after operations were 45%, 27.5% and 30% in control, acupressure and metoclopramide groups respectively which were significant between three groups with minimum incidence in acupressure group (p=0.005). Conclusion: Acupressure is a non-pharmacological method for PONV with no side effects and cost benefit advantages.

[Mansoor Soltanzadeh, Kaveh Behaeen, Zahra Pourmehdi. Abdolah Safarimohsenabadi. Effects of acupressure on nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy surgery for infertility investigations. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):871-875]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 124

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.124

 

Key Words: Acupressure, Nausea, Vomiting, Laparoscopy, Gynecology

Full Text

124

125

INPUT USE EFFICIENCY AND IRRIGATION IN AGRICULTURE: THE CASE OF IRAN

 

HADI GHAFFARI

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Payame Noor University, Arak, Iran

P. O. Box 38135-1136, GhafariH@gmx.com

 

Abstract: The present paper attempts to study the resource use efficiency over a cross section of sample farms drawn from two development blocks (one from highly irrigated region and other from less irrigated region) in Arak district of Markazi province, Iran; with the purpose to find out whether the increase in irrigation facilities leads to increase the efficiency of other inputs in the crop production, identify the inputs which are not efficiently utilised in the production function and draw policy implications. Using a Cobb-Douglas type of function and computing marginal value productivity of each input, according to the findings of the regression model, irrigation and fertilizers & manure are efficiently used in both the blocks, while labor is efficiently utilized only in highly irrigated area and bullock labor, farm implements & machinery are inefficiently used in both the blocks. Comparative study of wheat and barley crops in both the blocks exhibits that wheat farming is profitable only in highly irrigated block while barley farming is profitable in both the blocks.

[HADI GHAFFARI. INPUT USE EFFICIENCY AND IRRIGATION IN AGRICULTURE: THE CASE OF IRAN. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):876-882]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 125

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.125

 

Keywords: Efficiency, Input Efficiency, Irrigation, Agriculture.

Full Text

125

126

Folk Elements and Signs in the Poems of Hafez

 

Fariba Raeisi

 

Department of Persian Literature and Language, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht branch, Marvdasht, Iran. Fraeisi@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Undoubtedly, there is direct relationship between literature and folklore by which can relate the history of this relation to the invention of alphabet. Through alphabet invention, human being could transfer their inner willingness, influence each other, teach their experience, record their custom and then present them skillfully and artistically to the next generation with literary form. So interaction of literature and folklore plays important role in independent of writers and poets` works. Regarding that, origin of the Persian literati`s poems is social and cultural theme, also regarding Persian literature extension and independence, variety of social issues and discussions, can ascertain that literary valuable texts are kind of artistically recreation of truth especially social and cultural truth. So literary masterpieces especially Saadi, Hafez, Rumi are accepted for they are integrated with people and society. They have created such beautiful works by using folkloric genre by which their works have specific popularity among people and society. Custom and behavioral traditions and utterance of folkloric elements existence in the most of their sonnet is picture of society of that time. Research of folkloric element in Hafiz`s poem, in addition understanding his role in independence of formal literature of 8th century, enable us to ascertain his influence on oral literature.

[Fariba Raeisi. Folk Elements and Signs in the Poems of Hafez. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):883-893]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 126

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.126

 

Keywords: culture, custom, folklore, Hafez, myth, proverb, public culture, story

Full Text

126

127

CLIMATE CHANGE AND URBAN CHILDREN’S HEALTH: A CASE STUDY OF IBADAN SOUTH WEST LOCAL GOVERMENT, NIGERIA

 

A.S. Oyekale* and Y. A. Adesanya**

 

*Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University Mafikeng Campus,

Mmabatho, 2735 South Africa.

**Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Corresponding author’s e-mail: asoyekale@yahoo.com

 

AbstractClimate change and human health are intricately linked. The impact on children’s health is particularly enormous because of the uniqueness of their bodies’ physiology and dependence on adults for protection. This study determined the perception of women about the impact of climate change on health status of their children and analyse the factors influencing children’s medical bills. Data were collected with the use of simple random sampling and analysis was done using descriptive and Tobit regression methods. Results show that 49.45% of the children normally fall ill once in at least 4 months while 31.87 were falling sick at least one time in 3 months. Skin infection is the common health problems among children during dry season, which catarrh was most reported (71.43%) during wet season. Tobit regression results show that age (-ve), household size (+ve), per capita expenditure on food (+ve), per capita other expenditure (-ve), falling sick often (+ve), wet season sickness (+ve), cough (+ve), catarrh (-ve) and malaria (+ve) significantly influenced children’s medical expenses (p<0.10). It was recommended that subsidy for children malaria treatment, provision of more mosquito nets and awareness creation on preparedness of households for adverse climatic situations.

[A.S. Oyekale and Y. A. Adesanya. Climate Change and Urban Children’s Health: A Case Study of Ibadan South West Local Government, Nigeria. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):894-899]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 127

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.127

 

Keywords: climate change, health, children, subsidy

Full Text

127

128

Study of Syrphid fly in Ilam province and the first report of Merodon hirtus (Hurkmans, 1993) for Iranian fauna

 

Mostafa Bedoreh1, Amir Ansari pour2*

 

1. Agriculture faculty, Department of Plant protection, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.

2. Agriculture faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad branch, Khorramabad, Iran.

Amir.ansari2010@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Syrphid fly in Ilam province fauna were studied during 2006 and 2007. In this study a total of 21 species belonging to 13 genus and 2 subfamilies were collected and identified. Samples were collected and identified by characteristics of their appearance and their genitalia using a valid key. The identified species were identified are as follows: Chrysotoxum parmense (Rondani, 1845), Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776), Eristalinus aeneus( Scopoil, 1763), Eristalinus sepulchralis (Linnaeus, 1758), Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818), Eristalis arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758), Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758), Eumerus ahmadi (Barkalova & Gharaei, 2004), Eupeodes corolla (Fabricus, 1794), Eupeodes nuba (Wiedemann, 1830), Ischiodon aegypticus (Wiedemann, 1830), Melanostoma melinum (Linnaeus, 1758), Merodon hirtus* (Hurkmans, 1993), Paragus bicolor (Eabricus, 1794), Paragus compeditus (Hull, 1949), Scaeva albomaculata (Macquart, 1842), Scaeva dignota (Rondani, 1857), Sphaerophoria rueppelli (Widemann, 1830), Sphaerophoria turkmenica (Bankowska, 1964), Spharophoria scripta (Linnaeus, 1758), Syritta pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758). From the top species, Merodon hirtus (Hurkmans, 1993) new species in Iranian fauna were identified and confirmed by Dr. Ante Vujic from Serbia.

[Bedureh M, Ansari pour A. Study of Syrphid fly in Ilam province and the first report of Merodon hirtus (Hurkmans, 1993) for Iranian fauna. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):900-904]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 128

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.128

 

Keywords: Fauna, Syrphidae, Merodon hirtus, Ilam, Iran

Full Text

128

129

Quantitative Comparison of Blood and Blood Products Requirement between Two Groups with and without Auto-transfusion following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

 

1-Mansoor Soltanzadeh MD, Cardiac Anesthesia, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

2-Ahmad Ebadi MD, Cardiac Anesthesia, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

3-Seyed Kamaladin Tabatabaiee MD, Cardiac Anesthesia, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

4-Mehdi Dehghani Firoozabadi MD, Cardiac Anesthesia, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

5-Shahriar Mali MD, Cardiac Surgeon, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St. 

6- Mohammad ali Sheikhi MD, Cardiac Surgeon, Assistant Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

7-Farshid Ravanshadi MD, Cardiac Anesthesia Fellowship, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

8-Vahid Nezamabadi MD, Anesthesia Resident, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz, Golestan St.

This research supported by Ahvaz jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

Ebadi1959@ajums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of auto-transfusion in reducing need to blood products transfusion after open-heart surgery. Design: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, prospective study. Setting: An academic, tertiary and referral hospital. Participants: One hundred male patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Interventions: Patients divided in two equal groups. In group (A) Donated 500ml of patient`s blood after induction of general anesthesia and saved at room temperature and transfused it to patient at the end of surgery. The control group (Group C) received the same anesthesia method and surgery without any transfusion. Measurements and Main Results: In the group (A) need to transfusion of packed cell, FFP and platelet significantly decreased in compare with group (C). Conclusions: Saving the patient’s blood and auto-transfusion will improve hemostasis after CABG surgery.

[F.Sabeti, M.Soltanzadeh, Sh.Mali, N.Akbari Nassaji,T.Mahvar, A.Ebadi. Quantitative Comparison of blood and blood products requirement between two groups with and without auto-transfusion following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):905-907] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 129

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.129

 

Key words: Transfusion, CABG, Platelet, FF

Full Text

129

130

Effects of Preoperative Oral Gabapentin in Reduction of Intraocular Pressure and Cardiovascular Changes Following Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation

 

Mansoor Soltanzadeh1, Farhad Soltani2, Ahmadreza Mohtadi2, Mehdi Dehghani Firoozabadi2, *Ahmad Ebadi1,

Siamak Taheri Tabatabaee3

 

1. Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical sciences, Golestan Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz.

2. Assistant professor of anesthesiology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences, Imam Khomeini hospital, Iran, Ahvaz.

3. Anesthesia Resident, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran, Ahvaz.

Ebadi1959@ajums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are associated with hypertension, tachycardia and increased circulating catecholamines. They are also associated with increase in intraocular pressure. Various techniques have been studied to prevent increase intraocular pressure. Also there were used various techniques for attenuate the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Gabapentin is a multimodal perioperative drug. We investigated whether the pre-treatment with gabapentin attenuates the intraocular pressure in addition to a hemodynamic response to tracheal intubation. Methods: One hundred patients, 15-50 years of age with ASA class I, II undergoing elective surgery with general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were divided in two groups. Fifty patients received placebo and fifty patients received 900 mg (capsule) gabapentin two hours before surgery. Results: Intraocular pressure and heart rate in 1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes after laryngoscopy and intra-tracheal intubation in the gabapentin group were significantly lower than placebo group. In addition in our study mean arterial pressure in 1, 3, 5 minutes after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in the gabapentin group were significantly lower than placebo group. Conclusion: preoperative premedication with oral gabapentin is effective in attenuating the hemodynamic response and prevention of increase IOP to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation.

[M. Soltanzadeh, F. Soltani, A. Mohtadi, M. Dehghani Firoozabadi, A. Ebadi, S. Taheri Tabatabaee. Effects of preoperative oral gabapentin in reduction of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular changes following laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):908-911] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 130

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.130

 

Keywords: Gabapentin, Laryngoscopy, Tracheal intubation, Intraocular pressure, Blood pressure

Full Text

130

131

Efficiency of Web-Based Education versus Counseling on Diabetic Patients' Outcomes

 

Fathia A. Mersal1; Naglaa E. Mahday2 and Nahed A. Mersal 3

 

Departments of 1Community Health Nursing and 2Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

khomarkh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, and its related complications result in increasing disability, reduced life expectancy and enormous health costs. Diabetes management education is a critical element of care for all people with diabetes and it is necessary to improve patient outcomes through traditional diabetes patient education strategy and/or through internet based education that has the opportunity to expand the to the massive individuals with diabetes Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of Web-Based education versus counseling on diabetic patients' outcomes including patients' diabetic knowledge, level of self-efficacy, self- care activities and blood glucose level. The design of this study was a quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted at the outpatient clinic for diabetes in Ain Shams University hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. The Subjects: Purposive sample of patients were included in the study. Patients for this study were adult and diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Patients divided randomly into two equal groups (45 patients each) to constitute the web-based group and counseling group. Instruments: Patient's assessment and clinical data sheet, Diabetes Management Self-efficacy Sale (DMSES), diabetic patients' knowledge questionnaire sheet and a Summary of Diabetes Self –Care Activities Scale (SDSCA) were used. Results: The majority of counseling and web-based group had unsatisfactory knowledge, low level of self efficacy, inadequate self care activities and abnormal glucose level with no statistically significant difference between them pre-intervention. While, post-intervention, The majority of counseling and web-based group had satisfactory knowledge, high level of self efficacy, adequate self care activities and normal glucose level with. Alao, Counseling group had more satisfactory knowledge, high level of self efficacy, adequate self care activities and normal blood glucose level than web-based group with no statistically significant difference in all items except for self care activities Conclusion: It was concluded that, both of counseling and web-based diabetic patients' education improve patient outcome however counseling was more effective than web-based education strategy with no statistically significant difference between them in all items except for self care activities. This study recommended further research into the full use of the available technology is imperative for improving the quality of nursing intervention.

[Fathia A. Mersal; Naglaa E. Mahday and Nahed A. Mersal. Efficiency of Web-Based Education versus Counseling on Diabetic Patients' Outcomes. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):912-926]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 131

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.131

 

Keywords: Diabetes, Self Care Management, Self Efficacy, Web-based education, Counseling, patient's outcome.

Full Text

131

132

Is Silent Ischemic Heart Disease Evident in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients?

 

Ashraf G. Dala1, Waleed A. Ibrahim2, Azza Ali Taha3 and Nevein M. Alsheikh 4

 

1. Internal Medicine, 2Cardiology, 3Community and 4 Biochemistry Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University hospitals, Egypt

drashrafgharieb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Large number of studies have shown that individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality from ischaemic heart diseases (IHD) which accounts for almost half of all deaths in RA. Half of the RA patients with confirmed IHD had clinically silent disease. Therefore, early detection of Silent IHD can decrease the cardiovascular mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives: To assess the incidence and identify the predictors of silent ischemic heart disease (SIHD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: One hundred eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis with no history of IHD were studied. All patients subjected to full history taking and full clinical examination and investigated to fasting blood glucose, 2 hour post prandial blood glucose, serum creatinine, mean platelet volume, homocysteine level, urinary microalbuminuria, lipid profile RF, ESR, CRP, Resting ECG and stress ECG. RESULTS: Prevalence of silent ischemic heart disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients is 10.6%. Significantly increased incidence of SIHD among patients with rheumatoid arthritis with hypertension (27.9%), peripheral neuropathy (21.1%), microalbuminuria (56.7%) and family history of IHD (28.9%) (p value < 0.05). Important predictors for SIHD in RA patients were: increased body mass index, increased duration of rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, increased mean platelet volume, hyperlipiemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia, and high CRP and RF titre. Conclusions: Silent IHD is a rather common incidence in rheumatoid arthritis patients (10.6 %). The predictors for SIHD are prolonged disease duration, hyperlipidemia, increased mean platelet volume, obesity, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinaemia and presence of activity markers. “Targeting these risk factors in RA patients could help in lowering incidence of ischemic heart disease and its complications".

[Ashraf G. Dala, Waleed A. Ibrahim, Azza Ali Taha and Nevein M. Alsheikh. Is Silent Ischemic Heart Disease Evident in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients? Life Sci J 2012;9(3):927-934]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 132

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.132

 

Key Words: Silent ischaemic heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis.

Full Text

132

133

16S rRNA gene-based Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated site using PCR- Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP)

 

Hamdy A. Hassan

 

Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menofia University, Sadat city, Egypt. hamdyhassan1973@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The oxidation pond site in Sadat city, Egypt had been polluted with PCBs compounds more than a decade ago because of the wastes collected from different manufactures. Culture-independent approach generate a more accurate view for the bacterial community of the PCBs contaminated site. The diversity of bacterial populations in site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated using Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. SSCP was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes. The SSCP analysis showed increasing of the microbial communities from phyla Proteobacteria and certainly in the family Sphingomonadaceae correlated with increasing of PCBs in the contaminant site. This finding may benefit as an effective tool for bioremediation by facilitating the detection and monitoring of the PCBs degrader with SSCP technique.

[Hassan A. H. 16S rRNA gene-based Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated site using PCR- Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP). Life Sci J 2012;9(3):935-939]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 133

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.133

 

Keywords: Bacterial community; Culture-independent; PCR-SSCP; Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Full Text

133

134

Role Of Diode Laser In Preservation Of The Marginal Bone Around Early Loaded Endosseous Implant

 

Khalid E El-Kholey* Hanaa El-Shenaway**

 

*Oral &Maxillofacial Surgery Dept., IbinSina College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

** Oral Medicine Dept, Orodental Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo.

Corresponding Author: Alkoley@hotmail.com

 

AbstractAim: Evaluation of the effect of diode laser irradiation on crestal bone preservation around early loaded dental implants (used for single tooth replacement) clinically and radiographically. Patients and Methods: Eight patients need a bilateral implant placement were included in this study. Implant placed in one side was exposed to diode laser immediately; 4 days and 7 days after insertion of the implants. The other side was not exposed to the laser. The implants were loaded for 6-8 weeks. The patients were followed up clinically and radiographically at time of abutment placement and then at three, and six months. Results: Minimal amount of marginal bone resorption around the implants was noticed in the lased side more than in the non-lased side. Conclusions: The application of the diode laser to the endosseous implant can preserve the bone around the implant and may aid in improving the longevity of the implants.

[Khalid E El-Kholey, Hanaa El-Shenaway. Role Of Diode Laser In Preservation Of The Marginal Bone Around Early Loaded Endosseous Implant. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):940-943]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 134

doi:10.7537/marslsj090312.134