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Life Science Journal 
 (Life Sci J)
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 9 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 29), June 25, 2012. life0902 
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0902; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1097-8135
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

A Teaching Tool for Designing a Programmable System on Chip Using Hardware Description Language

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chin-Ming Hsu 2, Chian-Yi Chao 3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of, Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This paper aims to design a simulator which is specifically used to design a programmable system on chip (PSOC) for increasing teaching quality and enhancing students’ learning effects. The proposed teaching tool could effectively help students to learn MCS51 microcontroller’s principle as well as several input/output peripheral applications in one semester. There are four functions provided by the simulator: (1) using PSOC hardware description language designing an application; (2) capable of simulating designed circuits; (3) allowing compiling the hardware description codes; and (4) capable of checking the data sheets of the MCS51 chip and I/O peripheral devices. The designed teaching tool based on Java programming language can support the characteristics of being easily understood and memorized, thereby enhancing students’ interests and system integration concepts while taking  the microcontroller principle and practice course.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chin-Ming Hsu, Chian-Yi Chao. A Teaching Tool for Designing a Programmable System on Chip Using Hardware Description Language. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1-6] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

 

Keywords: Teaching tool, and hardware description language.

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2

Constructing Microcontroller-Based 3 by 3 Football Team Sets As an Educational Tool

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chin-Ming Hsu 2, Chian-Yi Chao 3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to construct microcontroller-based 3 by 3 football team sets for students to learn the knowledge of information and wireless communication technology in microcomputer related class. The constructed microcontroller-based 3 by 3 football team sets includes four parts: a mechanical set, a main control board, a motor driver board, and wireless control module. The mechanical set with two wheels is used as the feet of a robot. The main control board with 89S51 μ-controller chip is used to control the movement of the robot, such as going forward/back and turning left/right. The motor driver board is used to drive two wheels on the mechanical set. The wireless control module is used to remote control of a robot. Some investigations and evaluations have been done when the students finished the course which adopted the proposed microcontroller-based football team sets as the educational tool. Conclusively, the results indicate that applying the constructed teaching sets in an educational institute has had very favorable feedbacks from the students. The proposed tool sets can attract more students interesting in designing microcontroller-based systems and influence them in preparation for their laboratory project.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chin-Ming Hsu, Chian-Yi Chao. Constructing Microcontroller-Based 3 by 3 Football Team Sets As an Educational Tool. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):7-13] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 2

 

Keywords: Microcontroller, adult education, hardware, software.

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3

Recursive Least Square (RLS) Based Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM System

 

Saqib Saleem1, Qamar-ul-Islam2

 

1,2Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

1saqibsaleem2002@hotmail.com, 2qamarul_islam@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Channel State information can be determined by adaptive filtering algorithms for wireless channels. For slow fading channels, simplified channel estimators can be exploited such as Least Square Error (LSE) and Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE). But for fast fading channels, the matrix inversion required in case of LMMSE has to be taken recursively which increase the complexity. Under such conditions adaptive filtering algorithms are used to reduce the complexity with better performance. LMS, RLS and Kalman Filtering techniques can be used. But in wireless MIMO channels normally RLS and Kalman Filter are used at the cost of more complexity as compared to LMS which has better computational efficiency and feasibility. For initialization of adaptive filter, the channel can be estimated by LSE or LMMSE initially. In this paper the performance of RLS for both initially estimated LSE and LMMSE channel is compared in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE) and complexity is evaluated in terms of computational time. Optimization of LSE-RLS and LMMSE-RLS is performed as a function of wireless channel taps and Channel Impulse Response (CIR) samples. Monte-Carlo Simulations are carried for RLS channel estimation algorithm.    

[Saqib Saleem, Qamar-ul-Islam. Recursive Least Square (RLS) Based Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM System. Life Sci J 2012;9(2);14-19]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

 

Keywords: RLS, LMS, MIMO-OFDM, CIR Samples, Channel Taps, LSE, LMMSE

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4

Genotoxicity and oxidative stress among spray painter

 

Ehab R. Abdelraouf1, Fateheya M. Metwally2, Hend Rashad2, Saida Hammad3

 

1 Research on Children with Special Needs Dep., National Research Centre, Egypt.

2 Environmental and Occupational Medicine Dep.,  National Research Centre, Egypt.

3 Human Cytogenetic Dep., National Research Centre, Egypt.

ehabragaa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Several organic solvents (OSs) are potent carcinogens among population at risk. Their genotoxicity have important implications for cancer production. Genotoxicity could be related to lipid peroxidation with decrease of endogenous body antioxidants. This work included 27 car spray painters exposed to a mixture of mainly aromatic OSs and a comparable group of 27 males. For both groups, chromosomal study and assay of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were done. It was found that spray painters suffered a significantly higher percentage of chromosomal aberrations (CAs%) and lower GSH-Px activity specially among smoker ones. Positive correlations were found between CAs% and duration of exposure and the lifetime hydrocarbon exposure score (HES). A significant negative correlation was found between GSH-Px and duration of work and HES. Finally we recommend following up for workers who are at risk of genotoxicity by periodic examination and regular supplementation with antioxidants.

[Ehab R. Abdelraouf, Fateheya M. Metwally, Hend Rashad, Saida Hammad. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress among spray painter. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):20-24] (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 4

 

Key words: GSH-Px; chromosomal aberrations; organic solvents; HES; lipid peroxidation; antioxidants

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5

Effect of Tumstatin on Hypertrophic Scar in the Rabbit Model

 

Yi-lun Liu1,2*, Jing Sun3*, Tuan-jie Hou4, Shu-rong Li3, Feng-mei Deng3, Hai-rong Liu1, Yue-ming Liu2, Xin-lian Liu 3, Juan Li3

 

1 Experiment Research Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China; 2 Departments of Burns Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China; 3 Department of Pathology, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610083, China; 4 Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Center, Subei People’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou 225001, China. * These authors contributed equally to this work, e-mail: lucysunmoon@126.com

 

Abstract: This paper aimed to investigate the effect of tumstatin on hypertrophic scar in the rabbit model to explore a new treatment method for hypertrophic scar. An animal model of hypertrophic scar on the rabbit ears was established and was intervened with tumstatin via local injection. The rabbits were randomly assigned into tumstatin group, endostatin group, triamcinolone acetonide group and the saline control group. At 5 days after epithelization, 4 ml of tumstatin, endostatin, triamcinolone acetonide and the saline with concentration of 200 ug/ ml were injected into tissue of scar along the perimeter of the scar in the four experimental groups, respectively. After 30 days of injection, the gross appearance of scar was observed and the blood flow of hyperplastic scar was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. The scar tissues on the bilateral ears of each rabbits were resected afterwards. The histological features of scar tissue were examined with HE staining, and the scar thickness was also measured under microscope. The blood flow, vessel density and the scar thickness in the tumstatin group were significantly lower than that in the other three groups, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05). Tumstatin may inhibit angiogenesis in hypertrophic scar by means of blocking endothelium proliferation and promoting its apoptosis, have a promising application in the prevention of human hypertrophic scar, which may serve as a promising role in the prevention of human hypertrophic scar.

[Yi-lun Liu, Jing Sun, Tuan-jie Hou, Shu-rong Li, Feng-mei Deng, Hai-rong Liu, Yue-ming Liu, Xin-lian Liu, Juan Li. Effect of Tumstatin on Hypertrophic Scar in the Rabbit Model. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):25-29]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 5

 

Keywords: Hypertrophic scar; tumstatin; microvascular endothelial cells; anti-angiogenesis

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The involvement of amygdala phosphorylated Erk1/2 in the anti-immobility effect of long-term desipramine HCl treatment in a forced swimming test

 

Chien-Ya Hung1, Mu-Hsin Chen2, Chih-Hung Lin2,*

 

1 Department of Food Nutrition , Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan City,Taiwan.

            2 Department of Optometry, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan City, Taiwan.

earlylife555@yahoo.com.tw

 

Abstract: Desipramine (DMI), a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), is widely used for the clinical treatment of depression. However, the understanding of DMI’s mechanism of action is still inadequate. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) and the effect of DMI treatment. The Porsolt forced swimming test (FST) was used to estimate the anti-immobility effects of DMI. Moreover, the phosphorylated levels of Erk1/2 were assessed using Western blot analysis. There was no obvious difference between treated and untreated rats in their locomotion activity. However, on day 21, the DMI-treated rats showed a significant decrease in the FST immobility time (IMT); there were no changes in IMT after 5 days of DMI treatment. The Erk1/2 phosphorylation of the amygdala was assessed; the Erk1/2 phosphorylation was significantly decreased in the amygdala after 21 days of DMI treatment.  Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), a nonpeptide MAPK activator, was injected locally into the amygdala regions bilaterally in a group of 21-day DMI-treated rats after the FST; these rats recovered significantly from their immobility behavior. Furthermore, the amygdala Erk1/2 phosphorylation of ATA-treated rats was consistent with the behavioral test. This study is the first to demonstrate that phosphorylated Erk1/2 in the amygdala may be involved in DMI’s mechanism of action with long-term treatment but not with short-term treatment.

[Chien-Ya Hung, Mu-Hsin Chen, Chih-Hung Lin. The involvement of amygdala phosphorylated Erk1/2 in the anti-immobility effect of long-term desipramine HCl treatment in a forced swimming test. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):30-35]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 6

 

Keywords: Desipramine, Erk1/2, Amygdala, Forced Swimming Test

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Chemoembolization through lateral sacral artery to treat uterus broad ligament pregnancy

 

ZHANG Jian-hao1, GUAN Sheng

 

Department of Intervention, the first affiliated hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. jh7402@126.com

 

AbstractThe objective was to evaluate the clinical effect of interventional therapy of uterus broad ligament pregnancy. One case of uterus broad ligament pregnancy was performed celioscope exploration then turning to open operation. Because the gestation sac was near the ilio- vessels and the operation risk was very high, it was not disposed at last. By chemoembolization of the blood supply vessel (lateral sacral artery) of gestation sac, embryo was killed rapidly. So interventional therapy was an effective method to treat uterus broad ligament pregnancy.

[ZHANG Jian-hao, GUAN Sheng. Chemoembolization through lateral sacral artery to treat uterus broad ligament pregnancy. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):36-38]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7

 

Keywords: uterus broad ligament pregnancy; lateral sacral artery; chemoembolization

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8

Psychological Studies for Women and Men with Sexual Dysfunction

 

Peimaneh Nemati 1*, Soori H. 2, Seyedreza Haghi3,

 

Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti 4

 

1. Department of Psychology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University ,Mashhad, Iran

2. Department of Epidemiology Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center-Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3-Department of Management, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

4- Department of Psychology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

p.nemati99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prevalence of female and male sexual dysfunction is high and it may significantly affect self-esteem and quality of life. Even sexual dysfunction of short duration can create frustration and anguish. When chronic, it may lead to anxiety and depression, harm relationships, and cause problems in other aspects of life. The goal of the present research is to study the effect of cognitive-behavioral counseling on the level of anxiety in women and men with sexual dysfunction. In this research, Cognitive behavior therapy during 8 individual weekly sessions and 4 group therapy weekly sessions used for subjects group and it focused on cognitive restructuring, modification of cognitive distortions and training of behavioral techniques. Spilburger’s Anxiety questionnaire was used as the pre-test and post- test for subject group. Finally data analysis will be shown that the cognitive behavior therapy has significantly effect on reduction of anxiety. The mean scores of anxiety in post-test of subject group were significantly lower than mean scores in pre-test. Cognitive counseling as a therapeutic method can have a significant role in improvement of women and men suffering from anxiety which is resulted from sexual dysfunction.

[Peimaneh Nemati, Soori H., Seyedreza Haghi, Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti. Psychological Studies for Women and Men with Sexual Dysfunction. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):39-44]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8

 

Keywords: Sexual Dysfunction, Anxiety, Cognitive Behavior Counseling

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9

Design and Development of Semantic Web Information System (WIS) for Virtual University of Pakistan

 

Amjad Farooq, M. Junaid Arshad, Syed Ahsan, M. Shahbaz, M. Aslam

 

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UET, Lahore-Pakistan. amjadfarooq@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Semantic web is an extension of current web which defines the meaning of information in such a way so that it can be understandable by the machines and thus machines can process the information and perform reasoning on that information. With the current web, the meanings or semantics of information on the web is only understandable to the human beings whereas the basic purpose of semantic web is to make web pages not only human as well as machine understandable. The need for design methodology was considered at a time when semantic applications were developed in an ad-hoc manner with no systematic approach or methodology used to add semantics at implementation level either using manual or automatic approach.  In this paper, we have critically reviewed existing design methodologies of semantic web applications and compared these methodologies based on various attributes and found out their strengths and weaknesses.  In this paper, we have proposed a design methodology for semantic web information system and validate it by using Virtual University web application as a case study.

[Amjad Farooq, M. Junaid Arshad, Syed Ahsan, M. Shahbaz, M. Aslam. Design and Development of Semantic Web Information System (WIS) for Virtual University of Pakistan. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):45-50] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 9

 

Keywords: semantic web, methodology, hypermedia, Ontology, web information system 

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Biological Pathway based Design and Implementation of GUI Based Network Management System to Manage Live Network Nodes

 

M. Junaid Arshad, M. Aslam, Amjad Farooq, Syed Ahsan, M. Shahbaz, M. Zeeshan

 

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-Pakistan. junaidarshad@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: This work specifies a set of tools for the network administrators to solve specific, but common problems of LAN, focusing on management issues like fault, configuration and performance. The system is capable of remotely configuring, monitoring and managing live network nodes and serves as a platform for enhancements in order to develop a feature rich yet affordable management system. The proposed system for network management may helpful to minimize the fast intensifying network’s cost and complexities by offering improved set of simple tools to the network managers or supporting workers to rapidly resolve or identify network problems. Since it is a significant requirement for the network and personnel resources management to control and manage network problems from a central locality.

[M. Junaid Arshad, M. Aslam, Amjad Farooq, Syed Ahsan, M. Shahbaz. Design and Implementation of GUI Based Network Management System to Manage Live Network Nodes, Life Sci J 2012;9(2):51-56] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 10

 

Keywords: LAN; GUI-based; Managing; Efficiency; Networks

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Multi-Agent System to Suggest Daily Commodities on Social Networking Websites

 

M. Aslam, M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, Syed Ahsan, M. Shahbaz, Fozia Qamar, Sahar Moin

 

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, U.E.T., Lahore, Pakistan

maslam@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Multi agent system is a rapidly growing field of distributed artificial intelligence that has gained significant position because of its ability to solve complex real world problems. Researches on social networks have received increasing attention in multi agent systems due to the popularity of social networking sites. In this paper, we are going to draft a blueprint of Multi agent architecture for social networking websites to suggest daily life commodities/items, based on general trends and interests. Usually websites show their advertisements or user interest information in the form of pop ups. This information is generally tied up with the most recent searches the user has made on the web browser .These ideas provide may or may not be related with his personal interests. So, he becomes frustrated at some times. But our system is capable of handling the situations intelligently. It extracts the required information from profiles and associates the results with it; providing up-to-date and significance information and making the web search a fascinating experience.

[M. Aslam, M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, Syed Ahsan, M. Shahbaz. Multi-Agent System to Suggest Daily Commodities on Social Networking Websites, Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):57-60] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11

 

Keywords: Multi-agent; Social Networking; Artificial Intelligence

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CALIBRATION OF NEW SOFTWARE WITH CONE BEAM C.T FOR EVALUATION OF ITS RELIABILITY IN DENSITOMETRIC ANALYSIS AROUND DENTAL IMPLANTS

 

* Khaled A. Elhayes; ** Mahmoud A. Gamal Eldin

 

* Ass. Professor Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, OMFS Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University #; ** Master Degree in Oral Radiology, Oral Radiology Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University. # Corresponding Author: pdkae@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: assessment of the validity and reliability of Idrisi Kilimanjaro software for densitometric analysis around dental implant to evaluate osseointegration by calibration with CBCT. Material and Methods: 42 clinically osseointegrated dental implants; 28 immediate (17 mandibular and 11 maxillary) and 14 delayed implants (5 mandibular and 9 maxillary) were inserted in 28 patients of both sex (9 males and 19 females) with average age of 31.7 years. All the implants were radiographed using CBCT 1day and 4 months postsurgically, densitometric analysis was performed around dental implant on CBCT image at these 2 time intervals. Another radiodensitometric analysis was performed on the same radiographic image taken by CBCT and at the same time intervals using new computer software calledIDRISI Kilimanjaro”. “Microstat 7” for windows statistical package, paired "t" test, Pearson's correlation and Coefficient of variation of both techniques were used for statistical analysis of the results. Results: There was a very high positive correlation between bone density values measured by CBCT and IDRISI techniques while there was no statistically significant difference between coefficients of variation of both readings in both techniques that indicates the reliability of IDRISI Kilimanjaro software for densitometric analysis around dental implants. There was also a statistically highly significant difference between both readings in each technique indicating a highly significant osseointegration of dental implants involved in this study. Conclusions: IDRISI Kilimanjaro software is a valid and reliable way in densitometric analysis around dental implants for assessment of osseointegration procedure when it is calibrated with CBCT and it is as accurate as CBCT.

[Khaled A. Elhayes; Mahmoud A. Gamal Eldin. CALIBRATION OF NEW SOFTWARE WITH CONE BEAM C.T FOR EVALUATION OF ITS RELIABILITY IN DENSITOMETRIC ANALYSIS AROUND DENTAL IMPLANTS. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):61-67] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 12

 

Keywords: CBCT, IDRISI Kilimanjaro, Osseointegration, Dental implant.

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Remote sensing and evaluation of natural resources in Iran

 

Farideh shahraki1, Dr. M. Anji reddy, PhD Professor2, M. Mehdi Fazelbeygi3

 

1.                     PhD student of Remote Sensing-JNTU; Hyderabad, India.

Farid.shahraki@gmail.com

2. Professor of Environmental Science and Technology; Director, JNTU; Hyderabad India.

Anjijaya@sity.com

3. PhD student of Environmental Science and Technology- JNTU; Hyderabad

fazel_mehdi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Remote sensing technology using satellite access has been increasingly helpful in performing natural resources mapping and management. This includes processes that cannot be done manually or might take many years to complete when you are covering vast areas of land such as satellite imaging, accuracy assessment, image processing, classification, and geometric or radiometric corrections. It is evident that any nation’s economic development is largely supported by the richness of its water and land resources. The management capability and mapping tools use to monitor these resources are crucial to raise the economic development of specific regions. Accuracy is a general requirement in managing delicate land and water resources for sustainable development. The remote sensing using satellite based approach in generating data ensures updated cost effective natural resources monitoring and management in Iran. This research will demonstrate the need to maintain remote sensing for mapping and managing natural resources in Iran as well as enhancing and supporting the decision making capabilities of the government regarding the use of its natural resources.

[Shahraki farideh, M. Anji reddy. Remote sensing and evaluation of natural resources in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2012;9(2):68-72].  (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 13

 

Keywords: natural resource, Image processing, Economic development, Remote sensing.

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Role of Activated Protein C and Soya-bean in Experimental Lung Toxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies

 

Maha Mohamed Abo Gazia1 and Eman Ali Mahmoud El-Kordy2

 

1Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Fayoum University; 2Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. mahaabogazia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Amiodarone (AM) is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is limited in clinical use by its adverse effects, including potentially life-threatening AM-induced pneumotoxicity. The resemblance of the morphologic changes in amiodarone-treated rats lungs to pulmonary toxicity in humans suggest that this form of chemical injury may serve as useful model of this disease entity. Aim of the Work: Studying the effect of amiodarone on the lung of rat histologically and immunohistochemically as well as the role of concomitant use of soybean and activated protein C (APC) in ameliorating pulmonary toxicity (pneumotoxicity or parenchymal lung disease) induced by amiodarone.  Material and Methods: Thirty adult male albino rats were used for the present study. The animals were divided into four groups: group I (control), group II (each rat was amiodarone orally treated for 6 weeks), group III (each animal was given soybean and amiodarone for 6 weeks) and group IV (each animal was given activated protein C and amiodarone for 6 weeks). The lung was then examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Results: Amiodarone caused increased interalveolar thickness with increased cellularity and mononuclear cellular infiltrations. Hypercellularity involved macrophages with large vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperplastic type II pneumocytes in group II. There was congested blood capillaries with some extravastion of red blood cells. By electron microscope, the hypertrophied type II pneumocytes showed multiple lamellar bodies and small inclusions with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. Macrophages with eccentric nuclei and prominent lamellar bodies with increased lysosomes were detected in group II. Also, increasing collagen fibers were detected. Rats treated with APC and soybean showed attenuation of these changes. There was a significant increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) immunoreaction in group II with nonsignificant change in group III and group IV.

[Maha Mohamed Abo Gazia and Eman Ali Mahmoud El-Kordy. Role of Activated Protein C and Soya-bean in Experimental Lung Toxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):73-85]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 14

 

Key Words:  Activated Protein C, Soya-bean, Lung Toxicity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), lamellar bodies.

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Anatomical Studied on the Cranial Nerves of Liza Ramada (Family: Mugilidae) Nervus Glossopharyngeus

 

Dakrory, A.I1; Ali, R.S2. and Issa, A.Z1.

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University; 2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University. Dakrory2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study deals with the nervus glossopharyngeus of Liza ramada. The microscopic observations showed that, the nervus glosspharyngeus arises by one root and leaves the cranial cavity through its own foramen. It gives visceromotor fibres for the first levator arcualis branchialis muscles. It has single extracranially located epibranchial (petrosal) ganglion. The ramus pretrematicus carries general viscerosensory fibres for the epithelial lining of the pharynx and special ones for the taste buds.The ramus posttrematicus carries both general viscerosensory fibres for the epithelial lining of the pharynx and special ones for the gill filaments, as well as visceromotor fibres for the first adductor arcualis branchialis and the first obliquus ventralis muscle.

[Dakrory, A.I.; Ali, R.S. and Issa, A.Z. Anatomical Studied on the Cranial Nerves of Liza Ramada (Family: Mugilidae) Nervus Glossopharyngeus. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):86-93]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 15

 

Key Words:  Nervus glossopharyngeus- Liza ramada.

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Prevention of Ultraviolet B-induced Lens Oxidative Damage in Mice by Dunaliella salina, A Carotenoids-Rich Alga

 

Chia-Fang Tsai 1, Jung-Kai Tseng 2, Fung-Jou Lu 3, Yu-Wen Hsu 2,4,*

 

1 Department of Biotechnology, TransWorld University, Yunlin County, Taiwan; 2 School of Optometry, College of Medical Sciences and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC; 3 Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC; 4 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC. yuwen@csmu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The present study examined the protective effects of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) on ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced lens oxidative damage in male ICR mice. Lens oxidative damage was induced by exposure UVB radiation. Animal were orally administered (gavage) D. salina at doses of 0, 123 and 615 mg/kg body weight/day for eight days. Lens glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in lens were measured to monitor lens injury. The results showed that UVB irradiation caused significant damages to lens, including decreased the activities of SOD, catalase and GSH-Px, and GSH content in lens whereas increased lens MDA content, compared with control group. Treatment with D. salina could significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorate lens oxidative damages, as evidenced by increased the activities of SOD, catalase and GSH-Px, and GSH content and decreased the MDA content in lens when compared with UVB-treated group. Those results demonstrate that D. salina exhibits potent protective effects on UVB radiation-induced lens oxidative damage in mice, likely due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activities and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

[Chia-Fang Tsai, Jung-Kai Tseng, Fung-Jou Lu, Yu-Wen Hsu. Prevention of Ultraviolet B-induced Lens Oxidative Damage in Mice by Dunaliella salina, A Carotenoids-Rich Alga. Scaling Technique for Web Based Management Systems. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):94-99] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 16

 

Keywords: Carotenoids; Dunaliella salina; Lens; Oxidative damage; Ultraviolet B.

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Relationship between Polymorphisms of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Intron 4 VNTR and Risk for Cervical Cancer

 

Jun-Ge Han 1, Hong Jin 2, Lin-Bo Gao 3,Δ, Jian Zhang 4, Xue-Ke Deng 2, Li-Juan Li 1,  Chang-Ping Song 3, Tao Wang 3, Lin Zhang1

 

1. Department of Forensic Biology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China

2. Department of Immunology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China

3. Laboratory of Molecular and Translational Medicine, West China Institute of Women and Children’s Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China

4. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China

Δ This author contributed equally to this work. zhanglin@scu.edu.cn; hanjunge@wzmc.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Background and Aims: Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) have been reported to be associated with risk for a wide range of cancers. This study evaluated the relationship between polymorphisms of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D), eNOS intron 4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and risk for cervical cancer. Methods: Polymorphisms of ACE I/D and eNOS intron 4 VNTR were analyzed by PCR in 147 cervical cancer cases and 167 healthy control subjects. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS for Windows. Results: We found that the D/D genotype of ACE, compared with the I/I and I/D genotypes, was significantly associated with an increased risk for cervical cancer (D/D vs. I/I: OR = 0.41, 95% CI= 0.18-0.94; D/D vs. I/D: OR = 0.34, 95% CI=0.15-0.78); the 4a/4b genotype of eNOS, compared with the 4b/4b genotype, was not associated with increase in the risk for cervical cancer (4b/4b vs. 4a/4b OR = 0.58, 95% CI= 0.31-1.08). The rare variant named 4c allele in eNOS intron 4 VNTR was encountered in one patient and one control subject. Conclusions: Our results provide that the ACE I/D polymorphisms is associated with the risk for cervical cancer, and there is no enough evidence to show the significant association between the polymorphisms of eNOS intron 4 VNTR and the risk for cervical cancer. Further studies with more subjects in diverse ethnic population are necessary to confirm the general validity of our findings.

[Jun-Ge Han, Hong Jin, Lin-Bo Gao, Jian Zhang, Xue-Ke Deng, Li-Juan Li,  Chang-Ping Song, Tao Wang, Lin Zhang. Relationship between Polymorphisms of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Intron 4 VNTR and Risk for Cervical Cancer. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):100-104] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 17

 

Key Words: Polymorphisms, angiotensin-converting enzyme gene, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene, cervical cancer

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Adoption of Decision Support Systems to Supplement Organizational Decision Making

 

Shafqat Hameed

 

National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

shafqat.hameed@ceme.nust.edu.pk; hameed.shafqat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Decisions support system is used to assist and refine managerial decision making. Any Business or organization consists of Marketing, R & D, Financial Management and planning. These interrelated resources must have a coherent and effective combination for a sustainable organization growth. For all these resources to integrate effectively management decision making plays a very important role. At present, the process of decision making in most local organizations, is done without any aid of technology, and based solely on the experience of the decision maker. This study focuses on the effectiveness of decision support systems in assisting the process of decision making for organization.

[Shafqat Hameed. Adoption of Decision Support Systems to Supplement Organizational Decision Making. Life Sci J  2012;9(2):105-109] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 18

 

Key Words: Decision Making, DSS; Decision Support Systems

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Effectual Dynamics and Prolific Usage of Knowledge Management & Engineering in Health Care Industry

 

Shafqat Hameed, Jawad Karamat, Kashif Mehmood

 

National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

 shafqat.hameed@ceme.nust.edu.pk, hameed.shafqat@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: Knowledge management is about managing and sharing knowledge.  Knowledge management includes areas such as organizational behavior, IT, leadership, training and strategy which is very important for both organizational and individual’s health. This study aims at applying this concept of knowledge management to the health care industry. The health care industry is one of the most important industry in any economy. Although this industry is showing growth trend in many countries but still there are many medical errors that are occurring. Errors are even occurring in developed countries. In order to reduce these errors, this study has recommended a model which involves “The ministry of health” and “NADRA” of Pakistan. These ministries will help in record keeping (Record of patients and best practices). This model will in return improve the quality and reduce the errors of the health care industry.

[Shafqat Hameed. Jawad Karamat, Kashif Mehmood Effectual Dynamics and Prolific Usage of Knowledge Management & Engineering in Health Care Industry. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):110-118] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 19

 

Keywords- Knowledge Management, Health, Leadership, Pakistan, Organization, Strategy, NADRA1. Introduction

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Study of the relationship of glycated hemoglobin levels and neurological impairment and three months prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke

 

Guo Shuangxi1, Tan Song1, Song Bo1, Chandra Avinash1, Ma Anna2, Fang Hui 1, Chen Si1, Xu Yuming1

 

1.Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China; 2.Xinxiang Medical College, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China.

Corresponding author: XU Yu-ming, xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Objective To explore the relationship of glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and neurological impairment and three months prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Method 180 patients with acute ischemic stroke within twenty four hours after onset were included in the present analysis from the Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University.Three milliliter of Venous blood within twenty four hours after admission to test the blood HbA1c.The patients were divided into three groups based on the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). These three groups designated as: Normal group (HbA1c<5.7%), Intermediate group (5.7%-6.5%) and Elevated group (HbA1c≥6.5%). Evaluation of neurological functional impairment with NIHSS scores within twenty four hours after admission, and to evaluation of the prognosis with MRS score after three months. Result As for patients, in age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking history aspects, the difference was not statistically significant among three groups (P>0.05). As for the history of diabetes, blood glucose on admission, NIHSS scores, three months MRS score, the difference was statistically significant among three groups (P<0.05). The blood HbAIc and NIHSS score and three months MRS score of 180 patients were respectively analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, the results showed that the blood HbAlc content and NIHSS score and three months MRS score in patients with ischemic stroke were positively correlated (P <0.001). Conclusion Different HbA1c levels in patients with acute stroke has different neurological  impairment on admission and three months prognosis are also different, showing that a higher blood HbA1c levels has a more serious neurological impairment and the prognosis is worse after three months. HbA1c levels maybe is an important predictors to evaluate the neurological impairment and three months prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke .

[Guo Shuangxi, Tan Song, Song Bo, Chandra Avinash, Ma Anna,  Fang Hui, Chen Si, Xu Yuming. Study of the relationship of glycated hemoglobin levels and neurological impairment and three months prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):119-123] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 20

 

Keywords: glycated hemoglobin; ischemic stroke; neurological impairment

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Gender Differences and Construct of the Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence

Fataneh Naghavi1,  Ma’rof Redzuan2, Arezoo Asgari3, Mojgan Mirza4

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

 

2, 4Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

 

3Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University, Dorood Branch, Iran.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract: The emotional intelligence construct is a rather novel concept with little empirical support, particularly, in relation to the link between gender and the early adolescent’s emotional intelligence. Hence, the specific objective of this research is to determine the relationship between gender and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence (EQ). EQ is a set of abilities such as conception, emotion appraisal and expression, emotion management and regulation, and emotion utilization of emotion. The present study was carried out among 234 Iranian students in the second and grades of guidance schools (age 12-15) in Tehran, Iran. The students (girls and boys) were clustered through random and multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Schutte’s (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale. T-test indicates that there is a statistical significant difference between emotional intelligence among boys and girls.
[Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan, Arezoo Asgari, Mojgan Mirza. Gender Differences and Construct of the Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):124-128]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 21

 

Keywords: Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence, Gender Differences, Emotional Quotient (EQ), Gender and Emotional Intelligence.

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Lag in optimal optical correction of urban elementary school students in Taiwan

 

Ching-Ying Cheng1,2, Walter Huang3, Han-Yin Sun1,2, Kuo-Chen Su1,2, Jung-Kai Tseng1,2, Mei-Ling Peng1,2, Hong-Ming Cheng1,2,*

 

1 School of Optometry, Chung Shun Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.

2 Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shun Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.

3 Department of Optometry, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology. Hsinchu, Taiwan,, ROC.

hmcheng@mercury.csmu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The occurrence of the lag in optimal optical correction was investigated in three geographically different urban elementary schools in Taiwan. The results showed that among the schools in Tamsui (N=606), Taichung (N=702), and Tainan (N=586), Tainan had the highest proportion of students with correction (47.9% of all students), followed by Taichung (26.2%), and Tamsui (20.8%). Tamsui appeared to have the most lag in optimal correction: 55.3% needed further correction, yet only 20.8% had been corrected, or a lag of 34.5%. In contrast, the lag in Tainan and Taichung was 16.3% and 28.9%, respectively. Based on linear regression analysis, the lag or unmet needs could result in the worsening of myopia. To reduce the lag, follow up with the parents after student vision screening was supplemented with public health education or direct provision of any optical devices to the students.

[Ching-Ying Cheng, Walter Huang, Han-Yin Sun, Kuo-Chen Su, Jung-Kai Tseng, Mei-Ling Peng, Hong-Ming Cheng. Lag in optimal optical correction of urban elementary school students in Taiwan. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):129-131]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.22

 

Keywords: vision screening, school myopia, spherical equivalent, lag in correction, optical correction

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Prevention of shivering during regional anaesthesia: Comparison of Midazolam, Midazolam plus ketamine,Tramadol, and Tramadol plus Ketamine

 

Reda S. Abdelrahman

Departments of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. redasobhi@hotmail.com*

 

Abstract: Shivering is frequent during the post-anesthetic recovery period, and there is no clear consensus about the best strategy for its treatment. Post spinal shivering is very distressing for patients and may induce a variety of complications. In this prospective randomized, comparative, placebo controlled study, the efficacy of each of Midazolam, Midazolam plus ketamine,Tramadol, and Tramadol plus Ketamine for prophylaxis of post-spinal shivering was evaluated and compared to each other. One hundred AS A status I and II patients,who were undergoing elective orthopedic surgery under spinal anaesthesia,were included in the study. Patients randomly assigned to one of five groups; group C(n=20) received saline as a control, group M (n=20) received Midazolam 75 g /kg, group MK(n=20) received Midzolam37.5g/kg plus Ketamine 0.25 mg/kg ,group T(n=20) received  Tramadol 0.5mg/kg and group TK(n=20) received Tramadol 0.25mg/kg plus Ketamine 0.25mg/kg . All of these drugs were diluted to volume of 5 ml and was given as an I.V. bolus immediately after intrathecal  injection .The incidences of shivering in groups C,M,MK,T and TK were 55%,45%,5%,30% and 15% respectively(p-value was 0.003).The differences between group MK and groups C,M and T were statistically significant (p-value was <0.001,0.004 and 0.046 respectively ) while difference between group MK and group TK was not significant (p-value was 0.302).Group TK also showed a statistically significant lower incidence of shivering when compared to group and M, but when compared  with group T, the difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of shivering in group T was less than its incidence in groups C and M but this was not statistically significant. The difference between groups C and M was not statistically significant, so we concluded that I.V. midazolam plus Ketamine or Tramadol plus Ketamine is better than Midazolam or tramadol for prophylaxis of post spinal shivering. Midazolam plus Ketamine is superior to tramadol plus Ketamine.

[Reda S. Abdelrahman. Prevention of shivering during regional anaesthesia: Comparison of Midazolam, Midazolam plus ketamine,Tramadol, and Tramadol plus Ketamine. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):132-139] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 23

 

Keywords: N-Methyl- D-Aspartate (NMDA), SpO2 Peripheral O2 saturation, ICP intracranial pressure.

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People Loneliness among Elderly Feeling of Depression andAttending Geriatric Clubs at Assiut City

 

Nadia Ebraheem Sayied; Hussnia Shehata Mohamed and Reda Abd El Aal Thabet

 

Psychiatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University. Assiut, Egypt. nadiaebraheem@ymail.com

 

Abstract: People over the age of sixty-five are a national problem that requires more attention and research because the suicide rate is more prominent in this age group than in any other .The study aimed to assess feeling of depression and loneliness in elderly persons and identify the relation between the old age and feeling of depression and loneliness. Interviews were conducted individually with elderly people Convenience sample of the study were 50 elderly persons aged 60years and above from Geriatric club in Legitimate Assembly and Geriatric Club at Assiut cultural center.  Tools were used in this study UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3), It will be used to assess the feeling of loneliness among elderly people, and Beck Depression Inventory Scale .The results revealed that there were statistically significant difference between depression and age. There were statistically significant highly correlation between depression and loneliness. Conclusion, depression and loneliness significantly increase with age.   

[Nadia Ebraheem Sayied; Hussnia Shehata Mohamed and Reda Abd El Aal Thabet. People Loneliness among Elderly Feeling of Depression andAttending Geriatric Clubs at Assiut City.Life Sci J 2012;9(2):140-145]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 24

               

Key Words: Depression, Loneliness, Elderly

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Definitive Radiation Therapy for Early Glottic Carcinoma

 

Alaa Maria; Mohamed El-Shebiney and Omnia Abd El-Fattah

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. alaamaria1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Definitive radiation therapy (RT) for early laryngeal glottic carcinoma offers an excellent probability of cure and it is associated with persistent disease or tumor recurrence in a minority of patients. The objective of treatment controlling the malignant tumor and preserving a functionally useful voice is best optimized by the use of radiotherapy in early stages. Although surgery can offer equal good results, it is best reserved in the event of radiation failure. Aim of the work: The aim of the present retrospective study is to identify the treatment outcomes and different prognostic variables affecting early (T1N0M0 and T2N0M0) laryngeal glottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods: The medical records of 81 patients with T1N0M0 and T2N0M0 glottic invasive SCC treated with definitive radiation therapy throughout the period from January, 2002 to September, 2010, at Clinical Oncology Department, Tanta University Hospital, were reviewed. All patients had at least 12 months of follow-up. These patients were evaluated for response to RT, local control, disease specific survival (DSS) rates and treatment toxicity. The different prognostic factors affected the local control and DSS rates were also statistically analyzed. Results: The median follow-up period was 45.9 months. Eleven patients (13.58%) received <65 Gy as a total irradiation dose and 86.42% received > 65 Gy. Complete disappearance of the laryngeal glottic lesion (CR) was achieved in 91.36% of patients. Five-year local control rates were 89.1% in T1 and 64.96% in T2 tumor stage. Multivariate analysis revealed that anterior commissure involvement (P=0.048) and overall treatment time (P=0.002) are adversely affected local control rates with statistical significance. Seven (9.46%) patients failed locally and 2 (2.7%) had developed distant failure. Five-year DSS rates were as follows: T1, 89.81% and T2, 70.76%. Sever early radiation reaction involving skin, larynx & pharynx were rare (1.2%, 3.7% and 6.2%, respectively), and severe late reactions was recorded in 1.2% of patients. Conclusion: Definitive RT cures a high proportion of patients with T1N0M0 and T2N0M0 glottic SCC and has a low rate of severe complications. The anterior commissure involvement and overall treatment time were adversely affected local control rate.

[Alaa Maria; Mohamed El-Shebiney and Omnia Abd El-Fattah. Definitive Radiation Therapy for Early Glottic Carcinoma. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):146-153]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 25

 

Key words: Radiation therapy, larynx, early glottic carcinoma

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Effects of Designed Ultrasonic Field in Different Frequency Sonophoresis Using the Carrier of Liposomes

 

Yi-Cheng Huang 1*, Shiuh-Kuang Yang 2

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan 833, RO China, 2 Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan 804, RO China

*Corresponding Author, E-mail : huang@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The objective of the study was to investigate the skin permeability of designed diffuse ultrasonic field and the application of different frequency exposed on liposome transdermal delivery. The specimens were exposed to ultrasound by frequencies of 20, 60 kHz and 1 MHz with the intensities 0.43 W/cm2. In the exposed experiments, the diffuse ultrasonic field was performed using an inclined incident transducer and a designed wedge in the 20 and 60 kHz. The frequency of 1 MHz transducer was operated directly in the skin sample. These exposure methods have been compared to the unexposed samples by recording the permeated depth of the rhodamine in the skin. Experimentally, the results revealed that the ultrasonic frequency of 60 kHz has a better permeated depth about 168 nm under the skin surface. In general, applied higher intensity of ultrasound gave greater permeated depth than lower intensity. However, safe application of higher intensity ultrasound should be practiced by careful selection of exposure parameters. It is the principle reason for the lower intensity applied in the study.

[Yi-Cheng Huang, Shiuh-Kuang Yang. Effects of Designed Ultrasonic Field in Different Frequency Sonophoresis Using the Carrier of Liposomes. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):154-159] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 26

 

Keywords: liposome, diffuse ultrasonic field, acoustic radiation force, Sonophoresis

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Theoretical and Numerical Analyses on Multi-Layered Ceramic Scaffold due to High Pressure for Tissue Engineering

 

Ming-Hwa R. Jen *, Ying-Hui Wu and Pei-Ling Guo

 

Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 80424, Taiwan.

*Corresponding, E-mail : jmhr@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Tissue engineering scaffolds provide temporary mechanical support for tissue regeneration and transfer global mechanical load to mechanical stimuli to cells through its architecture. The manufacturing process may cause the deformation and internal defects in multi-layered ceramic scaffold (MLCS) that results in the malfunction for tissue engineering applications. This work aims to investigate the deformation of MLCS that composed of nearly a hundred of ceramic and metal powder films interleaved and stacked due to high pressure at constant elevated temperature. On theoretical analysis, classical laminated plate theory, linear elastic assumptions and equilibrium equations were adopted. Associated with the practical process three types of boundary conditions (BCs) were used, such as all edges simple-supported, two edges simple-supported and the other two free, and four edges free. Also, two more conditions need be added, including four fixed points at corners and the elastic foundation at bottom. As for the numerical simulation the finite element method (FEM) incorporated with software ANSYS was used to obtain the displacement field of MLCS to validate the analytical prediction. Compared with the numerical results the analytical solutions were found satisfactorily acceptable, i.e., the errors were about 0.1%- 6.2% for the BCs of four edges free and four corners fixed. The errors about 0.13%- 6.15% were also acceptable for the BCs of two edges simple-supported and the others free. However, the analytical solution for the case of all the edges simple-supported did not agree with the numerical results. Finally, the proposed theoretical methodology alternatively provides an analytical method, instead of FEM and ANSYS, to analyze a nearly and over hundred layered MLCS for tissue engineering scaffolds.

[Ming-Hwa R. Jen, Ying-Hui Wu and Pei-Ling Guo. Theoretical and Numerical Analyses on Multi-Layered Ceramic Scaffold due to High Pressure for Tissue Engineering. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):160-166] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 27

 

Keywords: Theoretical derivation, Finite element analysis, Multi-layered ceramic scaffold, Deformation, Tissue engineering

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Finite Element Simulations of the Contact Stress between Rotary Sinus Lift Kit and Sinus Membrane during Lifting Process

 

Ching-Chieh Huang1, Li-Wen Chen2, Dong-Feng Wu2, Yung-Chuan Chen2*

 

1Metal Industries Research & Development Centre

2Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology

E-mail: chuan@mail.npust.edu.tw

 

Abstract: In this study, a three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element model is used to simulate the lifting process of the sinus membrane using a rotary sinus lift kit. The effects of the edge radius of sinus lift kit and the feeding rate on the contact stress of sinus membrane are explored. Three different edge radii, i.e. 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 mm, and three different feeding rates, 1, 3 and 5 mm/s, are discussed. The results show that a rotary sinus lift kit with a smaller edge radius has a lower contact stress distribution on the sinus membrane. The results also indicate that a higher feeding rate results in a larger plastic zone on the sinus membrane.

[Ching-Chieh Huang, Li-Wen Chen, Dong-Feng Wu, Yung-Chuan Chen. Finite Element Simulations of the Contact Stress between Rotary Sinus Lift Kit and Sinus Membrane during Lifting Process. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):167-171] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 28

 

Keywords: Sinus Lifting, Contact Stress, Feeding Rate, Finite Element Analysis

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Young’s Moduli of Human Tooth Measured using Micro-Indentation Tests

 

Hui-Lung Chien1, Pei-Ju Chiu1, Bo-Wun Huang2, Jao-Hwa Kuang1*

 

1Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan R.O.C.

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan R.O.C.

*Corresponding Author: Jao-Hwa Kuang; E-mail: kuang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Micro-indentation test results were used to curve fit the Young’s moduli of human tooth enamel and dentine in this work. The applied load and unloaded curve portion effects on the measured Young’s moduli were investigated. The variation in measured Young’s modulus for different applied loads, from 10 mN to 500 mN , was studied. The experimental results indicate that the measured Young’s moduli are very sensitive to the applied load if the load is greater than 100 mN. The measured results also reveal that the measured Young’s moduli were dependent upon the unloaded curve data portion to be curve fitted. The large portion of the unloaded curve data could be used, i.e. 90% of unloaded curve data, to curve fit a smaller Young’s modulus value.

[Hui-Lung Chien, Pei-Ju Chiu, Bo-Wun Huang, Jao-Hwa Kuang. Young’s Moduli of Human Tooth Measured using Micro-Indentation Tests. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):172-177] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 29

 

Keywords: Human tooth; Young’s modulus; Micro-indentation test

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Fatigue Response of Ti/APC-2 Nanocomposite Laminate Prosthesis

 

Ming-Hwa R. Jen*, Che-Kai Chang, Jing-Guan Chen and Bo-Cyuan Lin

 

Dept. of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan.

*Corresponding Author:  Ming-Hwa R. Jen; E-mail : jmhr@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The post mechanical behavior of Ti/APC-2 hybrid nanocomposite laminate prosthesis after low velocity impact was investigated. The three layered Ti/APC-2/Ti cross-ply nanocomposite laminates were fabricated according to the modified the diaphragm curing process based on the previous experience. Each sample, LWt=240mm25mm1.55mm, was first subjected to free drop of a rigid steel ball (diameter=12.7mm) of 1m and 2m high. Then, the samples were due to static tensile tests at room temperature to measure their residual ultimate strength and longitudinal stiffness as the base-line data for constant stress amplitude tension-tension cyclic tests. The corresponding S-N curve, fatigue strength and life were obtained. Also, the mechanism of damage by impact and failure of separation were observed. The mechanical properties do not reduce significantly due to low-velocity impact, even if the damage area is obviously large for 2m high free drop. Similarly, the fatigue resistance of impacted samples does not lose much. It is mainly attributed to the damage only occurs on the surface of impacted samples with little influence inside the laminates by low-velocity impact. It can be concluded that the enhancement by nanoparticles and superior bonding capability of matrix PEEK with Ti sheets take the responsibility of improvement of mechanical responses.

[Ming-Hwa R. Jen, Che-Kai Chang, Jing-Guan Chen and Bo-Cyuan Lin. Fatigue Response of Ti/APC-2 Nanocomposite Laminate Prosthesis. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):178-184] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 30

 

Keywords: Ti alloy; Gr/PEEK(APC-2); Nano; Composite; Impact; Tension; Fatigue

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Computer-Assisted Navigation System Helps Experienced Surgeon Improve Outcome in Total Knee Arthroplasty

 

To Wong1, Sung-Hsiung Chen2, Jih-Yang Ko2*, Feng-Sheng Wang3, Wen-Yi Chou2, June-Ming Chen2

 

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Municipal United Hospital, Taiwan

2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 3Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

*Corresponding Author: Huizhen Zhang, PhD

E-mail : Huizhenzhang@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reportedly improves component alignment. Also, experience on the knee surgery is complementary to the success of total knee arthroplasty even with the use of navigation system. One hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients who underwent navigation-assisted TKA and 125 patients who underwent conventional TKA by an experienced surgeon were evaluated for mechanical alignment, perioperative hemodynamic status, and early complications. Patients with navigation-assisted TKA showed better mechanical axis, coronal and sagittal axis of the femoral component and coronal axis of the tibia components. Patients in the navigation-assisted TKA group experienced less blood loss, needed fewer transfusions, and required fewer hospitalization days and fewer early complications. Navigation-assisted TKA improved mechanical and component alignment, perioperative hemodynamic status.

[To Wong, Sung-Hsiung Chen, Jih-Yang Ko, Feng-Sheng Wang, Wen-Yi Chou, June-Ming Chen. Computer-Assisted Navigation System Helps Experienced Surgeon Improve Outcome in Total Knee Arthroplasty. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):185-190] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 31

 

Keywords: Computer-assisted navigation system, total knee arthroplasty

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Navigation-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty with Normal Pressure Drainage Reduces Blood Loss – A Prospective Comparative Study of Three Modalities

 

Wen-Yi Chou1, Jih-Yang Ko*1, To Wong1, Feng-Sheng Wang2, Ka-Kit Siu1

 

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 2Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

 

Abstract: Several modalities have been developed to reduce perioperative blood loss during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and a navigation system has been successfully introduced in TKA. This study compared the blood loss of navigation-assisted TKA and conventional TKA in the presence of negative or normal pressure drainage. Patients were separated into 3 groups. We enrolled 60 patients undergoing conventional TKA with negative pressure drainage in Group A, and those undergoing navigation-assisted TKA with negative or normal pressure drainage were enrolled in Group B (64 patients) and C (66 patients), respectively. Haemovac drainage volume, reduction of haemoglobin, estimated total blood loss, range of motion at 3 months after surgery, number of blood transfusions and hospitalisation days were all recorded. There were no differences in the demographic data of these 3 groups. Patients in Group B had significantly decreased total drainage volume, estimated total blood loss and blood transfusion rate than those in Group A. The significant reduction of total drainage volume, estimated total blood loss and blood transfusion rate were also noted in Group C when compared with Group B. Patients in Group C had a significantly reduction in haemoglobin, heaemovac drainage volume, estimated total blood loss, blood transfusion rate and hospitalisation days when compared with Group A. Navigation-assisted TKA with normal pressure drainage is a potential modality for the reduction of the haemovac drainage volume, perioperative blood loss and transfusion rate without compromising range of motion at 3 months after surgery.

[Wen-Yi Chou, Jih-Yang Ko, To Wong, Feng-Sheng Wang, Ka-Kit Siu. Navigation-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty with Normal Pressure Drainage Reduces Blood Loss – A Prospective Comparative Study of Three Modalities. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):191-195] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

 

Keywords: Navigation, total knee arthroplasty, blood loss

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The Critical Dimension Definition of Femoral for Custom-made Total Knee Arthroplasty by the Application of Geometric Modeling

 

Hung-Shyong Chen1*, Tsai Yau Bin M.D.2, Chyouhwu Huang1, Jeng-Nan Lee1, Huang-Kuang Kung1

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, R.O.C,

2 Orthopaedic Department, Mackay Memorial Hospital Taitung Branch, Taitung, Taiwan, R.O.C

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Abstract: The main purpose for the design of knee prosthesis is to construct patient’s individual anatomical, geometric model and satisfy his/her real geometric and physiology characteristic. The reconstruction of 3D knee geometric model is the basis of knee prosthesis related design. In this study, Mimics software was used to obtain CT image to construct the complete knee actual 3D geometric model, to analyze and define the critical dimension needed for the most complicated femur resection in custom-made total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including critical dimensions of anterior femur resection, distal femur resection and posterior condylar resection. Based on the obtained information, one can setup the critical dimensions and perform the location analysis that are suitable for knee arthroplasty for individual patient’s knee characteristic, shape and damage conditions. Then, based on these data to design and manufacture custom-made knee prosthesis to fulfill press-fit design purpose.

[Hung-Shyong Chen, Tsai Yau Bin M.D., Chyouhwu Huang, Jeng-Nan Lee, Huang-Kuang Kung. The Critical Dimension Definition of Femoral for Custom-made Total Knee Arthroplasty by the Application of Geometric Modeling. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):196-201] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 33

 

Keywords: Mimics, femoral, 3D geometric modeling, total knee arthroplasty (TKA), custom-made, knee prosthesis

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The Metallographic Analysis Optimization of Aluminum Alloy for Medical Equipment Parts

 

H.-S. Chen1*, J.-N. Lee1, J.-C. Hsiung1, Jih-Yang Ko2

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, R.O.C.

2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Corresponding Author: Hung-Shyong Chen, PhD; E-mail : hschen@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to study the metallographic analysis optimization of the T6-treated forging Al alloys, 7075, 6061, and casting Al alloy A356 for medical equipment parts. The influences of the metallographic image under several control factors, types of polishing solution, etching time, polishing speed, etc., are investigated. Taguchi method is employed to evaluate the optimization of aluminum alloy metallographic analysis. By using Matrox Inspector 4.0 image analysis software, the metallographic images are converted to gray scale.  According to the gray scale values, the major factor of the metallographic image optimization for Al alloy 7075 and 6061 is the etching time, while the polishing speed is the least control factor.  For Al alloy A356, the type of polishing solution is the main factor for the optimization of metallographic image, while the least influential factor is the etching time. The optimized metallographic factors combination can be used on the development and design of the medical equipment parts in the future.

[H.-S. Chen, J.-N. Lee, J.-C. Hsiung, Jih-Yang Ko. The Metallographic Analysis Optimization of Aluminum Alloy for Medical Equipment Parts. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):202-206] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 34

 

Keywords: Al alloy 7075, 6061, A356, metallographic analysis, Taguchi method, gray scale

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Comparison between Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Different Parts of Peanut

 

Fakhriya S. Taha, Suzanne M. Wagdy and Fatma A. Singer

 

Fats and Oils Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

suzan.wagdy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Peanut hull and skin are waste products of the food industry. Adding value to these products was the aim of this work. This goal was achieved by studying the phenolic content of the skin, hull and defatted flour of both roasted and unroasted peanuts. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was determined. The roasted peanut skin extract was then chosen and tested for its power of inhibition of flaxseed oil oxidation. The anticarcinogenic activity of the roasted peanut skin extract on different cell line carcinomas was examined. Both the extractable polyphenols (EPP) and the non extractable polyphenols (NEPP) were determined in the examined parts of the peanuts. Results revealed that NEPP was always higher than EPP and that highest phenolic content was found to be present in the skin. Roasted hull, unroasted hull, roasted skin, unroasted skin, roasted defatted flour, and unroasted defatted flour contained EPP  4.33, 3.38, 41.5, 56.2, 7.33 and 7.23 mg/g, respectively; and contained NEPP 7.4, 5.3, 102, 113.38, 10.3, and 13.4 mg/g, respectively; they also contain total polyphenol extract (TPE) 11.69, 8.73, 144.37, 169.19, 17.48, and 21.31 mg/g, respectively. Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA%) at 100l conc. reached 87.0 % for roasted and unroasted peanut skin , ca. 79% for roasted and unroasted peanut hull, and least between 45.51-60.45% for unroasted and roasted defatted peanut flour, respectively. FRSA of BHT (0.1%) was 77.81%. Antioxidant activity (AOA) as measured by β-carotene/ linoleate method revealed AOA for roasted skin > unroasted skin > roasted hull > BHT > unroasted hull > unroasted defatted flour > roasted defatted flour, with values 89.13 > 86.65 > 80.33 > 76.33 > 75.27 > 39.34 > 30.37%, respectively. Roasted peanut skin extract (PSE) was chosen for further investigation.  Percent reduction of oxidation in flaxseed oil when compared to control oil reached 27.10% and 22% for oil + PSE, and oil + BHT, respectively, as measured by p-anisidine value; and 41.99% and 38.88%, respectively, as measured by peroxide value. PSE exhibited potential as an anticarcinogenic agent, but needs further investigations.

[Fakhriya S. Taha, Suzanne M. Wagdy and Fatma A. Singer. Comparison between Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Different Parts of Peanut. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):207-215]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 35

 

Key words: peanut hull, peanut skin, peanut flour, extractable polyphenol, non extractable polyphenol, antioxidant activity, anticarcinogenic activity.

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A Conceptual Framework of the Relationships between Family Functioning, Alexithymia and Emotional Intelligence among Early Adolescents in Tehran-Iran

 

Fataneh Naghavi1, Ma’rof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com, 2E-mail: marof@putra.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: Emotional intelligence structure is a concept with little empirical research, particularly in relation to the link between family circumstance and personality characters and with respect to gender, number of sibling, family income, and family educational status of early adolescents. In  the present study, the researchers attempted to show that regarding to the definition and foundation of a conceptual framework how would design a conceptual framework according  the relationships between family functioning, alexithymia and emotional intelligence variables, among Iranian early adolescents. Due to the lack of research on family functioning, alexithymia and their influences on early adolescents’ emotional intelligence in Iran, there is much need for research that explores those factors of influence on early adolescent’s emotional intelligence, specifically.

[Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. A Conceptual Framework of the Relationships between Family Functioning, Alexithymia and Emotional Intelligence among Early Adolescents in Tehran-Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):216-221]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 36

 

Keywords: Family Functioning, Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence, , Alexithymia, Children’s Alexithymia, Emotional Quotient, Conceptual Framework, Family Background.

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Family Size and Construct of the Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence

 

Fataneh Naghavi1Ma’rof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com, 2E-mail: marof@putra.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities that include conception, emotion appraisal and expression, emotion management and regulation. The emotional intelligence structure is a concept with little empirical research, particularly in relation to the link between family environment and personality characters and with respect to family members of early adolescents. For this reason, the specific objective of this research is to determine the relationship between family size and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence.The present research was carried out among 234 Iranian students in the second and grades of guidance schools (age 12-15) in Tehran, Iran. The students (girls and boys) were clustered through random and multistage sampling. Data were collected using the family background questionnaire and Schutte’s (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale. Results of multiple comparisons of LSD indicate that there is significant difference between groups of family size. Consequently, multi comparisons of LSD confirmed the results of the ANOVA. The findings indicate that the early adolescents, whose families have less members, have higher emotional intelligence.

[Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. Family Size and Construct of the Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence.  Life Sci J 2012;9(2):222-226]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 37

 

Keywords: Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence, Family Size, Family Members,  Emotional Quotient (EQ), Family Size and Emotional Intelligence.

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Visfatin and Fetuin-A: Novel Markers for Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease

 

Mohamed A. Zeidan1, Gihan M. Sharara1, Howaida S. Suliman 1, Montasser M. Zeid2, Sameh S. Zytoun3, Hanan M. Nomeir1

 

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University

2Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Dialysis Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria

3Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University

gihansharara@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) has a major role in the cardiovascular outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The hallmark of endothelial dysfunction is impaired nitric oxide-mediated endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Visfatin is an adipocytokine that has recently generated much interest and could contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Fetuin-A may be one of the contributing factors for the development of ED in CKD patients. In addition, fetuin-A 256Ser/ Ser (allele G) might affect serum fetuin- A levels. The aim of the present work is to study the role of visfatin and fetuin-A in patients with different stages of CKD in correlation with the level of NO (nitrite /nitrate) as a settled marker of endothelial dysfunction. Also, to study the relation between fetuin-A gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to ED in patients with CKD in different stages; and identifying the effect of fetuin-A gene polymorphisms on the level of serum fetuin-A in CKD patients. Methods: the present study included sixty patients at different stages of CKD with age range from 18 to 60 years old. All patients were non-diabetic and arranged in five groups according to the stage of CKD assessed GFR from stage 1 to 5 representing the groups from I to V. Serum visfatin and serum fetuin-A were measured using ELISA technique and serum NO was measured as (total nitrate and nitrite) using the Griess reaction. Serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were estimated by enzymatic colorimetric methods. LDL-cholesterol was then calculated using Friedewald’s formula. Genotyping for the common functional polymorphisms on fetuin- A (Thr256Ser) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was performed. Results: A statistically significant elevation of serum total nitrate and nitrite and serum visfatin in CKD patients compared to controls respectively, while serum fetuin-A showed statistically significant decrease in CKD patients compared to the control group. Serum total nitrate and nitrite levels were significantly increased in all stages of CKD, while serum visfatin was significantly increased in stages 2 to 5 of CKD. Serum fetuin-A showed significant decrease in stages 2 to 5 of CKD. There was no statistically significant difference between the studied CKD cases and the control group as regards to the frequencies of the three genotypes of fetuin–A (C G); Thr256Ser polymorphism. In both CKD patients and the control group, the distribution of the fetuin-A (C G); Thr256Ser gene polymorphisms did not show significant correlation with low serum fetuin-A levels.

A significant positive correlation was found between serum levels of total nitrate and nitrite and serum levels of (visfatin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol), while A significant negative correlation was found between serum levels of total nitrate and nitrite and serum levels of (fetuin-A and HDL-cholesterol) in CKD patients. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictors of endothelial dysfunction were found to be serum visfatin and HDL-cholesterol as they could explain significantly 52% of the changes in total nitrate and nitrite.

Conclusion: the results of the present study suggest that high serum levels of visfatin and total nitrate and nitrite in CKD patients may contribute to impaired endothelial functions in CKD. Visfatin and fetuin-A may be novel markers for endothelial dysfunction in CKD patients and in diagnosis of early stages of CKD and they may play a role in uremia-related atherosclerosis. The distribution of the fetuin-A (C G); Thr256Ser gene polymorphisms may does not affect serum fetuin-A levels.

[Mohamed A. Zeidan, Gihan M. Sharara, Howaida S. Suliman, Montasser M. Zeid, Sameh S. Zytoun, Hanan M. Nomeir. Visfatin and Fetuin-A: Novel Markers for Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):227-243]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 38

 

Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction, visfatin, NO,CKD, fetuin-A , gene polymorphisms of fetuin-A.

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Primary Assessment of the Biological Activity of Jojoba Hull Extracts


Suzanne M. Wagdy and Fakhriya S. Taha


Fats and Oils Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

fs_taha@yahoo.com

 
Abstract:
To our Knowledge no work up to the present moment has been reported in the literature on the phenolic extracts of jojoba hull. Thus the aim of the present work was to add value to this waste product by investigating the potentiality of different jojoba hull extracts as neutraceuticals.  The efficiency of methanol, ethanol, acetone, isopropanol and ethyl acetate at concentrations of 100, 80, 70, 60, and 50% to extract phenolic compounds were investigated. Results revealed that 60% acetone extracted optimum phenolic compounds (13.9 mg/g hulls). Extraction at room temperature yielded more phenolic compounds than extraction at 45ᴼC. On the other hand, 70% methanol extract of jojoba hulls exhibited the highest AOA (95.33%). The 70% methanol extract was added to a butter cake at 100 and 200 ppm as well as 200 ppm BHT. The cake was stored at room temperature and the butter analyzed every week for acid, iodine and peroxide values. Results proved that the addition of methanol extract delayed the oxidation of butter. The extracts of jojoba hulls exhibited different levels of antimicrobial activities on five food borne pathogenic bacteria. The 70% methanol extract of jojoba hulls showed potential as anti-carcinogenic agent on four different cell line carcinomas.

[Suzanne M. Wagdy and Fakhriya S. Taha. Primary Assessment of the Biological Activity of Jojoba Hull Extracts. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):244-253]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 39

 

Keywords: Jojoba hulls, Phenolic compounds, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Anti-carcinogenic.

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Does JAK2 V617F Mutation in Egyptian Patients with First Episode Venous Thromboembolism Contribute to the Hypercoagulable State and Interact with other Thrombophilic Factors?

 

Shereen M. EL-Maghraby and Ahmed M. L .Bedewy

 

Hematology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University

shereenmaghraby36@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The term thrombophilia includes any inherited and acquired disorders associated with an increased tendency to venous thromboembolism (VTE). Inherited thrombophilia is one of the main determinants of VTE, and the presence of inherited thrombophilic defects exposed carriers to increased risks for VTE compared with non-carriers .The JAK2V617Fmutation is present in the majority of patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, which are myeloproliferative neoplasms frequently associated with arterial and venous thromboembolism. Whether  JAK2V617F mutation is associated per se with hypercoagulability remains unclear. Our aim was to clarify the contribution of JAK2V617F to a Hypercoagulable state, as well as its interaction with other thrombophilic factors in patients with venous thrombosis (lower Limb deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). Material and Methods: The study subjects were 106 Egyptian patients diagnosed as having first episode venous thromboembolism based on Doppler ultrasound +/- computed tomography and pulmonary angiography from January  2010 to December 2011(54 men and 52 women); median age 39.5; age range from (14–80 years).They were compared with sixty healthy controls sex and age matched. Full history was taken and the clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. All patients and control groups were subjected to assays for factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation G20210A, protein C activity, protein S activity, antithrombin III level, serum homocysteine, anticardiolipin IgG and Ig M antibodies and lupus anticoagulant to evaluate the Hypercoagulable state and the prevalence of JAK2 V617F mutation was detected by two round allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in both patients and control subjects. Samples positive for the mutation were subsequently analyzed via ARMS-PCR. Results: Among the 106 patients, eighty-four had deep venous thrombosis, sixteen had pulmonary embolism and six with concomitant deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Twenty five patients were positive for factor V Leiden , three were positive for prothrombin gene mutation ,four had protein S deficiency (three patients had only protein S deficiency and one with factor V mutation) ,six patients had protein C deficiency ,only one had antithrombin III deficiency. Fourteen patients were positive for anticardiolipins and seven  for lupus anticoagulant ( 2 patients were positive for lupus anticoagulant alone and five with positive anticardiolipins )and seven had hyper-homocysteinemia. Jak2V617F mutation was detected in six patients (5.7%) and was positive in two subjects in the control group(3.3%). Conclusion: Factor V Leiden is the most common inherited thrombophilic defect in Egyptians. The presence of inherited thrombophilic defects exposed carriers to increased risks for VTE compared to non carriers .The prevalence of jak2 V617F mutation in one hundred and six Egyptians presenting with first episode venous thromboembolism  is low (5.7%) and is statistically insignificant in comparison to the controls and has no association with any of the thrombophilic risk factors.

[Shereen M. EL-Maghraby and Ahmed M. L. Bedewy. Does JAK2 V617F Mutation in Egyptian Patients with First Episode Venous Thromboembolism Contribute to the Hypercoagulable State and Interact with other Thrombophilic Factors? Life Sci J Journal 2012;9(2):254-262]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).

http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 40

 

Key words: Thrombophilic factors, Jak2 V617F mutation, Venous thromboembolism

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Investigation and intervention on the psychological status of families with Hepatolenticular Degeneration children

 
Mingyi Ma, Yangfei Ji, Yu Liu
 

First Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. mamingyi1999@126.com

 

Abstract: Objective To investigate the psychological status of family with Wilson’s disease children, interventions to alleviate chronic sorrow of their families. Methods 25 children with Wilson's disease were randomly divided into 13 control group parents, and 12 observation group, was evaluated for both groups were applied ABQ parents of children with mental status; the control group received routine care in the observation group to the targeted group intervention and individual intervention, 3 months after evaluation by the scale effect. Results The parents of children with the observation group questionnaire sadness, anger, pain and the total degree of improvement was significantly better than the control group (all P <0.05). Conclusion Presence of chronic sorrow the family in children with Wilson’s disease, early assessment and implementation of targeted intervention, will help ease psychological burden of parents of children with epilepsy to reduce their family of chronic sorrow.

[Mingyi Ma, Yangfei Ji, Yu Liu. Investigation and intervention on the psychological status of families with Hepatolenticular Degeneration children. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):263-265]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 41

 

Key words: Wilson’s disease; chronic sorrow; Families of children with Wilson’s disease; Adapted Burke Questionnaire (ABQ); Intervention.

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Changes in psychological states of caregivers of patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease following Memantine therapy

 

Mingyi Ma, Jingtao Wang, Boai Zhang
 

First Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University

Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

mamingyi1999@126.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To assess the psychological states of caregivers of patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease and to explore the effects of memantine therapy for patients. Methods: 40 patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers were studied. Patients were treated for 6 months with open-label memantine. Caregivers were assessed at baseline and at the end of the sixth month (month-6). Their psychological states were assessed by: Symptom Checklist 90, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating depression scale (SDS). The difference of their psychological states between different time points and the average normal psychological state of Chinese people (hereby referred to as “Chinese normal scale”) were analyzed by T-test. Results: There were significant differences in depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoia, and total SCL-90 scale between baseline and month-6 (all p0.05). When compared to normal SCL-90 scale, there were significant differences in all of emotional states except compulsion, phobia, and psychosis at baseline, where no significant differences in all of them between month-6 and Chinese normal scale. There are significant differences in SDS and SAS scale of caregivers between baseline, month-6, and Chinese normal scale. Conclusions: Caregivers of  patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease may have worse psychological states than average normal population and memantine therapy for AD paitents maybe alleviate these problems.

[Mingyi Ma, Jingtao Wang, Boai Zhang. Changes in psychological states of caregivers of patients with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease following Memantine therapy. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):266-268]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 42

 

Key Words: Alzheimer’s disease; caregiver; psychological states; memantine.

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Improvement of soft soils using reinforced sand over stone columns

 

Nagy Abdel Hamid El Mahallawy

 

Lecturer of Geotechnique,Civil Department,El Shorouk Academy

cedc_eng@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, a series of laboratory model tests have been developed to study the behavior of unreinforced and geogrid-reinforced sand bed resting on stone columns. It has been observed that the soft clay is improved with stone columns. The diameter of stone columns has been taken as 50 mm, three stone columns have been used in the study with spacing of 75mm, while the footing is represented by a plate of 350x250x10mm for all the model tests carried out. Load was applied to the soil bed through the footing until the total settlement reached at least 5% of footing length. The influence of the thickness of unreinforced as well as geogrid-reinforced sand bed and the number of geogrid reinforcement on the performance of stone columns have also been investigated. The inclusion of geogrid layer within sand bed also increases the load carrying capacity and decreases the settlement of the soil. However multilayer reinforcement system is effective to transfer the stress from soil to stone columns. Significant improvement in load-carrying capacity of soft soil is observed due to the placement of sand bed over stone columns. Single layer reinforcement with stone columns is very effective to reduce the total settlement as there is considerable reduction in the total settlement due to stone column itself . The inclusion of reinforcement in the sand bed decreases significantly the depth of sand layer.

[Nagy Abdel Hamid El Mahallawy.  Improvement of soft soils using reinforced sand over stone columns. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):269-276]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 43.

 

Key word: geogrid; geogrid reinforcement; sand bed; sand layer; soil.

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A Proposed Computer-Based System Architecture for Crowd Management of Pilgrims using Thermography

 

Mohamed O. Khozium; Adnan G. Abuarafah; and Essam AbdRabou

 

Center of Research Excellence in Hajj and Omrah (HajjCore) Umm Al-qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

osama@khozium.com

 

Abstract: Over the years, overcrowding and difficulties in crowd control have resulted in a number of fatal accidents during the Hajj. Despite many efforts and improvements for roads and footbridges, ensuring the safety of pilgrims continues to challenge especially with the annual increase of the number of pilgrims. The challenge has attracted many researchers who provided several methodologies for crowd monitoring and estimation of its density. This paper proposes to extend an earlier monitoring effort done by the same authors to develop a decision support system allows for close monitoring and control of crowd movements. It incorporates data acquisition and processing via several thermal cameras deployed as sensors at strategic points on Nafra (Arafat to Muzdalifah) access roads. The sensors are linked to an analysis module, which in turn measures crowd flow and density in real time. When crowds become too dense, an alarm is triggered according to different density levels. At this point, the integrated decision support system generates different alternatives to the controllers in order for them to take the appropriate actions. The paper illustrates the proposed system component. It also describes the architecture of each component as well as the architecture of the entire system. The system can contribute to provide complete safety for crowds during the Hajj event that attracts millions each year.

[Mohamed O. Khozium, Adnan G. Abuarafah, and Essam AbdRabou. A Proposed Computer-Based System Architecture for Crowd Management of Pilgrims using Thermography. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):277-282]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 44

 

Keywords: Hajj, Islamic informatics, crowd management, crowd density estimation, crowd monitoring, thermography.

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Menopausal symptoms and the quality of life among pre/post menopausal women from rural area in Zagazig city

 

Eman Elsayed Mohammed Elsabagh1 and Eman Shokry Abd Allah2

 

1Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, 2Community Health Nursing Departments,

Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

eman_plus_2010@yahoomail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: “Menopause” denotes the final cessation of menstruation, either as a normal part of aging or as the result of surgical removal of both ovaries. The aim: this study aimed to investigate the impact of the menopausal symptoms on the quality of life of pre/post menopausal women from rural area, Zagazig city. Research design: a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study design was used in this study. Settings: This population based survey was conducted in one of rural district of Sheba, Zagazig city. The sample: consisted of 175; premenopausal (97) and postmenopausal (78) women whose ages ranged from 40-70 years old. Tools: data were collected by Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and quality of life Brief (WHOQOL Brief). Results: the highest mean scores of menopausal symptoms were somatic symptoms and urogenital domains in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. There was a statistically significant difference between two studied groups in relation to their mean and standard deviation scores regarding their quality of life; physical, psychological and environmental domains. There was the significant negative correlation between MRS scores and WHOQOL- Brief scores in social, environmental domains, and overall mean score of quality of life for postmenopausal women. Conclusion: It can be concluded that post-menopausal women in the study subjects experience high prevalence of menopausal symptoms that adversely affected their quality of life. Recommendation: Further research addressing women's health needs is also essential for improving the quality of life of postmenopausal rural women.

[Eman Elsayed Mohammed Elsabagh and Eman Shokry Abd Allah. Menopausal symptoms and the quality of life among pre/post menopausal women from rural area in Zagazig city. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):283-291]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 45

 

Key Words: Menopause, Severity of symptoms, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), Quality of life, WHOQOL.

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Differentially Expressed Homeobox Genes in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma versus Normal Salivary Gland Tissue

 

Xia Hui 1, Li Long-jiang *1, Xiong Fang 1, Han Bo 1, Zhang Zhuang, 1, Wu Jiang 2

 

1. State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, P.R. China

1. Basic Medical College, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830011, P.R. China

xahu1978@163.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify differently expressed homeobox genes in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) versus normal salivary gland tissue, and determine the effects of homeobox genes on oncogenesis and differentiation of SACC. Six paired tissue specimens of SACC and surrounding normal salivary gland tissue were obtained. Customized Oligo microarray was used to analyze differential homeobox gene expression. Data were scanned by Agilent Scanner. Real-time PCR was used for quantitative analysis of gene expression. The results showed that Homeobox genes TGIF and EVX1 were differentially expressed in SACC versus normal tissues. As regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation, homeobox genes may be involved in SACC oncogenesis.

[Xia Hui , Li Long-jiang, Xiong Fang , Han Bo , Zhang Zhuang, , Wu Jiang. Differentially Expressed Homeobox Genes in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma versus Normal Salivary Gland Tissue. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):292-296]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 46.

 

Keywords: adenoid cystic carcinoma; homeobox gene; gene microarray

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Linguistic Democracy in English Language Teaching
Reza Pishghadam1, Fahimeh Saboori1
 
1. English Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
PO box 9177948974, Park Square, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract: The major purpose of the present study was to examine English Language Teaching (ELT) in the light of democracy in Iran. To this end, first we have presented the major tenets of democracy, such as Equality and Freedom, then we have discussed these major principles in ELT in general, and finally linguistic democracy has been debated in the context of ELT in Iran. Our analyses show that linguistic democracy is not totally upheld in the field of English language education, requiring more attention and transformation. In the end, the results were discussed in the context of English language education in Iran and some suggestions were made.
[Reza Pishghadam, Fahimeh Saboori.
Linguistic Democracy in English Language Teaching. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):297-306] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 47.

Keywords:
Linguistic democracy; English language teaching; Iran.

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Study of bis{2-(naphtha [3,4]imidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Magnesium

 

Yu-Feng Lin1Pin-Wen Cheng2, Shih-Hsuan Chiu1Chen-Hao Wang1, Shung-Jim Yang3Anchi Yeh2*

 

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

2Department of Chemical and materials Engineering, Chengshiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ,833 R.O. C

3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineeringr, Vanung University, Taiwan, R.O.C

E-mail: acyeh@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The study of bis{2-(naphtha[3,4]imidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Magnesium (MgNIQ) is presented in this report. It was observed the decomposition temperature is high to 577℃ but no melting transition (Tm) of MgNIQ up to 450℃. By using of MgNIQ as emitted layer exhibits a broad maximum spectrum peak at 615 nm. The color of the emitted light is in the orange-red region in the CIE coordinate of x = 0.36 y = 0.53.

[Yu-Feng Lin, Pin-Wen Cheng, Shih-Hsuan ChiuChen-Hao Wang, Shung-Jim Yang, Anchi Yeh. Study of bis{2-(naphtha [3,4]imidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Magnesium. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):307-301] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 48.

 

Keywords Electroluminescence; red light; device; bis{2-(naphtha [3,4]imidazol-2-yl) quinolinato}

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Preparation of  P(MMA/EGDMA/GMA)/Ni functional composite particles by dispersion polymerization and electroless plating

 

Xin-Liang Chen1, Yen-Chung Chen1, Chang-Pin Chang1, Ming-Der Ger1, Shung-Jim Yang 2

1 Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung cheng Institute of Technology,

National Defense University,Taiwan, R.O.C.

2 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineeringr, Vanung University, Taiwan, R.O.C

email: mac0216@pchome.com.tw

 

Abstract-In this study, copolymer beads were prepared from glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) in the presence of a cross-linker (i.e., ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate,EGDMA) via dispension polymerization. Preparation of P(MMA/EGDMA/GMA)/Ni functional composite particles that the synthesis particles having various size from 0.5 to 5m by dispersion polymerization which the particle size was controled with initiator concentration, and polymerization temperature. In this study,Poly(MMA/EGDMA /GMA )/Ni beads were synthesized by dispersion polymerization and electroless nickel. The core-shell structure of polymer--nickel composites and the structure of polymer spheres were characterized by TGA, FESEM,EPMA and FTIR. The results indicate that the nickel was coated on the surface of microspheres. The inner diameter of the microspheres with nickel  shell  was about 0.6~1.6m. A possible formation mechanism of the core-shell structure of P(MMA/EGDMA /GMA)/Ni spheres was proposed.

[Xin-Liang Chen, Yen-Chung Chen, Chang-Pin Chang, Ming-Der Ger, Shung-Jim Yang. Preparation of  P(MMA/EGDMA/GMA)/Ni functional composite particles by dispersion polymerization and electroless plating. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):311-315] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 49

Keywords: electroless plating, copolymer beads, dispension polymerization, glycidylmethacrylate (GMA), methylmethacrylate (MMA), ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA).

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Synthesis and Electroluminescent property of bis (2-(benzimidazol-2-yl) quinolinato) Magnesium

 

Pin-Wen Cheng, Chien-Chih Lin, Anchi Yeh

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chengshiu University, Kaohsiung, 83347, Taiwan, R.O.C

E-mail Anchi Yeh: acyeh@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: An emission material, (2-(benzimidazol-2-yl)quinolinato)magnesium (MgBIQ) used for organic light emitting devices, has been synthesized. The melting transition (Tm) of MgBIQ is 436 and no glass transition temperature (Tg) was observed up to 430. The emission spectrum of organic emitting device using MgBIQ as emitted layer exhibits a broad maximum at 596 nm. The color of the emitted light is in the red region in the CIE coordinate of x = 0.46 y = 0.46.

[Pin-Wen Cheng, Chien-Chih Lin, Anchi Yeh. Study Synthesis and Electroluminescent property of bis (2-(benzimidazol-2-yl) quinolinato) Magnesium. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):316-319] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 50.

 

Keywords:  Electroluminescence; red light; device, bis (2-(benzimidazol-2-yl) quinolinato).

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Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity of Egyptian and Chinese Sunflower Seeds: A Case Study

 

S.F. Hamed*, Suzanne M. Wagdy, and M.G. Megahed

 

Fats and Oils Dept., National Research Centre, 33 Tahrir St., 12622 Dokki,

saidfatouh123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the last few years Chinese sunflower seed has invaded our Egyptian market increasingly. We took it and the Egyptian sunflower seed as a comparable case study to characterize and  investigate them as a source of effective natural antioxidants, oil and protein. Chemical characteristics of the two seeds revealed that protein, oil, ash, moisture and total phenolic contents (TPC) increased significantly (P<0.05) after dehulling with pronounced larger amount of these parameters in the Egyptian sunflower seed compared to the Chinese one. Fatty acid analysis showed that Egyptian sunflower oil contains more than 86% and Chinese sunflower oil contains more than 80% unsaturated fatty acids which give these oils a relative advantage. Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic compound present in TPC as measured by HPLC. Antioxidant activity (AA %) of the phenolic extracts was followed up by measuring radical scavenging activity (RSA %) of the stable DPPH• radical, the degradation rate of β-carotene-linoleic acid o/w emulsion, and the oxidation stability measured by the fully automated active oxygen method (Rancimat). Egyptian sunflower seed have more AA % than Chinese seed as revealed by the higher RSA%, less degradation rate of β-carotene-linoleic acid color and higher induction period measured by Rancimat. Results also demonstrated the suitability of Egyptian and Chinese sunflower seed to be an effective source of protein, with some good functional properties such as solubility, dispersibility water absorption capacity, and emulsifying capacity. Contrary, it showed poor foaming and gelling abilities. Egyptian sunflower oil can also be used as an effective source of unsaturated fats and natural antioxidants (TPC). Hence, can be supplemented in many foods and can replace the synthetic antioxidant with their remarkable hazards.
[
S.F. Hamed, Suzanne M. Wagdy, and M.G. Megahed. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity of Egyptian and Chinese Sunflower Seeds: A Case Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):320-328]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 51.

 

Key words: sunflower seed, chlorogenic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity.

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Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria


J.B Ogunremi1  and O.I Oladele2

Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Nigeria.2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa.
Email: 1 jogunremi@gmail.com
2 oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

Abstract: This paper focused on the extent of adoption of aquaculture technology introduced to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Researchers have developed technology packages and disseminated it to the fish farmers through extension agents so as to improve aquaculture in Nigeria. The package included nine practices that fish farmers were expected to adopt. Data were collected from fish farmers through structured interview scheduled. Frequency counts and percentages were used as descriptive method of analyzing the data. Results showed that fish farmers adopted mainly three aquaculture technologies introduced by extension agents. These include pond fertilization (89.8%), water quality management (81.9%) and weed control (81.9%). Reasons for non-adoption of technologies include fund (99.1%), effect of the technology (60.0%), skill/manpower (59.0%). To increase the level of adoption of aquaculture technologies in Nigeria, it is necessary to provide fish farmers with credit facilities. Also, extension agents should be provided with motorcycles to enable them visit fish farmers more frequently to provide skill and encourage them to adopt technologies introduced to them.
[J.B Ogunremi and O.I Oladele
. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):329-333]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 52.

Kew words:
Adoption, Aquaculture, Technology, Extension agents, Fish farmers

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Effect of cases of loading and distribution of shear connectors on the behavior of One-Way composite pre-slabs

 

W. Zaky1  and  M. Rabie2

 

1High Institute of Arch. Eng., 6 October City 2Struct. Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Cairo Univ.
rabie_eng@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Many structures have been recently constructed using composite reinforced concrete elements. One of the most common types is the pre-slabs which are used extensively in the construction of both buildings and bridges. It consists of a pre-cast concrete layer serves as a form or shuttering for the cast-in-place concrete layer. Also the cast-in-place concrete layer can be used for strengthening an existing slab. One of the most governing factors in design of sections of these elements is the shear transfer along the interface which is major factor to achieve the composite action between the two layers. In this research, the behavior of one way composite pre-slabs was studied. An experimental program was carried out to test nine simply supported slabs, three of them were reference monolithic slabs and the remaining six slabs were composite pre-slabs composed of two layers with different distributions of shear connectors according to shear force distribution. All slabs were tested under different cases of loading. Finally; comparison between experimental results of tested specimens and theoretical results obtained from analysis using finite element program was made and valuable recommendations for structural designers were suggested.

[W. Zaky and M. Rabie. Effect of cases of loading and distribution of shear connectors on the behavior of One-Way composite pre-slabs. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):334-342]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 53

 

Key Words: Concrete, Shear transfer, Composite, Pre-slabs.

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Relationship between Leadership; Empathy and Emotion for Junior and Senior Nursing Student

Olfat A. Salem1; Abeer M.  Moursy2; Essmat M. Gemeay3 and Gusrina K.  Putri4

 1 Department of Nursing Administration and Education, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia and Faculty of Nursing,  Menofiya University Egypt

2Department of Medical –Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt and College of Nursing, King Saud University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia
3
Department of
Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Tanta University Egypt and College of Nursing, King Saud University,Kingdom Saudi Arabia
4
Researcher, Nursing Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia
osalem@ksu.edu.sa
 olfat99@yahoo.com 

Abstract: In nursing education, three concepts of: leadership, emotional intelligence and empathy are correlated and supporting each other in preparing high quality graduate of nursing students. The study aimed to assess leadership style, empathy and emotional level of nursing student. Descriptive correlation study used with non probability convenience sample. 59 students from level fourth and eight participated in this study. Three questionnaires, namely: Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), the Hogan Empathy Scale (HES) and the Emotional Empathy Tendency Scale (EETS) used as data collection tools. SPSS version 17 used for statistical analysis. It was found that both of the junior and senior students perceived their leadership to be more transformational rather than transactional leadership. Furthermore, majority of the leadership domain were correlated negatively with empathy scores. It is recommended for future research to use greater sample size and various settings. In nursing practice, educators need to encourage the application of transformational leadership, emotional intelligence and empathy in order to improve the quality of graduates.  
[Olfat A. Salem; Abeer M.  Moursy; Essmat M. Gemeay and Gusrina K.  Putri. Relationship between Leadership; Empathy and Emotion for Junior and Senior Nursing Student. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):343-347]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 54.

Key Words:
Transformational leadership, transactional  leadership., empathy and emotional intelligence

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Histological and Hormonal Changes in Rat Endometrium under the Effect of Camphor

 Fatma Al-Qudsi and Sabah Linjawi

 Biology Department, Science Faculty, King bdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
falqudsi@kau.edu.sa 

Abstract: Camphor is prescribed in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases and skin care products. The present study aims at finding out the effects of Camphor on the endometrium structures of Sprague–Dawley female Rats. 40 animals (3 months old) were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 10), 3 experimental groups were given daily intraperitoneal injection of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of Camphor watery solution and the control group was given distilled water. All groups were kept in the same environmental conditions. At the end of 6 weeks, all rats were killed and their uteri were removed for histological analysis. Comparing with the control group, an increase in the body and reproductive system weight, less uterine glands, degeneration of luminal epithelium and enlargement of uterus lumen were recorded. All the treated groups showed an increase in estrogen concentration. Furthermore, the highest dose caused an increase in progesterone concentration. The present study showed that Camphor could alter both hormonal and structural aspect of uterus that ultimately reflected on fertility of exposed animals.

[Fatma Al-Qudsi and Sabah Linjawi. Histological and Hormonal Changes in Rat Endometrium under the Effect of Camphor. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):348-355]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 55

 

Keywords: Camphor, female rats, endometrium, progesterone, estrogen

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Effect of Humic Acid Isolated by IHSS-N2/Mn Method and P Fertilization on Yield of Pepper Plants

 

Abd El-Rheem  Kh. M.; Ahmed A. Afifi and Youssef, R. A.

 

Soils and Water Use Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Khaled_abdelrheem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Ismailia Agriculture Research Station, Agriculture Research center, during summer season of 2010, to benefit from composting of remnants of food factories and then humic acid (HA) was extracted from mature compost and using it with P fertilization to study their impact on yield and nutrients content of pepper plants. Extraction and purification of humic acid (HA) was based on the IHSS –N2 method and IHSS –N2/Mn method (IHSS, "International Humic Substances Society").  Total acidities and phenolic hydroxyls contents are the highest for HA isolated by modified method (IHSS-N2/Mn) which indicates that the HA posse less altered eases oxidisable phenolic hydroxyl groups. Humic acid isolated by IHSS-N2/Mn method and applied with drip irrigation water as it was added every two weeks starting from the stage of germination till harvest. Treatments were representing at all the combinations of humic acid (1, 2 and 3 ml L-1) and P fertilizer rates 60, 90 and 120 kg P2O5 fed-1 (fed. Equal 4200 m2). Results showed that, increasing the rates of HA and P fertilization increased pepper yield (quality and quantity) compared with that of control (without humic acid or P fertilization). The most promising treatments for production of marketable and unmarketable pepper yield could be: Those of (3 ml L-1 of HA+ 120 kg P2O5 fed-1) which showed an increment of (+10.0%) and (+7.22%), respectively. This high rate could be recommended for obtaining the highest rate of income from the marketable yield of pepper.

[Abd El-Rheem Kh. M., Ahmed A. Afifi, and Youssef, R. A. Effect of Humic Acid Isolated by IHSS-N2/Mn Method and P Fertilization on Yield of Pepper Plants. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):356-362]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 56.

 

Key word: Humic acid (HA), IHSS –N2/Mn method, P fertilization, Pepper yield

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An Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Lipidemic Properties of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) Fruit Extract in Experimentally Induced Diabetes

 

Ibraheem Mohammady 1, Samah Elattar1*, Sanaa Mohammed2, Madeha Ewais3

 

Department of Physiology, 1 Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, 3Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University

Samah Elattar:  omarattar1993@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: Momordica charantia is reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. This study aims at investigating the effect of Momordica charantia extract on glucose tolerance and some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetes, comparing it  to the effect of rosiglitazone maleate, an oral hypoglycemic drug, and to suggest the possible mechanisms of its action. Main methods: Rats were divided into 5groups: normal control, rats received bitter melon, diabetic control, diabetic treated with rosiglitazone (4mg/kg BW), and diabetic received Momordica charantia (300 mg/kg BW).  After 4weeks, OGTT, serum insulin, lipid profiles, glycohemoglobin% (HbA1c%), liver enzymes activity and glycogen content, intestinal absorption and diaphragm uptake of  glucose and histopathological studies on the pancreas were evaluated. Key findings: Bitter melon (BM) induced a significant improvement of OGTT and induced a significant decrease in HbA1c% (p<0.05), significantly increased insulin release from the pancreas and serum insulin level, increased glucose uptake by rat diaphragm and decreased intestinal glucose absorption (p<0.05). BM improved lipid profile.  In addition, BM significantly increased liver glycogen content and reduced liver enzyme activity compared to the diabetic control. BM treatment of diabetic rats resulted in significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects as compared to rosiglitazone (p<0.05). Significance: Results demonstrated anti-diabetic effects of bitter melon may be through increasing insulin release and serum insulin, increasing glucose uptake by muscles and decreasing intestinal glucose absorption and a hypolipidemic effect and this recommend its therapeutic use in diabetes.

[Ibraheem Mohammady , Samah  Elattar*, Sanaa Mohammed, Madeha Ewais. An Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Lipidemic Properties of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) Fruit Extract in Experimentally Induced Diabetes. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):363-374]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 57.

 

Key words: Momordica charantia, diabetes, glucose absorption, rat diaphragm glucose uptake, rosiglitazone maleate

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Efficiency of Peppermint Oil Fumigant on Controlling Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infesting Cowpea Seeds

 

Thorayia F.K. El Nagar; Hoda M. Abdel Fattah; Amany K. Soliman and *Samira A. Aly

 

Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt

samira-ayad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Fumigation tests were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of peppermint oil on controlling C. maculatus   by studying its effect on survival of developmental stages, mating and oviposition behavior.  Also, the effect of peppermint oil on the antennal segments and their sensilla was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The obtained data reveal the susceptibility of all stages of C. maculatus to fumigation with peppermint oil. The egg stage was the most susceptible stage.  Mating frequency, fecundity and survivorship of the next generation progenies were significantly decreased by oil treatment.  The effects of peppermint oil were always greater on treated male pairs than on treated female pairs.  Fumigation of early pupae with 5 l peppermint oil resulted in malformation and disorientation in the antennae and their associated sensilla in the emerged adults.

[Thorayia F.K. El Nagar;  Hoda M. Abdel Fattah;  Amany K. Soliman and Samira A. Aly. Efficiency of Peppermint Oil Fumigant on Controlling Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infesting Cowpea Seeds. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):375-383]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 58

 

Key words: Peppermint oil, fumigant, control, Callosobruchus maculatus, cowpea seeds

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Assessment of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Native Plant Species from Soils Contaminated in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

                               

Khairia M. Al-Qahtani 

 

 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Princess Nora Bint Abdel-Rahman University,Saudi Arabia

dr_adalah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The second   industrial area located south of  Riyadh City – Saudi Arabia was selected for detailed study as pollution of this area with heavy metals has accelerated dramatically during the last decades.  The concentrations of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soils and different plant organs of seven native plant species (Calotropis procera , Citrullus colocynthis , Rhazya stricta , Cassia italic, Phragmite australis , Cyperus laevigatus and Argemone Mexicana) collected from studied area were investigated. The bioaccumulation and transfer of metals from soil to roots and from roots to shoots was evaluated in terms of Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and translocation factor (TF).  The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils have the sequence of (Fe > Zn >Cr >Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Cd) while in plants the trend was (Fe > Zn >Cu >Cr > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd). Generally, leaves of the studied species accumulated less heavy metals than the corresponding roots except for Cd that could be accumulated in all plant organs (leaves, stems and roots). Based on BAFs and TFs values, most of the studied species have potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Calotropis procera is suggested for phytostabiliation of Cu, Cd and Zn whereas  Rhazya stricta, Phragmite australis and Cyperus laevigatus for Ni phytostabiliation.   Among the plant species screened for Cd, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Zn, most of the species were efficient to take up and translocate more than one heavy metal from roots to shoots. According to accumulation capability of the investigated species for most metals, both Phragmite australis and Cyperus laevigatus are found to be the best candidates for biomonitoring and phytoremediation programs of polluted soils.

[Khairia M. Al-Qahtani. Assessment of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Native Plant Species from Soils Contaminated in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):384-392]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

 

Keywords: Heavy metals, Pollution, Phytoremediation, Metal accumulators

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McGill Exercises versus Conventional Exercises in Chronic Low Back Pain

 

Tarek A. Ammar

 

Basic Science Department, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

tarekphysical@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: McGill exercises are designed to impose minimal spinal loading while sufficiently challenging the abdominal and spinal muscles. The purpose of this study was to compare between the effects of McGill exercises and conventional exercises on physical function in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain (LBP). Setting: A physical therapy outpatient clinic. Participants: Sixty participants with nonspecific chronic LBP completed the program. Pain duration was more than 12 weeks. Interventions: The first group (n=30, mean age= 44.715.1 years) received Infra-red and conventional exercises (stretching and strengthening exercises). The second group (n=30, mean age=47.213.8 years) received Infra-red and McGill exercises. Materials: Performance based measures (the fifty-foot preferred speed walk, fifty-foot fast walk, and distance walked in five minutes) were used to measure physical function before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Results: The second group showed statistically significant increase in physical function as measured by the fifty-foot preferred speed walk (F1,57=6.7, P=.01), fifty-foot fast speed walk (F1,57=7.4, P=0.001), and distance walked in five minutes (F1,57=10.4, P=0.001). Conclusion: McGill exercises increased physical function of patients with nonspecific chronic LBP. In this study, McGill exercises were of value for patients with nonspecific chronic LBP.
[
Tarek Ammar. McGill Exercises versus Conventional Exercises in Chronic Low Back Pain. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):393-397]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60


Key Words:
Low back pain, McGill, Exercises, Function

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Assessment of Urban Geomorphological Hazard in the North-East of Cairo City, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

 

G. Albayomi

 

Geography Department, Faculty of Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

Gehan_albayomi@arts.helwan.edu.eg


Abstract: This study aims to assess the geomorphological hazard of urban area in the north eastern side of Cairo City, based on analyses of remote sensing and GIS. In addition the objective of this study is to develop a GIS-aided urban geomorphological hazard zoning in the north-east of Cairo city. The main landforms of the area were delineated by using remote sensing and land surveying data, applying multi criteria decision analysis to evaluate it. This criterion includes geomorphic factors and sub factors such as: urban site location, urban morphology, Slope gradient, Digital Elevation Models, Gully Density. The research methodology focused on the analysis of those variables factors to indentify urban hazards areas. The results indicate that most of lands with grad (1)which is about 62% are in low risk area, and about of land 26% of the total area is in moderate hazard, and >12% in high hazards of the study  area is in high risk hazards.
[
G. Albayomi. Assessment of Urban Geomorphological Hazard in the North-East of Cairo City, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):398-402]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

Key words: GIS, Remote Sensing, Hazard, Urban, Geomorphology

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JAK2-V617F Mutation and BCR-ABL Rearrangement in Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

 

Zahra MK1; El-Fadaly NH1; Aboul-Enein KM2; Elgamal BM2; Amira Y. Abd El-Naby1 and Eman A. Amer3

 

1Clinical Pathology Dept., Faculty of Medicine,Tanta University,

 2Clinical Pathology Dept., NCI, Cairo University

3Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University

basmaelgamal@gmail.com          basmaelgamal@cu.edu.eg

 

 Abstract: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of clonal hematologic diseases that are thought to arise from a transformation in a hematopoietic stem cell that leads to overproduction of mature, functional blood cells in the bone marrow. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder that is defined by its causative molecular lesion, the BCR-ABL fusion gene, while vast numbers of Philadelphia negative MPNs are characterized by the presence of  JAK2 V617F mutation. Detection of JAK2 V617F mutation so convincingly establishes the presence of a clonal disorder. The present work aimed to study the expression of JAK2 V617F mutation by real-time PCR in chronic myeloproliferative disorder patients as well as the study the BCR/ABL gene rearrangement by FISH. Subject and Methods: The subjects of this study consist of 40 patients of newly diagnosed MPNs and 10 apparently healthy individuals serving as a control group. The patients were subjected to routine laboratory investigation, detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene by FISH technique and detection of JAK2 mutation expression in MPNs by real time PCR. Results: BCR/ABL fusion gene was detected in 100% of CML patients, while it was absent in other MPNs. JAK2 mutation was detected in (80%) of polycythemia vera (PV) cases, (60%) of essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases,  (70%) of   myelofibrosis (MF) cases and it was absent in CML. Conclusion: JAK2 V617F mutation is a risk factor for MPNs to develop approving the strong association between the JAK2 mutations and these disorders, which when present, can definitively confirm the diagnsosis. JAK2 mutation testing should be considered as a front-line screening test for suspected MPNs, and its use as a first-intention diagnostic test may spare some patients further investigations.
[
Zahra MK; El-Fadaly NH; Aboul-Enein KM; Elgamal BM; Amira Y. Abd El-Naby and Eman A. Amer. JAK2-V617F Mutation and BCR-ABL Rearrangement in Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):403-414]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62


Key words:
Myeloproliferative neoplasms, JAK2V617F mutation, chronic myeloproliferative disorders

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A Framework of Quality Indicators System for Evaluating Hyderabad Urban Sustainability

 Gholamreza Yavari1, M. Mehdi Fazelbeygi2, Farideh shahraki3

 1Associate professor of Agriculture Economic; Chairman of Rural Development Engineering, Payame Noor University

Gh_yavari@pnu.ac.ir

2PhD student of Environment Science and Technology, Center for Environment- JNTU; Hyderabad

Mehdi_fazel@gmail.com

3PhD student of Remote Sensing- JNTU; Hyderabad

Shahraki.farid@gmail.com  

 

Abstract: Remote sensing technology using satellite access has been increasingly helpful in performing natural resources mapping and management. This includes processes that cannot be done manually or might take many years to complete when you are covering vast areas of land such as satellite imaging, accuracy assessment, image processing, classification, and geometric or radiometric corrections. It is evident that any nation’s economic development is largely supported by the richness of its water and land resources. The management capability and mapping tools use to monitor these resources are crucial to raise the economic development of specific regions. Accuracy is a general requirement in managing delicate land and water resources for sustainable development. The remote sensing using satellite based approach in generating data ensures updated cost effective natural resources monitoring and management in Iran. This research will demonstrate the need to maintain remote sensing for mapping and managing natural resources in Iran as well as enhancing and supporting the decision making capabilities of the government regarding the use of its natural resources.

[Gholamreza Yavari, M. Mehdi Fazelbeygi, Farideh Shahraki. A framework of quality indicators system for evaluating Hyderabad urban sustainability. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):415-423]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).  http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

 

Keywords: Urban Sustainability, Hyderabad, Evaluation, Indicator

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Temperature Effect on Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Formation Water by  Non-ionic Inhibitor and Synergistic Influence of Halide Ions

 

K.Z. Mohammed, A. Hamdy*, A. Abdel-wahab, N .A. Farid

 

Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

amalhamdy66@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The inhibitive effect of nonionic surfactant namely nonylphenoxy poly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol (NPPE) on carbon steel corrosion in oilfield formation water at temperature range 303-333 K was studied using electrochemical polarization technique.The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the concentrations of NPPE but decreases with the increase in temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization studies revealed that the NPPE acts as a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of NPPE on the carbon steel surface in oilfield formation water follows the Langmuir isotherm model. The activation energy and the thermodynamic parameters for the inhibition process were calculated and discussed. The inhibition efficiency of NPPE synergistically increased on addition of halide ions in the order KCl> KBr> KI.

[K.Z. Mohammed, A. Hammdy, A. Abdel-wahab, N .A. Farid. Temperature Effect on Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Formation Water by  Non-ionic Inhibitor and Synergistic Influence of Halide Ions. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):424-434]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

 

Keywords: Nonionic surfactant; oilfield formation water; corrosion; synergistic inhibition; carbon steel; thermodynamic parameters

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The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Program on Insight and Nonadherence to Medication among Psychotic Patients in Psychiatric Hospital at Assiut Governorate

 

Naglaa A. Mohamed and Nadia A. Abd El- Hameed

 

Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University

*noga_abdo69@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cognitive–behavioral therapy for psychotic patients refers to a structured and time–limited approach to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders. The main goals are: to treat symptoms, to increase insight level and to reduce distress. Aims of the study:  This study aimed to assess insight among psychotic patients, to determine the relationship between insight and nonadhering to medications and to study the effects of cognitive–behavioral therapy on the insight of psychotic patients. The study was carried out in the Psychiatric Mental Health Hospital, Ministry of Health at Assiut Governorate.. The study sample comprised 20 schizophrenic patients attending to psychiatric unit within a period of three months from October to December 2011, both sexes and agrees to participate in the study, aged from 18- 55 years for three months. Three tools were used for data collection, namely: Structured Questionnaire data sheet, Schedule for the Assessment of Insight (SAI- E) and Drug Attitude Inventory Scale (DAL- 30). Results: The main results yielded by the study proved that, 50% (10) of the studied group were single and 40 %(8) were married, the majority of studied group were illiterate, the highest percentage of insight was improved after application of cognitive – behavioral program (60%), and the highest percentage of adherence to medication were improved after application of program. Conclusion: cognitive – behavior therapy were effective in improvement level of insight and adherence to medication among psychotic patients. Recommendation: the study recommended to continually follow- up on the results of the study repeatedly reviewed the things of patients and the program should be simplified by using simpler language so as to be use to be with patient's with little education The number of the studied group most be increased.

[Naglaa A. Mohamed and Nadia A. Abd El- Hameed. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Program on Insight and Nonadherence to Medication among Psychotic Patients in Psychiatric Hospital at Assiut Governorate. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):435-441]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

 

Key Words: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Insight, Nonadherence to Medication, Psychotic Patients.

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Experimental Infection of Tenacibaculosis and a Trial for Treatment by Plant Extract Carvacrol in Surge Wrasses Fish (Thalassoma Purpureum)

 

Mohamed A. A. Abd El-Galil and Mahmoud Hashiem

 

Fish Dis. Dept., Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag Univ., Egypt
Fish Microbiology Dept., The National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries,  Hurghada, Egypt.

    abdelgalil1997@yahoo.com      dm4467201@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The experimental infection of surge wrasses fish by Tenacibaculum maritimum was successfully conducted through immersion bath for 18hrs in 1.5x106 suspension, the infected fish exhibited skin ulcers, stomatitis, tail rot, signs of respiratory distress as gasping and accumulation at air source site in association with 60% mortality. Carvacrol is a major compound of oregano and thyme and has antimicrobial activity against wide range of microorganismes. The in vitro susceptibility assay proved strong effect of carvacrol on T. maritimum 100ppm of both carvacrol and its precursor cymene for 14 days as food additives controlled the tenacibaculosis in surge wrasses fish and no clinical signs or mortality could be recorded in the treated fish. 50ppm of them prevented the disease clinical signs and reduced mortality to 10%.

[Mohamed A. A., Abd El-Galil, and Mahmoud Hashiem. Experimental Infection of Tenacibaculosis and a Trial forTreatment by Plant Extract Carvacrol in Surge Wrasses Fish (Thalassoma Purpureum). Life Sci J 2012;9(2):442-447]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66

 

Key words: Tenacibaculosis, T. maritimum, treatment, Surge wrasses fish, carvacrol, cymene.

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Efficacy of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale ) and Gamma Irradiation for Quality and Shelf-Stability of  Processed  Frozen Beef Sausage

 

Lamya EL  Sediek1, Wafaa, M.M. Abozeid2, Dalal H .Alkhalifah3 and Serag .E. A. Farag4

 

1Department of Food Contaminance & Toxicity, National Research Center(NCR), Cairo, Egypt

2Food Science and Technology Dept., (NCR)

3Microbiology of Biology Dept., Faculty of Sciences. Prince Norah bent Abdullrahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4National Centre for Radiation Research & Technology, P.O. Box 8029, Nasr City, Egypt

 

 

Abstract: The present work deal with improving safety of sausages besides introducing trials for decreasing the microbial load without affecting on sensory properties. Survey local processed  sausages samples from eleven local markets proved high contamination with microbes as Escherichia coli(19.71%), Listeria monocytogene (18.82%), Salmonella (16.47%), Lactobacilli (14.11%) and Staphylococcus aureus besides total molds (17.94% ). Sausages  beef was prepared with recommended raw materials containing fresh ginger extract (GEX) at two concentration  (0.5%, 1.0%) besides using  γ-irradiation of  at 3.0 kGy and 5.0kGy to study the efficiency of these treatment on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characters during frozen storage (90 days). Using irradiation and GEX (1.0%) treatments were sufficient to keep samples even 90 days with safe levels of microbes but not eliminated completely.The values of  Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) were less than 2 at zero time but started increased gradually during storage. After two months, most of treatments increased 2 values of TBARS except Ginger extract (1.0%), which was the best treatments even end of storage (90 days of frozen storage). A linear relationship resulted between storage period and TBARS of treated  samples with high significant values of coefficient (R2). Irradiation and untreated samples contained high values more than 2 at end of storage. According ,these data GEX (1.0%) was the best treatment to keep samples with good quality rancidity free even 90 days during frozen storage, whereas γ-irradiation increased  rancidity values of TBARS rapidly comparing with control samples during frozen storage. Furthermore, sensory properties were more affected with TBARS changes, which  were in parallel with the results of sensory evaluation, especially at end of storage. The obtained results showed that it is possible to produce safe and high-quality fresh  sausage using natural antioxidants source as GEX 1.0% to improve the quality and stability of frozen sausages .

[Lamya EL  Sediek, Wafaa, M.M. Abozeid, Dalal H .Alkhalifah, and Serag .E. A. Farag. Efficacy of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale ) and gamma irradiation for quality and shelf-stability of  processed  frozen beef sausage. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):448-461]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

 

Key words: ginger, Sausages, Radiation, sensory properties, frozen storage, Microbiological character.

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Study on the Features of Universal Citizen and the Level of Attention to Its Components in the Social Studies of Primary Schools from the Viewpoint of Lesson-planning Experts, Principals and Teachers Employed in the Ministry of Education & Training at Elementary Level

in Tehran, Iran 

 

Naderi, Ezatolah1, Shariatmadari, Ali2, Seif Naraghi, Maryam3, Sadeghi Afjeh,  Zohreh4

 

1,2Tarbiat Mooalem University and Science and Research  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3Allameh Tabataba’i University and Science and Research  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

4Department of Educational Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

zsadeghi540@gmail.com

 

Abstract: It is more than two decades that globalization has turned into an important political, economic, social and cultural subject in many countries. Many commentators have optimistic and positive approach to this phenomenon; whereas, many others look at it pessimistically, and some critics use the term 'globalization'. On the other hand, the concept of citizenship aims at propagating the main principles of democracy among people, so as most of these principles play vital role in the formation of a nation and strengthening the pillars of democracy. Due to the undeniable need in training citizenship, and necessity of being informed of science and technology and paying heed to this point that globalization is not a decision, but an already-occurring inevitable process; it seems indispensable to understand globalization to be able to use its advantages and avoid its deficiencies. Therefore, the aim of this research is studying on the features of universal citizen and the level of attention to its components in the social studies of primary schools from the viewpoint of lesson-planning experts, principals and teachers employed in the ministry of education & training at elementary level in Tehran during the school-year 2010-2011. The sample size is calculated based on Morgan table that consists of 427 lesson planners, principals and teachers of primary level using the hierarchal random sampling method. In the present research, three topics have been scrutinized as the components of citizenship known as the criteria of training, used in social studies textbooks in primary schools. They are 'wisdom', 'assuming responsibility', 'commitment', and 'criticism'. The methodology employed in this research is 'field finding', and a twenty-six questions questionnaire is used for data collection. Descriptive statistic methods (abundance & percentage) and deductive statistics, (chie square) are used for the analysis of the data. The research shows that the textbooks on social studies taught at levels 3, 4, and 5 in elementary schools have paid an average level of attention (and higher) to the fore-cited topics in the training of global citizens.

[Naderi. E, Shariatmadari. A, Seif Naraghi. M., Sadeghi Afjeh Zohreh. Study on the Features of Universal Citizen and the Level of Attention to Its Components in the Social Studies of Primary Schools from the Viewpoint of Lesson-planning Experts, Principals and Teachers Employed in the Ministry of Education & Training at Elementary Level in Tehran, Iran. Life Sci J 2012 9(2):462-466]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68.

 

Keywords: Globalization; Citizenship; Universal citizen; Social studies 

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Occult Hepatitis B Infection among Egyptian Chronic Hepatitis C Patients and its Relation with

Liver Enzymes and Hepatitis B Markers

 

Wafaa T. El-sherif 1, Sohair K. Sayed 1, Noha A. Afifi 2, Hussein A.EL-Amin3

 

Departments of 1Clinical Pathology, 2Microbiology & Immunology, 3Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,

Assiut University, Egypt

wafaa_elsherif@hotmail-com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are the most common causes of chronic liver disease. Coinfection with HBV and HCV is not uncommon among individuals in HBV endemic areas. Occult HBV (OHB) infection is characterized by detection of HBV DNA in the serum or liver tissue of patients who test negative for HBsAg. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of OHB infection among Egyptian patients with chronic HCV infection and its relation with liver function tests and HBV markers. Methods: Serum of 50 chronic HCV patients who tested negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc-IgM were analyzed for liver function tests and HBV markers using micro particle enzyme immunoassay kit (Axsym), in addition to quantitative detection of HCV RNA and HBV DNA by real time PCR. Results: HBV-DNA was detectable in serum of 10/50 patients (20%) with a mean of 374.8 IU/ml. Among OHB positive and negative groups, anti-HBc was detected in 100% and 80% (P=0.289), anti-HBs was detected in 20% and 57.5% (P=0.034) and  HBeAg was detected in 60% and 0% (P=0.000), respectively. Also, the mean level of ALT and AST showed significant elevation in OHB positive group when compared to negative group, (p=0.000 for both). There was no significant correlation between the level of HBV-DNA and the levels of ALT and AST. Conclusions: OHB with low serum levels of HBV-DNA was observed in 20% of chronic HCV patients in Egypt and was associated with elevation in ALT and AST. HBeAg could be a useful maker for OHB prediction but a negative result doesn’t exclude OHB infection, whereas negative anti-HBc-IgG may exclude such infection.
[Wafaa T. El-sherif, Sohair K. Sayed, Noha A. Afifi,
Hussein A.EL-Amin. Occult Hepatitis B Infection among Egyptian Chronic Hepatitis C Patients and its Relation with Liver Enzymes and Hepatitis B Markers. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):467-474]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 69.


Key words:
Occult hepatitis B, chronic HCV, liver enzymes, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBeAg.

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Folding and Differential Equations of Some Curves in Minkowski Space

 

A. E. El-Ahmady1, and E. AL-Hesiny2

 1, 2Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University,  Madinah , Saudi Arabia.

1Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

a_elahmady@hotmail.com

Abstract: In this paper we will introduce a new connection between folding and differential equations of some curves in Minkowski space. The concept of folding on some curves in Minkowski space will be characterized by using differential equations. New types of linear ordinary differential equations are introduced. Theorems governing this connection are obtained.[A. E. El-Ahmady, E. AL-Hesiny. Folding and Differential Equations of Some Curves in Minkowski Space. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):475-480]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 70

Keywords: Curves in Minkowski space; folding; differential equations.

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Effect of Establishment of Treatment Guidelines on Antibiotic Prescription Pattern for Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

 Ghada. M. Khalil1&2, Abdullah A Alghasham3, Yasser F Abdelraheem4&5

1Department of Public Health Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. 2Department of Community Medicine,College of Medicine, Qassim University)
3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,College of Medicine, Qassim University
4Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University, Egypt
5Pediatric Department, College of Medicine, Qassim University
ghadamahmoud1@hotmail.com,      ghadamahmoud@qumed.edu.sa 

Abstract: Background:  Upper respiratory tract infection in childhood is a common cause of antibiotic description which increases the likelihood for emergence of antibiotics-resistant microorganisms leading to increased illness, deaths, and substantial economic loss. Objective: To evaluate antibiotics prescription pattern for children and to establish clinical practical guidelines for judicious antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infection. Methodology: Randomized controlled trail, Pediatric cases of upper respiratory tract infection were studied for overall antibiotics and disease specific prescription rate and their relation to several risk factors. Result : Significant reduction of overall antibiotic prescription between intervention and control groups was 0.008 with odd ratio 1.2 and confidence interval CI 0.62-2.39. By using logistic regression models for antibiotic prescription as dependant outcome variable showed to be  significant and  influenced by; assignment to intervention and control groups, primary diagnosis, associated symptoms were cough, sputum and pain also discussion with parent before prescription. Conclusion: Using standardized guidelines for pediatric antibiotic prescription in upper respiratory tract infection as intervention method caused reduction in antibiotics’ prescribing rates for some upper respiratory tract diseases, while maintaining a high level of prescription in others.

[Ghada. M. Khalil, Abdullah A Alghasham, and Yasser F Abdelraheem. Effect of Establishment of Treatment Guidelines on Antibiotic Prescription Pattern for Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Life Sci J 2012;9(2): 481-486]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 71
 

Key words: Antibiotics, upper respiratory tract, pediatric, guidelines.

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Assessing Characteristics of Clinical Psychologist for Effective Counseling

 

Vahid Baharvand

MSC of Clinical Psychology, Ardabil branch, Islamic azad university, Ardabil, Iran

E-mail: vahidbahar19@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: All we get are often subject to problems due to the limited knowledge and experience we need to consult with others. You know, sometimes people not immune to emotional crises. Developments and changes that occur in life. Such a pass in college, getting married, moving away from family and friends, illness and loss of our loved ones. Sometimes we experience anxiety, doubt, fear, conflict, and even makes the crisis. When adapted to the new environment and a new experience, these feelings are normal, but if these negative feelings far more than normal, which can reduce the physical, mental focus and relaxation. Effective counseling requires a good knowledge and understanding of the characteristics, needs and potential clients and situations in which they see themselves. This process is also influenced by beliefs, value system and attitude of the consultant, his worldview, psychological schools of current theoretical frameworks and assumptions are accepted. Its not counselors, clients can change lives, but they can gain a better understanding, confidence, self-efficacy and problem-solving skills to support and help.

[Vahid Baharvand. Assessing Characteristics of Clinical Psychologist for Effective Counseling. Life Science Journal 2012;9(2):487-490]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 72

Keywords: Clinical Psychologist, Counseling

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Effect of intra-operative topical tetracycline versus 5-fluorouracil in prevention of post-mastectomy seroma in rabbit model

 

Zuhoor K Al-gaithy

 

Surgery Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

E mail: zkngaithy@hotmail.com

 

 Abstract: Background. Seroma is most common post-mastectomy and axillary dissection (AD) complication. This study aimed to evaluate and compare efficacy of tetracycline (TCN) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) intra-operative topical application in preventing post-mastectomy seroma development in rabbits. Material and methods. Forty adult female albino rabbits divided into 3 groups [control (n=12), TCN (n=14), 5-FU (n=14)] were used. Rabbits underwent unilateral thoracic mastectomy and AD. Immediately following operation, equal volumes of saline, TCN (5-10mg/kg b.wt), 5-FU (12mg/kg b.wt) were instilled under surgical skin flaps. On seventh post-operative day, seroma formation and wound healing processes were evaluated. Seroma fluid was aspirated and evaluated for sodium, potassium, chloride, total proteins levels. Histological examination of dissecting area was made. Results. Seroma developed in 22 rabbits (55.0%); 7 in saline (58.3%), 9 (64.3%) in TCN, 6 (42.9%) in 5-FU groups. Seroma fluid volume was lowest in 5-FU group. Seroma fluid nature was inflammatory exudate. Histopathological examination revealed lack of walling, inflammatory cellular infiltrate, blood extravasations, tissue necrosis in all groups with least changes in 5-FU group. Conclusions. Inflammatory cell exudate was common feature of rabbit with post-mastectomy seroma. 5-FU was best in decreasing seroma volume and minimizing histopathological changes in post-mastectomy wound healing.

[Zuhoor K Al-gaithy. Effect of intra-operative topical tetracycline versus 5-fluorouracil in prevention of postmastectomy seroma in rabbit model. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):491-496]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

 

Key words: 5-Fluorouracil; Histopathology; Post-mastectomy; Rabbit; Seroma; Tetracycline.

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Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers and Protein Analysis

 

H. S. Abdel-Razzak1,4, A. M. Alfrmawy2, H. M. Ibrahim3 and Amr. A. El-Hanafy2,5

 

ˡ Vegetable Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria Univ., Alexandria, Egypt. Department of Nucleic Acid Research, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications (CSAT), Research Area - New Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria Univ., Alexandria, Egypt. 4 Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. 5 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, P. O. Box 80203, King Abdulaziz   University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. Asmaameg71@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: The present study aims to assess the genetic diversity among 10 varied faba bean cultivars, collected from two wide-ranging geographical locations of Egypt. Variability based on the DNA level was inspected through nine ISSR-PCR screening, which showed obvious differences among the various Vicia faba (V. faba) cvs. A total of 576 ISSR loci were detected and 398 (69.10%) of them were polymorphic, which represent a relatively high polymorphism level. Cluster analysis via ISSR markers separated three green large-seeded cvs. (V. faba var. major) from dry small-seeded cvs. (V. faba var. minor). The small-seeded cvs. were further classified into two sub-clusters according to two geographic locations. The first sub-cluster included dry small-seeded cvs. grown under clay soil conditions (Abies location). However, the second sub-cluster integrated the similar dry small-seeded cvs. but were grown under calcareous soil conditions (Fuka location). SDS-PAGE analysis of various faba bean leaf proteins reflected some variations among studied V. faba populations. The results clarified that ISSR markers and protein analysis were helpful to recognize genetic variation among faba bean cultivars.

[H. S. Abdel-Razzak, A. M. Alfrmawy, H. M. Ibrahim and Amr. A. El-Hanafy. Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers and Protein Analysis. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):497-503]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 74

 

Key words: Cluster analysis, Egypt, faba bean, genetic diversity, ISSR markers, protein analysis

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Minerals Content and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Palm Extracts against Some Pathogenic Bacteria

 

Madeha N. Al-seeni

 

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University

mnalsiny@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Dates contain many minerals, which is very important for healthy life. Sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese, cupper, cadmium, nickel, lead, ferric, zinc, cobalt and magnesium were determined in twenty samples, collected  from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, of two types of dates, Safawy (Phoenix dactylifera)  and Chinese date (Ziziphus zizyphus). The mean value of sodium was 3.5 g/g and 3.8 g /g in Chinese and Safawy dates, respectively. The mean concentrations of potassium were 1.34 g/g and 1.04 g/g but the mean concentrations of the detected calcium were 12.7 g/g and 9.1g/g in the Chinese date and Safawy date, respectively. Manganese concentration means were 1.50 and 2.64 g/g in Chinese and Safawy dates, respectively. Cupper, cadmium, nickel, ferric, zinc, cobalt, magnesium were detected in the two previous types of dates but lead was not detected in either Chinese or Safawy dates. The antibacterial activity of date water extracts was determined using agar well diffusion method. The water extract of Chinese date (inhibition zone ranged from 11-19 mm) was more active compared to the extract of Safawy date (inhibition zone ranged from 10-13 mm). The antibacterial activity of date water extracts was compared with that of Ampicillin (control antibiotic).

[Madeha N. Al-seeni. Minerals Content and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Palm Extracts against Some Pathogenic Bacteria. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):504-508]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 75

 

Keywords: Minerals, Chinese date, Safawy date, antimicrobial activity.

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Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, Dementia and other Non Motor Features of a large Cohort of Egyptian Parkinson’s Disease Patients

 

Eman M Khedr, Noha Abo El Fetoh, Hosam Khalifa, Mohamed A Ahmed, Khaled M A El Beh

 

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.

Moh_abo_elaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: There is a lack of awareness of the considerable disability associated with non motor symptoms (NMS) in PD among physician. The aim of the work is to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, dementia and other NMS of Parkinson’s disease (PD) Egyptian patients. Material and Methods: The study included, 112 patients with Parkinson’s disease. Each individual was scored on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS) and the the Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY) to evaluate motor symptoms. Other symptoms were quantified with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales (HAM-D, HAM-A) and the Non-Motor Symptom Questionnaire and Scale (NMSQuest and NMSS). Results: According to HAM-A  and HAM-D scales;  anxiety and depression were noted in 78% and 54% of patients whilst dementia was recorded in 22%. According to NMSS, mood/cognition was the commonest domain (87.5%), and sleep disturbance/fatigue was the second frequent domain with a prevalence rate 78.6%, but all other non-motor symptoms also scored highly: gastrointestinal and urinary domains  (76.8% for both), Sexual dysfunction (73%), cardiovascular (70.5%). Perceptual problems /hallucinations were the least frequently recorded domain (9.9 %%). There were significant correlations between UPDRS and HAM-D, HAM-A scores as well as with MMSE. UPDRS were also correlated with total NMSQuest and NMSS and each domain separately except cardiovascular and perceptual problems.  Duration of illness was significantly correlated with UPDRS, depression, and dementia but not with other NMS. Conclusions:  mood/cognition, sleep disorders, GIT, and sexual disorders were common non motor manifestations in PD patients. Patients with a longer duration of PK had higher scores on the UPDRS part 3 and were more likely to have depression, anxiety and dementia.

[Eman M Khedr, Noha Abo El Fetoh, Hosam Khalifa, Mohamed A Ahmed, Khaled M A El Beh. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, Dementia and other Non Motor Features of a large Cohort of Egyptian Parkinson’s Disease Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):509-518]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 76

 

Key words: Depression, Anxiety, parkinson's disease, non motor manifestations, cognitive dysfunction

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Study of bis{2-(naphtha [3,4]imidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Magnesium

 

Yu-Feng Lin1Pin-Wen Cheng2, Shih-Hsuan Chiu1Chen-Hao Wang1, Shung-Jim Yang3Anchi Yeh2*

 

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

2Department of Chemical and materials Engineering, Chengshiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ,833 R.O. C

3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineeringr, Vanung University, Taiwan, R.O.C

E-mail: acyeh@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The study of bis{2-(naphtha[3,4]imidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Magnesium (MgNIQ) is presented in this report. It was observed the decomposition temperature is high to 577but no melting transition (Tm) of MgNIQ up to 450. By using of MgNIQ as emitted layer exhibits a broad maximum spectrum peak at 615 nm. The color of the emitted light is in the orange-red region in the CIE coordinate of x = 0.36 y = 0.53.

[Yu-Feng Lin, Pin-Wen Cheng, Shih-Hsuan ChiuChen-Hao Wang, Shung-Jim Yang, Anchi Yeh. Study of bis{2-(naphtha [3,4]imidazol-2-yl) quinolinato} Magnesium. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):519-522]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 77

 

Keywords Electroluminescence; red light; device

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Serum Levels of Adiponectin and Ghrelin in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

 

Elham O Hamed1; Nayel A Zaky 2 and Amal K Norel Din2

 

Departments of 1Clinical Pathology and 2 Internal  Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

elhamomar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Inflammation is widely known to play a key role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. It has been observed that adipokines play an increasingly large role in systemic and local inflammation. Therefore, adipose tissue may have a more important role than previously thought in the pathogenesis of several disease types. We study serum levels of adiponectin and ghrelin in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with study of some of cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: We analyzed 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted at our emergency unit and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls. Clinical parameters, glycemic, lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin -6 (IL-6), serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), as well as serum adiponectin and ghrelin were assayed. Results: We found significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6, insulin, and HOMA-IR in patients with AMI rather than healthy controls. Plasma adiponectin levels and ghrelin were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) compared to those of controls. We found significant correlations between plasma adiponectin levels and BMI, hypertension, TNF-α and IL-6. In the case of ghrelin, we found significant correlations with BMI, HDL-C, diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose.  Conclusions: low serum adiponectin and ghrelin level may be risk factor for AMI independent of other traditional cardiovascular risk factors and may provide a novel therapeutic target.

[Elham O Hamed Nayel A Zaky and Amal K Norel Din. Serum Levels of Adiponectin and Ghrelin in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):523-526]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

 

Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction, adiponectin, ghrelin

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Evaluating subcontractor performance using Evolutionary Gaussian Process Inference Model

 

Min-Yuan Cheng1, Chin-Chi Huang2

 

1 Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

2 Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

d9505106@mail.ntust.edu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Subcontractor Evaluation” is one of the methods which general contractors use to evaluate subcontractor performance. The result is often used as a reference index for subcontractor choice during the outsourcing of activities within a project. Inappropriate subcontractor choice would have a direct impact on the duration, cost, quality, and safety of a project, leading to failure in achieving its goals and target profits. Therefore, this paper establishes a set of Evolutionary Gaussian Process Inference Model, which utilize a Gaussian Process to map the relationships between data input and output and uses Bayesian inference together with Particle Swarm Optimization to optimize the hyper-parameters of the Gaussian Process covariance function to obtain the best inference predictive ability. The model provides construction managers with quantitative measures of subcontractor performance in their selection process.

[Min-Yuan Cheng, Chin-Chi Huang. Evaluating subcontractor performance using Evolutionary Gaussian Process Inference Model. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):527-532]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 79

 

Keywords: subcontractor performance; Gaussian process; Particle Swarm Optimization; EGPIM; Bayesian inference

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Effects of anisodamine on the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-αand cycloxygenase 2 in experimental infusion phlebitis

 

Zhang Zhenxiang, Zhang Qiushi, Wang Peng, Pan Xue, Zhao Qingxia, Wang Xiaokai

 

Nursing College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

Email: zhangzx6666@126.com

 

Abstract: Objective This subject was designed to investigate effects of anisodamine on the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cycloxygenase 2 (COX-2) in a rabbit model of infusion phlebitis and to analyze the preventative and treatment mechanisms of anisodamine in experimental infusion phlebitis. Method The rabbits were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, the magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group. Expressions of TNF-α and COX-2 were determined and contrasted with the control group treated with normal saline by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting assay, respectively. Results Obvious pathohistological changes were observed and the model group showed the highest expressions of TNF-α and COX-2 in the four groups (P<0.01). On the contrary, anisodamine alleviated the inflammatory damage by significantly reducing the expressions of TNF-α and COX-2 compared with the model group (P<0.01). There was no difference in the expressions of TNF-α and COX-2 between the magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group (P>0.05). Conclusion Anisodamine alleviates the inflammatory damages by significantly reducing the expressions of TNF-α and COX-2, and shows significant protective effects in the animal model of infusion phlebitis.

[Zhang Zhenxiang, Zhang Qiushi, Wang Peng, Pan Xue, Zhao Qingxia, Wang Xiaokai. Effects of anisodamine on the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-αand cycloxygenase 2 in experimental infusion phlebitis. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):53-539]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 80

 

Keywords: anisodamine; infusion phlebitis; tumor necrosis factor-α; cycloxygenase 2

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Valeriana jatamansi : a phenotypically variable plant species of Kashmir Himalaya

 

Aabid, M. Rather, Irshad, A. Nawchoo,  Aijaz A. Wani,  Aijaz  H. Ganie

 

Department of Botany, University Of Kashmir

Email: abid.bot@gmail.com; irshadnawchoo@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Kashmir Himalaya harbours large number of plant and animal species and is credited all over the world as a treasure of medicinal and aromatic plants. Valeriana jatamansi inhabit wide variety of habitats and the species exhibit phenotypic variability across these habitats, the variability aids the species for its survival under different environmental conditions.

[Aabid M. Rather, Irshad A.Nawchoo, Aijaz A. Wani , Aijaz H.Ganie. Economic Botany and Reproductive Biology Research Laboratory Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006. J&K. India. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):540-543]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 81

 

Key words:  Kashmir Himalaya; phenotypic variability; environmental conditions

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Inhibition of EGFR signaling in prostate cancer treated with EGFR siRNA and Gefitinib

 

Weiguo Chen1, Donghua Xie2, Jianquan Hou1, Huiming Long1, Gang Li1, Jinxian Pu1, Jun Ouyang1, Yi Wu1

 

1.Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, China

2.Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. wg.chen@163.com

 

Abstract: To validate the therapeutic effects and modification of EGFR-induced signaling proteins of gefitinib and a small interfering RNA targeting human EGFR (EGFR siRNA) on prostate cancer cell lines PC-3. MTT assay and tumor inhibitory rate were used to evaluate the antitumor activity of EGFR siRNA and/or gefitinib on PC-3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Real-time PCR was used to measure expression of EGFR mRNA; Western blot assay was applied to evaluate the level of EGFR and its downstream signalling proteins Akt (protein kinase B), MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and PKC (protein kinase C). Gefitinib inhibited PC-3 cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with significant decreased level of EGFR protein and phosphorylation of only Akt, but not either MAPK or PKC; on the other hand, knockdown of EGFR mRNA by siRNA led to lower proliferation of PC-3 cells with decreased phosphorylation of Akt and MAPK, but not PKC. Combination of both had more inhibitory effects on cells than gefitinib and EGFR alone with decreased level of Akt, MAPK and PKC phosphorylation (P < 0.05). In in vivo models, compared with control group, siRNA could significantly inhibited tumor growth at the rate of 34.83% (P<0.05) which is lower than 53.95% in gefitinb group and 59.28% in combined group (P<0.05), but no differences in the latter both groups (P>0.05). Gefitinib and EGFR siRNA could effectively inhibit the proliferation and tumor growth of prostate cancer, probably via inhibiting the activation of EGFR and the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPK.

[Weiguo Chen, Donghua Xie, Jianquan Hou, Huiming Long, Gang Li, Jinxian Pu, Jun Ouyang, Yi Wu. Inhibition of EGFR signaling in prostate cancer treated with EGFR siRNA and Gefitinib. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):544-552]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 82

 

Keywords: Prostate cancer; epidermial growth factor receptor; small-interfering RNA; gefitinib; therapy

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Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: Panel Evidence from Asian Countries

 

Mahdi Safdari1, *Majid Mahmoodi 2, Elahe Mahmoodi 2

 

1. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Qom, Iran

2. Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

*Corresponding Author E-mail: majid_mahmoodi63@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper attempted to examine the causality relationship between government expenditure and economic growth for two panels of 27 Asian countries over the 1970 to 2009 years. A Panel-VECM causality framework based on Wald’s test employed to investigate short-run and long-run causality between government expenditure and economic growth and indicates bidirectional causality for Asian developing panel, while the results of long-run causality for advanced and newly industrialized countries does not support causality in any direction. These findings have the policy implication for policymakers and economists‏.‏

[Mahdi Safdari, Majid Mahmoodi, Elahe Mahmoodi. Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: Panel Evidence from Asian Countries. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):553-558]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 83

 

Keywords: Government Expenditure, Economic Growth, Panel-VECM

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Study of Anxiety and Style Control Parenting

   

1Fereshteh Ghaljaei, *2Behzad Narouie, 3Mahin Naderifar, 4Mohammad Ghasemi-rad and 5Hamideh Hanafi-bojd

 

1 Board Member of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences , Zahedan-Iran

2Clinical Research Development Center, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan-Iran

3Board Member of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences , Zahedan-Iran

4Genius and Talented Student Organization, Urmia University of Medical Sciences,Urmia-Iran

5Clinical Research Development Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan-Iran

 

*Corresponding Author: Dr Behzad Narouie

Researcher of Clinical Research Development Center, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan-Iran  Email: b_narouie@yahoo.com;  Telefax : +98541_3414103

  

Abstract: Strong, desirable and mutual relationship between parents and child is necessary so that nurses can achieve their duties and delivery of care to the child. This relationship should be identified in context of family (Style Control Parenting) in order for the nurses to maintain those parts of family relationship related to nursing duties. Anyhow, the actions should be planned in a manner that be well-adjusted with children' morale and help to decrease child's anxiety. The present descriptive correlation study aims to determine the relationship of behavioral models of parent with their children’s anxiety (370 students in age 13 to 15) in 10 governmental girl guidance schools, Dist. 6 of Tehran city. The tools were questionnaires planned for students and parents consisting demographic characteristics, physiologic symptoms of anxiety, “Spiel Berger Anxiety Test” for parents and “Reynolds and Richmond Anxiety Tests” for students. The amount of anxiety among these groups was analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher exact test in SPSS statistical software. Results showed that the amount of anxiety among students was 33%, with the most anxiety (92%) among adolescents who evaluated their parents' behavior as autocratic (P=0.001), and the least anxiety (7.6%) in adolescents who had democratic parents (P=0.003). These findings shows that there is statistically significant relationship between anxiety and style control parenting (P<0.05), (df=2). Style control parenting plays an important role in children’s anxiety, therefore, health care providers can be effective in decreasing Children' anxiety by teaching style control parenting .

 [Fereshteh Ghaljaei, Behzad Narouie, Mahin Naderifar, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad and Hamideh Hanafi-bojd. Study of Anxiety and Style Control Parenting. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2): 559-562]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 84

Keywords: Style Control Parenting-Anxiety-Girls

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Application of Trinity Model on the First Aid in Community Residents

 

 Zhang zhenxiang1, Yang Yaping, Lin Beilei, Zhang Qiushi.

 

1.Nursing College of  Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou,Henan Province,450003, China

zhangzx6666@126.com

 

Abstract: Purpose This study explores the effect of the first aid training model  containing the Red Cross, universities and community which is used to train community residents. Method 426 residents from a selected community were extracted to be trained by the trinity first aid model. Respectively investigate their grasp of first aid knowledge before and after the training. Result Before training, the community residents' first aid knowledge score is 58.5816.56 compare to 85.1318.62 (P<0.01) after training, and the questionnaire score of the five latitude is also increased(P<0.01). About 63.2% of the residents considers that the first aid training is very good , 80.5% of residents consider the training time is appropriate, and 89.4% of residents says

 that learning first aid knowledge is very helpful to individuals and families.

[Zhang zhenxiang, Yang Yaping, Lin Beilei, Zhang Qiushi. Application of Trinity Model on the First Aid in Community Residents. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):563-566]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 85

 

Key words: Trinity; First Aid; Community Residents

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The Relationship between Perfectionism and Depression with Academic Achievement among the Students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences

 

 

Bimanand Lida(BSc)1, Sayehmiri Koroush (MSc, PhD)2, Peyman Hadi (BSc)2, Khosravi Afra (MSc, PhD)3*

 

1Student Research Committee, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran,

 2, Prevention Research Centre of Mental -Social Traumas, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran, 3*Immunology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Email: afrakhosravi@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Introduction- Perfectionism is an irrational or illogic belief that people have about themselves and their surroundings. Depression is one of the results of extreme perfectionism. Perfectionism and depression are of the factors influencing on academic progress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perfectionism and depression with academic achievement in the students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Methodology-200 students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this study by classification sampling method. Data collection was performed using Frost Multi-Dimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) and Beck Depression Questionnaire. The questionnaire reliability was confirmed by Alpha coefficient of 87%. The FMPS questionnaire has six sub-scales. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS16 software and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings- There was no significant relationship between gender, educational field, semester and faculty with depression, while a significant relationship was seen between the sex and some of the sub-scales of perfectionism (P <0.01). There was a significant and negative correlation between the depression (P =0.04, r=-0.193) and the parental criticism (P=0.000, r =0.346). Conclusion-Depression and parental criticism were the effective factors on academic achievement.

[Bimanand Lida, Sayehmiri Koroush, Peyman Hadi and Khosravi Afra . The Relationship between Perfectionism and Depression with Academic Achievement among the Students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences.

 Life Sci J. 2012;9(2): 567-570]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 86

Keywords: Perfectionism, Depression, Academic Achievement, Students, Ilam

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The importance of lifelong education

 

Mehran Bozorgmanesh 1 , Maryam Khodamoradi2 , Abbas Emami 3 and Esmaeel Ghorbani 4

 

1,2,3,4 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Lifelong learning is the continuous building of skills and knowledge throughout the life of an individual. It occurs through experiences encountered in the course of a lifetime. These experiences could be formal (training, counseling, tutoring, mentorship, apprenticeship, higher education, etc.) or informal (experiences, situations, etc.) Lifelong learning, also known as LLL, is the "lifelong, voluntary, and self-motivated" pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. As such, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship and personal development, but also competitiveness and employability. Adult learning is any 'post-compulsory' learning. Adult learning is not just about formal qualifications but includes all forms of skill development activities including formal college education, job related and workplace training, informal and community education, skills updating and refreshing, or general self improvement. In the context of demographic and technological change and globalisation, an educated and skilled population represents one of the strongest foundations for ensuring a strong and healthy economy and a socially inclusive society.adult who is able to recognize their needs .

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh, Maryam Khodamoradi, Abbas Emami  and Esmaeel Ghorbani. The importance of lifelong education. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):571-573]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 87

 

Keywords: lifelong education, learning

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The Effect Of Cognitive-Behavioral Couneseling On The Level Of Anxiety In Woman With Sexual Dysfunction

 

Peymaneh Nemati 1*, Karapetyan V. 2, Seyedreza Haghi3

 

1. Department of Psychology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2. Department of Pedagogy, Professor of Psychology, Armenian State University ,Yerevan, Armenia

3-Department of Management, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

p.nemati99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. It is the displeasing feeling of fear and concern. The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'; in either presence or absence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness, and dread.  The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is high and it may significantly affect self-esteem and quality of life. Even sexual dysfunction of short duration can create frustration and anguish. When chronic, it may lead to anxiety and depression, harm relationships, and cause problems in other aspects of life. The goal of the present research is to study the effect of cognitive-behavioral counseling on the level of anxiety in women with sexual dysfunction. Method and materials for this research study are  Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) that focused on cognitive restructuring, modification of cognitive distortions and training of behavioral techniques. Data analysis showed that the cognitive behavior therapy has significantly effect on reduction of anxiety. Cognitive counseling as a therapeutic method can have a significant role in improvement of women suffering from anxiety which is resulted from sexual dysfunction.

[Peymaneh Nemati, Karapetyan V., Seyedreza Haghi. The Effect Of Cognitive-Behavioral Couneseling On The Level Of Anxiety In Woman With Sexual Dysfunction. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):574-577]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 88

 

Keywords: Sexual Dysfunction, Anxiety, Cognitive Behavior Counseling, Women

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Serum Soluble Interleukins-2 Receptors in Bronchial Asthmatic Children

 

Laila Damanhouri and Zahira M. F. El-Sayed

 

Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Lailahhd71@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background:  Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory airway disease characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells into bronchial tree and increased airway hyper-reactivity to various physical and chemical stimuli. The aim of this study was to detect soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2) serum levels, as marker of T lymphocyte activation in vivo, among bronchial asthmatic children in relation to infection, atopy status and disease severity. Methods:  Sixty bronchial asthmatic children (30 with acute and 30 with stable asthma); and 17 apparently healthy children as controls were recruited. History taking and clinical examinations were performed among all studied groups. Venous blood sample was withdrawn for measuring of sIL-2R using ELISA technique. Pharyngeal swabs were taken for detecting organism causes the disease.Results: The predominant infection was viral with total 40% of examined cases; respiratory syncitial virus and Adenovirus were prevalent virus pathogens in asthmatic children. While Haemophilus influenza and Candida albicans were most common causes of bacterial infections. sIL-2R serum level was significantly elevated in acute and chronic asthmatic children versus controls and in acute versus chronic patients. Meanwhile, in acute asthmatic children, insignificant differences were recorded between different degrees disease severity or allergic status. Conclusion: sIL-2R is an important interleukin associated with bronchial asthma in  children; this interleukin can indicate disease activity. In addition it can’t be used as indicator for severity or atopy of the disease.

[Laila Damanhouri and Zahira M. F. El-Sayed. Serum Soluble Interleukins-2 Receptors in Bronchial Asthmatic Children. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):578-584]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 89

 

Keywords: Bacteria, Bronchial asthma; Children; Soluble interleukin-2 receptors; Viruses

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A Literature Review of Factors Influencing Breast Cancer Screening in Asian Countries

 

Maryam Ahmadian, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah

 

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Marydian50@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is a major public health concern among Asian women. As breast cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stages in younger women, mortality rates are frequently higher compared with rates in developed nations. Due to the influence of various psychological, social, and cultural factors on breast cancer, women are reluctant to screen their breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when treatment is most expected to be successful. Screening options for Asian women are also limited because of demographic constrains and their knowledge of preventive health measures. This paper proceeds to review the existing literature on factors influencing breast cancer screening among Asian women. For the most part, health care professionals, medical doctors, gynecologists, and breast cancer advocates should find actual ways to overcome psychological barriers such as beliefs about pain, fear, embarrassment, and modesty of women through public awareness campaigns. Considerable attention should be also devoted to lower socioeconomic status women. In the same way, health care providers should explain to the women about the importance of breast cancer as a common disease and the existence of breast cancer screening programs in a small scale approach, as well as the benefits that participation in these programs can offer. This initiative is about enhancing health status among women and it is part of community development endeavor.  

[Maryam Ahmadian, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah. A Literature Review of Factors Influencing Breast Cancer Screening in Asian Countries. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):585-594]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 90

 

Keywords: Asian women, Breast cancer screening, Socio-cultural factors, Community development

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Factors Influencing Households’ Income Shock Exposure and Coping Options in Nigeria

 

Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa. asoyekale@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Income shock is the driving force of poverty in Nigeria. This study analyzed the different forms of shocks that households experienced with some welfare losses. The Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire (CWIQ) data that comprise of 75329 households were used.  The data were analyzed with simple descriptive methods and Probit regression. The results show that probability of shock exposure decreases significantly (p<0.01) with access to improved drinking water, improved toilet, health facility well/borehole, agricultural inputs, agricultural produce buyers, consumer goods, employment opportunities, assets and credit facilities. It was recommended that ensuring that development projects target the poor will assist in reducing their exposure to shocks.

 [Abayomi Samuel Oyekale. Factors Influencing Households’ Income Shock Exposure and Coping Options in Nigeria. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):595-601]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 91

 

Keywords: Shock, poverty, development projects, Nigeria

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Cytological, Histological Uni- and Multi-Immunohistochemical Marrow Examinations in Detecting Early Disseminated Tumor Cells in De Novo Breast Cancer Patients.

 

Amr El-S. Zaher

 

Clinical Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

amr_zaher_66@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated the independent prognostic value of detecting bone marrow (BM) disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) at initial diagnosis of 1ry breast cancer (BC) patients. Therefore, an accurate detection of these DTCs in the BM is very critical and must be obtained by using the most reliable and sensitive detection methodologies. In this respect, our study aimed to evaluate the detection capacities of the cytological, histological, uni- and multi-immunohistochemical (IHC) marrow examinations for early DTCs in the BM of newly diagnosed patients with non-stage IV 1ry BC. This study included 80 of these patients that were subjected to CBC, BM aspiration/biopsy and IHC staining by a panel of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) including Cytokeratin (CK), Mammaglobin and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3).  The detection rate of the histological BM examinations (11.3%) was significantly higher than that of the cytological one (2.5%), p-value =0.04. Our individual interpretation of the uni-IHC marrow examinations, using the above mentioned 3 McAbs, revealed that their detection rates (21.3%, 26.3% and 35%) were considerably variable but were significantly higher than that of the routine histological ones, p-values= 0.049, 0.035 and 0.02, for CK, Mammaglobin and CA15-3, respectively. The results obtained from the uni-IHC marrow examinations, using the same 3 McAbs, also showed variable degrees of agreement between each other. Therefore, a total interpretation of multi-IHC marrow examinations for these 3 McAbs was established. From the quantitative point of view, our multi-IHC total interpretation revealed a detection rate (47.5%) significantly higher than that of our histological interpretation (11.3%), p-value = 0.01; also, from the qualitative point of view, our results of both histological and multi-IHC total interpretations showed a highly significant statistical difference, p-value = 0.001. We concluded that for optimal increase in the detection capacity for early DTCs in the BM of de novo patients with non-stage IV 1ry breast cancer, a total interpretation for combined histological/multi-IHC marrow examinations must be performed.

 [Amr El-S. Zaher. Cytological, Histological Uni- and Multi-Immunohistochemical Marrow Examinations in Detecting Early Disseminated Tumor Cells in De Novo Breast Cancer Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):602-610]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92

 

Key words: Histological; immunohistochemical; detection capacity; disseminated tumor cells; marrow; breast cancer

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Characterization of Fennel Fruits: Types and Quality (I)

 

Mokhtar M. Bishr1, Eman G. Haggag2*, Mohamed M. Moawed3 and Osama M. Salama4

 

1Research and Development Dept., Arab Co. for Pharm. and Med. Plants (MEPACO)

2Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

3Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

4Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharm. Sci. and Pharm. Ind., Future University in Cairo, Egypt

wemisr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Four samples of different fennel fruit cultivars (F 1-F 4), obtained from El-Fayoum, Egypt (F 1), El-Menia, Egypt (F 2), Sudan, El-Khartoum (F 3), and Germany (F 4) were cultivated in MEPACO`s Farm (Arab Co. for Pharm. and Med. Plants, Cairo, Egypt) and the obtained fruits were subjected to macro- and micro-morphological stereomicroscopic examination as well as GC-MS analysis of their volatile oils. The aim of the study is to determine the differences in the macro- and micro- characters of different fruit cultivars as well as their oil constitutes. The results show different exomorphic parameters viz. shape, color, dimensions and surface sculpture. Also the stereomicroscopic examination showed differences in the epicarp, mesocarp; vitti and endosperm. GC-MS analysis of volatile oils of (F 1-F 4) showed on comparing three parameters; fenchone, estragole and trans-anethole that F 4 has the highest percentage of trans-anethole (78.98%), while F 1 and F 2 have close values (1.05 and 1.02%, respectively) followed by F 3 (3.02%). F 4 has the lowest percentage of estragole (3.97%); while (F 1-F 3) have higher values (78.58, 64.81 and 25.79%, respectively). Also F 4 has doubled the percentage of fenchone (6.73%) of F 1 and F 2 (2.54 and 2.57%, respectively), while F 3 has 0.69%. Thus results show that the two cultivars growing in Egypt (F 1 and F 2) have almost the same ratios of the compared parameters while, the Sudan cultivar F 3 is closer to F 1 and F 2 than it is to F 4. Also the three cultivars (F 1-F 3) are far from specification of sweet fennel oil but close to bitter fennel oil. The German cultivar (F 4) has the best oil quality as a sweet fennel. Investigation of the powdered samples (F 1-F 4) showed that only F 4 is different in having higher abundant fragments of reticulate parenchyma cells with ratio of 1:3 {F 4:(F 1-F 3)}. In conclusion: These findings are of pharmaceutical-industrial value helping in the production of herbal pharmaceutical products of fennel fruit and/or oil of known higher quality.

[Mokhtar M. Bishr, Eman G. Haggag, Mohamed M. Moawed and Osama M. Salama. Characterization of Fennel Fruits: Types and Quality (I). Life Sci J 2012;9(2):611-616]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 93

 

Key Words: Foeniculum vulgare, Fenchone, Estragole, Anethole, Stereomicroscopic examination

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Childhood Brain Lesions: 15 years Experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (1995-2010)

 

Hessa M. AlJhdali and Awatif A. Jamal

 

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University and Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

awatjamal@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Pediatric age brain lesions can be of neoplastic and non-neoplastic nature, the latter include: congenital malformations, inflammatory processes, vascular and cystic lesions [1-2] One of most concerning brain pathology in childhood age is CNS tumors. Malignant brain tumors are the second most common type of pediatric cancer after leukemia [3]. Cancer of the brain and central nervous system comprised 17% of malignancies in children younger than 20 years of age [4]. In Saudi Arabia childhood CNS cancer accounted 11.3% of all childhood cancers [5]. The current study presented the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital regarding Childhood Brain Lesions diagnosed over 15 years period (1995 to 2010) considering frequency, morphological pattern and the demographic data (age distribution and gender) of these lesions and further compared the findings with the national and international experience. A retrospective study conducted using a computerized search of the archives of Pathology Department at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah; from 1995 tell 2010 to retrieve all the brain cases inclusive of all brain regions. In 15 years period 71 cases (25.1%) out of total brain lesions (283 cases) were childhood brain lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions were 40.8% and neoplastic lesions were 59.2%.  Congenital malformations (23.9%) were the commonest non-neoplastic brain lesions, while neuroepithelial tumors ranked first among neoplastic lesions and accounted for 25.4% of childhood brain lesions (CBL) in the study. The astrocytic tumors comprised the majority of the glial tumors (94.4%) with mean age of 8.3 years and M: F ratio 1.4:1. The pilocytic astrocytoma represented 64.7% of all astrocytic tumors. The second malignant tumor was embryonal tumors (medulloblastoma) and accounted for 18.3 % of CBL with male predominance. In conclusion, a single institute experience was reported revealing that primary CNS tumors were the commonest brain lesions in the pediatric age. Furthermore, in concurrence with the national and international experience, astrocytic tumors ranked as first primary CNS tumor of childhood age, followed by medulloblastoma.

[Hessa M. AlJhdali and Awatif A. Jamal. Childhood Brain Lesions: 15 years Experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (1995-2010). Life Sci J 2012;9(2):617-623]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 94

 

Keywords: Pediatric; brain; lesion; neoplastic; congenital malformation; inflammatory; medulloblastoma

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Propolis versus Daktarin in mucosal wound healing

 

1Zoba H. Ali and 2 Heba Mahmoud Dahmoush   

 

Departments of 1Oral Biology and 2Oral Pathology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. rawya_h2a@yhaoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of propolis versus daktarin on mucosal wound healing. Forty eight albino rats were randomly divided into three groups; G 1 (propolis), G 2 (daktarin) and control group. Following the induction of a surgical mucosal wound in the labial mucosa by means of a 1-mm punch-biopsy instrument, biopsy specimens were taken on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 from groups of sacrificed rats and stained with haematoxylin-eosin stains, Mallory's trichrome stain as well as CD68 immunohistochemical stain. Data were analyzed statistically.  Histological evaluation of each specimen was done and scoring criteria were used to compare the healing status of wounds. There was no statistical significance between different groups, on day 1. However there was statistically significant difference between G1 and both G2 and control group on day 3. On day 7, statistically significant difference was found between G1 and control group, but there was no statistically significant difference between G1 and G2. Conclusion: Propolis has an enhancing effect on the healing of oral mucosal wounds compared to daktarin.

[Zoba H. Ali and Heba Mahmoud Dahmoush. Propolis versus Daktarin in mucosal wound healing. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):624-636]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 95

 

Key words: Propolis; Daktarin; Labial mucosa; CD68 Immunohistochemical stain.

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Effect of Openings on the Static and Dynamic Behavior of Quadratic Folded Plate Roofing Systems

 

1Hala Elkady and 2Ahmed Hassan

 

1Civil Engineering Department, National Research Center of Egypt

2 Civil Engineering Department, Beni-suef University, Egypt

Ahmedhb96@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of openings on the structural behaviour of quadratic folded plate Q.F.P. roofs by using different geometric configurations for the main elements of the system. The impact of such variance on the behaviour of the structure system under both static and dynamic conditions is also investigated. The selected and investigated parameters in this study are the location and size of the openings, as well as the rise of the folded plates (height). Spans of 14 m, 20 m and 26 m were selected for all of the investigated parameters. To meet the goals of this study, a 3-D Finite Element Model (FEM) was adopted to examine the suggested variables. A linear static analysis was performed to analyse the effect of the investigated parameters on the system deflections, moments, tension and compression stress. Q.F.P. slabs with rises varying from 90 cm to 180 cm were studied. The results indicated that the difference in the rise reduced the roof deflection by 72%. Moreover, the behaviour of the folded plate with openings at different locations was improved. The compression stress of the Q.F.P. roofs increased by 120% to 170% when the location of the centre openings on the models length increased from 14 m to 26 m. Folded plate openings at at the quarter length of the folded plate further reduced the compression stress by 5% to 56% when the model span changed from 14 m to 26 m. The location of the edge openings had a slight effect on the compressive stress compared to other factors. The opening location did not have a significant effect on the tensile stress of the Q.F.P. slabs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the maximum bending moment for the intermediate beams increased by 69% when the centre openings were located at the beam centre. The maximum bending moment at 0.57 L (intermediate beam length) for the quarter opening location increased by 64% compared to control model. The edge opening location had a slight effect on the diaphragm bending moment and the intermediate beam fixed-end moment. Four different opening sizes were studied, and the effect of the opening size for the 26-m model was found to increase the static and dynamic behaviour by no more than 6%. Three-dimensional dynamic modal analyses were performed, and the effect of different opening locations on the fundamental modes was investigated. The results of the modal analysis showed that the openings location did not significantly affect the fundamental frequencies or fundamental mode shapes. The results obtained from this study emphasise the importance of using an elaborate numerical analysis to address such sensitive models; furthermore, the geometric properties and openings location of each contributing element clearly affected the overall performance of the system. Finally, the model results indicated that the folded plate opening location at the centre of the beam is the most effective parameter of those investigated here, while the edge opening location in the folded plate had the lowest effect on both the static and dynamic behaviour of the investigated system.

[Hala Elkady and Ahmed Hassan. Effect of Openings on the Static and Dynamic Behavior of Quadratic Folded Plate Roofing Systems. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):637-646]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 96

 

Key words: Folded plates; Height; Openings location; Free vibrations

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Screening tuberculosis in the Sistan region of Iran: A Population-Based Study

 

Mosayeb Shahryar1, Abbasali Niazi2 and Behzad Narouie3*

1: Department of  Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine Research Center,  Zahedan University  of Medical  Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2:Department of Pathology, Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

3:Researcher of Clinical Research Development Center, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital ,  Zahedan University of Medical Science, Zahedan, Iran.

 *Corresponding Author:

Behzad Narouie (MD) ;General Practitioner, Researcher of Clinical Research Development Center, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

Email :b_narouie@yahoo.com;    Telefax : +985413414103

  

Abstract: Estimation of the prevalence of tuberculosis is one of the most important needs for the provision of health services in Iran. In this study, we investigate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in the Sistan region of Iran. A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2010 in the Sistan region of Iran. Sistan has a total population of 410,713, including 50,322 families. 21,645 of these individuals (or 5.27%) have a history of chronic cough (a cough lasting more than 2 weeks) based on our survey. Individuals who were suspected of having tuberculosis were referred to the district health center. For each case, diagnostic procedures including physical examination of the chest for evaluation of Bacillus Calmette-Gurin status, obtaining of 3 sputum smear samples, and radiography of the chest.  Of 410,713 individuals, 6250 (or 1.52%) demonstrated scarring typical of BCG, and chronic cough was confirmed via clinical workup in 8140 participants. Among these participants, 4034 (0.98% of the Sistan population) presented with productive cough; sputum specimens were taken from this group. Chest radiographs showed characteristic pulmonary tuberculosis lesions in 27 (6.58%) of 410 patients in whom radiography was performed on the basis of clinical findings. Seven patients were identified as having tuberculosis through sputum smears; five other patients were found to not have tuberculosis via this method. With respect to the different types of diagnostic methods used, the differences among them for positive predictive value, specificity and sensitivity were significant (p<0.05). The likelihood ratio for chest radiography was also significantly greater than that for the sputum smear method (33.31 versus 19.1; p<0.05). Only 276 of the patients with pulmonary Tuberculosis were identified via Health Service System (HSS) screening method in Sistan, and the rest were diagnosed though recent study. Our findings suggest that the diagnostic power of chest radiograph is more than sputum smear; however, we think the HSS method for taking sputum was not a controlled one.

[Mosayeb Shahryar  ,  Abbasali Niazi and Behzad Narouie. Screening tuberculosis in the Sistan region of Iran: A Population-Based Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):647-650]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 97

Key Words: Chronic Cough, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Sputum Smear.  

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Natural Radioactivity and Heavy Metal s in Milk Consumed in Saudi Arabia and Population Dose Rate Estimates

 

J. H. Al-Zahrani

 

Physics Department, Girls Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author: jalzhrani@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This paper represents an important part of the Saudi Food and Drug Authority plane to reach its aims regarding the safety and effectiveness of food for humans. The results of radioactivity analysis carried out for 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in powdered infant's milk used in Jeddah city. The main detected activity corresponding  to 40K was within the range reported in different parts of the world with average activity of 234.181.9BqKg-1, while the average activities of 226Ra,232Th were 0.46 Bqkg-1, and 0.35 Bqkg-1, respectively, although the activity of some samples were below the detection limit. The total average effective dose due to annual intake of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K from the ingestion of the powdered milk for infants were estimated to be 410Sv for infant ≤1Y and157 Sv for infants (1-2Y), which are lower than allowed value (1mSv). The heavy metals analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The geometric mean of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Pb in the samples of powdered milk was found to be 3.033 , 2.91, 0.031 ,0.182 and 0.034 mg/ kg respectively, where as the daily intake was computed to be 0.186, 0.179, 0.002 ,0.001 and 0.002 mg / day, respectively. The results showed that the intake of heavy metals through the ingestion of milk did not exceed the limit of one as proposed by US-IPA. This study could be useful as a baseline data for radiation and heavy metals exposure to infant’s milk and their impact on infant’s health.

[J. H. Al-Zahrani. Natural Radioactivity and Heavy Metal s in Milk Consumed in Saudi Arabia and Population Dose Rate Estimates. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):651-656]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 98

 

 Keywords: Natural Radioactivity, Milk, Heavy Metals, Ingestion dose, Hazard quotient.

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Effect of Acute Apelin Injection on Cardiac Muscle Performance in both Normal and Diabetic Rats

 

Mohammad I. Shehata, Mostafa H. Abdel-Salam, Dalia I. Abd Alaleem, and Hadeel A Al-Sherbiny

 

Department of physiology, Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University

miar2009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Apelin is an adipokine originally identified as the endogenous ligand of the G protein coupled receptor APJ. Several studies have demonstrated that apelin and its receptor are involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Apelin was also found to have a positive inotropic effect in both rat and human hearts. However, this effect in case of cardiovascular diseases is controversial. Diabetes mellitus is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease which is the leading cause of death in those patients. Aim: This study was designed to detect possible acute effects of in vivo apelin-13 injection on cardiac performance in both normal and diabetic state, with a trial to clarify possible involved mechanisms .Material & methods: This study was conducted on 72 healthy, adult, male albino rats. The animals were divided equally into three main groups: Group I: Control group. Group II: Streptozotocin -induced diabetic non treated rats. Group III: Insulin treated diabetic rats. Experimental design: In the three groups we examined the effect of  acute injection of apelin-13 (10 nmol /kg b.wt) alone or in the presence of propranolol (0.2mg/kg b.wt), verapamil (4.8mg/kg),  benzamil HCL (Na/ Ca+2 exchange (NCX) blocker) (10 nmol/kg), on cardiac muscle performance. Results: The present results demonstrated that apelin-13 administration significantly increased cardiac muscle performance (p<0.001) without any significant changes in heart rate, in all groups, as evidenced by the significant increase in (+dT max/ t max) and (-dT max/tr). In addition, this increase was more significant in diabetic rats in comparison with that of both control and diabetic treated rats. Moreover, the observed effects are independent of the voltage- gated calcium channels or B- adrenergic receptors but appear to involve activation of the sacrolemmal Na++ /Ca++ exchanger (NCX). Conclusion: apelin-13 exerted both positive inotropic and lusiotropic effects without affection of the heart rate in vivo, which was more significant in diabetic rats in comparison with that of both normal and insulin treated rats. Our results also suggested that this response to apelin involved activation of Na+- Ca+2 exchange channels (NCX). Therefore, the use of apelin may be investigated as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the impact of chronic administration requires further attention.

[Mohammad I. Shehata, Mostafa H. Abdel-Salam, Dalia I. Abd Alaleem, and Hadeel A Al-Sherbiny. Effect of Acute Apelin Injection on Cardiac Muscle Performance in both Normal and Diabetic Rats. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):657-669]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 99

 

Key words: Apelin, diabetes, heart pressure, rats

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Phenolic and biological activities of Vitex trifolia aerials parts

 

1 Salah EL- Kousy, *2 Mona Mohamed, 3 Shimaa Mohamed

 

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI), Giza, Egypt

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Monoufia University

3Department of Chemistry, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technological Application

Shima321321@yahoo.com; tbi20042003@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Vitex trifolia (Family: Verbenaceae) grows as an herbaceous plant in Egypt.  Most of the Verbenaceae plants contain phenolic compounds which have important pharmacologically properties. V. trifolia aerial parts methanol extract was fractionated by repeated column chromatographic separation to obtain a phenyl ethanoid which isolated for the first time from the genus Vitex along with five phenolic metabolites. The identification and structure elucidation of the isolated compounds were based on   chemical and spectral data (UV, ESI-MS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMQC and HMBC) and also by direct comparison with respectively published data.  Cytotoxic activities of the plant aerial parts extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform) have been studied herein for the first time using, brine shrimp bioassay method (LC50 values 140 mg ml-1, 165 mg ml-1 and 180 mg ml-1, respectively).  Total phenolic content of different aerial parts extracts and the antioxidant activity of the major isolates has been studied as well. The radical scavenging activities of compounds 1 - 3 were measured and compound 1 have been identified as the most promising compound.

[Salah  EL- Kousy, Mona Mohamed, Shimaa Mohamed. Phenolic and biological activities of Vitex trifolia aerials parts. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):670-677]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 100

 

Key words: Vitex trifolia, Flavonoids, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity, Phenylethanoid

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Determinants of medical care service personnel knowledge sharing intention: an empirical study  

 

Ming-Tien Tsai1, Kun-Shiang Chen1,2,*

 

1  Department of Business Administration of Management, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC.

2 Department of Optometry, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (*corresponding author) yco168@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Historically, knowledge management plays a predominant role in enhancing organizational performance. Organizations adopt what methods to capture useful knowledge from knowledge repositories for accumulation, is the largest challenge in the organization. The organization will be encourage and instruct inter-organization members vigorous to promote the exchange and sharing of knowledge attitude and intention to facilitate organizational competitiveness and operating performance. In the health care domain, reliance on staff expertise to perform the operation is very professional practice. Medical service personnel in the implementation of daily operation often need to communicate with colleagues and work together to exclude the health care problem. This research review the theory of reasoned action, and individual’s intrinsic motivations with extrinsic factors to observe related impact on the antecedents of knowledge sharing intention. Further, to this end, the authors integrate knowledge sharing literature to inference and develop a conceptual framework to empirical factors interrelationships in medical care service area.

[Ming-Tien Tsai, Kun-Shiang Chen. Determinants of medical care service personnel knowledge sharing intention: an empirical study. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):678-680] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 101

 

Keywords: medical care service personnel, extrinsic rewards, resource availability, anticipated reciprocal relationships, theory of reasoned action 

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Sputum Cytology – An Underutilized Diagnostic Tool:  A Single Institute Experience

                                                                                                                      

Awatif Jamal1 and Ibrahim Mansoor2

 

1Department of Histopathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Histopathology Section, International Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

awatjamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Sputum cytology is a valuable diagnostic tool which under underutilized in our clinical practice. The aim of this study is to report our experience utilizing this tool to diagnose various respiratory disorders and to report the utility and accuracy of this procedure in our institute. Design: A retrospective analysis of all sputum smears from Jan 1995 to December 2010. Settings: The Department of Pathology at King Abdulaziz University hospital Jeddah, Western region of Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: All sputum cytology samples received at the Department of Pathology were reviewed. Interventions: Cytology smears, clinical history and surgical follow-ups were reviewed. Main Outcome measures: The data was analyzed to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Results: A total of 191 cases of sputum cytology were examined during this period and only 38 (20%) patients had a subsequent follow up biopsies.  Cytology diagnosis was categorized (reporting system of our laboratory) as atypical in 4 cases, malignant in 5 cases, inflammatory in 17 cases, insufficient in 21 cases, and negative in 144 patients. The subsequent histological follow-up in 38 cases was categorized as malignant in 21cases, inflammatory /benign in 12 cases and negative in 5 cases. Cross-tabulating the cytology with surgical follow-up revealed 3 true-positive, one false-positive, 16 true-negative, and 15 false-negative cases. Conclusion: Sputum cytology showed high specificity (94%) and positive-predictive value (75%) and low sensitivity (16.7%) and a negative-predictive value (52%). The low sensitivity limited the sputum-cytology as a screening tool. But in patients suspected of having malignant lesions the high specificity of this tool can be utilized to get diagnosis before proceeding to invasive procedures.

[Awatif Jamal and Ibrahim Mansoor. Sputum Cytology – An Underutilized Diagnostic Tool: A Single Institute Experience. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):681-685]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 102

 

Key Words: Sputum, Mucus, Cytology.

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Characterization of Fennel Fruits: Types and Quality (I)

 

Mokhtar M. Bishr1, Eman G. Haggag2*, Mohamed M. Moawed3 and Osama M. Salama4

 

1Research and Development Dept., Arab Co. for Pharm. and Med. Plants (MEPACO)

2Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

3Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

4Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharm. Sci. and Pharm. Ind., Future University in Cairo, Egypt

wemisr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Four samples of different fennel fruit cultivars (F 1-F 4), obtained from El-Fayoum, Egypt (F 1), El-Menia, Egypt (F 2), Sudan, El-Khartoum (F 3), and Germany (F 4) were cultivated in MEPACO`s Farm (Arab Co. for Pharm. and Med. Plants, Cairo, Egypt) and the obtained fruits were subjected to macro- and micro-morphological stereomicroscopic examination as well as GC-MS analysis of their volatile oils. The aim of the study is to determine the differences in the macro- and micro- characters of different fruit cultivars as well as their oil constitutes. The results showing different exomorphic parameters viz. shape, color, dimensions and surface sculpture. Also the stereomicroscopic examination showed differences in the epicarp, mesocarp; vitti and endosperm. GC-MS analysis of volatile oils of (F 1-F 4) showed on comparing three parameters; fenchone, estragole and trans-anethole that F 4 has the highest percentage of trans-anethole (78.98%), while F 1 and F 2 have close values (1.05 and 1.02%, respectively) followed by F 3 (3.02%). F 4 has the lowest percentage of estragole (3.97%); while (F 1-F 3) have higher values (78.58, 64.81 and 25.79%, respectively). Also F 4 has doubled the percentage of fenchone (6.73%) of F 1 and F 2 (2.54 and 2.57%, respectively), while F 3 has 0.69%. Thus results show that the two cultivars growing in Egypt (F 1 and F 2) have almost the same ratios of the compared parameters while, the Sudan cultivar F 3 is closer to F 1 and F 2 than it is to F 4. Also the three cultivars (F 1-F 3) are far from specification of sweet fennel oil but close to bitter fennel oil. The German cultivar (F 4) has the best oil quality as a sweet fennel. Investigation of the powdered samples (F 1-F 4) showed that only F 4 is different in having higher abundant fragments of reticulate parenchyma cells with ratio of 1:3 {F 4:(F 1-F 3)}. In conclusion: These findings are of pharmaceutical-industrial value helping in the production of herbal pharmaceutical products of fennel fruit and/or oil of known higher quality.

[Mokhtar M. Bishr, Eman G. Haggag, Mohamed M. Moawed and Osama M. Salama. Characterization of Fennel Fruits: Types and Quality (I). Life Sci J 2012;9(2):686-691]. (ISSN:10978135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 103

 

Key Words: Foeniculum vulgare, Fenchone, Estragole, Anethole, Stereomicroscopic examination.

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Prognostic Value of Cyclin E and Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor (P27) Gene Expression in Non – Hodgkin's Lymphoma

 

Manal A. Eid1; Basma M. Elgamal2; Ghada M. Ezat3; Eman A. Amer 4 and Hoda A. Salem 5

 

Clinical Pathology Departments, Tanta University1; NCI, Cairo University2; El-Fayoum University3;

4 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Ahram Canadian University

5Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University

basmaelgamal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The eukaryotic cell cycle is controlled by protein kinase complexes composed of cyclins and cyclin dependent Kinases (Cdks). The activity of Cdks is regulated by binding of positive effectors, the cyclins, and by association-dissociation of inhibitory subunits, designated cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs). Cyclins, Cdks, and CKIs are frequently altered in human cancer. P27 is a CKI that regulates progression from G1 into S phase and appears to play a role in both cell growth and differentiation. Cyclin E, in conjunction with its kinase partner Cdk2, regulates many aspects of cell division. Many human cancers express high levels of cyclin E, and this is thought to directly contribute to cell transformation and tumor aggressiveness. The aim of this study was to study the prognostic value of p27 and cyclin E protein expression levels in relation to the staging of NHL, laboratory data, clinical manifestations and to predict patient's survival. The patients were subjected to full work-up for diagnosis of NHL and Western blot analysis for detection of p27 and cyclin E protein expression.40 newly diagnosed patients suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in different stages and twenty healthy subjects were the subject matter of this study. Our results showed over expression of cyclin E and down regulation of p27, which was significantly associated with advanced staging of the disease. There was a positive correlation between age and over expression of cyclin E and inverse correlation with p27 expression. Over expression of cyclin E and down regulation of p27 were significantly associated with laboratory and clinical findings, delayed remission, increased relapse and increased death rate. Conclusion: p27 and cyclin E expression are significant, independent prognostic factors and reliable molecular markers in predicting recurrence and selection of patients for adjuvant therapy in malignant lymphoma.

[Manal A. Eid; Basma M. Elgamal; Ghada M. Ezat; Eman A. Amer  and Hoda A. Salem. Prognostic Value of Cyclin E and Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor (P27) Gene Expression in Non – Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):692-699]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 104

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Effect of Seasonal Temperature Changes on Thyroid Structure and Hormones Secretion of White Grouper (Epinephelus Aeneus) in Suez Gulf, Egypt

 

Hossam H. Abbas1, Mohammad M. Authman1, Mona S. Zaki1 and Gamal F. Mohamed2

 

1 Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2 Food Processing Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The thyroid is the largest and one of the phylogenetically oldest endocrine glands in vertebrate species. It is the first endocrine structure to become recognizable during an animal’s development. Although the thyroid gland is structurally conserved in all vertebrate species, exhibiting a similar follicular structure and function. Seasonal temperature changes on the thyroid gland structure and hormones secretion was examined in white grouper; Epinephelus aeneus in Seuz Gulf, Egypt. 60 male of white grouper; E. aeneus (138.56.05 g) were netted from Suez Gulf during a year from July 2008 to June 2009. Water temperature and salinity were ranging from 12 to 34oC and 39 to 40 ppt during cold and warm seasons, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein for thyroid hormones analysis. Samples of E. aeneus were dissected to expose the internal organs, histological examination and measuring the cell height of the thyroid epithelium. Thyroid gland composed of follicles scattered around the ventral aorta, near the gills. Follicular cells varied according to secretion of the gland during warm and cold seasons. Thyroid hormones [Triidothyronine (T3) and Thyroxin (T4)] were detected in the fish serum in levels ranged from 1.28-4.08 ng/ml for T3 and 0.22-1.11 ng/ml for (T4) in the warm and cold seasons, respectively. The results showed that the height of thyroid epithelium and plasma concentration of thyroid hormones (thyroid activity) in Epinephelus aeneus increased significantly during spring and summer. The peak of these factors occurred in midsummer (August). Then, the thyroid activity decreased significantly during autumn and early winter from October to December according to the decreasing of temperature. T3 and T4 increased significantly from January to April.

[Hossam H. Abbas, Mohammad M. Authman, Mona S. Zaki and Gamal F. Mohamed. Effect of Seasonal Temperature Changes on Thyroid Structure and Hormones Secretion of White Grouper (Epinephelus Aeneus) in Suez Gulf, Egypt. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):700-705]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 105

 

Key Words: White grouper, Epinephelus aeneus, Thyroid Gland, Triidothyronine,Thyroxin, Histology, Serum.

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Metabolic syndrome and risk of Coronary Artery Disease in west of Iran

 

Shila Berenjy 1,2, Asmah Bt Rahmat 3, Zaitun Bt Yassin 4, Lye Munn Sann 5, Farzad Sahebjamee 6, Parichehr Hanachi 7

 

1. PhD. Candidate, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia

2. Faculty of Food Sciences and Technology, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

3. Professor, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia

4. Associate Professor, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia

5. Professor, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia

6. Associate Professor Department of cardiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Kermanshah, Iran

7. Associate Professor Biochemistry unit, Biology Department, Faculty of Science Alzahra University, Tehran-Iran

shila135071@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A major concern about MS (Metabolic Syndrome) and CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) is that patients with these defects are at higher risks of mortality and morbidity due to a combination of MS risk factors. The purpose of study was to examine the differences between CAD and non-CAD patients regarding their MS components and selected lifestyle behaviors (i.e., dietary intake, physical activity patterns, and smoking habits) and there was an attempt to determine whether MS was an independent risk factor for CAD among the patients. The study used case-control methodology for collection and analysis of the data.  600 participants recruited for study. CLR was applied to quantify the odds Ratio (OR) of CAD associated with MS and its components and other life style risk factors of CAD. MS increased the risk of CAD 4.19 times significantly (OR=4.19, 95%CI=2.603-6.47, P= 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that MS conveyed no additional predictive information beyond its components (odds Ratio=0.81, p=0.6). The focus of physicians should be treatment of individual CAD risk factors, using the metabolic syndrome will not improve prediction of CAD as compared with detailed information on individual CAD risk factors.

[Shila Berenjy, Asmah Bt Rahmat, Zaitun Bt Yassin, Lye Munn Sann, Farzad Sahebjamee, Parichehr Hanachi. Metabolic syndrome and risk of Coronary Artery Disease in west of Iran. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):706-717] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 106

 

Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Coronary artery disease; Risk factor; Iran

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Beneficial effects of the burdock ferment liquid on diabetic disorders in STZ-induced diabetic rats

 

Tsung-Hung Chang1,, I-Min Liu2,†, Chi-Ting Horng3, Feng-Chi Tsai4, Daih-Huang Kuo2, Po-Chuen Shieh2, Shih-Chiang Lee5, Jeng-Chuan Shiang6, Fu-An Chen 2,*

 

1 Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Armed Force General Hospital, Kaohsiung,  Taiwan

2 Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan 3 Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Armed Force General Hospital, Kaohsiung,  Taiwan

4 Taiwan Panbiotic Laboratories Co. Ltd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan

5 Dong Yuan Biotech Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan

6 Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Armed Force General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

The first and second authors contributed equally to this work.

*fachen@mail.tajen.edu.tw

 

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of the burdock (Arctium lappa L.) ferment liquid (BFL) on diabetic disorders employing streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats) as a type-1 diabetic model. There was a tendency towards a reduction in hypercholesterolemia after oral administration of BFL in diabetic rats for 2 consecutive weeks. BFL with abundant inulin was capable of alleviating significantly the hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia. Diabetic-dependent alterations in serum creatinine concentrations, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance were ameliorated after 2-week treatment with BFL in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, BFL with polyphenolic components was able to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical as well as to attenuate the oxidative stress, evidenced by the reduction of hyperactivity in antioxidants including superoxide diamutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma of diabetic rats. Thus, BFL has the ability to decrease the hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and alleviate the hyperglycemia-associated oxidative stress in STZ-diabetic rats.

[Tsung-Hung Chang, I-Min Liu, Chi-Ting Horng, Feng-Chi Tsai, Daih-Huang Kuo, Po-Chuen Shieh, Shih-Chiang Lee, Jeng-Chuan Shiang, Fu-An Chen. Beneficial effects of the burdock ferment liquid on diabetic disorders in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):718-726] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 107

Keywords: Burdock; Arctium lappa L., STZ-diabetic rats; Antioxidant; Hyperlipidemia; hyperglycemia; Oxidative stress

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Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity of Egyptian and Chinese Sunflower Seeds: A Case Study

 

S.F. Hamed*, Suzanne M. Wagdy, and M.G. Megahed

 

Fats and Oils Dept., National Research Centre, 33 Tahrir St., 12622 Dokki,

saidfatouh123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the last few years Chinese sunflower seed has invaded our Egyptian market increasingly. We took it and the Egyptian sunflower seed as a comparable case study to characterize and  investigate them as a source of effective natural antioxidants, oil and protein. Chemical characteristics of the two seeds revealed that protein, oil, ash, moisture and total phenolic contents (TPC) increased significantly (P<0.05) after dehulling with pronounced larger amount of these parameters in the Egyptian sunflower seed compared to the Chinese one. Fatty acid analysis showed that Egyptian sunflower oil contains more than 86% and Chinese sunflower oil contains more than 80% unsaturated fatty acids which give these oils a relative advantage. Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic compound present in TPC as measured by HPLC. Antioxidant activity (AA %) of the phenolic extracts was followed up by measuring radical scavenging activity (RSA %) of the stable DPPH• radical, the degradation rate of β-carotene-linoleic acid o/w emulsion, and the oxidation stability measured by the fully automated active oxygen method (Rancimat). Egyptian sunflower seed have more AA % than Chinese seed as revealed by the higher RSA%, less degradation rate of β-carotene-linoleic acid color and higher induction period measured by Rancimat. Results also demonstrated the suitability of Egyptian and Chinese sunflower seed to be an effective source of protein, with some good functional properties such as solubility, dispersibility water absorption capacity, and emulsifying capacity. Contrary, it showed poor foaming and gelling abilities. Egyptian sunflower oil can also be used as an effective source of unsaturated fats and natural antioxidants (TPC). Hence, can be supplemented in many foods and can replace the synthetic antioxidant with their remarkable hazards.

[S.F. Hamed, Suzanne M. Wagdy, and M.G. Megahed. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity of Egyptian and Chinese Sunflower Seeds: A Case Study. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):727-735] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 108

 

Key words: sunflower seed, chlorogenic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

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Synthesis and molecular modeling study of novel pyrrole Schiff Bases as anti-HSV-1 agents

 

Khalid M. H. Hilmy1*, Dalia H. Soliman2, Esmat B. A. Shahin3, Rakia Abd Alhameed1

 

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

2Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

hilmykhaled@yahoo.com,      khaledhilmy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A series of novel pyrrole Schiff bases were synthesized by reaction of 2-amino-1,5-diaryl pyrrole-3-carbonitrile 1a-h with different aromatic aldehydes using P2O5 as a catalyst to obtain 2a-p, which were evaluated against herpes simplex virus type1 (HSV-1). The compounds 2d, 2h, 2m, and 2n were found to reduce the virus yield by 94-99 %, while compounds 2g, 2k and 2o showed moderate activity (65-70%) compared to ACV (96%). The rest of the compounds were found to be inactive against HSV-1. Molecular modeling studies were carried out through docking the compounds in its most stable conformation into the active site of HSV-1 TK. The study revealed that the best fitted conformer was 2n with a higher docking score (-7.32) and a better binding mode than ACV. The O-atom of the OCH3 group formed two H-bond interactions with Arg176 and Tyr101, hydrogen bonds were also formed with Arg163 and Tyr132 all of which are crucial amino acid residues for the enzyme activity, in addition to a H-bond interaction between the N2-pyrazole and Gly59. It could be suggested that the van der Waal interactions demonstrated by 1, 5-diaryl pyrrole located the molecule in close proximity to the active site Arg176, Tyr101, Arg163 and Tyr132.

[Khalid M. H. Hilmy, Dalia H. Soliman, Esmat B. A. Shahin and Rakia Abd Alhameed. Synthesis and molecular modeling study of novel pyrrole Schiff Bases as anti-HSV-1agents. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):736-745] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 109

 

Keywords: Pyrrole Schiff bases/HSV-1/HSV-Thymidine Kinase/Molecular modeling studies

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Analysis of medications returned to community pharmacies in Alexandria, Egypt

 

Samaa Z. Ibrahim 1, Heba M. Mamdouh 2 and Iman Z. El-Haddad 3

 

1Department of Health Administration and Behavioural Sciences, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University.

2Department of Family Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University.

3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University

 

Abstract: This study aimed to determine the patterns of returning unused medications to a sample of the community pharmacies affiliated to Medical Central Region in Alexandria. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. All drugs returned unused by all individuals attending the selected 60 pharmacies over a period of one month were documented. The randomly selected pharmacies were visited by the researcher and invited to participate in the current study. When a medicine was returned, the pharmacist interviewed the person returning it to complete a questionnaire that was especially developed for the study. This study demonstrated that an enormous amount of drugs are returned to community pharmacies in Alexandria, Egypt. “Treatment change” was the most frequent reason for the drug returns, with cardiovascular and anti-infectives are the predominant groups returned. Investment in proper patient and health-care provider education is an appropriate first step in reducing medication waste. Changing the prescription policy is needed to overcome this waste.

[Samaa Z. Ibrahim, Heba M. Mamdouh  and  Iman Z. El-Haddad. Analysis of medications returned to community pharmacies in Alexandria, Egypt. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):746-751] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 110

 

Keywords: returned medication, community pharmacy, Egypt.

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Efficiency of some Disinfectants on Bacterial Wound Pathogens

 

Thomas Benjamin Thoha1*, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat2, Raheem-Ademola Remi Ramota1, Kolawole Rachael3, Adebare Johnson Adeleke4

 

1.           Department of medical Microbiology and parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University College of Health Sciences, Sagamu, Ogun-State, Nigeria.

2.              Department of Microbiology, olabisi onabanjo university, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

3.              Department of cell Biology and Cytogenetics, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.

4.              Department of Microbiology,University of Ibadan,Oyo state, Nigeria.

Benthoa2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Disinfectant are chemical agent used on inanimate object but can also be employed as antiseptic at a very low concentration.It is therefore imperative to determine the efficiency of some commonly used disinfectants on the frequently encountered bacterial wound pathogens.The antibacterial effect of these chemical agents were carried out using standard microbiological techniques.Results showed that the investigated disinfectants at 50% and 100% concentration causes 100% bacterial cell reduction.The Minimum inhibitory concentration of the investigated disinfectant ranged from 0.78 – 6.25% while the MBC ranged from 3.13 – 12.5%. The MBC to MIC ratio also ranged from 1 – 4, thereby further asserting the bactericidal power of the tested disinfectants. It can therefore be concluded that professionals involved in the care of wound  should consider the use of these agents for washing the surfaces of infected wounds in order to minimize the possible spread of multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens from wounds to other sources.

[Thomas Benjamin Thoha, Musa Oluwaseunfunmi Sikirat, Raheem-Ademola Remi Ramota, Kolawole Rachael, Adebare Johnson Adeleke. Efficiency of some Disinfectants on Bacterial Wound Pathogens. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):752-755] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 111

 

KEYWORDS: Disinfectants, bacteria, wound pathogens

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Reduction of Toxic Cr6+ Ions in Presence of Non Toxic Acid

 

Mona A. Darweesh

 

Department of Physical and mathematical engineering,  Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Loaned

To chemistry department ,Faculty of Science, Tabuk University. mona_ahmed_dar2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chromium VI is a toxic and carcinogenic element; it could be detected in waste water getting out from many industries as tannery, textile and electroplating of metals. Oxidation reduction process is the most economic and simple way of removing Cr6+ by conversion into Cr3+ (non hazard). The rate of reduction reaction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ in K2Cr2O7 has been studied in absence of nontoxic acids and it is found to be first order reaction. Different acids as acetic acid, formic, glycinecitric acids were also tested at different temperatures and reactions. The rate of the reaction in each case was measured. Thermodynamic parameters ∆G*, ∆H* and ∆S* are estimated from the experimental measurements.

[Mona A. Darweesh. Reduction of Toxic Cr6+ Ions in Presence of Non Toxic Acid. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):756-762] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 112

 

Keywords: waste water, heavy metals, removal of hexavalent Cr

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Plasma Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Dress Style in a Sample of Egyptian Female University Students

 

Maggie M. Fawzi1*, Enas Swelam1 and Nagwa S. Said2

 

 Departments of 1Clinical Pathology and 2Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

*mag0000eg@yahoo.com, mounir.fawzi40@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Sunlight exposure is the most important source of vitamin D. Nevertheless, there are indications of a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a number of sunny countries. Concealed clothing, as it blocks the absorbance of UV light, is hypothesized to be the cause of impairment of vitamin D production.The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and whether vitamin D status is related to the dress style among apparently healthy female university students in a prototype of Egyptian governorates which enjoy a good deal of sunny weather. Methods: A random sample of 120(90 females; 30 males) apparently healthy undergraduate students, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt, were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Females were divided according to their dress style into three groups, Western, Hegab and Nekab dress style group. Vitamin D status was determined in terms of plasma 25(OH) D levels using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D level was 23.7 12.681 ng/mL. Levels did not differ between males and females or between females grouped by dress style. Using a cutoff point of 30 ng/mL, 74.6% of the sample (61.7% and 79.2% of males and females, respectively) had low vitamin D status. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of low vitamin D status among university students in Zagazig, Egypt. Results, however, are not in support of the hypothesis that concealing clothing is the cause of the vitamin D insufficiency. Thus, other factors must be sought to explain the low vitamin D levels despite the sufficient solar source of this vitamin.

[Maggie M. Fawzi, Enas Swelam and Nagwa S. Said Plasma. Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Dress Style in a Sample of Egyptian Female University Students. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):763-767] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 113

 

Keywords:  25(OH) D; Dress Style; Egypt; Hegab; Nekab; Vitamin D.

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Molecular Detection and genotyping of human papilloma virus in cervical specimens among Egyptian Female Patients

 

Howida M. Sharaf1, Nihal S. El-Kinawy1, Nahla M. Awad2 and Mostafa F. Gomaa3

 

Clinical Pathology1, Pathology2, Ain Shams University Hospitals and Gynacology and Obstatric Depart. Faculty of Medcine Ain Shams University3, Egypt

dr.n.awad@gmail.com

 

Abstract:     Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) was found to be involved in a variety of malignancies; cervical cancer is the most important and prevalent. The goal of this study was to identify genital HPV: to determine its rates and possible genotypes in cervical biopsies from Egyptian female patients; to detect its association with non malignant and  malignant cervical lesions and to examine the potential role of HPV in development of cancer cervix. This study was carried out on 60 Egyptian female patients with histopathological evidence of  flat condyloma , CIN and cervical carcinoma in addition to 30 age matched females as control group. The molecular analysis was carried out employing MY09/11 consensus HPV L1 PCR in order to molecularly detect genital HPV. Positive PCR samples for HPV were further subjected to molecular genotyping by Southern blot using specific labeled oligonucleotide probes ( 6-11-16-18) followed sequencing for confirmation. PCR detected HPV DNA in 76.7% of patients and in 10% of the control group. The HPV was positive in 84.2% of patients with flat condyloma lesion of cervix; in 71.4% of the CIN group and in 75% of cancer cervix patients. By Southern blot genotyping, it was found that in flat condyloma HPV genotype 6 was in 62.5% followed by genotype 11 (18.8%). CIN lesions harbored high risk oncogenic HPV genotypes in 53.8%. As regards squamous cell carcinoma HPV genotype 16 was found in 90.9% while HPV 18 was the only genotype detected in adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, HPV infection was found to be common and  more associated with CIN II & III lesions and invasive carcinomas. This  reflects a large unscreened population so introduction of newer techniques in female screening should be  a matter of intense research. HPV DNA detection and genptyping is useful for classifying oncogenic HPV thus serving as a valuable tool in picking up of high risk group.

[Howida M. Sharaf, Nihal S. El-Kinawy, Nahla M.Awad and Mostafa F. Gomaa. Molecular Detection and genotyping of human papilloma virus in cervical specimens among Egyptian Female Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):768-774] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 114

 

Keywords: HPV, CIN, Cancer cervix, Southern blot genotyping

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Antimicrobial Activity of Onion Juice (Allium cepa), Honey, And Onion-Honey Mixture on Some Sensitive and Multi-Resistant Microorganisms

 

Saad B. AL Masaudi and Mona O. AlBureikan

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

saadmasaudi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study conducted here to analyze the antimicrobial activity of onion juice alone which extracted from red Egyptian onion, honey alone  (Langaneza honey, Black Forest ) and honey-onion mixture ( v/v: 1/1, 1/4, 4/1 ) with different concentrations 100 , 50 , 20 and 10% respectively, against 8 microbial species, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC  19615,  Staphylococcus aureus; ( Methicillin- Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus - MSSA) ATCC 25923,  ( Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus -MRSA) ATCC 10442, Enterococcus faecalis; ( Vancomycin -Sensitive Enterococci-VSE ) ATCC 29212, ( Vancomycin - Resistant Enterococci-VRE ) ATCC 51299, Escherichia coli  ATCC 25922 , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Candida albicans ATCC 10291 were investigated  by broth dilution method. The results showed that onion juice at 100%, 50%, 20% and 10% concentration have a very strong effect on the growth of all tested species of microbes comparing with control and Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microbe. Moreover, Honey at 100, 50, 20 and 10% concentration have a very strong effect on the growth of all species of microbes but significantly less than the effect of onion juice. When studying the effects of the onion- honey mixture with different concentrations, it became clear that the mixture (1/1) had a very noticeable effect on all species of examined microbes.. Results also showed that the honey-onion mixture was significantly more effective comparing with onion or honey alone.

[Saad B. AL Masaudi and Mona O. AlBureikan. Antimicrobial Activity of Onion Juice (Allium cepa), Honey, And Onion-Honey Mixture on Some Sensitive and Multi-Resistant Microorganisms. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):775-780] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 115

 

Key word: Onion, Honey, Onion- Honey mixture, Antimicrobial activity, MRSA, MSSA, VSE, VRE

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Morphogenetic abnormalities of Musca domestica vicina induced by glycosidic groups from Calotropis procera plant

 

Najat A. Khatter

 

King Abdulaziz University, Biology Department , Faculty of Science for Girls, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

najat.khatter4@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Latex samples were collected under cold ethanol (95%) from Calotropis procera plant which was obtained from border desert districts of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. The extraction of latex for its glycosidic groups was carried out by soaking or soxhelt extraction by using several solvents with different polarity. The contents were then separated by alumina – charcoal column chromatography with several solvent systems (chloroform, chloroform: ethylacetate (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) and ethylacetate. The pure components were tested against Musca domestica larvae to demonstrate its toxic effects on the morphogentic characters of the developmental stages. The present investigation revealed that the morphogentic aberrations has been induced by all the used plant extracts when applied topically on early 3rd larval instar of M. domestica.

[Najat A. Khatter. Morphogenetic abnormalities of Musca domestica vicina induced by glycosidic groups from Calotropis procera plant. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):781-788] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 116

 

Key words: Structure – house fly – developmental stages – botanicals – toxicity – extraction – chemical components – chromatography

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Dexmedetomidine versus Propofol for Monitored Anesthesia Care In Patients Undergoing Anterior Segment Ophthalmic Surgery Under Peribulbar Medial Canthus Anesthesia

 

Ashraf Darwish, Rehab Sami, Mona Raafat, Rashad Aref and Mohamed Hisham

 

Department of Anesthesia, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt

rehabmsami@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Ophthalmic surgery is commonly performed under local anesthesia with propofol sedation. Dexmedetomidine, a sedative-analgesic, is devoid of respiratory depressant effects. This study compared the use of dexmedetomidine and propofol in patients undergoing anterior segment ophthalmic surgery (cataract and glaucoma). Methods: One hundred patients undergoing combined cataract and glaucoma surgery under peribulbar anesthesia were divided into two groups. The first group (Group D) received i.v. dexmedetomidine infusion 0.2-0.5g/kg/min without loading. The second group (Group P) received propofol 25-75g/kg/min i.v. infusion. Sedation was titrated using Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and bispectral index. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) oxygen saturation (SPO2) and respiratory rate (RR) were recorded from the start of the infusion. Readiness for recovery room discharge (time to Aldrete score) and 7-point likert-like verbal rating scale were evaluated postoperatively. Results: Both groups provided a similar significant reduction in heart rate and mean arterial pressure compared with baseline. The oxygen saturation values of dexmedetomodine group were higher than those of propofol group. The respiratory rate values of the dexmedetomidine group were higher than those in the propofol group. Postoperatively, the time to achieve an Aldrete score of 10 was higher in propofol group. The patients satisfaction was higher in the dexmedetomidine group. Conclusion:  Compared with propofol, dexmedetomidine   appears to be suitable for sedation in patients undergoing cataract surgery. While there was a slightly better subjective patient satisfaction, it was accompanied by relative cardiovascular depression and delayed recovery room discharge.

[Ashraf Darwish, Rehab Sami, Mona Raafat, Rashad Aref and Mohamed Hisham. Dexmedetomidine versus Propofol for Monitored Anesthesia Care In Patients Undergoing Anterior Segment Ophthalmic Surgery Under Peribulbar Medial Canthus Anesthesia. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):789-793] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 117

 

Keywords: Cataract, Dexmedetomidine, Monitored anesthesia care, Propofol.

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A Comparative Study between Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle Regarding Hemodynamic Response to Laryngeal Mask Airway and Intraocular Pressure Changes in Elective Ophthalmic Surgery

 

Mona Raafat Fahim, Ashraf Darwish, Rehab Sami, Hala Bahy and Rashad Aref

 

Anesthesia Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt

rehabmsami@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the different phases of the menstrual cycle on hemodynamic response to laryngeal mask airway and intraocular pressure changes in elective ophthalmic surgeries. Methods: 80 ASA I & II female patients were equally allocated in one of two groups: group 1 (follicular) and group 2 (luteal) according to the phases of the menstrual cycle. Patients received propofol and rocuronium and LMA was introduced. Hemodynamic variables and intraocular pressure were recorded before administration of I.V anesthetic and after LMA introduction. Rate pressure products were calculated as well as IOP measurements. Results: Rate pressure products values were significantly increased at the first minute after LMA introduction in group 2 (luteal) compared to group 1 (follicular) (P < 0.001). There was no significant statistical difference between the two groups regarding the intraocular pressure measurements. Conclusion: The phase of the menstrual cycle affects the hemodynamic response to LMA introduction being higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, whereas the different phases have no significant effect on IOP measurements.

[Mona Raafat Fahim, Ashraf Darwish, Rehab Sami, Hala Bahy and Rashad Aref. A Comparative Study between Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle Regarding Hemodynamic Response to Laryngeal Mask Airway and Intraocular Pressure Changes in Elective Ophthalmic Surgery. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):794-797] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 118

 

Key words: laryngeal mask airway, ophthalmic surgery, intraocular pressure, haemodynamic changes.

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Synthesis Locally Extreme pressure additives via residual sulfur of crude oil

 

Fathy A. El-saied1; EL Sayed, A S2 and Moustafa A. Abou Al Eneen3

 

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, El-Menoufia University , Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.

2 Research Center, Misr Petroleum Company, Cairo, Egypt.

3 LOBP, Misr Petroleum Company , Alexandria, Egypt.

masdeteregent@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this work aimed at synthesis extreme pressure additive via residual sulfur extracted from crude oil. Residual sulfur was used in Sulforization process of plant oil (i.e.: Jatropha & Linseed oils). Sulforization process for plant oils was carried out according to certain conditions. Product obtained from Sulforization of jatropha oil, was additive A, while product obtained from Sulforization linseed oil was additive B. Comparative evaluation study between our local products A&B and two imported additives were carried out through bench and performance tests. From comparative study, it was found local additives A & B give the same efficiency at the same dose of imported once, as extreme pressure functions. Also, Additives A & B were found had antioxidant efficiency than imported once. Additive A & B by this way saving environmental from pollution of residual sulfur, beside highly economic value.

[Fathy A. El-saied, EL Sayed A S and  Moustafa A. Abou Al Eneen. Synthesis Locally Extreme pressure additives via residual sulfur of crude oil. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):798-804] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 119

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The Curial Effect of Vinegar in Reducing the Serious Damages of Lead on the Histological Structure of Some Organs of Embryos and Mature Female Albino Mice

 

Samira Omar Balubaid

 

Department of Biology, faculty of science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Dr-s2012@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This research aims to study the effectiveness of apple cider vinegar to reduce the harmful impact of lead achieve this female adult mice were divided into three groups and given the first group lead acetate, while the second group was given lead and vineger, the third control group was also  treated in the same way. Examined infants of (7-14-21 days). And demonstrated by histological examination over the harmful effects of lead on spleentissue  and thymus in embryos. Sharp in all components of the tissue with low density of lymphocytes. The appearance of hemorrhage tissue. Proliferation in epithelial vertical glands of the uterus was observed. Also an imbalance in the number of uteringlands, lead has a devastating impact on the fabric of the ovary. This led to the lack of mature vesicles, with the appearance of  hemorrhage and fibrosis in the tissue. The absence of corpus luteum while the addition of vinegar to lead led to improved tissue. In neonatal or maternal tissues and the return to almost normal structure.

[Samira Omar Balubaid. The Curial Effect of Vinegar in Reducing the Serious Damages of Lead on the Histological Structure of Some Organs of Embryos and Mature Female Albino Mice. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):805-811] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 120

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Dynamic Stresses and Displacements around Cylindrical Cavities in an Infinite Elastic Medium under Moving Step Loads on the Cavity's Surface

 

Hamid Mohsenimonfared 1, M. Nikkhahbahrami 2

 

1.      Department  of mechanical Engineering, Science & Research Branch , Islamic  Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran

2.                     Department  of mechanical Engineering,Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

h-mohsenimonfared@ iau-arak.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Potential functions and Fourier series method in the cylindrical coordinate system are employed to solve the problem of moving loads on the surface of a cylindrical bore in an infinite elastic medium. The steady-state dynamic equations of medium are uncoupled into Helmholtz equations, via given potentials. It is used that because of the superseismic nature of the problem, two mach cones are formed and opened toward the rear of the front in the medium. The stresses and displacements are obtained by using integral equations with certain boundary conditions. Finally, the dynamic stresses and displacements for step loads with axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric cases are obtained and discussed in details via a numerical example. Moreover, effects of Mach numbers and poisson's ratio of medium on the values of stresses are discussed.

[Hamid Mohsenimonfared, M. Nikkhahbahrami. Dynamic Stresses and Displacements around Cylindrical Cavities in an Infinite Elastic Medium under Moving Step Loads on the Cavity's Surface. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):812-822] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 121

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Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) as a Novel Serum Marker for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

 

Mona A El Shafie1, Amal M Fawzy2, Elhamy Abd Al Monem3, Sherif Abbass4, Doaa M Zakaria5, Sherif El Baz6

 

1Departments of Clinical Pathology, Menoufyia Faculty of Medicine, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute- Cairo University, Egypt

3Clinical Pathology, National Liver Institute-Menoufyia University, Egypt

4Hepatology, National Liver Institute-Menoufyia University

5Internal Medicine -Al Azhar Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Egypt

amalfawzy69@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Serum Golgi protein 73 (sGP73) is a novel and promising biomarker for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are few reports on the predictive values levels of GP73 in diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (LC), HCC and the relationship of this level to clinicopathologic features of patients. Methods: This study included 66 patients, 31 of them were proved HCC and 35 patients have LC, additionally, 20 apparently healthy subjects were included as a control group. Clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonogrphy, Triphasic C.T to patients with focal lesion. Liver function tests, complete blood cell count and serum AFP were measured. Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) were determined by an ELISA technique. Correlations with clinical parameters were done. Results: The serum levels of AFP, DCP and GP73 were significantly elevated in LC and more elevated in HCC cases as compared to controls. The sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for HCC were superior to those of AFP and DCP especially in early detection of HCC, GP73 had a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 95% at the optimal cut-off value of 7.62 ng/ml. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.87. DCP give a sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85% at a cut-off 32.64 ng/ml, while, AFP had a sensitivity of 77.4% and a specificity of 60% at a cut-off 28.51 ng/ml. However, when GP73 used in combination with AFP, they lead to an enhanced the sensitivity of HCC detection up to 90.3% and the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.83. A significant correlation was found between serum GP73 level and prognostic markers of LC (AST, ALT, serum albumin and child score) and more aggressive tumor characters (tumor size and vascular invasion). Conclusion: the serum level of GP73 may be implicated in development of LC and disease progression to HCC. In combination with AFP, it had an overall performance that was better than AFP alone in early detection of HCC. Future study was needed to be confirmed in larger cohorts of patients to determine if these markers are true indicators of early HCC.

[Mona A El Shafie, Amal M Fawzy, Elhamy Abd Al Monem, Sherif Abbass, Doaa M Zakaria, Sherif El Baz. Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) as a Novel Serum Marker for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):823-830]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.122

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Influence of Mechanical properties of Cotton Fabrics on Seam Quality

 

F. Fathy Saied Ebrahim’

 

1Academy of Specific Studies, Worker University

2Faculty of Science & Education, Taif University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

f_wutext@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to study the effect of mechanical properties on seam quality of cotton fabrics. Twenty cotton fabrics are used for experiment. Mechanical properties of the fabrics on warp and weft directions were tested by FAST instrument. Seam efficiency, seam puckering and seam boldness were tested to evaluate seam quality. Curve regressions were used to analyze the influence of mechanical properties on seam quality. The results showed that the shear rigidity and extensibility were closely correlated with the seam efficiency and seam puckering rate, whereas the thickness, weight and shear rigidity were affecting on the seam boldness of the cotton fabrics. The regression equations of seam quality rate were obtained.

[F. Fathy Saied Ebrahim. Influence of Mechanical properties of Cotton Fabrics on Seam Quality. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):831-836]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 123

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Application of ordinal cumulative odds logistic regression model to analyze the influencing factors of quality of life in patients with epilepsy in rural Henan Province, China

 

HAN Xiong1, 2, CHANG Liang3, ZHENG Meiqiong2, SONG Bo1, TAN Song1, MIAO Wang1, WANG Ruihao1, Chandra Avinash1, LIU Xiaojing1, XU Yafang1, XU Yuming1

 

1 Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 450052, Zhengzhou, China

2 Department of Neurology, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, 450003, Zhengzhou, China

3 Henan Province Centre of Disease Control, 450003, Zhengzhou, China

xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Purpose: To investigate and analyze the various factors influencing the quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Methods: QOLIE-31, CES-D, SAS were used to measure multiple indexes of the study population, and multivariate ordinal cumulative logistic regression model was used to conduct univariate and multivariate analysis on the quality of life and its influencing factors among patients with epilepsy. Results: Among the 874 patients with epilepsy, the median score of the 4 different levels of QOL was 28, 44, 67, and 78 respectively. The major influencing factors of QOL among patients with epilepsy were seizure frequency, awareness rate of knowledge on epilepsy, anxiety, depression, types of medication intake and compliance. Among these, high seizure frequency, concomitant anxiety and depression were risk factors of QOL, and high awareness rate of knowledge on epilepsy, single-medication intake and good compliance were protective factors of QOL. Conclusions: The findings highlight the necessity to lay stress on intervening the modifiable influencing factors in special patients with epilepsy. Carrying out targeted health promotion and psychological intervention therapy, along with single medication intake are of vital importance to improve the QOL of patients with epilepsy. This cumulative odds logistic model is of scientific effectiveness.

[HAN Xiong, CHANG Liang, ZHENG Meiqiong, SONG Bo, TAN Song, MIAO Wang, WANG Ruihao, Chandra Avinash, LIU Xiaojing, XU Yafang, XU Yuming. Application of ordinal cumulative odds logistic regression model to analyze the influencing factors of quality of life in patients with epilepsy in rural Henan Province, China. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):837-846]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 124

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Bioactive Compounds & Medicinal Properties of Valeriana jatamansi Jones - a review

 

Aabid M. Rather*, Irshad A. Nawchoo**, Aijaz H. Ganie, Harpal Singh, Bhupender Dutt  and Aijaz A. Wani

 

Economic Botany and Reproductive Biology Research Laboratory

Department of Botany, University of Kashmir,

Srinagar-190 006. J & K. India

Corresponding authors: Email: *abid.bot@gmail.com; **irshadnawchoo@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Valeriana jatamansi Jones commonly known as “Indian Valerian” is a perennial medicinal herb, gynodioecious in nature belonging to family Valerianaceae. Today the species is highly valued medicinal plant with many pharmacopeial monographs. It occurs at an altitude of 1200-3000 m asl. Rhizomes and roots of the herb yields essential oil. The therapeutic properties of Valerian are attributed to a group of compounds known as Valmane and Valepotriates. The Valepotriates are a group of monoterpenoids of irridoid type having epoxy group and beta-acetoxy isovaleric acid. Three novel sesquiterpenoids, valeriananoids of each, forty constituents of essential oils and eleven jatamanins including a new lignin isovaleroxylariciresinol have been extracted from this valuable herb. Underground parts are used in mental disorders, scanting hair, epilepsy, leprosy, as an insecticide and as potential anti-tumour agent. Present paper highlights the information based on available published literature so as to describe the active constituents and medicinal profile of this threatened species which will serve as a valuable platform for further research and conservation of this medicinally important species.

[Aabid M. Rather; Irshad A. Nawchoo; Aijaz H. Ganie; Harpal Singh; Bhupender Dutt  and Aijaz A. Wani.  Economic Botany and Reproductive Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006. J & K. India. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):847-850]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 125

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Influence of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) on white Corn (Zea mays L.) Plant Growth

 

Mona A. Ismail1,4, Laila M. Abu Al-Ola2, Salih A. Bazaid3, Mohamed S. Beltagi3,4

 

1 Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif ,Saudi Arabia;

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia;

3 Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia;

4Botany Department, Faculty Of Science, Suez Canal Universit ,Ismailia, Egypt

callus20002003@yahoo.com

    

Abstract:  This work was designed to investigate the phyototoxicity of  methyl tert-butyl Ether (MTBE) to metabolic activity of white corn (Zea mays L.) plants. The four-week-old potted plants were subjected to four weekly doses (50 ml  of MTBE ) at different concentrations ( 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10 and 15 %). Growth parameters indicated significant (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition only at the high concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 %) of  MTBE. The leaf area and chlorophyll-A contents decreased as the concentration of MTBE increased. A marked increase of lipid peroxidase  activity was recorded  at the different MTBE concentration, while a slight decrease of  catalase  activity was recorded  at the same MTBE concentration. The impaired growth and anabolic activities in white corn plant resulted from the oxidative stress of MTBE.

[Mona A. Ismail, Laila M. Abu Al-Ola, Salih A. Bazaid, Mohamed S. Beltagi. Influence of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) on white Corn (Zea mays L.) Plant Growth. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):851-856]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 126

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Direct Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Inviscid Compressible Flow past a Symmetric Aerofoil with Constant Element Approach

 

Muhammad Mushtaq1, Nawazish Ali Shah1, G. Muhammad1, M.S. Khan2  & F.H. Shah3

 

1Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – 54890, Pakistan

2Department of Geological Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – Pakistan

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – Pakistan

mushtaqmalik2004@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this paper, a direct boundary element method (DBEM) is applied to calculate the inviscid compressible flow past a symmetric aerofoil whereas in our previous papers, we applied indirect boundary element method (IBEM) for this purpose. The velocity distribution for the flow over the surface of the symmetric aerofoil has been calculated using direct constant boundary element approach. The accuracy of the computed results can be increased by increasing the number of boundary elements. The validity of this method is well checked by given tables and graphs.

[Muhammad Mushtaq, Nawazish Ali Shah, G. Muhammad, M.S. Khan and F.H. Shah. Direct Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Inviscid Compressible Flow past a Symmetric Aerofoil with Constant Element Approach. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):857-864]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 127

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Serum, Urinary and Tissue Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in Patients with Lupus Nephritis (A Comparative Study)

 

Eman E. El-Shahawya, Heba H. Gawishb, Eman H. Abd El-Baryc

 

Departments of aRheumatology and Rehabilitation, bClinical Pathology and  cPathology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt. hebagawish@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Lupus Nephritis (LN) is one of the most common complications and is considered a crucial determinant of poor prognosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients. Yet it is still a challenge for scientists to establish a sensitive and specific investigations that reflect  renal status and can be linked to disease outcome and most importantly easy follow up with less hassle for the patient. Aim of the work: This study was done to estimate the serum and urinary Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels as non invasive markers in patients with SLE with comparison to tissue MCP1 and to evaluate the role of MCP-1 as an indicator for SLE disease activity and renal involvement (lupus nephritis).Patients and methods:  Serum and urinary MCP-1 were determined in forty randomly selected adult SLE patients their ages in years ranged from 17-54 (27.7 7.9 years), the control group included twenty age and sex matched volunteers. SLE Disease Activity score (SLEDAI and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Damage Index was recorded in all SLE patients. All patients were subjected to clinical and routine lab investigations. Serum and Urinary MCP1 were evaluated by ELISA technique. Renal biopsy was performed in Lupus nephritis patients for Histopathological classification, Activity and Chronicity indices and immunohistochemistry for MCP1 protein expression. Results: There was significant difference in level of urinary MCP 1 only in active than in inactive patients. In SLE with LN, serum and urinary MCP 1 showed a highly significant positive correlation with SLEDAI, proteinuria and serum creatinine and significant negative correlations with Hemoglobin. Urinary MCP1 showed highly significant difference between LN (class III&IV) and other classes of LN (p<0.001). Glomerular and tubulointerstitial MCP1 protein expression showed significant positive correlation with proteinuria (p=0.046 and 0.002 respectively).Tubulointerstitial MCP-1 protein expression showed significant difference  between LN( class I, II, V) cases versus LN (class III, IV) cases (p=0.008). Glomerular MCP1 showed highly significant positive correlation with activity index, while Tubulointerstitial MCP1 showed highly significant positive correlation with chronicity index (p <0.001). Urinary MCP1 showed  positive significant correlation with both glomerular and tubulointerstitial MCP1 protein expression (p <0.001 and 0.016 respectively). Urinary MCP1 showed highly significant correlation with activity index (p <0.001),  while Serum MCP1 showed no significant correlation with activity or chronicity indices.  Conclusion: MCP1 could be a valuable marker for LN and can help in assessment of disease outcome and follow up of patients, furthermore, Urinary MCP1 in our study proved to be a sensitive , non invasive tool for assessment of LN patients that can be linked to Histopathological classes and tissue MCP1 protein expression.

[Eman E. El-Shahawy, Heba H. Gawish, Eman H. Abd El-Bary. Serum, Urinary and Tissue Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in Patients with Lupus Nephritis (A Comparative Study). Life Sci J 2012;9(2):865-873]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 128

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Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (Mthfr C677t) Gene Polymorphism Effect on Development of Diabetic Nephropathy in Egyptien Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Samar M. Sharaf 1,  Heba H.Gawish1  Enas M. Elsherbiny 2

 

Departments of 1Clinical Pathology and  2Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

hebagawish@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Genetic predisposition has been implicated in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a regulatory enzyme of homocysteine metabolism. The C677T variant of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may play a role in the development of not only vascular disease but also diabetic microangiopathies. In this study, we examined the distribution of the MTHFR genotypes and the association between the C677T variant and diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients classified into 2 groups according to presence or absence of nephropathy as measured by urinary albumin /creatinine ratio into 2 groups, 27 patients without nephropathy and 23 with nephropathy and 20 controls were recruited in the study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and serum creatinine were measured. Plasma total homocysteine level was measured using chemilumenecent assay. MTHFR genetic C677T polymorphism was determined with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). RESULTS: The frequency of MTHFR TT genotype and CT heterogenetic type and allele T(30.4%, 43.5%, 52%) was significantly higher in type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic nephropathy group than those without nephropathy (7.4%, 25.9%, 20%) or normal controls (10%, 25%, 22%). However, there was no significant difference of MTHFR genotype and allele frequency between type 2 diabetes mellitus without nephropathy and normal controls (c2 0.1, p value < 0.05). The presence of T allele appeared to have a stronger association with the development of diabetic nephropathy. The odds ratio was 5.7 and the 95% confidence interval was 1.7-19.3. Moreover, plasma homocysteine levels were markedly higher in patients with TT or CT genotype than those in patients with CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the C677T mutation in the MTHFR gene predisposes type 2 diabetes patients to the development of diabetic nephropathy. The T allele of this mutation presumably acting by elevating homocysteine levels and seems to be associated with a faster progression of nephropathy to end-stage renal failure.

[Samar M. Sharaf ,  Heba H.Gawish  Enas M. Elsherbiny. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (Mthfr C677t) Gene Polymorphism Effect on Development Of Diabetic Nephropathy in Egyptien Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):874-880]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 129

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Karyological Analysis of Schizothorax labiatus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a hill stream food fish of Kashmir Himalaya.

 

1*Farooq A Ganai, 1A. R. Yousuf, 2N. K. Tripathi, 1Samee Wani

 

1Limnology and Fisheries Laboratory, Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, 190006, India.

2Animal Cytogenetics Laboratory, Deptt. Of Zoology, University of Jammu.

*farooqmd84@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Karyotypic characterization of Schizothorax labiatus (Chush Snow trout) was carried out following Thorgaard and Disney (1990). The analysis of 80 metaphase plates revealed the chromosome number of this fish 2n=98 and a fundamental arm number (FN) =142. The diploid complement comprised 12 metacentric pairs, 10 submetacentric pairs, 1 subtelocentric pairs and 26 telocentric pairs (24m+20Sm+2St+52t). Total length of the haploid complement equalled 157.5m with a range in the length of shortest and longest chromosome between 2-8m. The arm ratio and the centromeric index ranged between 1-∞ and 0-50 respectively. The present study is the first to describe the chromosomal characteristics of Schizothorax labiatus from The Kashmir Valley.

[Farooq A Ganai, A. R. Yousuf, N. K. Tripathi, and Samee Wani. Karyological Analysis of Schizothorax labiatus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a hill stream food fish of Kashmir Himalaya. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):881-886]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).  http://www.lifesciencesite.com.  130

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Medicinal Values of Kolanut in Nigeria: Implication for Extension Service Delivery

 

Adebayo S.A and Oladele O.I.

 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa E-mail: oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za,oladele20002001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper reviews the medicinal values of Kolanut in Nigeria with a view of identifying the most common species in the country and discussing the problem and Prospects of Kolanut trees. Some of the values of kolanut discussed include traditional value, nutritional value, economic/industrial value and the medicinal value which is the focus of this paper. The paper recommends that retraining efforts need be focused on the forestry extension to ensure that indigenous fruit trees like Kolanut become part of the basket of livelihood options supported by extension agents.

[Adebayo SA and Oladele OI. Medicinal Values of Kolanut in Nigeria: Implication for Extension Service Delivery. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):887-891]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).  http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 131

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The Relationship Between components of information Technology and organizational effectiveness

In Shiraz Regional Library of Sciences and Technology

 

Alireza Mooghali

 

Department of management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran

(mooghali_1344@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Information technology (IT) has advertently or inadvertently entered our country. Therefore, the optimal use of this technology requires that all individuals commit themselves to the organization goals. IT plays a vital role in creating new concepts such as organizational effectiveness. In this line, the present study aims to investigate the relationships among information technology components and organizational effectiveness in Shiraz regional Library of Science and Technology. In this study, IT dimensions include investments, innovation, and effective tools, while IT components are selected as education, the improvement of the quality of services offered, reducing the costs and the time associated with patients' treatment, supporting managers, jobs simplification, automation, offering internet services, and using various instructions. The instruments used in the study comprised a researcher-invented IT questionnaire by Reza SabetAqadam (2007) (Coronbach Alpha = 0.8424) and organizational effectiveness questionnaire by Varmazyar (2000) developed based on Cample's effectiveness criteria (Coronbach Alpha = 0.901). The results of bivariate regression analysis indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between variables examined in the study and organizational effectiveness, except for jobs simplification and offering internet services. A positive and significant relationship was also observed between the research hypotheses and organizational effectiveness.

[Alireza Mooghali. The Relationship Between components of information Technology and organizational effectiveness In Shiraz Regional Library of Sciences and Technology. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):892-901] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 132

 

Key words: Information technology (IT), investment, innovation, cost reduction, supporting managers, jobs simplifications, automation systems, internet services, standards and instructions, effectiveness

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Employees’ Intention to Use Web-based Training in South Zagros Oil and Gas Production Company, a Causal Model

 

Alireza Mooghali1, Samane Sadat Mirghaderi2

 

1 Department of management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran

2 MA Student of Management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is presenting a causal model of employees’ intention to use web-based training in South Zagros Oil and Gas Production Company. The correlational study was conducted among employees of this company. The correlational study was conducted among employees of this company. The study is based upon survey approach to collect the data from 169 employees selected randomly. Path analysis and LISREL software were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that computer playfulness, Computer anxiety, and learning goal orientation have significant effects on intention directly or indirectly through perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, and computer self-efficacy variables. As a conclusion, Perceived usefulness had the most significant influence on intention directly, while computer playfulness had the strongest total and indirect effect on intention to use web-based training. Moreover, the final model indicated a good fitness for predicting employees’ intention to use web-based training.  

[Alireza Mooghali, Samane Sadat Mirghaderi. Employees’ Intention to Use Web-based Training in South Zagros Oil and Gas Production Company, a Causal Model. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):902-909]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 133

 

Keywords- Employees, Web-based training, Intention, Path analysis

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Investigation and intervention on the psychological status of families with Hepatolenticular Degeneration children

 

Mingyi Ma1Yangfei Ji1Yu Liu1Boai Zhang1

 

1First Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. mamingyi1999@126.com

 

Abstract: Hepatolenticular Degeneration (HLD), also known as Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive copper metabolism disorder, the worldwide incidence of it is 1/100 000 to 1/30 000. In this study we will investigate the psychological status of family with Wilson’s disease children, interventions to alleviate chronic sorrow of their families. And the result is that the parents of children with the observation group questionnaire sadness, anger, pain and the total degree of improvement was significantly better than the control group (all P <0.05). So we know presence of chronic sorrow the family in children with Wilson’s disease, early assessment and implementation of targeted intervention, will help ease psychological burden of parents of children with epilepsy to reduce their family of chronic sorrow.

[Mingyi Ma, Yangfei Ji, Yu Liu, Boai Zhang. Investigation and intervention on the psychological status of families with Hepatolenticular Degeneration children. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):910-913]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 134

 

Key words: Wilson’s disease; chronic sorrow; Families of children with Wilson’s disease; Adapted Burke Questionnaire (ABQ); Intervention

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Nikethamide increases sodium current of inspiratory neuron via PKC pathway in mNRF of neonatal rats in vitro

 

SONG Xiaorong, QIAN Zhibin, SI Yanli, LIU Chunxia, LIU Xiaoli, YANG Yuting

 

Department of Functional Lab of Xinxiang Medical University, 453003, Xinxiang, Henan, PR China Corresponding author: Qian Zhibin, qianzhibin@yahoo.cn

 

Abstract: To elucidate the roles nikethamide on sodium currents of inspiratory neurons in the medial area of nucleus retrofacialis (mNRF) and whether PKC take part in those roles, whole-cell patch were performed to record sodium current of inspiratory neuron(I neuron) and ELISA double-antibody sandwich method were used to measured concentration of PKC in mNRF. Nikethamide increases persistent and transient sodium current of I neuron. It makes steady activation curves shifted to more negative potential and steady inactivation curves shifted to more positive potential of sodium channel. Determination the concentration of PKC of neurons in mNRF by ELISA , nikethamide increases concentration of PKC of neurons in mNRF. Nikethamide makes sodium chaanel open at a lower membrane potential and close at a higher membrane potential, it increases open lasting time and open probability of sodium channel via PKC pathway.

[SONG Xiaorong, QIAN Zhibin, SI Yanli, LIU Chunxia, LIU Xiaoli, YANG Yuting. Nikethamide increases sodium current of inspiratory neuron via PKC pathway in mNRF of neonatal rats in vitro. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):914-918]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 135

 

Keywords: Nikethamide; sodium; current; inspiratory; neuron; neonatal rats; in vitro

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The Effective Curriculum Design Principles to Reduce the Nauseating Symptom in Training Whirling-kung

 

Chia-Shen Liao, Jian-Wei Rau*

 

The Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials Development, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97065, Taiwan. rau@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Sufi-whirling is a famous spiritual practice in Sufism and is adopted as a physically active meditation by people intending to promote their physical and mental health in Taiwan, where the term “whirling-kung” is used instead of Sufi-whirling to avoid the religious connotation of Sufi. In this paper the authors intend to inquire the issue of how to design appropriate and effective curriculum for training whirling-kung in order to help learners reduce the symptom of nauseating and conquer the fear of whirling. Through a process of action research, the authors draw up two cruxes of whirling: choiceless awareness and centering. The authors also summarize 10 effective curriculum design principles in whirling-kung training to help the learners reduce the nauseating symptom in whirling-kung training courses: (1) Provide training and practice on “mind-body-scan meditation” before training whirling-kung. (2) Arrange the practice of meditation immediately after whirling, which constitutes a Whirling-Meditation unit (abbr. as WM unit in this paper). (3) Increase the length of WM unit gradually. (4) Arrange several WM units in one session if needed. (5) The break between training sessions should not be too long in order to keep the warmth of training. (6) The number of training sessions should be long enough to have training effects. (7) Adjust every learner’s length of WM unit according to the overload training principle. (8) Select appropriate place for training. (9) Select appropriate music for training. (10) Try to arrange the whirling practice at least one hour after the meals.

[Chia-Shen Liao, Jian-Wei Rau. The Effective Curriculum Design Principles to Reduce the Nauseating Symptom in Training Whirling-kung. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):919-925] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 136

 

Keywords: Sufi-whirling, whirling-kung, whirling-kung training, nauseating symptom, curriculum design principles

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A Model for Predicting Intention to Use E-learning based on Epistemological Beliefs

 

Mohammad Hassan Seif, Mohammad Reza Sarmadi, Isa Ebrahimzadeh, Hossein Zare

 

Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

hassanseif2012@gmail.com

 

Abstracts: This paper investigates the impact of epistemological beliefs on intention to use e-learning emphasizing on the mediator role of motivational beliefs, goal orientation, self-efficacy, ease of use, attitude and perceived usefulness. A sample of 562 students from universities providing virtual education selected for further analysis. Data analysis using path analysis confirmed all of the hypotheses investigated at this paper.

[Mohammad Hassan Seif, Mohammad Reza Sarmadi, Isa Ebrahimzadeh, Hossein Zare. A Model for Predicting Intention to Use E-learning based on Epistemological Beliefs. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):926-929] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 137

 

Keywords: epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy, Goal Orientation, motivational beliefs, ease of use, usefulness

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Serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and VEGF/Platelets Ratio as Markers for Hepatocelluar Carcinoma

 Ehab F. Moustafa1, Ghada M. Galal2, Sahar M. Hassany1, Mohamed Z. Abd Elrahman3, and Madleen Adel A. Abdou3

 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine Assiut University
2
Department of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine Sohag University
3Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University
ehabmostafa_99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Aim of the work: To evaluate the usefulness of serum IL-6, serum VEGF, and VEGF/Platelets ratio in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. Patients and methods: Fifty-eight cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were included in the study (51 males and 7 females) and 18 liver cirrhosis patients without HCC (15 males and 3 females) were recruited as a control group. All patients were subjected to full medical history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations complete blood count, liver function tests, AFP, serum IL-6, serum VEGF and calculation of VEGF/platelets ratio. Results: Patients had significantly higher values of AFP (P=0.0001), IL-6 (P=0.004), VEGF (P =0.001) and VEGF/Platelets ratio (P =0.005) than cirrhotic patients without HCC (control group). Sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6, VEGF and VEGF/Platelets in detecting HCC, was found to be 34.5 % & 94.4%, 43.1 % & 88.9% and 41.4 % & 88.9% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6, serum VEGF and VEGF/platelets ratio for detection of portal vein thrombosis were 65.5% & 83.3%, 63,8% & 77,8%, and 58,6% & 72,2% respectively. There was significant positive correlation between VEGF and AFP (r=0.794, P =0.0001), VEGF/Plat and AFP (r=0.760, P =0.0001) and IL-6 and AFP (r=0.804, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Serum IL-6, serum VEGF, and VEGF/platelets ratio are significantly higher in HCC patients than liver cirrhosis patients without HCC. The clinical utility of these biomarkers in HCC diagnosis is still doubtful because their sensitivity is not more than that of AFP. They may have a good role in detection of portal vein thrombosis (tumor invasion).
[Ehab F. Moustafa, Ghada M. Galal, Sahar M. Hassany, Mohamed Z. Abd Elrahman, and Madleen Adel A. Abdou. Serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and VEGF/Platelets Ratio as Markers for Hepatocelluar Carcinoma
. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):930-938]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 138

 

Key words: Hepatocellular carcinoma, diagnosis, vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, alpha feto protein.

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Magnibursatus diplodii n. sp. (Derogenidae: Halipeginae) from white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, Off Sirt, Libya

 Elsayed M. Bayoumy*1,2 and Gasem M. Abu-Taweel2

 1Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt

2Biology Dept., College   of Education, Dammam Univ., P. O. Box 2375, Dammam - 31451, Saudi Arabia
*bayoumy2004@yahoo.com

Abstract: Examination of the 35 specimens of White Sea bream, Diplodus sargus Linne 1758 (Sparidae)were caught from the Sirt Coast, Libya and revealed the presence of one new halpigian parasite, Magnibursatus diplodii n. sp. with incidence 25.7% (9 out of 35 fish examined). The main characters of the obtained parasite are ; the. Body is small and slender and at the same time, the forebody is shorter than the anterior one. Oral sucker is subterminal, and ventral sucker cup-shaped, strongly muscular, substantially larger than oral one, protuberant. Testes are two in number ,, oval in shaped and separated from each other. Seminal vesicle very elongate, coiled. Pars prostatica short, poorly developed. Ovary spherical to oval in shaped, and separated from posterior testis. Vitellarium comprises 2compact, entire, contiguous masses, situated side by side posterior to ovary. The morphological characters and measurements of the present parasite were discussed with the previously related species. Moreover, Sirt coast is considered a new geographical area for halpegian parasites.
[Elsayed M. Bayoumy and Gasem M. Abu-Taweel.
Magnibursatus diplodii n. sp. (Derogenidae: Halipeginae) from white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, Off Sirt, Libya. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):939-945]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 139

Key words: Parasite, Digenea, Derogenidae, Magnibursatus diplodii, Diplodus sargus

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X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy for nano-sized ITO doped with some metal oxides

A.M. Youssef1, H.A. Abbas1,*, F.F. Hammad1, A.M.A. Hassan2 and Z.M. Hanafi1

 1National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Dokki, Egypt.
2
Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Nasr city,Egypt.
hu_abbas2005@yahoo.com

Abstract: Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) doped with 2, 4 and 6 mole % of CuO, Cr2O3, and ZrO2 powder have been synthesized by pechini method. The crystalline structure of all the prepared samples was identified using XRD and IR spectroscopy. The morphology and average grain size of the prepared powder were determined using TEM and XRD. The effect of different dopant, different concentration, dopant cation valence and ionic radius on the crystalline structure, lattice parameter, crystallite size and strain were investigated. All samples have single cubic bixbyite phase structure except ITO samples doped with Zr. They have cubic bixbyite structure as predominant phase and traces of rhombohedral phase. Pure ITO sample has higher lattice parameter value than those of ITO samples doped with ZrO2 and lower lattice parameter value than those of ITO samples doped with CuO and Cr2O3.
[
A.M. Youssef, H.A. Abbas, F.F. Hammad, A.M.A. Hassan, and Z.M. Hanafi. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy for nano-sized ITO doped with some metal oxides. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):946-952]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 140 

Key words: Nano-sized doped ITO, Structural properties, IR, TEM

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Perspectives on the relationship between invisibility, richness, plant size, seed production, seed bank and community productivity of invasive Argemone ochroleuca Sweet in Taif, Saudi Arabia

Sanaa, A. I. Moussa

 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Present Address: Girl,s Faculty of Science, Biology Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA
sanaa_moussa1958@yahoo.com

Abstract: Argemone ochroleuca Sweet is an invasive desert weed species; a worldwide medicinal plant with economic potentialities. It is recently introduced ,in Saudi Arabia especially in Taif Governorate. The later is one of the largest areas, in the Southeastern of K.S.A. characteristic by its high diversity in local climatic and topographic conditions. Dryness is a characteristic climatic feature of the area since rainfall is less than 10 inches and a maximum temperature of 370C are reached in September. Temperature decreases the dryness in the angle of rain and evaporation, thus it affects the vegetation of the area .  The large widespread of the species due to its high propagation ability encourages the studying of the inter-relationship between its invisibility  and some of the biological characteristic features such as species richness of its communities, average plant size, seed production ability and Argemone stored seeds (number of seeds contained.m-2of surface soil). Some of the chemical characters of the soil such as the organic matter content as well as the variations in topographic features of the different habitats could be main reasons for the variations in species productivity in the different habitats. Nine localities representing three different habitats; sand plains, dams& wadies were selected. Argemone ochroleuca is highly reproducible invasive desert weed; it produces a huge average number of 189 capsules, with a maximal number (258) at Al-Shafa and a minimal (162) at Jabajeb. An average number of 453 seeds per capsule- with a higher value (473) at Al-Shafa- was counted. An overall average number of 85, 850 seeds per individual were obtained. The immense number of seeds evinces the high propagation of the species. A. ochroleuca tends to inhabit the less fertile soil and reduces the native plant diversity in Taif. A. seeds stored in superficial soil (seed bank; SB) attained an average value of 7, 736. m-2; the highest (13,600) at Jabajeb. Species richness; SR, was negatively correlated with invisibility (INV). The later was positively correlated with both plant size (PS) and seed production (SP), while negatively correlated with SR & SB. PS was positively correlated with INV and SR. A negative correlation was also between SR and all other variables. PS was negatively correlated with either SR or SB.
[Sanaa, A. I. Moussa.
Perspectives on the relationship between invisibility, richness, plant size, seed production, seed bank and community productivity of invasive Argemone ochroleuca Sweet in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):953-958]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 141

Keywords: Reproduction, Organic Matter, Community variables.

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Ultrastructural Changes Occur In Mice Lungs after Cessation to Exposure of Incense Smoke

Sammar Omar Rabah.1 and Sahar Ragab El Hadad 1,2

1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA
2Genetic Engineering Research and Bioinformatics Center, VACSERA, Egypt
saharelhadad@hotmail.com

Abstract: Background: Incense woods are special kind of trees called Agarwood, which characterized by good smelling odors and many medical benefits. Incense smoke is heavily used in Saudi Arabia although comprehensive studies of its effects on health are limited. The present study demonstrated lung ultrastructure changes of mice after exposure and cessation to Incense smoke. Eighty mice are divided equally into four groups, three groups are exposed to different concentrations of Incense smoke (2, 4 and 6 gm) for three months, while the fourth group is control one. At the end of each month, lungs of five animals from each group are gathered, while the last five animals from each group are kept for another 60 days without exposure to the Incense smoke to allow for recovery. Results: Transmission electron microscope investigations of all exposed groups showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia in Clara Cells and some an enlargement of the macrophage to the point that it fills a large part of the alveolar lumen. Scanning electron microscope marks presence of mucus materials attached to the epithelial bronchioles. After prevention of exposure to the Incense smoke for 60 days, necrosis and degeneration in some cells of epithelial bronchioles, fibrosis of peri-bronchial, thickening in alveolar walls and aggregation of lymphoid cells were demonstrated. Conclusion: Based on the above findings and other related studies (not published), we conclude that exposure to Incense smoke causes harmful effects due to sever changes in pulmonary ultrastructure, such effects do not disappear even when Incense smoke inhalation was stopped. Therefore, we recommend that Incense smoke should use only in open places to reduce its harms.
[Sammar Omar Rabah and Sahar Ragab El Hadad. Ultrastructural Changes Occur In Mice Lungs after Cessation to Exposure of Incense Smoke
. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):959-969]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 142

Key words: Incense smoke, lungs, ultrastructure of lungs, Agarwood

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Microbiological Studies on Aeromonas and Pseudomonas Species Isolated From Contaminated Fish Foods

 Mohamed T. Shaaban

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufiya University, Egypt
Dr_mohamedtawfiek@yahoo.com

Abstract: Three bacterial isolates related to the Genus Aeromonas and eleven isolates related to the Genus Pseudomonas isolated from contaminated fish foods were studied in this work. The study included the identification of these isolates and their susceptibility to the crude extracts of five weeds and four new synthesized thiazolidinone derivatives. The isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. The antibacterial activities investigations of the extracts and the thiazolidinone derivatives were performed on solidified growth plates and in liquid media. On solid plates, the highest inhibitory effects (inhibition zones) were recorded to the crude extract of Brassica tournefortii inhibiting the growth of all tested species with inhibition zones 8-18mm diameters. The lowest effects were recorded to the extract of Convolvulus arvensis inhibiting only the growth of Pseudomonas putida. Among the four thiazolidinone derivatives tested, the highest effects were recorded to the derivatives (1d) and (2d) and the lowest effects were recorded to the derivative (4a) inhibiting the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila only. In liquid media, the growth of different Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species-in terms of optical densities at 660nm-was affected by most of the crude extracts and thiazolidinone derivatives.
[
Mohamed T. Shaaban Microbiological Studies on Aeromonas and Pseudomonas Species Isolated From Contaminated Fish Foods. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):970-979]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 143

Key words Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, fish food, plant extract, thiazolidinone.

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Direct Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Hyperbolic Flow Past a Sphere

 Muhammad Mushtaq1, Nawazish Ali Shah1  &  G. Muhammad2

1Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – 54890, Pakistan
2Department of Mathematics, GCS, Wahdat Road, Lahore – Pakistan
Corresponding Author, e-mail: 
mushtaqmalik2004@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: In this paper, direct method is applied for calculating the hyperbolic flow past a sphere. The surface of the body is discretised into boundary elements on which the velocity distribution is found. The comparison of computed and exact results is also made.
[Muhammad Mushtaq, Nawazish Ali Shah, and G. Muhammad.
Direct Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Hyperbolic Flow Past a Sphere. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):980-982]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 144

Keywords: Direct boundary element method, hyperbolic flow, Sphere

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Effect of Electromagnetic Mobile Radiation on Chick Embryo Development

Fatma Al-Qudsi and Solafa Azzouz

Biology Department, Science Faculty, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 42650, Jeddah 21551, Saudi Arabia
falqudsi@kau.edu.sa

Abstract: The widespread use of mobile phones in the last decade has increased the concern about its potential effects on human body. This research aims to study the effect of electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones on chick embryos development. Fertile hen eggs were divided into two groups control and treated group. Both groups were incubated at 37.5 ◦C. The treated group had an active mobile device (900MHz- 1800MHz) during incubation. The mobile was rang 4 times daily for 15 minutes each time. Embryos were extracted on days 7, 10, and 14 of incubation.  Congenital malformations were seen in treated embryos (bigger embryos, subcutaneous bleeding, and brain malformation) compared to the controls. Also increased eye growth in 7 and 10 days, significant increase in neural retina thickness in all studied ages, significant increase in retina lipid peroxidase and significant decrease in glutathione level in 10 and 14 days treated chick embryo retina compared to the controls. It was concluded that mobile phone electromagnetic waves (900MHz- 1800MHz) might induce embryonic eye growth till 10 days of incubation, and then it might cause brain malformation with reduced body and eye growth in chick embryo.
[Fatma Al-Qudsi and Solafa Azzouz. Effect of Electromagnetic Mobile Radiation on Chick Embryo Development
. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):983-991]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 145

 

Key words: mobile phones, chick embryo, eye development, retina thickness

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Hazardous Effects of Hyperthermia on Brain and Testicular Responses in Rats

 

Bughdadi, F

 Dean of University College Umm Al-Qura Univ.Makkah – Saudi Arabia
dr_hesham@windowslive.com


Abstract:
Hyperthermia was investigated in adult male albino rats exposed to high temperature (40 1C) for 12 hours. Twenty male rats 3 months old were used. They were divided into two groups and separated into two rooms. The rats in the first room were subjected to hyperthermia (401C), while rats of the control group were maintained under normal environmental conditions (255C). Neural response to heat exposure was assessed by determining the levels of dopamine, nor adrenaline and serotonin in the brain homogenate. Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) were also evaluated. Testes response to heat exposure was also assessed by determining the levels of LH and testosterone by (EIA). Histopathological examination of brain and testes were evaluated after heat exposure. Brain content of dopamine, nor adrenaline and serotonin showed significant increase, there was an increased potassium and calcium levels while sodium and magnesium concentrations decreased. Also LH testosterone levels decreased after heat exposure.

Histopathological examination revealed hyperemic capillaries and blood vessels all over the cerebral and disorganization of semineferous tubules of the testes. In conclusion, avoidance of hyperthermia is very important, the body temperature must be maintained in a safe normothermic range. It is recommended to assess the role of nutritional supplementation to alleviate the hazardous effects of heat stress.

[Bughdadi, F. Hazardous Effects of Hyperthermia on Brain and Testicular Responses in Rats. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):992-996]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 146

Key Words: Brain, testicular, Biochemical changes, Hyperthermia, rats.

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[Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):997-1002]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 147

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Reactive Power Planning and Voltage Control using Particle Swarm Optimization

 A. Memaripour 1, Mostafa Abdollahi 2, Asadollah Salimi 3 , E. Behzadipour 4

 1, 2, 3, 4. Department of Electrical Engineering, Boroujen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boroujen, Iran
memarpor@yahoo.com

Abstract: A new tool for planning reactive power compensation is presented. It is based on the capability chart of the power system, which describes the domain of allowable operation of the system in the plane of total active and reactive load demand. Power flow concepts are used to describe the ability of the power system to face the load; the optimization approach is adopted because load system is fundamentally nonlinear. Results for the IEEE-24 bus test system are presented.
[A. Memaripour, Mostafa Abdollahi, Asadollah Salimi, E. Behzadipour. Reactive Power Planning and Voltage Control using Particle Swarm Optimization. Life Sci J. 2012;9(2):1003-1005]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 148

Keywords: Reactive Power Planning; Loss Minimization; Voltage Control; Particle Swarm Optimization

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Titanium Three Dimensional Miniplate versus Conventional Titanium Miniplate in Fixation of Anterior Mandibular Fractures

 

Mahmoud E. Khalifa1, Hesham E El-Hawary2  and Mohamed M. Hussein3

 

1Lecturer  of  Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of  Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt, Umm Al Qura University, KSA

2Lecturer  of  Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine , Cairo University, Egypt, Umm Al Qura University, KSA

 3 Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt

 

Abstract: The optimal management of symphyseal and parasymphyseal fractures continues to evolve. Fractures in this area of the mandible predispose the patients to malocclusion and widening of the face if not properly treated. The current understanding of the biomechanics and fracture healing of the mandible has influenced the modern approach to the open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures. A total of 20 patients were managed by open reduction and internal fixation utilizing the conventional titanium mini-plate and 3dimensional mini-plate for fractures of anterior mandible.  The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups according to the type of hardware used for fracture fixation. Group I: (10 patients) were treated with two 2.0 mm titanium mini-plates, Group II: (10 patients) were treated with 3D rectangular mini-plates. Intraoperatively duration of surgery was measured from the time of incision till the closure of wound. Subsequent postoperative clinical follow up for malocclusion, neurosensory deficit, wound breakdown, infection and presence of mal-union/non union was performed. Postoperative radiographs were taken to assess the gap between fracture segments. All patients were followed up clinically and radiographically for 6 months postoperatively. The mean duration of surgery (hours) was 1.88 0.38 for group I and 1.61 0.27 for group II. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p value 0.001). There was no clinical evidence of neurosensory deficits due to surgery in all cases. No problems of wound healing, swelling, discoloration, or discharge were seen during follow-up expect one patient in group I showed slight wound dehiscence with exposure of upper plate at the second post-operative week. Post-operative radiographic examination revealed that the fracture line could not be detected on the radiographs after 6 months in six patients (60%) patients in group I and eight patients (80%) patients in group II. The 3D mini-plate system is a better and easier method for fixation of mandibular fractures, compared to the conventional   mini-plate.  But there is limitation to use in cases of oblique fractures and those involving the mental nerve as well as there is excessive implant material because of the extra vertical bars.

[Mahmoud E. Khalifa, Hesham E El-Hawary and Mohamed M. Hussein. Titanium 3Dimensional Miniplate versus Conventional Titanium Miniplate in Fixation of Anterior Mandibular Fracture. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1006-1010] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 149

 

Key words: symphyseal mandibular fracture, parasymphyseal mandibular fracture, titanium miniplate, titanium 3D miniplate.

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Successful resuscitation of a patient With electrical storm over 7 days: a case report

 

Yue-Ling Guo1, Hai-ying Zhang2, Wei Zhang2, Yun-Feng Han2, Shu-Lin Zhang2

 

1. Department of Medical Engineering, The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing 100070, China;

2. Department of Geriatrics, The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing 100070, China;

Correspondence author: Yun-Feng Han (hanyf001@126.com)

(The first two authors contributed equally to this work)

 

Abstract: A 75 year old woman with atrial fibrillation-related tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy suffered ventricular fibrillation induced by dobutamine and was successfully defibrillated into atrial fibrillation in hospital. During the following 7 days, she suffered a cardiac electrical storm with 55 episodes of ventricular tachycardia rapidly degenerating to ventricular fibrillation and was converted with a total of 51 defibrillations and 4 chest compressions. Sinus rhythm was restored by electric cardioversion in the second episode of ventricular fibrillation. There was no response to the use of any recommended anti arrhythmic drugs. However, the use of chlorpromazine and promethazine surprisingly stabilized her heart rhythm. During a two-year follow-up period, the patient has remained free of  ventricular fibrillation episodes and maintained sinus rhythm.

[Guo YL, Zhang HY, Han YF, Zhang SL. Successful resuscitation of a patient With electrical storm over 7 days: a case report. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1011-1014] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 150

 

Key Words: electrical storm;  tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy;  dobutamine

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Monitoring DNA Hybridization with a Simply Manufactured GMR Biosensor

 

Ting-Jou Ding1, Jiann-Hwa Lue1, Ya Lun Tsai1, Tsung-Hsun Yang1*, Jenq-Yang Chang1,2, Wen-Yih Chen3

 

1 Department of Optics and Photonics, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan, ROC

2 Optical Science Center, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan, ROC

3 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan, ROC

thyang@dop.ncu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: In this letter, a real-time approach to identify the various DNA molecules hybridized of the integrated micro-fluid with the simplest manufactured guided-mode resonance (GMR) sensor is presented. By monitoring the resonant peak wavelength shift of GMR biosensor, the DNA hybridization experiment can be recognized and clarified. The biosensor exhibited sensitivities about 2.14nm in peak wavelength shift for the detection of the hybridizing of both the capture DNA and the probe DNA.  Furthermore, the stability and reliability of nucleic acid hybridization on the GMR sensor are examined by combining the sensor with the fluidic elements. The results reveal that the dynamics of DNA hybridization on the GMR sensor can obviously be monitored in real time.

[Ting-Jou Ding, Jiann-Hwa Lue, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Jenq-Yang Chang, Wen-Yih Chen. Monitoring DNA Hybridization with a Simply Manufactured GMR Biosensor. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1015-1019] (ISSN:1097-8135).

http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 151

 

Keywords: guided-mode resonance, biosensor, DNA hybridization, simply manufacture, real time monitoring, cost down, reliability, stability

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Simple Embossing Process for Fabricating GMR Biosensor with Variable waveguide Thickness

 

Ting-Jou Ding, Jiann-Hwa Lue, Tsung-Hsun Yang

 

Department of Optics and photonics, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan, ROC

thyang@dop.ncu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This work demonstrates a simple fabrication process for the guided-mode resonance biosensors with tunable waveguide thickness. For various waveguide thicknesses, the grating parameters can still keep the same. Although consisted of the waveguide layer and the grating layer, the GMR biosensor can be simply fabricated in a single step and of the same material by the conventional embossing technique. Moreover, the thickness of waveguide can be well controlled by applying various forces. It is shown that the tunable range of the waveguide thickness is approximately to 600nm and the deformation on the grating layer still keeps less than 10%.

[Ting-Jou Ding, Jiann-Hwa Lue, Tsung-Hsun Yang. Simple Embossing Process for Fabricating GMR Biosensor with Variable waveguide Thickness. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1020-1026] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 152

 

Keywords: soft lithography; spin-on glass; grating; waveguide; subwavelength; embossing

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Role of Pap smear in early diagnosis of cervical cancer- A Case Study of women in Saudi Arabia

 

Sheikh Haroon (1), Manhua Cui (2)

 

(1)Second Hospital, Jilin University Changchun, China

(2)King Abdul Aziz Hospital and Oncology Centre Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

drhsheik@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The fifth most common and deadly cancer amongst women worldwide is Cervical cancer. Cervical cancer mostly affects younger women and during the last two decades the incidence in younger age groups has further increased. The EU established principles for organised population-based cervical screening to control and decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. 1941, Papanicolaou described cervical mass screening for early detection of cervical cancer. The Pap smear has proved valuable for mass screening and enabling lesions detection at an early enough stage for effective treatment and has an incidence of reducing squamous ICC by at least 80%. Organized screening has not been introduced in Saudi Arabia hence the reasons for the Pap smears (n=1475) performed were one or a combination of vaginal discharge, vaginal itching, lower genital tract burning, suspected urinary tract infection by the patient and age of the patient where the doctor performed the pap smear because the patient was in the age range for cervical cancer. For 83% this was their first Pap smear. The total number of abnormal cervical smears was 43. i.e. 2.91% of all screened cytology cases. Our research indicated a high prevalence of CIN 1 and CIN 3. Pap smears play a substantial role in not only detection but also prevention of cervical cancer. Success of organized screening programme is possible when Family physicians at family clinics will be properly trained in performing Pap smears.

[Sheikh Haroon , Manhua Cui. Role of Pap smear in early diagnosis of cervical cancer- A Case Study of women in Saudi Arabia. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1027-1036] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 153

 

Key words: pap smear, cervical cancer, ICC, cytology, colposcopy.

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The Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Bouts on CD34+ Stem Cells and Some Physiological Parameters

 

Mohammed NaderShalaby(1), Jin Yu Liu(2), Hussein Heshmat(3), Nader M. Shalaby(4), Mohammed Salah Zaeid(5), Ahmed Ibrahim Shalgham(4), MagedElazazy(4), SamyAkar(5), Mohammed AbdelrazikTaha(4), WaelElfiel(6)

 

(1)Department of Pathobiology key lab of Ministry of Education, Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, China and Department of Sports Science, Faculty of Physical Education, Port Said University, Egypt

(2) Department of Pathobiology key lab of Ministry of Education, Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, China.

(3)Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Egypt. (4)Faculty of Physical Education, Suez CanalUniversity, Egypt.

(5)Faculty of Physical Education, PortsaidUniversity, Egypt.

(6)Poultry and Rabbit medicine department, college of Vet medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt 41522 and college of animal science and Vet medicine, Jilin University, China 130062

E-mail dr.m.nader@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aerobic exercise draws energy mainly from biochemical processes requiring oxygen, whereas anaerobic exercise draws energy from processes not requiring oxygen.20 healthy male athletes aged (18-24 yrs.) were recuited for this study. Healthy low active males and BMI matched participants (n=10) aged (20-22 yrs.) wererecuited as controls. Aerobic and anaerobic testing was performed on a cycle ergometer. The testing wasa modification of AstrandRhyming protocol forVo2max. Pulserate estimation,Rbcs,Wbcs, HB and hematocrit were estimated using coulter counter. Lactateby accusport, CD34+ stem cells were determined by flow cytometry. Results indicated:VO2 max was increased in case of aerobic exercise bout compared to anaerobic one.Lactate concentration was decreased in case of aerobic exercise bout compared to anaerobicone.Hb, Rbcs,Wbcs and hematocrit were increased after both exercise bouts.CD34+ stem cells were increased in case of anaerobic exercise bout than aerobic one. It is concluded that Vo2 max increased in case of aerobic exercise bout compared to anaerobic one due to the longer period of cycling. Lactate concentration was decreased in case of aerobic exercise bout compared to anaerobic one  due to the higher intensity expressed in anaerobic bout leading to decrease oxygen .CD34+ HPC counts were increased in peripheral blood of anaerobic exercise bout than aerobic one due to stress induced by anaerobic exercise bout .

[Mohammed Nader Shalaby, Jin Yu Liu , Hussein Heshmat ,Nader M. Shalaby, Mohammed Salah  Zaeid, Ahmed Ibrahim Shalgham, Maged Elazazy, Samy Akar, Mohammed Abdelrazik Taha, Wael Elfiel.. The Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Bouts on CD34+ Stem Cells and Some Physiological Parameters. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1037-1043] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 154

 

Key words: Aerobic and anaerobic exercise bouts, CD34+stem cells, physiological parameters.

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Performance Obstacles Experiences Among Critical Care Nurses in Damanhur Teaching Hospital

 

Lamiaa Ismail Keshk1; Shereen Ahmed Qalawa2 and Azza Anwar Aly3

 

1Department of nursing administration, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University

2Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port said University

3Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University

keshk_lamiaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract The work environment of intensive care nurses may have substantial impact on both nursing outcomes and patient safety. Performance obstacles are the factors that hinder intensive care nurses' capacity to perform their jobs and that are associated closely with their immediate work environment. Aim: To identify the performance obstacles experienced by critical care nurses in their work environment that covers all elements of the work system model. Subject and methods: An exploratory, descriptive design was utilized. The sample included all available nurses (n=60). Data was collected by using questionnaire performance obstacles. It was conducted in Damanhur teaching hospital in Damanhur city in 2 critical care units. Results: indicated that nurses experience in critical care units a wide variety of performance obstacles that cover all elements of the work system model. Conclusion: Performance obstacles represent the following elements of the work system: environment (6 obstacles), organization (7 obstacles), technologies or tools (4 obstacles), and task (4 obstacles).

[Lamiaa Ismail Keshk; Shereen Ahmed Qalawa and Azza Anwar Aly. Performance Obstacles Experiences Among Critical Care Nurses in Damanhur Teaching Hospital. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1044-1054] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 155

 

Keywords: Critical care, intensive care, nurses, performance obstacles, work environment

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[Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1055-1064] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 156

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PID Power System Stabilizer Design based on Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

 

Mojtaba Shirvani 1, Pejman Shakeri 2, Elahe Behzadipour 3, Iman Baghbani4

 

1,2,3,4Department of Electrical Engineering, Boroujen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boroujen, Iran

mo_shirvani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Power System Stabilizers (PSS) are used to generate supplementary damping control signals for the excitation system in order to damp the Low Frequency Oscillations (LFO) of the electric power system. The PSS is usually designed based on classical control approaches but this Conventional PSS (CPSS) has some problems. To overcome the drawbacks of CPSS, numerous techniques have been proposed in literatures. In this paper a PID type PSS (PID-PSS) is considered. The parameters of this PID type PSS (PID-PSS) are tuned based on Shuffled Frog Leaping algorithm. The proposed PID-PSS is evaluated against the conventional power system stabilizer (CPSS) at a single machine infinite bus power system considering system parametric uncertainties. The simulation results clearly indicate the effectiveness and validity of the proposed method.

[Mojtaba Shirvani, Pejman Shakeri, Elahe Behzadipour, Iman Baghbani. PID Power System Stabilizer Design based on Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1065-1070] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 157

 

Keywords: Power System Stabilizer, Dynamic Stability, Shuffled Frog Leaping algorithm, PID Controller

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Unified Power Flow Controller Design based on Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

 

 

Mojtaba Shirvani 1, Pejman Shakeri 2, Elahe Behzadipour 3, Iman Baghbani4

 

1,2,3,4Department of Electrical Engineering, Boroujen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boroujen, Iran

mo_shirvani@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: This paper presents the application of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) to enhance damping of Low Frequency Oscillations (LFO) at a Single-Machine Infinite-Bus (SMIB) power system installed with UPFC. Since UPFC is considered to mitigate LFO, therefore a supplementary damping controller based UPFC like power system stabilizer is designed to reach the defined purpose.  Optimization methods such as Shuffled Frog Leaping algorithm (SLFA) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) are considered to design UPFC supplementary stabilizer controller. To show effectiveness and also comparing these two methods, the proposed methods are simulated under different operating conditions. Several linear time-domain simulation tests visibly show the validity of proposed methods in damping of power system oscillations. Also Simulation results emphasis on the better performance of SLFA in comparison with GA method.

[Mojtaba Shirvani, Pejman Shakeri, Elahe Behzadipour, Iman Baghbani. Unified Power Flow Controller Design based on Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1071-1076] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 158

 

 

Keywords: Flexible AC Transmission Systems, Unified Power Flow Controller, Low Frequency Oscillations, Shuffled Frog Leaping algorithm, Genetic Algorithms.

 

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Investigation on New Eco-Core Metal Matrix Composite Sandwich Structure

 

Reza Atefi1, Ali Razmavar2, Farhad Teimoori3, Farshad Teimoori4

 

1,2,3,4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dehaghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dehaghan, Isfahan, Iran

Rezaatefi82@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The introduction of the eco-core sandwich panel composite is contributing a new approach to the designer to achieve high performance and light weight. These advanced natural fibre reinforced composite materials are increasingly being used in many applications including structural, aerospace, and defense and household appliances. However, the practical application for commercial use is not so widespread. High manufacturing cost can be justified if the product life cycle of the component is increased.  Efforts have therefore been directed in recent years towards the development of suitable light-weight materials for many engineering applications and polymer matrix composites (PMCs) with phenolic or aluminium foam laminated composite have shown great promise in order to fulfill the current demands for structural applications. In this research project, the new kenaf eco-core sandwich panel will be developed and then laminated with aluminium for the development of new advanced composite with the aim to investigate the effects of sandwich eco-core and variable metal faces on the properties of developed composites. The final goal is to find the optimum eco-core metal matrix composite sandwich structure with maximum mechanical properties such as stiffness and buckling.

[Reza Atefi, Ali Razmavar, Farhad Teimoori, Farshad Teimoori. Investigation on New Eco-Core Metal Matrix Composite Sandwich Structure. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1077-1079] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 159

 

Keywords: Composite Sandwich Structure, Kenaf, Eco-core, Aluminium, Metal Matrix Composites

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Mechanical Characterization, Fabrication and FTIR Spectroscopic Analysis of Fish Scale Reinforced Epoxy Composites

 

Reza Atefi1, Ali Razmavar2, Farhad Teimoori3, Farshad Teimoori4

1,2,3,4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dehaghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dehaghan, Isfahan, Iran

Rezaatefi82@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper describes the processing and characterization of a new class of epoxy matrix composites reinforced with short fibers obtained from the scales of a fresh water fish (Labeo rohita). The functional groups involved in the formation of the resulting composite are identified. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis shows that the formation of hydrogen bonds occurring at the fiber-matrix interface between the oxygen atom of the epoxy and hydrogen atom of the polypeptide chain of fish scale is responsible for the formation of this new class of composites. These composites possess improved micro-hardness and exhibit tensile and flexural strengths marginally different from those of neat epoxy. These composites are expected to find applications as potential materials for conveyor belt rollers, pipes carrying pulverized coal in power plants, pump and impeller blades and also as low cost housing materials.

[Reza Atefi, Ali Razmavar, Farhad Teimoori, Farshad Teimoori. Mechanical Characterization, Fabrication and FTIR Spectroscopic Analysis of Fish Scale Reinforced Epoxy Composites. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1080-1082] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 160

 

Keywords: Polymer composites, Bio fibers, Fish scale, FTIR

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Investigation on Weldability of new ferritic stainless steel for exhaust manifold application

 

Reza Atefi1, Ali Razmavar2, Farhad Teimoori3, Farshad Teimoori4

 

1,2,3,4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dehaghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dehaghan, Isfahan, Iran

Rezaatefi82@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the current context of fossil energy scarcity, car manufacturers have to optimize vehicles energy efficiency. This global and continuous improvement includes a change of the exhaust manifold design. Usually in cast iron, exhaust manifolds tend to be mechanically welded in order to fit new constraints such as lightness, durability, efficiency and small size. To achieve such requirements, ferritic stainless steels with high chromium content (19%) and molybdenum (2%) are developed. For the welding, the use of existing filler wire does not satisfy fully the application requirements. This leads to oxidation problems and / or thermal fatigue strength that drastically reduces assembly lifetime. New flux cored wires are developed in the context of this study in order to provide molten zone characteristics close to those of the base metal. Different chemical compositions are tested in order to highlight the influence of stabilizing element on microstructure. Welding tests revealed the major influence of titanium on the grain refinement in the molten zone. A minimum Ti content of 0.45 weight % in the filler wire is required to be efficient as grain refiner.

[Reza Atefi, Ali Razmavar, Farhad Teimoori, Farshad Teimoori. Investigation on Weldability of new ferritic stainless steel for exhaust manifold application. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1083-1087] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 161

 

Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, stabilization, columnar to equiaxed transition, welding.

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Tissue Expression of PCNA and Caspase3 in the Liver in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis, Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Maged El Ghanam1; Nawal El Badrawy1; Olfat Hammam2; Moataz Hassan, Amgad Anas1; Mohamed  El Talkawy1 and Abdel Aziz Ali 1

 

1Hepato-Gasteroenterology, 2Patholgy Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, El-Nil Street, Warrak El-Hadar, P.O. Box 30, Imbaba 12411, Giza, Egypt

Mtalkawy88@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Our aim is to evaluate the role of nuclear proliferative activity mainly PCNA and apoptosis mainly caspase3 in cases of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and HCC. Methods: This is a prospective study, ninety patients with chronic liver disease and HCC were subjected to clinical examination, laboratory investigations for hepatitis C and liver function tests and to abdominal ultrasonography. Liver biopsy was performed for histopathological examination. They were 3 groups: chronic hepatitis (35), liver cirrhosis (25) and HCC (30) and ten control patients with negative serological markers for hepatitis (C&B). Immunohistochemical staining for PCNA and Caspase 3 was done. Results: The highest PCNA expression was in the HCC group and the lowest was in the control group. The PCNA level increased gradually from the control group to the CH group, LC group to reach its highest level in the HCC group. This denotes that cellular proliferation in LC and HCC groups was higher than in the CH and Control groups. CH, LC and HCC groups showed a statistical significant difference relative to control group at a p < 0.05 (CH group) and p < 0.01 (LC, HCC groups). PCNA expression difference in CH and LC groups is statistically significant relative to the HCC group and to each other at a p < 0.01.  There is statistically significant difference in PCNA expression levels between HCC grades I and II at p < 0.05, and HCC grade III with a statistical significant difference relevant to grades I and II at a p < 0.01. The highest caspase3 expression was in the LC group and the lowest was in the control group. The caspase3 level increased from the control group to the CH and LC groups and decreased in the HCC group. The CH, LC and HCC groups showed a statistical significant difference relative to the control group at a p < 0.05 (CH group) and p < 0.01 (LC, HCC groups). Caspase 3 expression in CH and LC groups is statistically significantly higher relative to the HCC group and relative to each other at a p < 0.01. There is statistically significant difference in Caspase3 expression levels between HCC grades I and II at p < 0.05, and low Caspase3 expression level in HCC grade III with a statistical significant difference relevant to grades I and II at p < 0.01& p < 0.05, respectively. Conclusion: Increased PCNA expression in hepatocytes indicating recent replication is increased in HCV chronic liver disease and in HCC. Development of HCC in patients with cirrhosis can to be predicted by liver cell proliferation. Reduced caspase3 expression in liver cirrhosis may indicate malignancy and a higher grade in HCC. Research directed to suppress nuclear proliferation and to enhance apoptosis may be of therapeutic value to control HCC development in cirrhosis.

[Maged El Ghanam; Nawal El Badrawy; Olfat Hammam; Moataz Hassan, Amgad Anas; Mohamed  El Talkawy and Abdel Aziz Ali. Tissue Expression of PCNA and Caspase3 in the Liver in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis, Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Life Sci J 2012;9(2):1088-1097] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 162

 

Key words:  PCNA, Caspase 3, IHC, Hepatitis C, HCC

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Clinical Utility of Serum Che