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Life Science Journal 
 ISSN:1097-8135
 Volume 8 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 27), December 25, 2011. life0804
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0804
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CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Reaching to sustainable development through indigenous knowledge

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani, Maryam Khodamoradi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in recent decades following issues had been recognized very essential: programming and performing development plans, indigenous knowledge at farming, pest control, ranching, veterinary, nutrition, medicine, watershed management, foresting, architecture, urban planning, social associations and decision making method as sustainable technology. At on hand, reason of this great evolution can be found due to wrong policy and at the other hand in undesirable environmental consequences of these policies.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani, Maryam Khodamoradi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Reaching to sustainable development through indigenous knowledge. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):1-6] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 1

 

Keywords: sustainable development, indigenous knowledge

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Rural women's financial and Intellectual self-reliance

 

Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Mehdi Nazarpour, Abbas Emami

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: fereshteh12150@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: By the activities such as promotional services for increasing the rural women’s skills in various fields and by increasing the rural women’s knowledge in social, politic, cultural and economic fields and by using micro-credit plans for motivate and support women in economic development and their self-reliance, we can increase the rural women’s empowerment. Rural women’s financial self-reliance has many social & economic influence as it made them self-sufficiency, it changes economic behavior and it makes women independent, it will be effective in economic development in family & society , it also improve the women’s roles in society and it causes self-confidence in women , it builds family strength and it causes to respect the women rights more than before and women will become equal with men in all their rights, of course we won’t have patriarchy in the family . The women’s empowerment in the rural society will increase because of all the aspects of rural women’s self-reliance and their position will be confirmed.

[Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Mehdi Nazarpour and Abbas Emami. Rural women's financial and Intellectual self-reliance. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):7-10] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.  2

 

Keywords: financial self-reliance, rural women

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Utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education

 

Maryam Khodamoradi , Mehran Bozorgmanesh  and Esmaeel Ghorbani

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Policy makers and service providers have increasingly come to view information and communication technologies (ICT), and particularly the Internet, as an important tool in providing disadvantaged groups and areas with access to information, services and markets that would otherwise be inaccessible. The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that. This paper uncovers a whole plethora of ICT emergence as a technology of the new millennium. Against the backdrop of the ongoing ICT boom, this paper makes an attempt towards studying its applications and usage planning process and policy making for the rural communities focusing on how it helps in aligning the key factors and reduce the problems of alienation, fragmentation and dislocation of knowledge.

[Maryam Khodamoradi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Esmaeel Ghorbani. Utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):11-15] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 3

 

Keywords information and communication technologies (ICT), education

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Implications of micro-credit for rural women in developing countries

 

1Mohammad Reza Rezaei, 2 Mehdi Nazarpour, 3 Abbas Emami

1, 2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: fereshteh12150@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: paying part of cost of life by government or charities , establishing forums to analyze family supervisor women’s problems , supplying necessary facilities to grow and improve child’s life quality and paying facilities to provide sustainable employment , are among most important approaches to support family supervisor women. Paying credit facilities to access sustainable employment with easy terms at limited time, is one of the most important approaches to support family supervisor women. Because alongside supplying their continues needs, their esteem wouldn’t be marred. Currently, this approach is used at many countries and positive results have emerged.

[Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Mehdi Nazarpour and Abbas Emami. Implications of micro-credit for rural women in developing countries. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):16-20] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: micro-credit, rural women

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1-4 years old infant’s acute diarrhea treatment with zinc sulfate and ORS solution:

A case study at Eshkenan city, Fars province, Iran

 

Hakimeh S. Sajjadi 1, Ali Akbar Shaikhi Fini 2, Abdolvahab S. Samavi 2

 

1. Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Ostandari Blvd, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2. University of Hormozgan, Minab Street, Bandar Abbas, Iran

hakimeh.sajjadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of treatment efficiency of zinc sulfate and ORS solution in combination or with ORS (only) on intensity and duration of diarrhea in 1-4 years old infants. A total of one hundred two of 1-4 years old cases were treated in two groups, control group (52 cases) and experimental group (50 cases). Treatment period were done at health-care center of Eshkenan city, Fars province, Iran. Obtained data were evaluated by t-test for detection of significant difference. Findings showed that zinc sulfate in combination with ORS had better treatment efficiency on shortening of acute diarrhea and lowering its intensity, in comparison with ORS, alone. From the results of this study, it is concluded that zinc sulfate is a suitable completive treatment accompanying with ORS in treating infant’s diarrhea term.

[Hakimeh S. Sajjadi, Ali Akbar Shaikhi Fini, Abdolvahab S. Samavi. 1-4 years old infant’s acute diarrhea treatment with zinc sulfate and ORS solution: A case study at Eshkenan city, Fars province, Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):21-23] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

 

Key words: 1-4 years old infants; diarrhea; zinc sulfate; ORS solution

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The Investigation and Analysis of Living Ability Level and Its Influencing Factors of Stroke Patients in Community in Zhengzhou, China

 

Zhang Weihong, Zhang Zhenxiang, Liu Lamei, Lin Beilei, Xie Junfang, Mei Yongxia, Zhang Yaqi

 

The Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

Zhangzx6666@126.com

 

[Abstract] objective exploring community stroke patients’ living ability level and its influencing factors analysis. Methods Investigating 146 cases of community stroke patients’ general conditiondepression standard and the living ability by using general material questionnaireself-rating depression scale and Barthel index rating scale. Analyzing the relationship of the ability of life with genderworking conditionyear of sick numberthe number of stroke and depression, etc. And further regressively probing into the influencing factors. Results The living ability of respondents average score are 74.45 + 31.21, 73.3% of the respondents can look after themselves basically in their daily life, 26.7% of the respondents have self-care obstacles. The living ability of patients has relationship with working conditionwhether having accepted rehabilitation guidancemerger symptoms merger heart diseasemerger diabetes mellitusp<0.05. Logistic’s regression analysis shows that the influencing factors of stroke patients’ daily living ability have depression levelwhether having accepted rehabilitation guidance and working condition. Conclusion The living ability of community stroke patients is in the medium level, which relate to physicalmental and environment, etc, many factors, especially needing to improve their mental state.

[Zhang Weihong, Zhang Zhenxiang, Liu Lamei, Lin Beilei, Xie Junfang, Mei Yongxia, Zhang Yaqi. The Investigation and Analysis of Living Ability Level and Its Influencing Factors of Stroke Patients in Community in Zhengzhou, China. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):24-29] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

[Keywords] Community; Stroke; Activity of daily living; Depression

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CREB1 Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Depression and Antidepressant Response

 

Lu Zhang1, Yu Fang2, Zhaoshu Zeng3, Yajun Lian1, Bo Song1, Yuming Xu1

 

1 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou,PR China. 2 Key-Disciplines Laboratory Clinical-Medicine Henan, Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital,Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, PR China 3 Department of Legal Medicine, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University,  Zhengzhou, PR China. xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn  

 

Abstract: cAMP response element binding proteinCREBis needed in the formation of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity. It also promotes synaptic remodeling and modulates the function of many other neurotransmitters. The current study examined potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CREB1 gene ( rs10932201, rs3770704) and Alzheimer’s disease-related depression (AD-D). Participants included 336 patients with AD; 128 of these patients had AD-D. Response to 8-week paroxetine treatment was also assessed. The frequency of the rs3770704 C allele was significantly lower in AD-D than in the Alzheimer’s disease without depression (AD-nD) patients (p = 0.0075 after Bonferroni correction). Carriers of the A allele of rs10932201 responded better to the treatment by paroxetine (p = 0.0053). These findings support an important role of CREB1 polymorphism in AD-D.

[Lu Zhang, Yu Fang, Zhaoshu Zeng, Yajun Lian, Bo Song, Yuming Xu. CREB1 Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Depression and Antidepressant Response. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):30-36] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease-related depression; cAMP response element binding protein; paroxetine; polymorphism

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Antimicrobial Activities of Gold Nanoparticles against Major Foodborne Pathogens

 

M. F. Zawrah1 and Sherein I. Abd El-Moez*2

 

1Advanced Material & Nanotechnology Group, Center of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Centre, Food Risk Analysis Group- Center of Excellence for Advanced Sciences Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*shereinabdelmoez@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Spherical gold nanoparticles (Au) were chemically prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV spectra. Their antimicrobial activities against major foodborne pathogens were studied. Antimicrobial activities of Au nanoparticles had been increased with their higher volume. Best antifungal activity was observed on using fluconazole coated with 40 µl Au nanoparticles with zone of inhibition 14mm against A. niger, 13mm C. albicans and 12mm A. flavus. Minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC) revealed synergistic effect of Au nanoparticles with ciprofloxacin when compared with ciprofloxacin alone. Best results were shown against S. Typhimurium (0.097, 0.19), B. cereus (0.19, 0.39), E.coli O157 (0.39, 0.39), P. aeruginosa and L. monocytogenes (0.39, 0.78) and finally S. aureus (0.78, 6.25) respectively. Gold nanoparticles and fluconazole coated with Au nanoparticles showed variable MIC against C. albicans, A. niger (6.25, 3.125) and A. flavus (12.5, 6.25), respectively.  TEM revealed small size of gold nanoparticles (range 9-19 nm) trapped by the biofilm released by S. Typhimurium and easily attached to the surface of cell membrane which drastically disturbed its proper function like respiration and permeability. Interaction between S. Typhimurium and ciprofloxacin coated with gold nanoparticles revealed that the cell wall was loosened and separated from the membrane or disrupted with complete absence of flagella. TEM of S. Typhimurium using ciprofloxacin alone showed intact bacterial cell wall with the accumulation of antibiotic on the cell wall and partial destruction of flagella. Drugs capped gold particle act as a single group against the microorganism which was indicated by using disk diffusion method with increase zone of inhibition of Au alone, ciprofloxacin alone and Au coated ciprofloxacin from 12, 26 and 30 mm, respectively.  Also, it was clarified by the decrease in MIC from 6.25, 0.19 to 0.097, respectively. Results indicated that drugs coated with nanoparticles were highly effective against tested isolates so that Au nanoparticles can minimize treatment durations and side effects of drugs.

[M. F. Zawrah and Sherein I. Abd El-Moez. Antimicrobial Activities of Gold Nanoparticles against Major Foodborne Pathogens. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):37-44] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial, gold nanoparticles, foodborne pathogens, ciprofloxacin,   S. Typhimurium, TEM.

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Childhood Obesity Intervention Programs: A Review of Systematic Reviews

 

Mazna AlMarzooqi1 and Chris Nagy2

 

1Department of Community Health Sciences, Health Education ,College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Department of Public Health,Public Health Education,College of Health and Human Services, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA

 

Abstract: Since childhood obesity has become a global epidemic, the research done was an overview of different interventions conducted in the community, school and home settings so as to guide efforts for an effective management of obesity in children and provide a profile of successful childhood obesity prevention intervention programs, thus minimizing the risk of adult obesity and related cardiovascular risk.  Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for community, school and home settings obesity interventions with anthropometric measures in children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 12 years from 2004 to 2009.  Studies were reviewed by intervention type, duration, outcomes measures and significance of intervention aspects, resulting in a yield of 22 intervention studies. Results: The interventiоnѕ were then arranged in аѕсending order by аge group; based on a review of these interventions, it was evident that there was a need for more primary prevention programs. In total, 22 interventions from around the world were found to tackle the critically important issue of childhood obesity. The majority of the interventions (n=13) were developed and implemented in elementary schools. In addition, 5 interventions were one academic year in duration. Four were short lasted only eight weeks, three were 32 weeks in length, one was 12 weeks long, four were 24 weeks, two  lasted 36 weeks, and three lasted two full years. Among the 22 published studies, ten interventions focused on individual level behavior change and twelve included some nutrition policy changes. With respect to individual behavior, components included cooking classes for families, training on food selection, and health education session on disordered eating. In terms of measurement of behaviors, the majority of the studies (n=22) measured changes in factors (such as times spent being physically active, fruit & vegetable intake, and reductions in TV viewing. Many of these studies were able to show positive outcome towards progress of healthy behaviors. From the 22 published studies, six interventions relied on secondary prevention while fifteen interventions used a primary prevention method. Only one intervention used both types. In total of 22 published studies, only nine were able to show significant outcomes, while 13 were not able to show any impact. Finally, seven of the non-theoretical based interventions showed significant result, while only two of the project based on specific behavioral theories. Conclusions: Schools are the best settings for childhood obesity interventions because children form libeling eating and physical activity habits at a young age. School-based interventions should focus on childhood obesity prevention. They must target enhancement of physical activity and healthy nutrition in order to decrease BMI. Finally, future interventions should seek to incorporate individual behavior change strategies with policy and environmental changes in order to make a substantial and sustainable impact on children’s health and well-being.

[Mazna AlMarzooqi and Chris Nagy. Childhood Obesity Intervention Programs: A Review of Systematic Reviews. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):45-60] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Childhood; Obesity; Intervention; global epidemic

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A case of hermaphroditism that presented as a pelvic cystic mass

 

Da Zhang1, Jiaxiang Wang1, Yingzhong Fan1,  Weihong Zhang2*

 

1Department of Pediatric Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China

2The Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China

 

Abstract This report presents the case of a 14-year-old individual who was raised as a male child. The patient had a history of bilateral cryptorchidism combined with hypospadias, he visited our hospital with complaints of urinary retention and a cystic mass behind the bladder after the operation of urethroplasty for hypospadias. Pathological tests of the cystic mass showed that it was uterine tissue, but no ovarian tissue was found. The clinical diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis was confirmed in the case.

[Da Zhang, Jiaxiang Wang, Yingzhong Fan, Weihong Zhang. A case of hermaphroditism that presented as a pelvic cystic mass. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):61-63] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: hermaphroditism ; misdiagnosis; mixed gonadal dysgenesis

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Preliminary Study on Solid-phase Hybridization for Detection of Common Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Fungal Keratitis

 

Zhang Yinglang, Wang Liya, Li Zhitao, Sun Shengtao

 

Henan Eye Institute, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, China. zhangylyks@126.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To develop an experimental method for the rapid detection and accurate identification of common pathogenic bacteria causing fungal keratitis in China based on the gene chip principle and by the solid-phase hybridization technology.  Methods: For the 6 categories and 12 species of common clinical fungi causing keratitis in China including fusarium solani, fusarium moniliforme, fusarium poae, fusarium oxysporum, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus niger, curvularia lunatus, penicillium implicatum, alternaria alternate, and candida albicans, fixed an specific oligonucleotide probe onto an aldehyde slide. Amplified the above fungi with a pair of fluorescence labeling universal primers, hybridized the fluorescence labeling amplified product with the probe arrayed in the slide and observed the color under a fluorescence microscope. Result: Through observation of agarose gel electrophoresis, 12 species of fungi all produced about 530-630 base pair PCR amplification products; conducted hybridization detection of them under the same conditions and obtained post-hybridizaiton fluorescent color maps with their own respective characteristics; different bacteria can be directly differentiated and judged through fluorescence signals. Conclusion: The 12 common clinical species of pathogenic bacteria causing fungal keratitis in our country can be detected within 3-4 hours with fluorescence labeling universal primers and through PCR amplification to produce fluorescence labeling amplified products and hybridize with the oligonucleotide probe on the aldehyde slide.

[Zhang Yinglang, Wang Liya, Li Zhitao, Sun Shengtao. Preliminary Study on Solid-phase Hybridization for Detection of Common Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Fungal Keratitis. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):64-67] (ISSN: 1097-8135).

http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key Words: Solid-phase hybridization, Fungal keratitis, Pathogenic bacteria, Bacteria detection

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Interleukin-3 Receptor Alpha Chain as a Unique Marker for Leukemic Stem Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

 

Khorshed, Amira1; Elsharkawy, Nahla1; Elrefaey, Fatma1 Mansour Osman2 and Elgamal, Basma*1

 

1Department of Clinical Pathology, 2Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. *basmaelgamal@gmail.com, basmaelgamal@cu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Recent studies suggest that the population of malignant cells found in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) arises from a rare population of leukemic stem cells (LSCs). In the present study, we investigated the presence of interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain in the bone marrows of 30 newly diagnosed AML cases versus 20 normal bone marrow donors as a control group; both on fresh bone marrow samples and on post culture ones. Flow cytometric study showed that the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain was strongly coexpressed with CD34 in 91.7% of primary AML specimens and in 96% of post culture ones. Conversely, normal bone marrow derived stem cells showed virtually no detectable expression of the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain antigen. Collectively, these data indicate that the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain represents a unique marker for primitive leukemic stem cells. Given the strong expression of this receptor on leukemic stem cells, we propose that targeting of the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain may be a promising strategy for detection of minimal residual disease, as well as for the preferential ablation of AML cells.

[Khorshed, Amira; Elsharkawy, Nahla; Elrefaey, Fatma, Mansour Osman; and Elgamal, Basma. Interleukin-3 Receptor Alpha Chain as a Unique Marker for Leukemic Stem Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia] Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):68-74] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key wards: AML, Leukemia stem cells, IL3Ra, CD123

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Aflatoxins Binding by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and S. boulardii in Functional Cereal Based Ice-cream

 

Eman M. Hegazy1, Zeinab I. Sadek2, Kawther El-Shafei2 and Azzat B. Abd El-Khalek2

 

1Food Toxicology and contaminants Department and 2Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. boulardii (viable or nonviable) to bind aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G­2) in liquid medium, cereals extracts and ice-cream at different temperatures and times was detected. Viable S. cerevisiae showed the highest binding of aflatoxins (AFS).  Highest AFS binding capacity (74.7%) was obtained by viable cells of S. cerevisiae when incubated at 8oC for eight hours. While, binding was not affected by the cells of S. boulardii (viable or nonviable) at 25oC. S. cerevisiae when inoculated in barley extract bound 80% of added total AFS, but it found to be 60% in wheat extract. In addition, that the S. cerevisiae binding AFS in chocolate and vanilla ice-cream supplemented with barely extract. Sensory evaluation appeared that the chocolate ice cream with barley extract and viable S. cerevisiae was highly accepted for appearance, texture, taste and odor. No   changes were detected in microbiological examination in ice-cream after three months storage.

[Eman M. Hegazy, Zeinab I. Sadek, Kawther El-Shafei and Azzat B. Abd El-Khalek. Aflatoxins Binding by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and S. Boulardii in Functional Cereal Based Ice-Cream. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 75-81] (ISSN: 1097-8135).

http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: aflatoxins binding, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. boulardii, cereal extracts, barley, wheat, ice-cream.

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Response of MC3T3-E1 Cell Line to the RF Exposure at 2.4GHz

 

1Hsien-Chiao Teng, 2Shen Cherng
 

1Department of Electrical Engineering, ROC Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung,

Taiwan 830, Republic of China

2Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chengshiu University, Niaosong, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833, Republic of China

cherngmsu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The response analysis of MC3T3-E1 cell line to the radio frequency (RF) at 2.4GHz can be recognized by the observation of gap junctional intracellular communication (GJIC) modulation. Meanwhile, fuzzifier of the local affected near magnetic field fluctuations at specific time range in a special fuzzy inference engine that we developed to contrast with the experimental results of GJIC assay is found to be reasonably agreed. The measurement of local near magnetic field fluctuation can therefore be related to the GJIC so that to express the biological effect of the response of MC3T3-E1 cell line to the RF exposure at 2.4GHz.

[Hsien-Chiao Teng, Shen Cherng. Response of MC3T3-E1 Cell Line to the RF Exposure at 2.4GHz. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):82-85] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Gap Junctional Intracellular Communication (GJIC); Fuzzy Inference Engine, Cell Line

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Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Hesperidin and Naringin in High Fat Diet/Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rats

 

Osama Mohamed Ahmed; Ayman Moawad Mahmoud*; Adel Abdel-Moneim

and Mohamed B. Ashour

 

Physiology Unit, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

*aymano911@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hesperidin and naringin on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and serum insulin levels in high fat fed/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Also this study evaluated effects of the tested compounds on lipid profile, serum adiponectin and resistin levels, serum cardiac function  parameters and liver and muscle glycogen contents. An oral dose of 50 mg/kg b.wt. hesperidin or naringin was given continually for 30 days after diabetes induction. In the diabetic control group, levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, AST, LDH and CK-MB were significantly increased, while serum insulin level and hepatic and muscle glycogen were decreased. Both hesperidin and naringin supplementation significantly reversed these parameters. In addition, both compounds were found to alleviate lipid profile and serum adiponectin and resistin levels. These results showed that hesperidin and naringin have potential antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activities in high fat fed/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

[Osama Mohamed Ahmed; Ayman Moawad Mahmoud; Adel Abdel-Moneim and Mohamed B. Ashour. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Hesperidin and Naringin in High Fat Diet/Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):91-101] (ISSN: 1097-8135).

http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Hesperidin, naringin, insulin resistance, adiponectin, resistin.

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Singularities of Gauss Map of Pedal Hypersurface in R n +1

 

M. A. Soliman1, Nassar. H. Abdel-All1, Soad. A. Hassan1 and E. Dahi2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt

2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt

saodali@ymail.com

 

Abstract: This paper mainly studies the singularities of Gauss Map of pedal hypersurface in R n +1. It contains the geometry of pedal hypersurfaces in Rn +1 and their Gauss maps. The singularity of Gauss map of the pedal hypersurface using the rank of jacobian matrix of Gauss map is given and classified. The sets of singularities and its graphs under the Gauss map are plotted.

[M. A. Soliman, Nassar. H. Abdel-All, Soad. A. Hassan and E. Dahi. Singularities of Gauss Map of Pedal Hypersurface in R n +1. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):102-107]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: extrinsic dierential geometry, hypersurfaces, pedal, Gauss map, theory of singularities

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Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against apple Powdery Mildew disease

 

Zohreh Yousefi1, Hossein Riahi1, Hossein Khabbaz-Jolfaei2 and Sima Zanganeh3

 

1Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2Department of Biological Control, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran.

3Department of Botany, Plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

m.yousefi65@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The study was conducted to examine effects of mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and two most prevalent fungicides on Powdery Mildew disease of apple seedlings (Maling merton, MM111). Twenty seedlings were subjected to completely randomized design (CRD) in the following treatments (5 replicates): control (non-AMF mixture, non-fungicide, T1), non-AMF mixture + fungicide Flint in 6th week (T2), non-AMF mixture + fungicide Stroby in 6th week (T3) and AMF mixture (T4), which were monitored for a period of 9 week. Seedlings were exposed to powdery mildew on 6th week and only T3 and T4 plants sprayed one time by fungicides after developing mildew colonies on the leaves. Mildew colonies counted on the all positions of apple seedling leaves (-4 to 4) after a 25-d-treating period that was started from week 6. Results indicated that the most mildew colonies were related to control plants, while lowest colonies numbers were observed in plants treated by Flint (T2), and followed by those inoculated by AMF without using any fungicide (T4). It was concluded that soil inoculation by mixture of AMF had effects similar to Flint and better than Stroby fungicide on decreasing powdery mildew colonies in apple seedling and thus, the combined use of both AMF and fungicides can be considered as a protective strategy against powdery mildew of apple.

[Yousefi, Z., Riahi, H., Khabbaz-Jolfaei H., Zanganeh S. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against apple Powdery Mildew disease. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):108-112] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, fungicide, Powdery Mildew, apple seedling

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Histological Hazards of Chlorpyrifos Usage on Gills and Kidneys of Tilapia nilotica and the Role of Vitamin E Supplement [H1]  in Egypt

 

Aliaa M. Issa1, Azza M. Gawish*1, Gehad M. Esmail2

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Central Lab. for Aquaculture Research. Abbasa, Ismailia, Egypt

*azzaGawish@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Fishes had exhibited a time-honored place in the economical nutrition. Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum organophosphate for agriculture. This study aimed to examine pathological changes on gills and kidneys in Nile tilapia and evaluate the protective role of vitamin E supplementation [H2] . Fish were exposed to 0, 2.64 and 5.28µg/l lorsban and/or vitamin E. Fishs were divided into six groups (control, 2.64 µg/l lorsban, 5.28µg/l lorsban, vitamin E, vitamin E + 2.64µg/l lorsban vitamin E + 5.28µg/l lorsban treated). Fish behavior was observed. Samples were taken in fixed times for behavioural morphometrical and histopathological studies. The fishes exhibited slowly down swimming, color fading and retardation in opercular movement. The vitamin E + 2.64µg/l lorsban and vitamin E + 5.28µg/l lorsban treated fish showed abnormalities in their behavior. Gills and kidney of the 2.64µg/l lorsban treated group showed several pathological changes throughout the experimental periods. The gills of the vitamin E + 5.28µg/l lorsban fish treated group showed also pathological changes. We may conclude that the effect of lorsban on the fish is well noticed on their behavioral and histopathological aspects of the gills and kidney tissues and vitamin E may be partially able to ameliorate these effects.

[Aliaa M. Issa, Azza M. Gawish, Gehad M. Esmail. Histological Hazards of Chlorpyrifos Usage on Gills and Kidneys of Tilapia nilotica and the Role of Vitamin E Supplement[H3]  in Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):113-123] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Tilapia nilotica – Lorsban – Antioxidants – Vitamin

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Glaucoma Treatment with the Extract of Astragalus Membranaceus in Rats Experimental Model

 

Chi-Ting Horng1,2, Ming-Liang Tsai3, Jeng-Chuan Shiang4, Shang-Tao Chien5, Chiang–Hsiang Lu6, Tsung –Hsung Chang6 , Fu-An Chen2,*

 

 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

2 Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC.

3 Department of Ophthalmology, Tri-Services General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

4 Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

5 Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

6 Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

h56041@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Glaucoma is one of the world’s leading causes of blindness. Astragalus membranaceus is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for a long time. The aim of our study is to evaluate the activity of lowering intraocular pressure through the use of  Astragalus membranaceus extract (AME) in an experimental glaucoma model. The rats used in the study were divided into six groups: one sham group, two positive control groups with topical brimonidine instillation and oral acetazolamide therapy, and three groups treated with AME (low, medium and high dosage). The antioxidant activity of AME was accessible by MDA and GPx levels. The ability to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) signified the efficiency of treating glaucoma. The results revealed that AME may decrease the MDA production and restore the GPx level in the periocular blood. This extremely beneficial effect may be by the same as that of brimonidine. Furthermore, AME also showed the ability to significantly lower IOP as is the case with brimonidine and acetazolamide. AME is a relatively safe Chinese herbal medicine with no observed side effects such as body-weight loss, or pathological change. In conclusion, the extract of Astragalus membranaceus is beneficial in treating glaucoma during the development of progression of this disease due to its significant IOP and antioxidant activities. [Chi-Ting Horng, Ming-Liang Tsai, Jeng-Chuan Shiang, Shang-Tao Chien, Chiang–Hsiang Lu, Tsung –Hsung Chang , Fu-An Chen. Glaucoma Treatment with the Extract of Astragalus Membranaceus in Rats Experimental Model. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):124-132] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Astragalas membranaceus, Glaucoma

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An Novel Approach for the Assembly of Bio-nanocapsules by Detonation Process    

 

1Yeuh-Hui Lin,* and 2Sheau-Long Lee

 

1 Department of Greenergy Science and Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan, ROC

2 Department of Chemistry, Chinese Military Academy, Kaohsiung 830, Taiwan, ROC

*Corresponding Author’s E-mail: lin@cc.kyu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: Carbon bio-nanocapsules, a graphitic structure of nanoparticles with a hollow core, have been synthesized via an enhanced detonation process using a Trinitrotoulene (TNT) explosive with parts of toulene as carbon sources and solvent in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as starting mixtures. Titanium nanoparticles, in stu formed from a detonation-assisted decomposition and rapid reduction of titanium dioxide, show good metal-induced activity for nanocapsule nucleation and for disproportionation reaction of from the TNT detonation. The products of hollow carbon nanocapsules are characterized by XRD, TGA, TEM and EDX techniques. The results shows that surface of hollow carbon bio-nanocapsules displays multilayer wall in structure with 0.35 nm space between the layers and the external diameter of the hollow carbon nanocapsules is 20-90 nm with the thickness of the wall is about 3-10 nm. The method is capable of assembling of the carbon nanocapsules without the participaation of a catalyst. This novel method can be as an alternative technique and  may give great potential for the cost-effective ptroduction of hollow carbon nanocapsules.

[Yeuh-Hui Lin, and Sheau-Long Lee. An Novel Approach for the Assembly of Bio-nanocapsules by Detonation Process. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):133-136] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Synthesis; Nanocapsules; Explosives; Nanoparticles; Detonation; Nanocapsules.

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Measuring Physical Fitness Condition System with Self Healthcare Capability Based on RFID Technology

 

1 Sung-Tsun Shih, 2 Chian-Yi Chao, 3 Chin-Ming Hsu

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Corresponding Author: Sung-Tsun Shih, PhD, E-mail: stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a radio frequency identification-based (RFID-based) self healthcare management system which allows a user to identify his/her identification and measure/record their physical fitness and physiology conditions automatically. The system consists of a RFID tag, a RFID reader, a microprocessor-embedded main control system, and several peripherals, including blood pressure meter, ear-temperature meter, and body-weight meter, balance measurement, speed test for running back-forth measurement, etc. The RFID tag and reader are used to store and read a user’s identification, physical fitness condition as well as physiology data. The main control system with MINI2440 ARM microprocessor and WinCE 6.0 platform embedded would identify the user’s identification and then initiate the peripheral device to measure his/her physiology conditions. The measured data is then transmitted and stored in the RFID tag and database. The user interface and database are built by C++ codes. According to the experimental results, the proposed system with easy operations allows users to finish the process of measuring a user’s physiology conditions in 3 minutes and allows users to output the measured data coupled with users’ body mass index (BMI) for self health management references and support medical diagnosis to qualify the medical treatment, rehabilitation or training in advance.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chian-Yi Chao, Chin-Ming Hsu. Measuring Physical Fitness Condition System with Self Healthcare Capability Based on RFID Technology. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):137-142] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: RFID, physical fitness, self health management, physiology, BMI

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Clinicopathological Significance and Prognostic Importance of Circulating Plasma DNA Expression in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and its Efficacy as a Diagnostic Tool

 

Abd El Halim Abu-Hamar1; Hanan Shawky*1; Ibrahim. S. Ibrahim2 And Abdel Khalek H.S.3

 

1Clinical Oncology Department, 2Chest Department, 3Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*hannshawky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background/Aim: Lung cancer is one of the commonest neoplasms. So, there is a continuous need for the development and search for new prognostic markers which will aid in diagnosis and therapy. Circulating plasma DNA levels is over-expressed in many human cancers, including lung. The aim of this work is to study the expression of circulating plasma DNA in NSCLC and assessment of its utility as a diagnostic marker, and in evaluating its impact on therapeutic efficacy as well as correlation of these data with clinicopathologic findings and patient survival to assess its prognostic significance.  Patients and Methods: The amount of plasma DNA was determined through the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) in 41 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 38 age-matched controls. All of the 41 patients with advanced NSCLC received platinum-based chemotherapy. The regimen was Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 (day 1, 8) and platinol 70 mg/m2 (day 1), the cycle was repeated at interval of 21 days for at least 3 cycles. About 3 to 4 weeks after chemotherapy, response was evaluated by restaging- computed tomography. Circulating plasma DNA levels was correlated with established clinicopathologic factors, response to therapy, progression free and overall survival, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Results: There was a significant correlation between circulating plasma DNA levels and stage (p=0.001), LDH levels (p=0.001), smoking status (p=0.02) as well as tumor status (p=0.004). Circulating plasma DNA levels were significantly inversely correlated with treatment response (p<0.001).  There was no statistical significant correlation when looking at the effect of age (p = 0.103), sex (p = 0.164), performance status (p = 0.267), pathological subtype (p = 0.26), and nodal status (p = 0.278) on the circulating plasma DNA levels. There was borderline statistical significant correlation between circulating plasma DNA levels and presence of distant metastases (p = 0.058). Circulating plasma DNA levels had also a highly significant relationship with shorter duration of PFS (p<0.001) and OS (p=0.0014).The mean circulating plasma DNA levels were 141.9 ng/mL (±56.3SD) in NSCLC patients and 69.9 ng/mL (±13.3SD) in controls, the difference being highly significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: our results show that circulating plasma DNA levels is frequently over-expressed in primary NSCLC, and appears to be potentially useful marker for diagnosis. Overall, circulating plasma DNA levels was a significant predictor of survival and response to therapy. Circulating plasma DNA might be used as a new marker to stratify NSCLC patients for more optimal treatment modalities.

[Abd El Halim Abu-Hamar; Hanan Shawky; Ibrahim. S. Ibrahim And Abdel Khalek  H.S. Clinicopathological Significance and Prognostic Importance of Circulating Plasma DNA Expression in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and its Efficacy as a Diagnostic Tool. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4): 143-150] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Circulating plasma DNA, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), diagnosis, clinicopathologic Study, prognosis, survival.

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Mathematical Treatment for the Pollutant Dispersion Considering the Ground as an Absorber-Reflector Surface for the Pollutant

 

F. A. Al-Seroury and A. B. Mayhoub

 

Faculty of Science, King Abdul- Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: A two – dimensional steady – state, mathematical modeling has been presented for the pollutant released from an elevated source in an inversion layer. The study presents a treatment for computing the pollutant concentration distribution under a physically realistic boundary condition which considers the ground as an absorber-reflector surface for the pollutant simultaneously. The wind speed is parameterized in terms of vertical height using the power law profile. The partial differential equation describing the advection-diffusion of pollutants has been solved using separation of variables method. An upper boundary condition which assumes the presence of capping inversion is taken into consideration. The mathematical formulation for the pollutant concentration distribution obtained in the present treatment is given in terms of Bessel and Gamma functions. 

[F. A. Al-Seroury and A. B. Mayhoub. Mathematical Treatment for the Pollutant Dispersion Considering the Ground as an Absorber-Reflector Surface for the Pollutant. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):151-154] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Gradient Transport Model, Atmosphere Dispersion.  PACS: 91.25.fd Environmental magnetism

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Studies on Vibrio Infection in Cultured Freshwater Fish

 

Safinaz G.M. Ismail1, W.D.Saleh2 and Mona Zaki3

 

ąInst. of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alex. Branch, Egypt.

˛Dept. of Microbiology , Fac. of Agriculture, Cairo University,Egypt.

łVeterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo , Egypt.

dr _mona _zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: During the course  of this study 10 isolates were isolated from M.capito collected from several farms in Behera province .The morphological and biochemical characters of isolated bacteria were proved to be  belong to V.anguillarum (2 isolates ),V.ordalii ( 6 isolates) and V. parahaemolyticus ( 2 isolatea).The isolation of the 3 Vibrio sp. from internal organs of naturally infected M.capito indicated that isolates are able to induce infection in M.capito .The examined M.capito showed signs of septicemia in the form of hemorrhagic patches on the caudal peduncle area and base of the fins , superficial ulcers, ascites and congestion of internal organs .Up on injection of V.ordalii in eels both the clinical signs and postmortem lesions were more severe than that observed in naturally infected M.capito .The histopathological changes were severe hyperplasia of secondary gill lamellae, hepatocyts necrosis, activation of melanomacrophage centers and bacterial colonization in the ellipsoid of the spleen .The vaccinated eels respond positively to the injected V.ordalii   bacterin with relative level of protection of 100% .To the best knowledge of the authors it is the first time to isolate V.ordalii from M.capito in Egypt .Moreover, isolation of V. parahaemolyticus is an alarm not only as fish pathogen but also as human hazard . 

[Safinaz G.M. Ismail, W.D. Saleh and Mona Zaki. Studies on Vibrio infection in cultured freshwater fish. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):155-162] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Vibrio; Infection; Freshwater Fish

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Clinicopathological Significance and Prognostic Importance of Circulating Plasma DNA Expression in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and its Efficacy as a Diagnostic Tool

 

Abd El Halim Abu-Hamar1; Hanan Shawky*1; Ibrahim. S. Ibrahim2 And Abdel Khalek H.S.3

 

1Clinical Oncology Department, 2Chest Department, 3Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. *hannshawky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background/Aim: Lung cancer is one of the commonest neoplasms. So, there is a continuous need for the development and search for new prognostic markers which will aid in diagnosis and therapy. Circulating plasma DNA levels is over-expressed in many human cancers, including lung. The aim of this work is to study the expression of circulating plasma DNA in NSCLC and assessment of its utility as a diagnostic marker, and in evaluating its impact on therapeutic efficacy as well as correlation of these data with clinicopathologic findings and patient survival to assess its prognostic significance. Patients and Methods: The amount of plasma DNA was determined through the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) in 41 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 38 age-matched controls. All of the 41 patients with advanced NSCLC received platinum-based chemotherapy. The regimen was Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 (day 1, 8) and platinol 70 mg/m2 (day 1), the cycle was repeated at interval of 21 days for at least 3 cycles. About 3 to 4 weeks after chemotherapy, response was evaluated by restaging- computed tomography. Circulating plasma DNA levels was correlated with established clinicopathologic factors, response to therapy, progression free and overall survival, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Results: There was a significant correlation between circulating plasma DNA levels and stage (p=0.001), LDH levels (p=0.001), smoking status (p=0.02) as well as tumor status (p=0.004). Circulating plasma DNA levels were significantly inversely correlated with treatment response (p<0.001).  There was no statistical significant correlation when looking at the effect of age (p = 0.103), sex (p = 0.164), performance status (p = 0.267), pathological subtype (p = 0.26), and nodal status (p = 0.278) on the circulating plasma DNA levels. There was borderline statistical significant correlation between circulating plasma DNA levels and presence of distant metastases (p = 0.058). Circulating plasma DNA levels had also a highly significant relationship with shorter duration of PFS (p<0.001) and OS (p=0.0014).The mean circulating plasma DNA levels were 141.9 ng/mL (±56.3SD) in NSCLC patients and 69.9 ng/mL (±13.3SD) in controls, the difference being highly significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: our results show that circulating plasma DNA levels is frequently over-expressed in primary NSCLC, and appears to be potentially useful marker for diagnosis. Overall, circulating plasma DNA levels was a significant predictor of survival and response to therapy. Circulating plasma DNA might be used as a new marker to stratify NSCLC patients for more optimal treatment modalities.

[Abd El Halim Abu-Hamar; Hanan Shawky; Ibrahim. S. Ibrahim And Abdel Khalek  H.S. Clinicopathological Significance and Prognostic Importance of Circulating Plasma DNA Expression in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and its Efficacy as a Diagnostic Tool. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4):163-170] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Circulating plasma DNA, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), diagnosis, clinicopathologic Study, prognosis, survival

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Some Potential Biological Predictors of Hypertension in Obese Male Rats

 

Hemmat M. Khloussy1; Hanan A.  Mubark1; Ahmed D. Badawy2 and Abdullah R. ElSwerrky2

 

Departments of Physiology, Faculties of Medicine, 1Cairo and 26th of October Universities, 1Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Patients with obesity are susceptible to hypertension which is a risk factor for all clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke and renal disease. The aim of this thesis was to study some potential biological predictors of hypertension in obese male rats. Material and methods: 60 male albino rats were included in this study and classified into 2 main groups. Group 1(control group, n=30) and group 2 (obese group, n=30). Induction of experimental obesity was by feeding rats with high fat diet till reaching Lee index > 0.3. Lee index (cubic root of body weight (g) X 10 / naso-anal length (mm). All the following were measured at 3 months-interval ( at the beginning of the experiment, after 3 months, after 6 months): systolic blood pressure (mmHg), serum adiponectin (µg/ml), serum uric acid (SUA) (mg/dl), HsC-reactive proteins (HsCRP) (µg/ml) and triglyceride (TG) (mg/dl). Results: Obesity resulted in significant increase of systolic blood pressure and significant decrease of adiponectin. It also induced a significant increase of SUA, HsCRP, and TG. There is significant negative correlation between adiponectin and body weight (r=-0.06 & P < 0.05) in obese group. Conclusion: Serum adiponectin, SUA, HsCRP, and TG are biological predictors of hypertension in obese male rats.

[Hemmat M. Khloussy; Hanan A.  Mubark; Ahmed D. Badawy and Abdullah R. ElSwerrky. Some Potential Biological Predictors of Hypertension in Obese Male Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):171-176] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Obesity – Predictors – Arterial blood pressure – Adiponectin

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Relationship between Iran and Europe Union on Context of Energy

 

Davod  Kiany

 National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, department of sociology and law

Telephone: 0098-9125504219.   Email: davod_kiany2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This article is to explain the relationship between Iran and Europe union on context of energy in after Islamic revolution in Iran (1979). In the article, we tend to explain the changes that caused by the different presidents in relationship of Iran with Europe since Islamic revolution. The article is written in three main parts. In the first part, we are explained to issues like over Overview of Iran, Factor of U.S.A – Islamic Republic of Iran – oil, common interests and differences between Iran and Europe countries.  In second part, we will explain the pragmatism viewpoint and policy of Hashemi Rafsanjani rather the Europe union. His foreign policy was based on restructuring and renovation of the oil industry and attracting investment, taking loans from the foreign countries and establishing the relations with Europe union. The important contracts have been established with Europe in context of oil and gas in different field of energy. In third part, we will investigate the presidency of Khatami which called the reformist government after the revolution of Iran, this period was one of the most significant for Iran because Iranian opened the door and relation with world especially with European countries, and this period was short time in foreign policy of Iran. There were so many differences between Iran and Europe which going to resolves by Khatami.

[Davod  Kiany. Relationship between Iran and Europe Union on Context of Energy. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):177-185] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key world: foreign policy, energy, foreign relation 

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 Topical Antioxidant and Narrowband versus Topical Combination of Calcipotriol plus Betamethathone Dipropionate and Narrowband in the Treatment of Vitiligo

 

Noha N. Doghim; Arwa M. Hassan;*Amal A. El-Ashmawy and Shereen F. Gheida

      

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

*amged1963@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Vitiligo is a specific, common, often heritable, acquired disorder characterized by well-circumscribed milky-white cutaneous macules devoid of identifiable functional melanocytes because of multifactorial and overlapping pathogenic mechanisms. The basic defect in vitiligo is loss of melanocytes. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is an emerging, effective and safe therapy for vitiligo. Because of defective calcium homeostasis in depigmented skin, the vitamin D-3 analogs (calcipotriol and taclacitol) have been used topically in vitiligo, where modulation of the local immune response on specific T cell activation occurs. A new topical product containing a combination of vegetal catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been used in vitiligo. In vitro studies demonstrated the capacity of this complex to dramatically reduce the production of free radicals in vitiligo cell and even to restore a normal level of melanin in melanocytes of vitiligo. Patients and Methods: The current study comprised a total of 40 patients with different clinical varieties of vitiligo. They were recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology and Venereology Department, Tanta University Hospitals. The studied patients were divided into: G1: Included 20 patients subjected to topical combination of calcipotriol   plus betamethazone dipropionate ointment with NB-UVB on the left side of the patient and NB-UVB alone on the right side of the same patient. G2: Included 20 patients subjected to topical SOD/CAT gel with NB-UVB on the left side of the patient and NB-UVB alone on the right side of the same patient. Results: Comparison in the response of the treatment in GI and GII between right and left side revealed no statistically significant difference between the two sides. Comparison in the response in the left side in G I and G II showed no statistically significant difference in repigmentation between the two groups. There were no significant correlation between the results of the combination treatment plus NB-UVB in both groups and clinical criteria of vitiligo patients. There were statistically significant differences between distribution of sites of the lesions in vitiligo patients and treatment with topical applications plus NB-UVB regarding response of the treatment in the face and neck in G II. While in G I the face had excellent response but not statistically significant. Conclusions: The current study had shown that NB-UVB treatment alone is a moderately effective treatment for vitiligo. Betamethasone dipropionate / calcipotriol, when used in combination with NB-UVB were   found to be superior in efficacy than NB-UVB alone, but the results were not statistically significant, while SOS/CAT gel does not appear to add any incremental benefit to NB-UVB alone. It could be recommended that further studies should be performed on this subject.

[Noha N. Doghim; Arwa M. Hassan ; Amal A. El-Ashmaw and Shereen F. Gheida. Topical Antioxidant and Narrowband versus Topical Combination of Calcipotriol and Betamethathone Dipropionate plus Narrowband in the Treatment of Vitiligo. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):186-197] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: vitiligo, calcipotriol, betamethazone dipropionate, catalase and superoxide dismutase

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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF- β 1) as Predictors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HCV Related Liver Cirrhosis

 

Ayman El Shayeb 1, Akram Deghady 2, Abdel-Aziz Belal 3 and Salah Eldin-Eldesoky 4

 

1Tropical Medicine, 2Clinical Pathology, 3Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine and 4Radiodiagnosis Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University

drayman65@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most serious complications of liver cirrhosis. Therefore, evaluation of biomarkers that predicts early the occurrence of HCC in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced liver cirrhosis is of great clinical value from the diagnostic and prognostic points of view. Aim: The aim of this work was to study serum levels of TGF-β1 and VEGF in cirrhotic HCV patients with and without HCC. Subjects and methods: This research was conducted on 30 patients with chronic HCV and liver cirrhosis (Group I), 30 patients with HCC on top of HCV induced liver cirrhosis (Group II) and 20 healthy controls. .Serum TGF- β1 and VEGF were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean VEGF and TGF- β1 levels were significantly higher in patients (Groups I and II) than controls. Furthermore, their values were significantly higher in HCC cases (Group II) than in those with liver cirrhosis (Group I). Significant positive correlations were noticed between each of TGF- β1 and VEGF and Child Pugh score (p˂0.05). Moreover, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between size of hepatic focal lesions and each of TGF -β1 and VEGF in group II patients (p˂0.05)

Conclusion: Serum TGF-β1 and VEGF reflect well the degree of hepatic dysfunction. Their serial measurements might be of diagnostic and predictive value for occurrence of HCC in patients with chronic HCV induced liver cirrhosis.

[Ayman El Shayeb , Akram Deghady , Abdel-Aziz Belal  and Salah Eldin-Eldesoky. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Transforming Growth Factor β 1 (TGF- β 1) as Predictors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HCV Related Liver Cirrhosis. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):198-204] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Chronic hepatitis C, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, angiogenesis

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Design of Steel Column Using LRFD Method

 

Mohamed A. A. El-Shaer

 

Civil and Construction Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute, 10th of Ramadan City

ecg_group@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper a procedure for designing column with slender sections was established. A column design curve for slender sections was established by applying a reduction factor, Q, to the LRFD column design curve. A stability analysis was conducted to study the effect of plate local buckling on flexural column buckling. A finite element model of an axially loaded I-column was developed using shell elements. Material and geometric nonlinearities were incorporated. Geometric imperfections similar to the first buckling mode with amplitude of 1/775 of column length, L, were applied. The analysis was carried out using the general purpose finite element program ANSYS. A wide range of plate width-to-thickness ratios and column slenderness ratios was studied. Column sections were grouped into three Groups: Group 1; sections with slender unstiffened plate elements, Group 2; sections with slender stiffened plate elements, and Group 3; sections composed of slender stiffened and unstiffened elements. The buckling loads for 144 I-column configurations made of steel 37, 44 and 52, and were compared to respective values adopted by the AISC-LRFD and Euro-Code3 specifications.

[Mohamed A. A. El-Shaer. Design of Steel Column Using LRFD Method. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 205-220] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Column, Steel, LRFD, Finite elements.

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Ki-67 Expression in Gingival Overgrowth: An Immunohistochemical Study

 

Eman Y. El-Firt 1 and Dalia M. Ghalwash 2

 

1Departement of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Departement of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts, 6th October, Egypt.

1elfirt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ki-67 is a well-recognized nuclear proliferation marker. Considering that an unusual cell proliferation may have a role in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth with different etiologies. The study involved 4 patients with cyclosporine induced gingival overgrowth (CGO), 6 patients with phenytoin induced GO (PGO) and 5 patients with hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF). Healthy tissue samples without clinical signs of periodontal inflammation were also included as control samples. Immunohistochemistry against the proliferation antigen Ki-67 was performed and optical density measured and compared in both epithelium and connective tissue. Ki-67 was expressed both in the epithelium and corium of the four studied groups. The expression patterns of Ki-67 were significantly higher (p<0.00) in CGO, while no significant difference between HGF and PGO groups was detected and both showed lower values than CGO.  Control group showed the significantly lowest mean of Ki-67 level and the expression was mainly in the basal layer of epithelium.  In conclusion; increased cell division may have a role in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine and phenytoin or inherited as HGF as reflected by increased expression of Ki-67.

[Eman Y. El-Firt and Dalia M. Ghalwash. Ki-67 Expression in Gingival Overgrowth: An Immunohistochemical Study. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):221-226] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Cyclosporine; phenytoin; hereditary gingival fibromatosis; gingival hyperplasia/pathogenesis; Ki-67

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Evaluation of Bone Turnover in Children with Chronic Renal Failure in Egypt

 

Mohamed Bahbah1; Ali El-Shafie 1; Nagy Abou El Hana2; Mohsen Deeb1; Seham Khodeer*3; Azza Abdu-Allah(6) and Hossam Hegran(4)

 

1Pediatric Department, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt

2 Pediatric Department, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

3 Clinical Pathology Departments, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt

4 Medical Biochemistery Department, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt.

*khloud_khaled123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Renal osteodystrophy is a multifactorial and universal disorder of bone metabolism in advanced chronic kidney disease. It is a spectrum of bone mineral changes that could range from the high turnover (HTBD) lesions of secondary hyperparathyroidism to the low turnover lesions(HTBD) of a dynamic bone disease. Objective: to evaluate the bone turnover, estimated by the measurement of some serum biochemical markers and bone mineral density in children with chronic renal failure either on conservative therapy or regular hemodialysis. Methods: The study included 35 children suffering from chronic renal failure 20 out of them on regular hemodialysis (group I) & the other 15 on conservative therapy (group II). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to iPTH values. In addition to 20 apparently healthy children served as a control group. All children underwent thorough history taking, physical examination, routine, specific laboratory& radiological investigations as serum Ca, P, ALP, iPTH , B2 microglobulin & DEXA scan. Results: both of group I & II  had highly significant increase in SBP, DBP, serum B2-microglobulin and iPTH than the controls. Meanwhile, no statistical significant differences in serum B2-microglobulin & iPTH levels were found between groupI & II. BMD was measured using DEXA scan revealed that osteopenia was found in 50% groupI and 53% of group II.  The frequencies of LTBD estimated by iPTH in groups I & II were 20% and 27%, respectively. Meanwhile, the HTBD frequencies were 60 % in the both groups. Children with CRF in the subgroups with high iPTH had significantly higher SBP and DBP than those with low iPTH either in group I or group II. Serum B2-microglobulin showed a significant increase in high iPTH subgroup than low iPTH subgroup only in group I.  iPTH correlated positively with SBP, DBP & B2-microglobulin. Meanwhile, negatively with Ca & BMD Z score in groups I & II. Conclusions: Maintenance of normal bone turnover may be important in prevention of CVD, irreversible bone disabilities and amiloidosis. The preserving of normal BMD is a challenge for pediatric nephrologists so, continuous and regular monitoring systems by combination of iPTH, serum Ca, B2-Microglobulin & BMD Z score could be early, accurate and non invasive assessment of the skeletal system in children with CRF.

[Mohamed Bahbah; Ali El-Shafie; Nagy Abou El Hana; Mohsen Deeb; Seham Khodeer; Azza Abdu-Allah and Hossam Hegran. Evaluation of Bone Turnover in Children with Chronic Renal Failure in Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 227-235] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: bone turnover, children, chronic renal failure

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Positive urine culture of patients with urinary tract infection and antibiotic response of microbes isolated from the in great oil hospital of Ahvaz (ministry of oil)

 

Sarami Abdollah1, Habibi Hasan2, Bahrevar Naser3, Alinejad Mastaneh4

1- Infection. Specialist, Department of health and great oil hospital

2- Clinical. Lab. Dr 3- Health Technologies 4- Medical Technologist

 

Abstract: Urine culture is a diagnostic test to detect bacteria in urine is performed and the identification of microbes that cause urinary tract infections. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in women and children, and all except the urinary tract, the urethra is sterile. E-coli are the most common germs. In a 1024 study by the antibiogram were 10,132 people suffering from urinary tract infection.  Of these, 222 patients (21.7%) men and 801 women (78.3%) women with positive urine culture were 124 people (12.1%) were diabetic and 21 were women and 898 I and 103 patients (87.8%) were non-diabetic, 83.4% of patients in the outpatient and other inpatient wards have had positive urine cultures. 

[Sarami Abdollah, Habibi Hasan, Bahrevar Naser, Alinejad Mastaneh. Positive urine culture of patients with urinary tract infection and antibiotic response of microbes isolated from the in great oil hospital of Ahvaz (ministry of oil) . Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):236-238] (ISSN:1097-8135).

http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: urinary tract infection, on antibiotics, urine culture 

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Peripheral Blood Smudge Cells Percentage in De Novo CLL: A Comparison with Other Established Laboratory Prognostic Markers

 

Zaher, Amr and Elgamal, Basma

 

Department of Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

amr_zaher_66@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in the Western world. The timing as to when a patient will require treatment is highly unpredictable. Thus, there has been great interest in identifying prognostic markers that can be used to distinguish patients who may have an aggressive form of CLL and might benefit from early intervention. Recently developed molecular markers are costly and often require a high level of technological expertise. Recent data give evidence for the prognostic relevance of peripheral blood smudge cells percentage in CLL. In our study, we investigated the prognostic potential of smudge cell percentage in 180 de novo CLL patients referring to the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt and correlated the smudge cell percentage with established prognostic markers; including age, sex, ZAP 70 and CD 38 expression, pattern of marrow infiltration, Beta-2 microglobulin, Lactate dehydrogenase and lymphocyte doubling time. Our results showed that smudge cells percentage correlated inversely with markers of bad prognosis and correlated positively with hemoglobin and lymphocyte doubling time, which confer a better prognosis. We concluded that peripheral blood smudge cells percentage could be used as a simple, inexpensive and independent prognostic marker that can predict the outcome and survival in de novo CLL patients.

[Zaher, Amr and Elgamal, Basma. Peripheral Blood Smudge Cells Percentage in De Novo CLL: A Comparison with Other Established Laboratory Prognostic Markers. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):239-244] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Smudge cells, Peripheral blood, CLL

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First record of Benedenia sciaenae (Monogenea: Capsalidae) infecting the brown-spotted grouper fish Epinephelus chlorostigma (Family: Serranidae) from the Red Sea in Egypt

 

Kareem Morsy1; Sayed Abdel-Monem1; FathyAbdel-Ghaffar1; Abdel-Rahman Bashta­r­­­­1; Ali Al-Ghamdi2 and Rania Abdel-Gaber1

 

1 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Biology Department, College of Science- Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi

Sayedmonem_eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:  Benedenia (Capsalidae) is a genus of important oral and cutaneous fluke parasite of aquarium, cultured and marine fish.  In the present study, the morphological and morphometric characterization of Benedenia sciaenae, a monogenean parasite infecting the gills of the brown-spotted grouper fish Epinephelus chlorostigma were described by means of light microscopy as a first description from Epinephelus chlorostigma. 215 out of 290 (74.1%) fish samples were found to be infected with this ectoparasitic capsalid causing pathogenic and epizootic events. The adult worm is flattened, elongated with an anterior adhesive organ enclosing two anterolateral adhesive structures, each one possesses three lobes which aids for adhesive secretions while the enlarged posterior end enclosing haptor. The adult worm measured about 0.52 -0.67 (mean 0.59 ±0.03) mm in total length and 0.33 – 0.49 (mean 0.38 ±0.02) mm in width. Haptor width measured 0.25-0.29 (mean 0.26 ± 0.02) mm; its hard parts consist of two pairs of hamuli and the accessory sclerites. The anterior hamulus measured 0.027-0.034 (mean 0.31±0.002) mm long while the posterior one measured 0.030-0.040 (mean 0.036±0.002) mm and each of the accessory pieces measured 0.032-0.044 (mean 0.040±0.002) mm long. Results showed that the general morphology of the present Benedenia sp. resembles that of B. sciaenae described previously in Turkeys from Argyrosomus regius fish host with the dimensions of body more or less similar. Also, there were significant correlations (P≤0.05) between fish length, weight and parasite abundance per fish. Number of monogeneans was increased with host size and age to fish of intermediate length and weight, and then it decreased probably because changes in size of gill filaments affect their attachment capability, enhancing the possibility of being detached by respiratory currents.

[Kareem Morsy; Sayed Abdel-Monem; FathyAbdel-Ghaffar; Abdel-Rahman Bashta­r­­­­; Ali Al-Ghamdi and Rania Abdel-Gaber. First record of Benedenia sciaenae (Monogenea: Capsalidae) infecting the brown-spotted grouper fish Epinephelus chlorostigma (Family: Serranidae) from the Red Sea in Egypt] Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):245-252] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Benedenia sciaenae – Monogenea – Capsalidae - Epinephelus chlorostigma- Red Sea – Light microscopy.

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Synergistic Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning, Postcoditioning and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition on Cardiac Tissue apoptosis of Hepatic Ischemic-Reperfused Male Rats

 

Hanan A. Mubarak

 

Department of Physiology, Kasr Al-Aini Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

mobark67@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Accumulating evidences have recently documented that hepatic ischemic mechanical preconditioning, postconditioning or ischemic pharmacological preconditioning had protective effects on the liver, which were associated with a reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation and endogenous antioxidant preservation. However, assessment of cardioprotective effects of remote hepatic ischemic preconditioning, postconditioning or pharmacological preconditioning is unclear and needs further investigations. The aim of this study was to investigate the remote effect of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) on cardiac tissue. And to investigate whether hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IPC), postconditioning (IPO) and/or pharmacological preconditioning by xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) (Allo) may extend a beneficial synergistic effect to protect the cardiac tissue. Forty male Albino rats were divided into 5 experimental groups: group I: sham-operated controls, group II: Hepatic I/R, group III: IPC+ I/R+ IPO, group IV: Allo + I/R, group V: Allo+IPC+I/R+IPO. Serum interleukin-6, cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced form of glutathione (GSH), Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions were measured at the end of experiment. Results revealed that IPC, IPO and/or Allo treatment significantly reduced the levels of IL-6, MDA, Bax mRNA and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and significantly increased the levels of GSH and Bcl-2 mRNA. In conclusion: IPC, IPO and Allo treatment may act synergistically to protect cardiac tissue against oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury during hepatic I/R.

[Hanan A. Mubarak. Synergistic Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning, Postcoditioning and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition on Cardiac Tissue apoptosis of Hepatic Ischemic-Reperfused Male Rats. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4): 253-262] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: hepatic –ischemia- preconditioning- cardiac- apoptosis - allopurinol

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The effects of Behavioural Parent Training Program on Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

 

Majid Darvishizadeh1, Maznah Baba1 , Halimatun Halaliah Mokhtar1, Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar 1 & Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz2

1-Department of Counseling psychology, Faculty of Educational studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor

2-Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor

 

Abstract: The present study evaluated the effectiveness of Behavioural Parent Training Program (BPTP) on families of children with ADHD. Using quasi- experimental design, sixty parents of ADHD children from an ADHD centre for children with behavioural and emotional disorders were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The program developed by Barkley was administered in nine 90-minutes sessions in nine weeks with a one-month follow-up session. Conners’ Parent Rating Scales-Revised and ADHD Rating Scale-IV were employed to measure treatment outcomes. Since data did not meet the assumptions of normality distribution, a series of nonparametric tests using SPSS version-16 were used in the statistical analyses.  The results of Friedman Tests showed significant results for all the subscales. Further investigation of the results using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test also showed a statistically significant reduction in symptoms of ADHD and related problem (Optional behaviour, Cognitive problems/inattention and ADHD Index). The results imply that BPTP can be effective for reducing symptoms of ADHD. The outcome of the study could benefit family counselors, psychologists and specifically for psycho-educational interventions as a single treatment. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings, avenues for future research and limitations of the study are discussed.

[Majid Darvishizadeh, Maznah Baba , Halimatun Halaliah Mokhtar, Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar  & Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz. The effects of Behavioural Parent Training Program on Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Life Science Journal,. 2011;8(4):263-268](ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: ADHD; Behavioural Parent Training Program; Children

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Effect of Testosterone on Hind Limb Regeneration in Tadpoles of the Egyptian Toad, Bufo Regularis Reuss

 

Hamida Hamdi1, Abdel-Wahab EL-Ghareeb1, Alaa Shamakh1 and Sakina Saeed2

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, ELMargab University, Libya

Hamdihamida@rocketmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study investigated the role of Testosterone on the regenerative capacity in two metamorphic stages of the tadpoles of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis Reuss, after amputation of the hind limb at the mid-shank level. It indicated an enhancing effect of Testosterone treatment on limb regeneration in the prometamorphic (stage 56), where 90% of the cases regenerated toes ranging from five to one compared with 77.3% in the control group, also the differential effect of testosterone on the number of toes was obvious in the treated animals, where 30% and 35% of the cases regenerated five and four toes respectively compared with 27.3% and 31.8% in the control group. In the metamorphic stage (stage58), the effect of testosterone was also obvious, where 38.6% of the treated cases restored toes compared with 13.3% of the cases in the control group. 45.5% of the treated cases restored part of the foot compared with 20 % of the cases in the control group. Histological observations of the treated limbs revealed that the formation of thick epithelial covering and complete skin is faster than that of the control animals. This may indicate that the enhancing effect of testosterone on limb regeneration, this may be due to the acceleration of wound healing either by its action upon the proliferative phase of healing which involves immune processes such as reepithelialization and angiogenesis or by the production of IGF-1 or by its stimulatory effect through Wnt/β-catenin signaling resulting in the initiation of the early phases of limb regeneration.

[Hamida Hamdi, Abdel-Wahab EL-Ghareeb, Alaa Shamakh and Sakina Saeed. Effect of Testosterone on Hind Limb Regeneration in Tadpoles of the Egyptian Toad, Bufo Regularis Reuss. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4): 269-283] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key Words: Limb regeneration, Amphibia, Testosterone.

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Efficacy of Behavioural Parent Training Program in Reducing Parental Stress among Iranian Parents of Children with ADHD

 

Majid Darvishizadeh1, 2, Maznah Baba1 , Halimatun Halaliah Mokhtar1, Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar 1 & Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz3

 

1-Department of Counseling psychology, Faculty of Educational studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2-Welfare Organization of Kermanshah Province, Iran

3-Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

 

Abstract: The present quasi-experimental study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of Behavioural Parent Training Program (BPTP) in reducing parental stress. The sample for this study consists of 60 parents of children with ADHD was randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received the Barkley’s parent training program. All participants completed the Parental Stress Index /Short Form (PSI/SF) at four different time points. A Mixed Model ANOVA using the SPSS 19.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used in data analysis. The results from mixed model ANOVA reflected that mean changes in parental stress were significantly different between two groups.  In addition, Post hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in parental stress only for the experimental group. The present study in line with some previous studies provides some preliminary evidence that supports the effectiveness of Barkley’s parent training program to reduce parental stress for Iranian parents with ADHD children. The implications of the study findings and limitations of the research method along with recommendations for future studies are discussed.

[Majid Darvishizadeh, Maznah Baba, Halimatun Halaliah Mokhtar, Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar & Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz. Efficacy of Behavioural Parent Training Program in Reducing Parental Stress among Iranian Parents of Children with ADHD. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4):284-289 ] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: AHDA children; Barkley’s parent training program; parental stress, parents

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Stresses in the sphere rests on a rigid plane horizontal surface

 

Reza Masoudi Nejad 1,2

 

1. School of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

2. Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran

Reza.masoudinejad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, Analytical stresses are obtained for the sphere rests on a rigid plane horizontal surface. It is assumed that the support reaction consists of a concentrated vertical force equal to the weight of the sphere. We are started with the solution for a point force acting on the surface of a half-space and determine the tractions on an imaginary spherical surface passing through the point of application of the force, then complete the solution by superposing appropriate spherical harmonics. The results differ significantly from the classical elasticity solutions that are based on the assumption that the body is fully formed before the loading is applied. The self-equilibrated tractions due to self-weight and the concentrated force alone and with the approximations obtained using  and. The process is clearly convergent and as with Fourier series approximations, the error exhibits more zero crossings as the number of terms increases.

[Reza Masoudi Nejad. Stresses in the sphere rests on a rigid plane horizontal surface. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):290-295] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Stress; Rigid plane; Vertical force; Spherical harmonics; Elasticity; Fourier series

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Surgical Management of Post-Discectomy Spondylodiscitis with Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) and Posterior Instrumentation

 

Ahmed Fathy Sheha

 

Neurosurgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

nagarahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Post operative lumbar disc space infection is relatively uncommon. The anterior approach has been the traditional surgical approach for treatment of this complication. Posterior approach was sometimes added for instrumentation only. Purpose: To present the results and clinical outcome, at a minimum of twelve months, following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and posterior instrumentation for post-discectomy spondylodiscitis. Study design: A case series Materials and Methods: Nine patients (age 38– 68 years; mean: 47.8 years) with post-lumbar discectomy spondylodiscitis, were treated surgically by TLIF and posterior spinal instrumentation. All patients had significant back pain despite a full conservative treatment regimen by broad spectrum antibiotics and brace. The follow-up ranged from 12 to 36 months with an average of 22 months. All patients were available for follow up which included physical examination, scoring of function and radiographs. Outcome measures: To assess the invasiveness of the operation, we evaluated operative time, blood loss, and complications. Visual pain analogue scale (VPAS), activities of daily living (ADL) (Barthel index), CRP, and ESR in the preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up periods were used to evaluate the surgical outcome. Results: Although we encountered some postoperative complications including wound infection; at the final follow-up visit, VPAS and Barthel index improved in all patients. Changes in CRP and ESR revealed suppression of infection in all cases. Conclusion: Surgical treatment for postoperative spondylodiscitis with TLIF and posterior spinal instrumentation provides patients with satisfactory final outcomes.

[Ahmed Fathey Sheha. Surgical Management of Post-Discectomy Spondylodiscitis with Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) and Posterior Instrumentation. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4): 296-303] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key-words: Pyogenic spondylodiscitis- Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) - Posterior Spinal instrumentation.

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Pistachio Export Development Strategies in Kerman Province, Iran

 

1Hamid Taboli, 2Mehdi Yadollahi

 

               1Dept. of Management, Payam-e Noor University, (PNU), Kerman, I.R.Iran

2Dept. of Management, Payam-e Noor University, (PNU), Sirjan, I.R.Iran.

Email: mfma155@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The historical study of pistachio exports shows that they constitute a major share of non-oil exports. In addition, pistachios exports need to recognize the internal and external factors that affect the trend of pistachio exports, and, furthermore, strategic planning is required. In this study, by using a measuring method, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats were identified in the form of a SWOT Table. To design the pistachio export development strategies for Kerman the presented strategies and the result of quantitative strategic planning matrix were considered, and market development strategies were introduced as the main and most beneficial strategies for pistachio. In addition, Kerman pistachio exports, for achieving success in global markets, should follow conservative strategies. Most of the conservative strategies including market development were determined by the position assessment matrix and strategic action (SPACE).

[Hamid Taboli, Mehdi Yadollahi. Pistachio Export Development Strategies in Kerman Province, Iran Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 304-313] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key word: SWOT analysis, pistachio exports, strategy implementation, Kerman pistachio 

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Assessment of skin microcirculation and inflammatory markers of metabolic syndrome in a rate model

 

Mona aziz1, Ali ElAshmaoui2, Nahed S. Mohamed1, Manal M. Mahmoud1 and Mona M. Mohamed1

 

Departments of 1Physiology & 2Internal Medicine, Kasr Al-Aini Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Nahedsm4@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Analysis of the literature reveals that metabolic syndrome is invariably linked to microvascular disturbances, such as abnormalities in arteriolar reactivity, capillary recruitment, permeability, and hemorheology. The aim of this study was to assess skin microcirculation under baseline conditions and maximum skin hyperemia in response to heating (vasodilatory capacity) in control rats and in the rat model of metabolic syndrome. Twenty four young female rats were randomly assigned into control group (CG) fed on standard rat show & fructose induced insulin resistance group (FG) fed on fructose enriched show ( 60 % of caloric intake) for 2 months. The skin microcirculation was assessed in the hairless  ear of rat by Laser  Doppler Flowmetry to measure  skin blood flow, frequency of vasomotion waves, (frequency 1: 1-3 cycles/min (endothelial activity), frequency 2: 3-5 cycles/min (sympathetic activity), frequency 3: 5-20 cycles/min (vascular myogenic Activity) & the Power of vasomotion (in perfusion units PU) in relation to the recorded frequencies. All the parameters were measured at 30 C and after local heating of the skin to 44C.The results demonstrated a significant increase in body mass index, serum glucose & insulin levels (P<0.05), systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol & triglycerides (P<0.05) in addition to a significant increase in nitric oxide, high sensitivity C reactive protein & tumor necrosis factor alpha (P<0.05), in FG compared to CG. So it can be claimed that use of fructose in diet for at least 2 months could be a model for experimentally studying the pathophysiological changes in the metabolic syndrome. Regarding parameters of microcirculation, there was a significant  decrease in the % change in blood flow between blood flow at 30C and that after local heating of the skin to 44C (P<0.05) in FG compared to CG  indicating impaired maximum skin hyperaemia induced by heating of the skin (vasodilatory capacity). Also, FG showed a significant lower frequency values in the mid- range of frequency (frequency-2 i.e sympathetic dependent) at 30 C (P<0.05) and in the mid and high range frequencies (frequency-2 & frequency-3 i.e sympathetic and myogenic dependent) at 44C (P<0.05) in addition to a significant decrease in the power of vasomotion (PU) at all frequency ranges (power-1, 2, and 3) after local heating of the skin to 44C  in comparison to the CG (P<0.05). The microvascular dysfunction is a hallmark in our results that may be a potential factor explaining the clustering of several components of the metabolic syndrome & associated cardiovascular complications. Our results strongly suggest that targeting micro vascular and endothelial dysfunctions in patients with metabolic syndrome might help to prevent cardiovascular morbidity in those patients.

[Mona aziz, Ali ElAshmaoui, Nahed S. Mohame, Manal M. Mahmoud and Mona M. Mohamed. Assessment of skin microcirculation and inflammatory markers of metabolic syndrome in a rate model. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):314 -321] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Metabolic syndrome– microcirculation – nitric oxide- TNF-α – high sensitivity C reactive protein– rats.

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Impact of water management transfer

 

Sumiani Yusoff 1, Ali Ghasemi 2, Faridah Othman 3 , Shatirah Mohamed Akib 3

 

1. Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2. PhD student, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3. PhD Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Ghasemi.Alim@Gmail.com

 

Abstract: Basically, water management is critical to the economic growth and environment protection. Its optimization is one of the general global strategies. In this regard, it is needed to develop local management and devolution of the operation and maintenance of water installation in the developing regions. This study surveys the effects of devolution of irrigation management to water users association to improvement of management on the water conveyance and water distribution in a case study, Qazvin plain, Iran. They investigated several eco-geographical variables including land and canal geographical location and beneficiary’s habitats’ area as travelling for water provision. The research was developed based on experimental investigation method to reduce the transportation of 3000 stockholder to headquarter office in the capital of the province. As a result, the function of water user assassinations was indicated travelling for water provision had reduced 75% because of shortening in distance in the every watering year. Overall, the feedback of users was investigated by comparing the users’ satisfaction degree between before and after irrigation management transfer. The outputs showed that the travelling dimension for water provision is more important and significant. By the other means, users prefer to recourse to water local management bureaus as WUAs unions rather than long travelling to headquarter.

[Sumiani Yusoff, Ali Ghasemi, Faridah Othman. Shatirah Mohamed Akib. Impact of water management transfer.  Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):322 -326] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Water Users' Associations; Satisfaction; Water management transfer; Transportation.

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Chemical, Biological and Biochemical Treatments to Improve the Nutritive Values of Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB): 2- In Vivo Studies to Evaluate the Nutritive Values of Untreated and Treated SCB

 

Salama, R1.; Fatma M. Salman*2; M. A. Safwat1; S. M. Soliman2 and Y. A. El-Nomeary2

 

1Anim. Production Department, Faculty of Agriclture, Al-Azhar Univ. Cairo, Egypt

2Anim. Production Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

*fatmanrc@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty five Ossimi male growing lambs were randomly assigned into five treatments each of 5 animals to receive concentrate feed mixture plus one of the following roughages for 120 days feeding period: R1, berseem hay; R2, untreated sugarcane bagasse; R3, 3% urea treated bagasse; R4, fungi treated bagasse and R5, bagasse treated with fungi + bacteria + 3% urea. Results obtained showed as a general evidence that, different treated bagasse rations indicated higher NH3-N and TVFA's values compared with untreated bagasse ration. All estimated values of blood parameters in the present study were within the normal range. Animals given rations containing biological or biochemical treated bagasse showed higher DM intake, average daily weight gain and best feed conversion ( Kg DMI or TDNI/ Kg gain ) compared with those given rations containing untreated or urea treated bagasse. It could be concluded the possibility of replacing berseem hay (30% of the rations) by fungi treated bagasse in sheep ration without any adverse effect on lambs growth performance or feed utilization parameters.

[Salama, R.; Fatma M. Salman; M. A. Safwat; S. M. Soliman and Y. A. El-Nomeary. Chemical, Biological and Biochemical Treatments to Improve the Nutritive Values of Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB): 2- In Vivo Studies to Evaluate the Nutritive Values of Untreated and Treated SCB.  Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):327 -337] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key words: Sugarcane bagasse, chemical and biological treatments, lambs performance and economic efficiency.

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Preparation of autogenous bivalent vaccine for M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium in Egypt

  

EL-Jakee J, Mohamed Kh F, Marouf SA

 

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.

jeljakee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In view of the decreasing effectiveness of antibiotics in controlling Mycoplasma infections and no vaccine is available against Mycoplasma in Egypt, the need for reliable vaccines has become even more urgent. The present study tried to prepare two bivalent autogenous vaccines (saponised and formalized vaccines) able to protect against M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium. The prepared vaccines were experimentally injected in groups of rabbits and challenged with virulent strain of M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium. Both saponised and formalized vaccines were able to protect rabbit against M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium. Meanwhile saponised vaccine was safe and more potent than formalized vaccine. Experimental work had shown that a vaccine inactivated with saponin can protect in the face of a large Mycoplasma challenge and was highly immunogenic.

[EL-Jakee J, Mohamed Kh F, Marouf SA. Preparation of autogenous bivalent vaccine for M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium in Egypt. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):338 -343] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: M. bovis, M. bovigenitalium, saponin, Mycoplasma vaccine, formalized vaccine.

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Relationship between chronic HCV infection and diabetic microvascular complications in Egyptian patients

 

Nabil El-Kafrawy, Moustafa El-Najjar, Alaa  Dawood and Osama Al-Belehy

 

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Minoufiya University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes are two worldwide, major public health problems. Several studies demonstrated the link between HCV and microvascular complications of diabetes as regard progression and development while other studies fail to demonstrate that. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chronic HCV infection (Ch HCV) on the micro- vascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 100 patients. They include 50 type 2 DM patients without chronic HCV infection (group I) and 50 type 2 DM patients with chronic HCV infection (group II) in addition to 20 healthy subjects as control group (group III). All patients were subjected to detailed history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations: including complete blood picture, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), qualitative HCV RNA PCR test, liver profile (AST, ALT, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, INR), renal function (serum urea and creatinine, albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). Ophthalmoscopic examinations for fundus and nerve conduction tests were done to prove retinopathy and peripheral nerve affection respectively. Results: Diabetic retinopathy was higher in diabetic patients without chronic HCV infection compared to diabetic patients with chronic HCV infection, while diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy were higher in diabetic patients with chronic HCV infection compared to diabetic patients without chronic HCV infection.  Conclusions: Incidence of developing diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy was higher in diabetics with Ch HCV infection due to the double etiology, both diabetes and Ch HCV infection. On the other hand, incidence of diabetic retinopathy was lower in diabetic Ch HCV infected patients.

[Nabil El-Kafrawy, Moustafa El-Najjar, Alaa  Dawood and Osama Al-Belehy. Relationship between chronic HCV infection and diabetic microvascular complications in Egyptian patients. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 344-350] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, diabetes mellitus, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy

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Chemical, Biological and Biochemical Treatments to Improve the Nutritive Values of Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB): 1- Chemical Composition, Scanning Electron Microscopy, In Vitro Evaluation, Nutrients Digestibility and Nitrogen Utilization of Untreated or Treated SCB

 

Fatma M. Salman*1; R. Salama2; A. E. khattab3; S. M. Soliman1 and Y. A. El-Nomeary1

 

1Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

2Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriclture, Al-Azhar Univ. Cairo, Egypt

3 Genetic and Cytology Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

*fatmanrc@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chemical (3% urea), biological (fungi, yeast and bacteria and their combinations) and biochemical treatment (combined biological + urea) on the nutritive value of sugarcane bagasse. The effect of treatments on chemical composition, cell wall constituents, scanning electron microscopy, in vitro DM and OM disappearance and in vivo nutrients digestibility of bagasse was studied along with N- utilization with lambs. The results showed that different treatments increased DM, CP, EE and ash, while decreased OM, CF and NFE. The increments in CP content were 305, 188 and 156% due to biochemical, chemical and biological treatments, respectively. The chemical, biological and biochemical treatments decreased NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose, while increased ADL content. The obvious change in the structure of cell parenchyma was observed in chemical, biological and biochemical treated bagasse. Values of in vitro dry matter and organic matter disappearance were significantly higher (P<0.01) for biochemical, chemical and biological treated bagasse, respectively, than untreated bagasse. The nutritive values and N-utilization recorded with lambs fed rations containing biological and biochemical treated sugarcane bagasse were greater than those containing untreated or urea treated ones. It was concluded that, different treatments improved chemical composition, cell wall constituents, IVDMD and IVOMD disappearance, almost nutrients digestibility, TDN and DCP values of sugarcane bagasse with the superiority of fungi or fungi + bacteria + urea treatments.

[Fatma M. Salman; R. Salama; A. E. khattab; S. M. Soliman and Y. A. El-Nomeary. Chemical, Biological and Biochemical Treatments to Improve the Nutritive Values of Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB): 1- Chemical Composition, Scanning Electron Microscopy, In Vitro Evaluation, Nutrients Digestibility and Nitrogen Utilization of Untreated or Treated SCB. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4):351-363] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Sugarcane bagasse, chemical and biological treatments, chemical composition, in vitro, scanning electron microscopy, digestibility.

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Impact of Portal Vein Thrombosis on Adult to Adult LDLT: 8 Years Experience

 

Mohamed Fathy1; Amr Abdel Aal1; Mohamed Bahaa1; Mohamed Rady1; Hany Said1; Mahmoud El-Meteini1; Osama Hetta2 and Hany Dabos3

 

1Department of surgery, 2Department of radiology, 3Department of tropical medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) involves technical difficulty. Its presence has frequently been presented as a relative or absolute contraindication in LDLT by numerous groups. The aim of this study is to demonstrate our experience in dealing with patients with preexisting PVT and its effect on the outcome of transplantation. Methods: From October 2001 to September 2009, 210 LDLT were performed by our team. Thirty one patients with intraoperatively confirmed nontumoral PVT formed the study group. The thrombus was removed by a simple technique of eversion thrombectomy. Anticoagulation was started after surgery to be stopped 6 months after confirmation of absence of PVT. A comparative analysis with intraoperative and postoperative variables was performed with 179 patients without PVT transplanted in the same period. Results: PVT was diagnosed preoperatively in 15 (48%) patients. The commonest type was grade II, occurring in 13(41.9%) patients. Total thrombectomy was successful in 29 cases and partial in two cases, but with adequate portal flow.The overall complications, Infections and portal vein rethrombosis were higher in patients with preexisting PVT but this was not associated with increase in ICU or hospital stay. PVT did not affect patient survival (70.6% and 60.2%, one and three year survival rate in patients with PVT vs. 81% and 62% in patients without PVT). Conclusion: PVT increases surgical difficulties and postoperative morbidity (PV rethrombosis, infections) but does not have an influence on patients survival.

[Mohamed Fathy; Amr Abdel Aal; Mohamed Bahaa; Mohamed Rady; Hany Said; Mahmoud El-Meteini; Osama Hetta and Hany Dabos. Impact of Portal Vein Thrombosis on Adult to Adult LDLT: 8 Years Experience. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 364-371] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Impact of Portal Vein Thrombos, Adult , Adult LDLT ,Years Experience.

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Numerical simulation of turbulent characteristics (structures and statistics) in channel with periodic two-dimensional ribs

 

Mehdi Ahmadi 1,*,Behnaz Bagheri Dastgerdi2

1.      Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Ardal Center, Iran

2.      Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Iran

M_Ahmadi@iaushk.ac.ir , m.behnaz90@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with periodic two– dimensional ribs has been performed in order to investigate the turbulent characteristic behind the ribs. The Reynolds numbers based on the friction velocity and the channel half width are 10- 1500. In the wake region, the mean flow becomes asymmetric with respect to the centerline of the geometry through the Coanda effect. Large – scale vortices are generated at the height of the ribs edges. The small – scale vortices are convicted toward the channel center. The budgets of the Reynolds stresses have been computed. The significant differences are found between the budgets in this study and those in backward – facing step turbulence. The positive Reynolds shear stress  QUOTE   is observed owing to the flow contraction just behind the ribbed.

[Mehdi Ahmadi, Behnaz Bagheri Dastgerdi. Numerical simulation of turbulent characteristics (structures and statistics) in channel with periodic two-dimensional ribs. Life Science Journal, 2011;8(4):372-377] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Turbulent characteristic, wake region, rib, turbulent channel, vortices

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Endovascular Stenting with Drug-Eluting Stent for Symptomatic Ostial Vertebral Artery Stenosis

 

Xiang Li1,3, Tan Song1, Xu Hao-wen2, Avinash  Chandra1, Xu Yu-ming1

 

1 Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

2 Department of Interventional Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

3 Department of Neurology, Henan Province People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, China.

Co-first author: Tan Song; Corresponding author: Xu Yu-ming, xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment with drug-eluting stent for symptomatic atherosclerotic ostial vertebral artery (VA) stenosis. Methods: Seventeen symptomatic patients (average age, 70.7±5.6 years) with 17 ostial vertebral artery lesions received 17 balloon-expandable drug-eluting stents. Follow-up angiography was performed when restenosis was suspected or during later catheterization for other indications. Restenosis was defined as 50% diameter narrowing. Results: The degree of stenosis ranged from 75% to 98% (mean 81 ± 5.2%). The technical success rate was 100%. Procedure-related complication rate, mortality rate, and permanent neurologic morbidity rate at 30-day follow-up were 0%. At 12-months follow-up, no patient was reported of having recurrent vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms and all VA restenosis was 50%. Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that use of drug-eluting stents in angioplasty to treat symptomatic atherosclerotic ostial VA stenosis is feasible and promising in terms of potential safety and effectiveness on the prevention of recurrent ischemia and restenosis. These results could be helpful in the formulation of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial.

[Xiang Li, Tan Song, Xu Hao-wen, Avinash  Chandra, Xu Yu-ming. Endovascular Stenting with Drug-Eluting Stent for Symptomatic Ostial Vertebral Artery Stenosis. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):378-381] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words:  Vertebral Artery Stenosis; Drug-Eluting Stent; Stenting

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Cultural Transition, Social Change, Democratic and Islamic Citizen Approaches on Social Training

 

Ali Akbar ShaikhiFini

University of Hormozgan, Minab Street, Bandar Abbas, Iran

a.shaikhifini@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:In this paper we discuss three approaches of cultural transition, democratic citizen, and social change in social training. Some of training implications of the approaches are also mentioned. Islamic approach on social training is described and some considerable verses of Quran are also stated.

[ShaikhiFini, A.A. Cultural Transition, Social Change, Democratic and Islamic Citizen Approaches on Social Training. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):382-389] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Cultural transition, democratic citizen, social change, social training

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Determining the Amount of Glucose, PTT, TT and Olfactory Nerve in 30-day-old Babies Rabbit of pregnant under Hypoxia

 

Bahram Abdi*1,2, Ali Aliyev1, Afig Qaziyev1, Saeid Chekani-Azar1

 1Department of physiology, Faculty of Biology, Baku State University, Azerbaijan.

2Department of Physiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

deniz.cafe01@gmail.com

 

Abstract:This research aimed at investigating the impact of hypoxia in embryonic period on the density of plasma glucose, PTT and TT and also the effect of disorder of olfactory nerve system on glucose, PTT and TT in baby rabbits. The research (which was carried out during 2009-2011) was based on an experimental design and used two groups: an experimental group and a control group including pregnant rabbits. The findings of the study indicated that embryonic period hypoxia and disorders of olfactory nerve system decreased the amount of glucose, PTT and TT and there was a meaningful difference between newborn babies in experimental and control groups.

[Abdi, B., Aliyev, A., Qaziyev, A. Determining the Amount of Glucose, PTT, TT and Olfactory Nerve in 30-day-old Babies Rabbit of pregnant under Hypoxia. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):390-393] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: hypoxia, olfactory nerve, glucose, PTT, TT

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[Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):394-401] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8

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Effects and evaluation of creativity instructional methods on creativity of students

 

*Alireza Heidarie1, Saeed Bakhtiar Poor1, Farangis Nasim Poor2

 

1-     Assistant Professor Department of psychology, Ahvaz branch ,Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN

2-     M.A in psychology, Department of psychology, Ahvaz branch ,Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN

*Corresponding Author: arheidarie43@gmail.com   

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study to investigate and compare the efficacy of brain storming methods, group discussion and guided discovery of creative high school female students of Ahvaz was the third base. The study sample of 80 third grade high school students in Ahwaz city in the 89-90 school year as a cluster random sampling and then selected randomly in three experimental groups (brain storming, group discussion, guided discovery) and a control group ( expository or traditional) were appointed to replace. The dependent variable to measure creativity, creativity test was used in Abedi. The research design and experimental test of the type pre and post test control group had. After random selection of experimental and control groups, first for all three groups, pre-test was performed, and then the pilot interventions in 10 sessions of 45-70minutes to the test groups were presented and after the training program after the test were. Analysis of covariance using a data track (ANOVAs) showed that techniques brain storming, group discussion and guided discovery than an expository of how creative the students had a positive impact. The results also showed that it isn't any of the methods in terms of impact than the other does not.

[Alireza Heidarie, Saeed Bakhtiar Poor, Farangis Nasim Poor. Effects and evaluation of creativity instructional methods on creativity of students. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):402-408] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Creativity, Expository, Brain Storming, Group Discussion, Guided Discovery

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The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and its relationship to general health statement in hospital nurses

 

*K. Reza Shafiezadeh

 

Division of Environ­mental Health and Risk Management school of Geography, Earth and Environmen­tal Science university of Birming­ham, UK

  MD, NIOC Grand Hos­pital, Ahvaz, Iran

                                                                                                                                                              

Abstract: Introduction: The term musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) covering over 200 conditions that affect the muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, peripheral nerves and supporting blood vessels causing pain and functional impairment to sufferer. This study was directed as an epidemiologic survey with a view to “assessing the prevalence of MSDs among inpatient hospital nurses of Oil Company’s grand hospital in Ahvaz-Iran over the Last 12 months and last week separately, measuring the general health state and its relationship to the prevalence of MSDs of specific sites of body”. Aims: Estimation of the prevalence of MSDs among different groups of inpatient hospital nurses, Demonstration the relationship of MSDs and mental health state in hospital nurses, and hypotheses:  Estimation the prevalence of MSDs in specific sites of the body, Categorize the severity of mental health state in hospital nurses, The relationship between MSDs in specific site of body and mental health state. Materials and methods: All of the nurses and nurse aides who are working in inpatient wards are included in this study but not outpatient and other clinical nurses. In this study the shift-workers are the nurses who are intermittently working in morning (6am -2pm), in afternoon (2pm – 10pm), and at night (10pm -6am). In the retuned-back questionnaires the questionnaires which contained at least one answer about MSDs YES or NO is recorded as a responder. From the 195 distributed questionnaires 161completed questionnaires were retuned back with the response rate of 82.5%.  The SPSS software was used for processing and analysing the data.  Result: From the 161 responders 10.5% of them had a 15<score ≥ 20 which suggests the evidence of distress, and 4.3% of them had a score more than 20 which suggests severe problem and psychological disorders. The minimum score of GHQ was zero which is the indicator of best general health state, while the maximum score was 34 which indicate the poor general health state. The mean of GHQ score was 10.8(table 5), the distribution of GHQ scores from zero to 34 is demonstrated. The correlation between poor general health state and all of the musculoskeletal disorders over 12months was strongly positive except for neck, elbow, hand and wrist disorders.The correlation between hand/wrist disorders in last 12 months and poor general health was weakly positive but there was not any relationship between elbow and neck disorders in last 12 months and poor general health state.

[Shafiezadeh. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and its relationship to general health statement in hospital nurses. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):409-415] (ISSN: 1097-8135).        http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, general health

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Effect of Testosterone on Hind Limb Regeneration in Tadpoles of the Egyptian Toad, Bufo Regularis Reuss

 

Hamida Hamdi1, Abdel-Wahab EL-Ghareeb1, Alaa Shamakh1 and Sakina Saeed2

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, ELMargab University, Libya

Hamdihamida@rocketmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study investigated the role of Testosterone on the regenerative capacity in two metamorphic stages of the tadpoles of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis Reuss, after amputation of the hind limb at the mid-shank level. It indicated an enhancing effect of Testosterone treatment on limb regeneration in the prometamorphic (stage 56), where 90% of the cases regenerated toes ranging from five to one compared with 77.3% in the control group, also the differential effect of testosterone on the number of toes was obvious in the treated animals, where 30% and 35% of the cases regenerated five and four toes respectively compared with 27.3% and 31.8% in the control group. In the metamorphic stage (stage58), the effect of testosterone was also obvious, where 38.6% of the treated cases restored toes compared with 13.3% of the cases in the control group. 45.5% of the treated cases restored part of the foot compared with 20 % of the cases in the control group. Histological observations of the treated limbs revealed that the formation of thick epithelial covering and complete skin is faster than that of the control animals. This may indicate that the enhancing effect of testosterone on limb regeneration, this may be due to the acceleration of wound healing either by its action upon the proliferative phase of healing which involves immune processes such as reepithelialization and angiogenesis or by the production of IGF-1 or by its stimulatory effect through Wnt/β-catenin signaling resulting in the initiation of the early phases of limb regeneration.

[Hamida Hamdi, Abdel-Wahab EL-Ghareeb, Alaa Shamakh and Sakina Saeed. Effect of Testosterone on Hind Limb Regeneration in Tadpoles of the Egyptian Toad, Bufo Regularis Reuss. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4): 416-429] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key Words: Limb regeneration, Amphibia, Testosterone.

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The Ogden Model for Coronary Artery Mechanical Behaviors

 

Hui-Lung Chien 1, Bo Wun Huang2, Jao-Hwa Kuang 1*

 

1 Department of Mechanical and Electro-mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, R.O.C.

2 Graduate Institute of Mechatronics Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan, R.O.C.

kuang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: A nonlinear coronary artery Ogden model is proposed to describe the possible artery mechanical behavior during the stent expansion process. The artery model parameters were curve fitted from measured coronary artery circumferential stress-stretch curves. The proposed Ogden model parameters were compared with the data cited from other literature. The proposed Ogden artery model employed to simulate stent inflation and deflation during its expansion process. The numerical results reveal that the proposed nonlinear Ogden model feasibly simulates the stent expansion process.

[Hui-Lung Chien, Bo Wun Huang, Jao-Hwa Kuang. The Ogden Model for Coronary Artery Mechanical Behaviors. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):430-437] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Ogden model; mechanical behavior; coronary artery; stent expansion

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Analysis of Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants of Ground Water Samples of South Saudi

 

Asia Alshikh

 

Faculty of Science Jazan, Jazan University, Ministry of Higher Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ziadahmed1020@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The groundwater quality was determined in Jazan city southwest of Saudi Arabia, groundwater samples were selected during July 2010 (dry season). Selections of metals which may be toxic in excess when present in drinking water were further discussed (As, Cd, pb, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn, Fe, and Se). Quantitative identification and determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), Hydrocarbon C10-C40 (diesel hydrocarbon fraction), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Total Herbicides and Organochlorine Pesticides in samples based on applications of gas chromatograph (GC). The chemical analysis of groundwater samples show that all samples comply with WHO standards for the parameters measured. Overall the water quality is found to be suitable for drinking purposes without any prior treatment.

[Asia Alshikh. Analysis of Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants of Ground Water Samples of South Saudi] Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):438-441] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.   58

 

Keywords: Groundwater; heavy metals; pesticides; WHO limits; Jazan.

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Comparative morphometric study on eight seed bug tribes of subfamily Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera- Lygaeoidea- Rhparochromidae)

 

Rawda M. Badawy*, Salwa K.Mohamed Hassan H.Fadle, Sohair M. Gadalla and Rabab F.Sawaby

 

Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The detailed morphological characters of Remaudiereana annuilpes (Baerensprung) (tribe: Myodochini) are given as a model of the subfamily Rhyparochrominae, also the scanning electron microphotographs were presented to the  metathoracic scent gland, abdominal  trichobothria and armature of fore leg to this species. The following species Emblethis gracilicornis Puton [Gonianotini], Lethaeus lethierryi (Puton) [Lethaeini], Lamprodema maura (Fabricius) [Megalonotini], Remaudiereana annulipes (Baerensprung) [Myodochini], Marmottania simonis Puton [Ozophorini], Phasmosomus priesneri (Wagner) [Phasmosomini], Dieuches mucronatus (Stal) [Rhyparochromini] and Stygnocoris breviceps Wagner [Stygnocorini] were investigated to clear the comparative morphometric study of this subfamily. The results are arranged in tables and clarifiedwith labelled drawings and colored pictures to facilitate the determination of the main taxonomic differences between the eight tribes through their representatives in Egypt.

[Rawda M.Badawy, Salwa K.Mohamed Hassan H.Fadle, Sohair M. Gadalla and Rabab F. Sawaby. Comparative morphometric study on eight seed bug tribes of subfamily Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera- Lygaeoidea- Rhparochromidae). Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):442- 461] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 59

 

Key words: Rhyparochromin tribes, scanning microphotographs, Remaudiereana   annulipes (Baerensprung) [Myodochini], colored pictured.

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In vivo Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Biological Control against Fusarium oxysporum for Protection of Tomato Plant

 

Hoda A. Hamed, Yomna A. Mostafa and Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz*

 Microbial Chemistry Dept.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. abdelaziz.sm@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from milk and yoghurt, were tested for their efficacy against some phytopathogenic fungi under in vitro and in vivo tests. Fusarium oxysporum, one of most important pathogenic fungi invade tomato plants, was chosen to evaluate the effectiveness of LAB as a biocontrol agent under in vivo tests. Culture broth of LAB was applied as seed treatment and soil drench. The protective effect of LAB significantly increased after challenging inoculation by F. oxysporem, especially when LAB were applied as seed treatment; the number of roots increased  by 216, 311, and 358%  over control with LB-1, LB-4, and LB-5, respectively, whereas the increment was 169, 163, and 181% for soil drench. Interestingly, when LAB were applied as seed treatment, in soil infested with F.oxysporum, the total fresh weight of tomato plants increased by 348, 260, and 390% with LB-1, LB-3, LB-5, respectively, whereas the increment was 268, 427, and 393% with LB-1, LB-4, and LB-5, respectively, for soil drench. Overall, while previous reports of antifungal activity by LAB under in vitro tests are scarce, we have demonstrated for the first time the capability of LAB to act as plant growth promoting bacteria and biocontrol agent against some phytopathogenic fungi under in vivo tests.   

[Hoda A. Hamed, Yomna A. Mostafa and Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz.  In vivo Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Biological Control against Fusarium oxysporum for Protection of Tomato Plant. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4): 462-468] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 60

 

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, biocontrol, plant growth promoting, plant pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum.

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Detection of Brucella spp. and vaccine strains in bovine aborted fetuses by a multiplex PCR

 

Hossein Hamali, Razi Jafari Joozani

 

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

hamali@tabrizu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis among aborted cows and simultaneously to detect bacterial DNA in their aborted fetal tissues by means of PCR. In this descriptive study, peripheral blood samples were drawn from 76 cows aborted at the dairy farms of Tabriz (North-West of Iran) and their sera separated by centrifugation. The serum samples were analyzed by ELISA (Pourquire-ELISA Kit manufactured by France). Consequently, tissue samples were taken from the stomach (fluid), liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, heart and placenta of aborted fetuses and tested by PCR. Six out of 76 dams (7.8 percent) were seropositive to the Brucella spp., and six out of 76 aborted fetuses (7.8 percent) showed a positive reaction to the PCR test. Four out of six aborted fetuses (66 percent) showed a positive reaction against the Brucella abortus and the two remaining (34 percent) had a positive reaction to the vaccine strain, RB51. Statistical analysis did not show any significant difference between the two diagnostic methods (PCR and serological tests). However, PCR protocol is preferred to the serological tests due to its ability to differentiate among the Brucella strains. In conclusion, both  serological and particularly PCR tests are recommended for diagnosis of Brucella strains in cows subjected to abortion and according to our PCR test results, vaccination with RB51 strain  could be abortive in some pregnant cows.

[Hossein Hamali, Razi Jafari Joozani. Detection of Brucella spp. and vaccine strains in bovine aborted fetuses by a multiplex PCR. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):469-473] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 61

 

Keywords: Abortion; Brucellosis; Cow; PCR; ELISA

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Talent Management: A Complementary Process for Succession Planning

 

Malikeh Beheshtifar 1, Mahmood Nekoie-Moghadam 2

 

1. Member of scientific board, Management Department, Islamic AZAD University, Rafsanjan Branch, Rafsanjan, Iran

2. Associate Professor, Management Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

mahmood.nekoeimoghadam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, talent management has become an essential priority for modern organizations, and organization success is directly related to talent that is used. The aim of this paper is to focus on the importance of talent management in organizations, and study its relationship with succession planning. With an overview of journals and books and related reports, documents show that talent management is a complementary, effective process for succession planning. Organizations focus on talent management causes them to successfully attract, retain and develop their essential talents. In other words, talent management is a subsidiary of succession planning, and succession planning is a subsidiary of human resource planning. In spite of a greater need for scientific researchers, organizations must allocate sufficient resources and specific attention to talent management for their survival.

[Malikeh Beheshtifar, Mahmood Nekoie-Moghadam. Talent Management: A Complementary Process for Succession Planning. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):474–477] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 62

 

Keywords: Talent; Talent management; Talent pool; succession planning

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CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress the M.TB -specific immune response of T cells

 

Jie Qin1, Guangming Gong2, Shilei Sun1, Ying Du2, Sha Zhu2, Xiaoyan Xuan2, Pingping Liu2, Yuming Xu1

 

1.   Department of Neurology, First affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2.   Department of Microbiology and Immunology, college of Basic Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. gmgong@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To investigate the negative regulatory effect of macaques CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) on anti-M.TB immune response of memory T cells in vitro through determining the suppression of Tregs on the purified protein derivative (PPD)-specific proliferation of memory T cells. Peripheral bloods were drawn from 6 male Rhesus macaques (RH) adminimistrated by BCG within 3 months, and then CD4+CD25+ T cells were separated from PBMCs by immunomagnetic beads and labeled with PKH26 red. Cultured the remain CD4+CD25+ T cells-depleted, CFSE-labeled PBMCs alone or in the presence of purified CD4+CD25+ T cells to 8th day and then both were stimulated by PPD antigen or purified CD3, CD28 antibodies respectively. The proliferations of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in PBMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the dilution of CFSE fluorescence intensity and to exclude PKH26+ cells: the percentage of proliferation was calculated on the number of CFSEdim cells divided by the number of CFSE+ cells. The results showed that PPD droved the proliferations of not only memory CD4+ T cells (p <0.001) and CD8+ T cells (p <0.01), but also Vγ2Vδ2 T cells (p <0.05). Besides suppressing the CD3/CD28 antibody-induced non-specific proliferations of CD4+ T cells (p <0.001), CD8+ T cells (p <0.01) and Vγ2Vδ2 T cells (p <0.05) significantly, CD4+CD25+ T cells have the function of suppressing the PPD-specific proliferations of CD4+ T cells (p<0.001) and CD8+ T cells (p <0.01), Vγ2Vδ2 T cells (p <0.05). These results suggested that Tregs of macaques have negative regulatory effect on anti-M.TB immune response of memory T cells in vitro.

[Qin Jie, Gong Guangming, Du Ying, Sun Shilei, Zhu Sha, Xuan Xiaoyan, Liu Pingping, Xu Yuming. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress the M.TB -specific immune response generated by memory T lymphocytes. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):478–481] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 63

 

Key words: Tregs; anti-M.TB immune response; non-human primate

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Assessment of clinical skills of midwives who graduated from Mashhad school of nursing and midwifery who are employed in hospitals and health centers

 

Kobra  Mirzakhani1, Nahid  Jahani Shoorab1, Nahid Golmakani1, Mahin Tafazoli1, Saeed Ebrahimzadeh2

 

1. MSc of midwifery, Lecturer and faculty member of  Department of Midwifery , School of  Nursing &  Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences . Mashhad, Iran

2. MSc of statistics , Lecturer and faculty member of  Department of Midwifery , School of  Nursing &  Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences . Mashhad, Iran

jahanishn@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Appropriate midwifery skills can prevent deaths and help avoid complications of childbirth. Quality of midwifery training significantly affects clinical skills. Graduate students of midwifery should gain a minimum level of clinical skills to adequately perform their duties. Assessing the graduates’ clinical skills can be helpful for evaluating the curriculum. The objective of this research was to determine clinical skills of graduated midwives from Mashhad school of nursing and midwifery who are employed in hospitals and health centers. Present research is a cross-sectional study. Statistical society of this research is a group of 50 recent graduated midwives who have been employed in the health centers of Mashhad from three month up to three years. Fifty heads of health centers were also selected. All of the heads had at least six months of job experience. After following the legal processes and explaining the research objectives and method of filling the questionnaire, the midwives and the heads were asked to complete the questionnaires. Another questionnaire is “assessment of midwives by heads,” which is extracted from the other questionnaire. Results of the present research illustrate that more than 95 percent of the essential skills for a midwife are obtained during education. More than 90 percent of the graduated midwives who work in maternity and obstetrics and gynecology and 85.5 percent of midwives in healthcare assessed their knowledge and skills adequate for their job in low-risk situations. But, in high-risk situations, 76.1 percent of graduated midwives who work in the maternity and 77.4 percent who work in healthcare assessed their knowledge and skills satisfactory for doing their duties. From a statistical point of view, self-assessment of the skills for handling low-risk situations is significantly higher than the numbers related to the high-risk situations (P < 0.05). The Pearson product moment test illustrated a positive correlation between the acquired skills in the curriculum and increasing self confidence among the graduates (P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of the authorities in midwifery who are employed in the maternity and obstetrics and gynecology and 75 percent of authorities in the health centers assessed the graduates skillful enough to handle low-risk situations. Results of the present research illustrate that the graduates assessed themselves significantly more skillful compared to the authorities’ assessment (P < 0.01).

[Kobra  Mirzakhani, Nahid  Jahani Shoorab, Nahid Golmakani, Mahin Tafazoli, Saeed Ebrahimzadeh. Assessment of clinical skills of midwives who graduated from Mashhad school of nursing and midwifery who are employed in hospitals and health centers. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):482-489] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 64

 

Keywords: Assessment; Clinical skills; Graduates of the midwifery

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Contribution of NGO’s functions to Empowerment of Women in Shiraz, Iran

 

Hedayat Allah Nikkhah, Mostafa Zhairinia

 

Department of social science- Hormozgan University-Bandar-e Abbas- Iran

hnik2003@yahoo.commozan54@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract: Millions of women living in developing countries constitute 70 percent of the world’s 1.3 billion poor (ILO, 2000). Despite many international agreements affirming women’s rights, women are still have more limited access than men to property ownership, credit, training and employment. Gender-based inequalities lead women to lower economic, political and social status, particularly in Asian countries. This study seeks to investigate the contribution of NGO’s function to the empowerment of women. This study measures two levels of women’s empowerment: individual and collective (community) empowerment.  Data are collected from eleven women’s NGOs with one hundred and ninety five (195) women who supported by these NGOs in Shiraz. This study used the quantitative approach to answer the objectives of study. The results revealed that NGOs have affected on women’s empowerment. The finding of this study has important implications for developing of empowerment particularly women in Iran.  As result showed, the women empowered individually and collectively as they involved in NGOs activities. This result will help the women to realizing themselves, and finding their situation at the society.

[Hedayat Allah Nikkhah, Mostafa Zhairinia. Contribution of NGO’s functions to Empowerment of Women in Shiraz, Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):490-496] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65

 

Key words: NGOs, individual empowerment, collective empowerment, women

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Colibacillosis in Newly Born Buffalo Calves and Role of Lacteol Fort in Preventing Recurrence of Calf Diarrhea

 

Amir Hamed Abd-Elrahman

 

Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

Amirhamed22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Escherichia coli diarrhea (scours) of newborn calves is characterized by watery white or yellowish diarrhea, rapid onset, and high mortality. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, the role of E. coli infection in diarrheic newborn buffalo calves was assessed through analysis of clinical data, morbidity and mortality rates, presence of varying E. coli serotypes, and antimicrobial sensitivity of bacterial populations in diarrheic fecal samples. Second, we assessed the role of probiotic supplementation with Lacteol Fort in prevention of reoccurrence of calf diarrhea. Our study population consisted of 130 diarrheic newborn buffalo calves, aged 1–11 days, 35–45 kg in body weight, suckling normally during the winter season. The incidence of E. coli infection in diarrheic newborn calves was 39.23% (51 of 130 calves). The mortality rate in these infected calves was 25.49% (13 of 51 calves). Clinical findings in calves infected with E. coli varied, and included fever, growth depression, recumbency, dehydration, profuse watery yellowish diarrhea in some cases, profuse watery to pasty foul-smelling diarrhea in other cases, and occasional occurrence of yellowish to white diarrhea streaked with blood. The most common E. coli serotypes (with rate of detection) were O26 (23.52%), O103 (19.6%), and O119 (17.64%). Antimicrobial sensitivity tests on 51 fecal samples revealed that E. coli present in fecal samples was most sensitive (with rate of sensitivity) to marbofloxacin (96.07%), enrofloxacin (88.23%), cefotaxime (84.31%), amoxicillin (78.43%) and spectinomycin (33.33%) and more resistant to penicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. The cure rate in calves supplemented with Lacteol Fort was 80% compared to 69.23% in calves in the unsupplemented group. The recurrence rate of diarrhea, assessed 15 days post treatment, was 8% in the Lacteol Fort group, compared with 26.92% in the unsupplemented group. We conclude that probiotic supplementation with Lacteol Fort can significantly reduce the recurrence of diarrhea in newborn buffalo calves.

[Amir Hamed Abd-Elrahman. Colibacillosis in Newly Born Buffalo Calves and Role of Lacteol Fort in Preventing Recurrence of Calf Diarrhea] Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 497-502] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 66

 

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Diarrhea, Antimicrobial sensitivity, Lacteol Forte

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Stigma, Discrimination, and the Consequences of HIV-AIDS for People Living With It in Iran

 

Homeira Fallahi 1, Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian 2, Farideh Yaghmaie 3, Ebrahim Hajizadeh 4

 

1. Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Behashti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modaress University, Tehran, Iran

3. Associate Professor , Department of Nursing, Shahid Behashti University of Medical science, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Tehran, Iran

4. Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

tavafian@modares.ac.ir

 

Abstract: There is evidence that a significant proportion of People Living with HIV ( PLWH) still deal with stigma and discrimination in their everyday life. The social factors attached to HIV/AIDS are a major obstacle in the curtailment of the disease requiring urgent action. This qualitative study explored perceptions of PLWH regarding HIV/AIDS Consequences in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of PLHIV recruited from three HIV care clinics in Tehran. All interviews were recorded and typed, and the codes were extracted after reviewing them several times Data were analyzed using the content analysis approach. In this study 34 participants were interviewed. Of the participants, 26 were HIV-positive, 22 of which were men and four women.. In addition, five healthcare workers and three wives of HIV-patients were interviewed. Participants were referred to the following consequences: Social, mental, physical and economic. Most of the participants named social outcome (discrimination and stigma) as the most important consequences for HIV/AIDS. The most important outcome of mentioned by the HIV-positive patients, healthy spouses, and healthcare workers was social consequence (discrimination and stigma). We need effective strategies to reduce HIV stigma as treatment and care resources are scaled up in the settings that are most heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic.

[Homeira Fallahi, Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian, Farideh Yaghmaie, Ebrahim Hajizadeh. Stigma, Discrimination, and the Consequences of HIV-AIDS for People Living With It in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):503-510] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 67

 

Keywords: HIV; AIDS; Iran; Consequence; Qualitative research

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Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in channels with three-dimensional blocks

 

Mehdi Ahmadi 1,*, Iman Soleimani Marghmaleki2

 

1.      Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Ardal Center, Iran

2.      Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

M_Ahmadi@iaushk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Turbulent flow over surfaces roughened by simple geometric elements, such as discrete three-dimensional pro turbulences, continue to be of interest in fluid engineering from several perspectives, regular roughness elements are routinely used for heat  transfer  enhancement. They are also used to study surface roughness effects, in general, as they easily reproduced in the laboratory and modeled in numerical experiments. The characteristics of a turbulent flow in channels with three-dimensional blocks are investigation in the context of surface roughness effects. Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with the κ- QUOTE   turbulence model with near wall treatment are solved by a finite-volume method. The space-averaged velocity profile exhibits a logarithmic region, with a roughness function that varies logarithmically with the roughness Reynolds numbers. At sufficiently large distance from the roughness elements, the effect of the individual elements vanishes and the net effect on the velocity profile is felt as reduction in the constant, β, known as the roughness function, depends not only on the roughness size but also on its geometry. The different block arrangements exhibit quite distinct flow characteristics but the differences tend to vanish as the block height decreases. In general, Reynolds-averaged numerical model successfully describes the principal features of wall roughness that have hitherto for been the purr view of experimental correlations.

[Mehdi Ahmadi, Iman Soleimani Marghmaleki. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in channels with three-dimensional blocks. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):511-516] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 68

 

Key words: Distributed roughness, Similarity law, RANS equation, κ- QUOTE   model

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Promoting Life Style among Sheltered School Children in Banha City, Qualiobia Governorate

 

1*Sahar A. Sh. Mahmoud and 2Magda A. Ahmad

 

1Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

2Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*dsahar100@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Shelter is a place affording protection against danger, or it is a structure that provides privacy and protection for children who have no fixed night time residence. This study aims to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention on promoting life style of school children’s shelters in Banha City, Qualiobia Governorate. Design: A quasi experimental design was used to conduct the study. Setting: This study was carried out at two shelters, affiliated to   social welfare institutions for boys and girls in Banha City in the academic years 2009 /2010. Sample: All children 55: 36 boys &19 girls in primary, preparatory and secondary school ages (6-18 years). Tool: Three Tools were used for data collection : 1) An interviewing questionnaire for the children concerning socio-demographic characteristics,2) Assessment of health problems: physical, social, psychological and emotional problems: (a)Psychological tests as Fear and Anxiety Test, Poor Relationships, Depression Test, and  Emotional Test),(b) Social problems: violence Test, Withdrawal Test and  Sexual Abuse Test, 3): Life Style Assessment Sheet. Results: Revealed that the majority of the studied subjects were males, more than two thirds had basic education, according to their health problems, there were statistically significant improvements after the intervention .Concerning self health responsibilities, the mean was 31.222, 32.053   pre program which improved to 50.456, 50.150 after program, the nutritional awareness mean was 28.139, 29.158 pre program, improved to 34.540, 35.150 with a significant difference at p= <0.001. Statistically, there were improvements after the intervention program in physical activity, stress management and environmental safety. Coclusion: The results revealed a significant effect of the intervention program in promoting life-style and providing favorable impact on the health condition of children's shelters. The finding of this study recommended the need for integration between Ministry of Health and Ministry of Society Affairs and Solidarity to develop health care services such as providing periodic check up under supervision of the Ministry of Health and providing shelters with nurses working for 24 hrs/day.

[Sahar A. Sh. Mahmoud and Magda A. Ahmad Promoting Life Style among Sheltered School Children in Banha City, Qualiobia  Governorate. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):517-528] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: shelter children's, health needs, health problems, life style promotion

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Perinatal Eexposure to Cadmium Affects Neurobehavioural Development and Anxiety – Like Behaviour in Rat Offspring

 

Mervat M .Kamel*, Abeer H. Abd El Razek

 

Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. * mevy58@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cadmium is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. The present study was conducted to assess the potential influence of maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure on postnatal development and neuromotor maturation in offspring rats. Moreover, locomotors activity and anxiety – like behavior was also monitored post weaning. Cadmium chloride in doses of 0 , 5, 50 mg / L was administered orally in drinking water to pregnant rats from the 7th  day of pregnancy till weaning of these pups at 30 days of age . All the females were allowed to deliver and wean their offspring. The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation (Reflexes). Also, open- field activity and anxiety- like behavior in elevated plus maze (EPM) were determined at weaning age of young rats. The results revealed that, birth weight of pups exposed to high doses of Cd was decreased relative to controls. A delay in some developmental landmarks (incisor eruption, vagina opening, testes descent) due to maternal cadmium exposure was also noticed pups. Moreover, a delay in neuromotor development (neonatal reflexes) and poor motor coordination was recorded in Cdcl2 exposed neonates. Cadmium – exposed offspring showed hyperactivity in open field test presented by increased horizontal locomotion. Anxiogenic effect of cadmium was evidently observed during open –field and elevated plus maze tests. Our results strongly suggest that maternal exposure to Cdcl2 in high doses has detrimental effects on the physical maturation & reflexes of neonate rats as well as anxiety – like behavior.     

[Mervat M .Kamel, Abeer H. Abd El Razek Perinatal. Eexposure to Cadmium Affects Neurobehavioural Development  and Anxiety – Like Behaviour in Rat Offspring. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):529 -536] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Cadmium intoxication, laboratory rats, neuromotor development, reflexes, anxiety- like behavior.

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The Moderating Role of Training on the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Creativity

 

Mojgan Afshari, Saedah Siraj, Muhammad Faizal A.Ghani

 

Department of Educational Management, Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya. mojganafshari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Although research studies have indicated that transformational leadership style is related to creativity, relatively limited researches have attempted to determine the moderating effect of training on the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity. Data were collected from 110 postgraduate students at the Faculty of Education of research universities in Malaysia. In this study, Moderated Multiple Regression analysis was used to test hypothesis and theoretical model. Findings of this study indicated that training factor (untrained students vs. trained students) significantly affected the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity. It is suggested that supervisors should engage in transformational leadership behaviors in order to enhance the creative performance of their students. Also, creativity training program should be provided for students to learn creativity knowledge, attitudes, workplace idea generation and idea implementation.

[Mojgan Afshari , Saedah Siraj , Muhammad Faizal A.Ghani. The Moderating Role of Training on the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Creativity. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):537-541] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Transformational leadership; creativity; training; moderated multiple regression.

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Effect of Abdominal Versus Pelvic Floor Muscles Exercises on Vaginal and Leak Point Pressures in Mild Stress Urinary Incontinence in Obese Women

 

1Dalia M. Kamel 1Ali A. Thabet 2Sayed A. Tantawy and 3Mohamed M. Radwan

 

1Department of Physical Therapy for obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University

2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medical &Health Sciences, Ahlia University, Bahrain

3Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University

dr_daliakamel@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Objective: To compare the benefits of 12 weeks abdominal and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) strength training for mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in obese women. Design: A randomized control trial with three months follow up. Setting: Bab El Sharia University Hospital.   Subjects: Thirty female obese patients with mild SUI. Intervention: Abdominal exercises (Abd. ex's) group (n=15) received specific exercises for transversus abdominis and internal obliqus muscles. Whereas, pelvic floor exercises (PF ex's) group (n=15) received pelvic floor exercises. Main outcome measures: Vaginal pressure, leak point pressure (LPP) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were measured for both groups at three intervals (baseline, 12 weeks of intervention and 3months follow up i.e. 24 weeks from the start of the study). Results: Both abdominal and pelvic floor groups showed a significant increase in vaginal pressure after 12 weeks of intervention (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.021, respectively) and at follow up (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.009, respectively) compared to baseline. This effect was greater for Abd. ex's group at 12 weeks (p < 0.041) and at follow up (p < 0.022) when compared with PF ex's group.  Also, both abdominal and pelvic floor groups showed a significant increase in LPP after 12 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001 and p < 0.008, respectively) and at follow up (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.007, respectively) compared to baseline; there were no significant differences between the two groups at these time points. Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest that 12 weeks of abdominal muscles strengthening training has superior effects compared to pelvic floor strength training for mild SUI in obese patients.

[Dalia M. Kamel Ali A. Thabet Sayed A. Tantawy and Mohamed M. Radwan. Effect of Abdominal Versus Pelvic Floor Muscles Exercises on Vaginal and Leak Point Pressures in Mild Stress Urinary Incontinence in Obese Women. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):542-549] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Urinary incontinence; obesity; pelvic floor; abdominal; exercise

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To study the effect of adding Fe2O3 nanoparticle on the morphology properties and microstructure of cement mortar

 

N. Abdoli Yazdi 1, M. R. Arefi 2,*, E. Mollaahmadi 2, B. Abdollahi Nejand 3

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Yazd  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Taft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Taft, Iran

3. Nanomaterial Research Group, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR) on TMU, Tehran, Iran. * arefi@taftiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this study, research has been done on the compressive and tensile strength of cement mortar containing  Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the amounts of 1, 3 and 5 percent by weight of cement. The results show that the mechanical properties of samples containing 1 and 3 percent Fe2O3 nanoparticles are desirable than the ordinary cement mortar. SEM study about the micro structure of cement mortar containing nanoparticles and ordinary cement mortar showed that Fe2O3 nanoparticles fills the pores completely and reduces the large crystals of Ca(OH)2 and the hydrate products are denser and compact. The mechanical properties results showed that by increasing Fe2O3 nanoparticles to 5 percent reduces the mechanical properties.

[N. Abdoli Yazdi , M. R. Arefi, E. Mollaahmadi , B. Abdollahi Nejand. To study the effect of adding Fe2O3 nanoparticle on the morphology properties and microstructure of cement mortar. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):550-554] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

 Keywords: Mechanical properties; Fe2O3 nanoparticles; cement mortar; SEM, microstructure

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Synergism Between Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum ) Plant and Two Bacterial Larvicide ( Bacillus Thuringiensis Serotype H-14 And Bacillus Sphaericus in Controlling the Danque Fever Vector , Aedes Aegypti

 

1*Al-Zahrani, H. A. A and 2Abuldahab, F. F

 

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; ˛Microbiology Departments, Agric.Research Center, Egypt

*h_alzahrani@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of efficiency of two bacterial mosquito larvicides and a plant extract one against Aedes aegypti larvae when used in combinations with each other under laboratory conditions, is an integrated method of control . The larvicides formulations used were , Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 , B. sphaericus 1543-4 and a plant water extract of Aesculus hippocastanum date collected after 24 hrs of application under laboratory conditions (27±3˚c) comparing the effect of adding the B. sph. Or the horse chestnut to larvae pre-treated for 24 hrs with B.th. indicated plant extract addition cause significant increase in larval mortality at the first 24 hrs but with increasing the exposure time no increasing in this mortality percentage. Adding B. th . H. 14 to larvae pre-treated with B. sph. for 24 hrs is better than using plant extract . No significant difference was found between the efficacy of the extract when it added to larvae pre-treated for 24 hrs with B.th. or B . sph.

[Al-Zahrani, H. A. A and Abuldahab, F. F. Synergism Between Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum) Plant and Two Bacterial Larvicide (Bacillus Thuringiensis Serotype H-14 And Bacillus Sphaericus in Controlling the Danque Fever Vector, Aedes Aegypti. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):555 -560] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Mosquitoes, Biocides, Bacteria, horse chestnut, danque fever larvae, susceptibility, doses, mortality

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Biochemical and Ultra Structure Studies of the Antioxidant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the Nephrotoxicity Induced by Organophosphorous Pesticide (Malathion) on the Adult Albino Rats

 

Hala H. Mossalam 1 Olfat A. Abd-El Aty *1- Enas N. Morgan **2 - Sahar M. S.Youssaf 1 and Amal M H. Mackawy3

 

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar –University (girls)

Departments of 2Physiology and 3Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig, University

*Olfat_fair@yahoo.com **omarpubmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Organophosphorous (OP) pesticide is applied to numerous crops, including wheat and corn. Residual amounts of organophosphorous pesticides have been detected in soil, vegetables, grains and other food products. Several mechanisms of the OP toxicity have been proposed, including the induction of cellular proliferation, oxidative stress and immune-toxicity. Roselle (ROS, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., family Malvaceae) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams and beverages. Many biological activities have been recorded for ROS, such as anti-atherosclerosis, anti-carcinogenic, hepato-protective and anti-oxidative properties. The Aim:  this study was set to evaluate the possible protective effect of Roselle on nephro-toxicity induced by sub-lethal dose of Malathion in rats. Material and Methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups of 6 rats/each. Group I: animals were given corn oil at a dose of 0.2 ml per animal via gavage once a day for one month and served as a control. Group II: animals received only aqueous extracts of Roselle at a daily dose of (500 mg /kg b. wt./day). Group III:  animals were given Malathion at a sub lethal dose of 27mg/kg b. wt./day. Groups IV: animals were given both of aqueous extracts of Roselle as the same dose of group II three hours before the administration of Malathion. At the end of the experimental period the kidney function and markers of oxidative stress were investigated. Moreover, histopathological examination of the renal tissue was carried by light and electron microscopes. The results of the present study showed that treatment with Malathion alone caused increase in the kidney weight (P<0.001), cellular degeneration, necrosis of the renal tissues and increase in the serum urea and creatinine (P<0.001 for both). However, administration of aqueous extract of Roselle prior to Malathion resulted in a significant alleviation of the kidney injuries evidenced by a decrease of the kidney weights when compared to the Malathion-treated (P<0.001) and biochemical indices; urea and creatinine (P<0.001; P>0.05, respect.) for both when compared to the Malathion-treated and control groups, respectively. Furthermore, there was significant improvement of the histological picture toward the normal among the Malathion+ROS-treated group. All these effects may be due to the antioxidant effect of the Roselle as treatment with the extract of Roselle significantly elevated (P<0.001) the decreased CAT activity observed with Malathion treated rats. Moreover, treatment with the extract of Roselle significantly elevated the SOD levels when compared to the Malathion-treated animals (P<0.001). Furthermore, the GSH level reduced significantly (P<0.001) along with increased in MDA concentration (P<0.001) in the Malathion treated group as compared to the control group. However on treatment with Roselle extract, the GSH level was found to be enhanced significantly (P<0.001) and the MDA contents were reduced (P<0.001) when compared to the Malathion treated group. Conclusion, the results of the current study showed that the aqueous extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa possess a potent protective effect against the oxidative stress induced by sub lethal dose of Malathion on the rat kidney.

[Hala H. Mossalam  Olfat A. Abd-El Aty - Enas N. Morgan   Sahar M. S.Youssaf and Amal M H. Mackawy. Biochemical and Ultra Structure Studies of the Antioxidant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the Nephrotoxicity Induced by Organophosphorous Pesticide (Malathion) on the Adult Albino Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):561-574] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: kidney, Malathion, Roselle, ultra structure, anti oxidant protective effect

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Changed-transcriptional activity of retrotansposons induced by implantation of low-energy ion beam effected the expression of genes adjacent to retrotransposons

 

LI Yong-hui1, YU Xiang-li1, LI Ya-he2, GUO Xiang-meng1, YA Hui-yuan1*

 

1.Life Science College, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang, Henan 471022, China

2.State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China

huiyongli8209@126.com,yahuiyuan@yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract: In order to study the expression profiles of the retrotransposons in rice implanted by low-energy ion beam and the effects on adjacent genes to these retrotransposons, we analyzed expression features of the retrotransposons in rice with exposure to the nitrogen ion beam implantation (6×1017 N+/cm2), using the Agilent Rice Oligo Microarray (4×44K) Genome Array. The results showed that there were 43 probe sets in chip, 4 out of these transcripts were up or down-regulated (≥2fold), including the gag, pol, and int. These four transcripts were heterogeneous to the other members in the family by clustering analysis. We also found that this differential expression effects the genes expression were up1Mb to down 1MB from the differentially expressed retrotranscription ESTs, representing the same up or down regulated case. These findings suggested that retrotransposons in rice were related to the response to ion-beam implantation through the regulation of their adjacent genes.

[LI Yong-hui, YU Xiang-li, LI Ya-he, GUO Xiang-meng, YA Hui-yuan. Changed-transcriptional activity of retrotansposons induced by implantation of low-energy ion beam effected the expression of genes adjacent to retrotransposons. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):575-579] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: rice, retrotransposon, N+ beam irradiation, EST, gene chip

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Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Fingerlings

 

Salah M. Kamal1 and Wael A. Omar2*

 

1Department of Aquaculture, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research at Abbassa, Agricultural

Research Centre, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

salahmk62@yahoo.com         *ecowael@yahoo.com        

 

Abstract: The impact of rearing silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix to the fingerling stage under three different stocking densities was investigated depending on the hematological and biochemical parameters as indicators of general health state of fish. The present study was carried out for 12 weeks to determine the most optimum stocking density for rearing silver carp. Fish were cultured in duplicates of cement ponds under stocking densities of 3, 6 and 9 fish/m3 as T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The ponds were fertilized weekly with organic fertilizer at rate of 50 g/m3. Results of hematological analyses showed significant increase in T1 for values of RBCs count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscle volume (MCV) while the lowest values were recorded in T3 for all these parameters. Changing the stocking density had non-significant effect on values of WBCs count, mean corpuscle hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscle hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Plasma biochemical analyses showed that increasing the stocking density caused significant increase in values of plasma glucose, total protein, albumin (A) and globulin (G) associated with significant decrease in values of cholesterol and triglycerides. The highest values of A/G ratio were recorded non-significantly in T1 and T3 while the lowest values were recorded significantly in T2. Meanwhile T1 showed a significant decrease in values of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and uric acid. Values of creatinine showed non-significant increase among treatments. The findings suggest that the most optimum condition was detected in T1 (3 fish/m3) where most of the studied hematological and biochemical parameters were essentially normal and within the range consistent with good fish health. 

[Salah M. Kamal and Wael A. Omar. Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Fingerlings. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):580-586] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Stocking density, Hematology, Biochemical parameters

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Experiential Teaching Method Applying in Career Planning Class for Associate Nursing Students in China

 

Jia Shulei, Liu Guiping, Ida Matinson

 

 School of Nursing, Zhengzhou University; Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

lgping@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Objective Exploring an experiential teaching method in the Career Planning class for associate nursing students in China. Methods The random choosing of 100 nursing college students as a trial group (n=50) using experiential teaching method, and the selection of a control group (n=50) using the traditional teaching method. “Students’ satisfaction” and “Self-reported questionnaire” are used to evaluate the teaching effect. Results The application of experiential teaching in career planning helps students set up professional nursing values. Improved abilities in career planningindependent learninglogical thinkingcommunication skills and team cooperation are shown in the trial group (P<0.05). Conclusion The experiential teaching method applied in the career planning class is superior to the traditional teaching method. The experiential teaching method is a useful method of teaching, deserving popularization and further research.

[Jia Shulei, Liu Guiping, Ida Matinson. Experiential Teaching Method Applying in Career Planning Class for Associate Nursing Students in China. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):587-590] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 78

 

Keywords  Experiential Teaching; Career Planning Class; Associate Nursing Students

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MicroRNA differential expression profile in cholangiocarcinoma cell line and normal bile duct cell line

 

Zhang Lida1, Jia Changhe1, Zhang Weihong2, Yao Mengying2

 

1. Henan Provincial People`s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, China

2. School of Nursing, Zhengzhou University; Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

3.Department of Severe Respiratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

zwhong306@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore microRNA differential expression profile between cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and normal bile duct cell line, for further studies on functions of microRNA in pathogenesis of the cholangiocarcinoma.  Six samples from QBC939 cell line and another 6 samples from normal bile duct cell line were chosen as the experimental group and the control group, respectively. MiroRNA profiles in these samples were analyzed by microarray. The threshold value used to screen up and down regulated microRNA were Fold Chang>2.  Six microRNAs were found up-regulated in the experimental group were more than 8 times compared with control group. In addition, 5 microRNAs were found down-regulated 8 times compared with control group. These differential expressions of miroRNA might be related to the formation and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma.

[Zhang Lida, Jia Changhe1, Zhang Weihong, Yao Mengying. MicroRNA differential expression profile in cholangiocarcinoma cell line and normal bile duct cell line. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):591-594] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma;  MicroRNA; cell line; metastasis

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The Application of Fuzzy Modeling to Hazard Assessment for Reinforced Concrete Building Structures Due to Pipeline Failure

 

Dina. A. Emarah1, Manar. M. Hussein1*, Hamdi. M. Mousa2 and Adel. Y. Akl1

 

1Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

2Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computer and Information, Menofia University, Egypt

*manar.m.hussein@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this article, the application of fuzzy modeling to hazard assessment for reinforced concrete building structures due to pipeline failure was implemented. Damage assessment due to sewer pipeline failure is a very important issue in urban regions in Egypt.  By combining ground deformation patterns, well-known damage category criteria, the potential damage of adjacent buildings can be assessed due to different parameters of pipeline deterioration.  In this study, the well-known computer program ANSYS with geotechnical module “CivilFEM” is used considering nonlinear elastic soil behavior. The finite element model is chosen to investigate the influence of four different parameters of pipeline deterioration at the same time such as pipeline settlement, settlement location, building location with respect to pipeline and burial depth on the building damage category. The results were implemented in a fuzzy based assessment system for reinforced concrete building structures to evaluate the damage category of building. A criterion to define membership functions for each parameter, as input to the fuzzy engine, as well as the rule base was described. The fuzzy output as damage category was briefly validated by using numerous examples for different values that was chosen randomly to cover the whole range of 4 parameters to get the results first in fuzzy system, then running the same values using ANSYS and results were consistent in the two methods. Fuzzy logic support system showed to be a powerful tool in forecasting potential damage in buildings due to the association of different parameters in pipeline deterioration.

[Dina. A. Emarah, Manar. M. Hussein, Hamdi. M. Mousa and Adel. Y. Akl. The Application of Fuzzy Modeling to Hazard Assessment for Reinforced Concrete Building Structures Due to Pipeline Failure.  Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):595-608] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.                                              

 

Keywords: Damage category, pipeline failure, membership functions, rule base and fuzzy assessment system.

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Comparison of Mental Health in Male Adolescents with and without Internet Addiction

 

Abbas Ebrahimi*, Zoleikha Sadeghi

 

Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

 *ebrahemiabbas29@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In presented study, mental health of male adolescents with and without Internet Addiction is compared. Participants included 114 male adolescents, selected by purposive sampling method from Internet cafe` of Bandar Abbas which 55 individuals in group with Internet Addiction and 59 individuals in group without Internet Addiction were assigned. Data collecting tools of the research were including Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The Independent Samples T Test was used to analyze test research hypothesis. Results indicated that adolescents with Internet Addiction in the overall mental health and Somatic symptoms, Anxiety/insomnia, Social dysfunction and severe depression experience had more problems significantly. Findings and implications for health adolescents are discussed.[ Abbas Ebrahimi, Zoleikha Sadeghi. Comparison of Mental Health in Male Adolescents with and without Internet Addiction. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):609-612] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD), Mental Health, Adolescents.

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To study the effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cement mortar

 

M. R. Arefi 1,*, M. R. Javeri 1, E. Mollaahmadi1

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Taft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Taft, Iran

 

* arefi@taftiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this study, research has been done on the compressive, tensile and flexural strength of cement mortar containing 1, 3 and 5 percent by weight of cement of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The results show that the mechanical properties of samples containing 1 and 3 percent Al2O3 nanoparticles are desirable then the ordinary cement mortar. But by increasing Al2O3 nanoparticles to 5 percent, the mechanical properties reduce severely. SEM study about the microstructure of cement mortar containing nanoparticles and ordinary cement mortar showed that Al2O3 nanoparticles reduces the CaOH2 crystals and fills the pores and increases the density of cement mortar.

[M. R. Arefi, M. R. Javeri, E. Mollaahmadi. To study the effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cement mortar. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):613-617] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Mechanical properties; Al2O3 nanoparticles; cement mortar; SEM, microstructure

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Health Promotion program to Improve the Lifestyle of School Children Living in Slum Areas in Helwan Governorate

 

1Sahar A. Sh. Mahmoud., 2 Hanaa A, A. Y, 3 Safaa S, I

 

1Community health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University  2Community health Nursing ,Faculty of Nursing, Benha University 3Paediatric nursing, Faculty of nursing, Helwan University

 

Abstract: The school years are a time when the foundations of a healthy lifestyle are formed and when health promotion programs are likely to have the greatest impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health promotion program on improving lifestyle of school children living in slum areas. Design: A quasi –experimental design was used . Setting: The study was conducted at  two governmental  primary schools in Azbat Elwalda, in Helwan Sample: A stratified multi-stage cluster random sample was used for selection of school children in slum areas ,the total number of governmental primary schools in Azbat Elwalda are ( 3 ),two  were chosen randomly.  One class from fifth grade and one from sixth grade were selected randomly from each school. The total number of children   for two schools were 200 (both sexes).Tools: 3 tools were used 1) A structured interviewing questionnaire was used to assess students socio-demographic characteristics, students' perception of social and physical environment of school, students’ common health problems during the past two years and students’ knowledge about healthy life style .These tools were used before and after program. 2) A physical examination to assess the student from head to toe. 3)An observational checklist for assessing in and out school's environment. Results:  the study confirms that diseases of respiratory system had the highest frequencies among the students as follows: less than two fifths for common cold, more than one third for tonsillitis and bronchitis  and more than one quarter for influenza. There was difference between before and after program implementation concerning students’ health promoting life style, perception of social and physical school environment. The differences were statistically significant for all of variables (P = < 0.001). Conclusion: The study concluded that students perception improved toward their social, physical school environment and their knowledge about healthy life style after implementing the health promotion program .This improvement was proved statistically. Recommendations: The study recommended  that a health promotion program are strongly needed  to school children to improve their lifestyle especially school children  living in slum areas and the necessity of improving school environmental sanitation for the promotion of students health.

[Sahar A. Sh. Mahmoud., Hanaa A, A. Y, Safaa S, Health. Promotion program to Improve the Lifestyle of School Children Living in Slum Areas in Helwan Governorate. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 618-627] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Slum area, lifestyle, environment, health promotion program, school age childre

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Pre-B Cell Colony-Enhancing Factor as a Marker of Erosions in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

 

Dina S. Al-Zifzafą, Eman A. Kaddahą, Samah A. El Bakri2, Amer Abd ElZaher2 and Rania Abo- Shady3

 

ąPhysical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

˛Internal Medicine Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

3Clinical Pathology Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

drdyassin@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Our objective in this study was to evaluate pre-B cell enhancing factor (PBEF)/ Visfatin as a disease marker of rheumatoid arthritis, studying its serum level, clinical significance, association with activity and radiographic joint damage. Methods: 28 patients diagnosed according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA were enrolled in the study. They underwent clinical and laboratory assessment. Radiographic assessment was done and Larsen score was calculated. Anti-CCP3 IgG antibodies were determined using semiquantitative ELISA and Serum PBEF was determined using ELISA and statistical analysis of the results was performed. Results: There was a significant rise in both anti-CCP and serum PBEF levels in RA patients versus controls. PBEF serum levels were significantly higher among patients with erosions as compared to patients without detectable erosions. Serum PBEF showed a significant decrease among patients with severe activity as compared to patients with moderate activity. Using the Ranked Sperman Correlation test, we did not find any significant correlation between age of patients, disease duration, BMI, HAQ, VAS or the DAS 28 with the level of PBEF. The test validity characters for discrimination of erosions in RA for serum PBEF showed 53.8 % specificity, 86.7% sensitivity and 71.4% efficacy. Conclusion: PBEF has a role in the pathogenesis of RA and could be considered as a disease marker in RA and a marker of radiographic bone damage. Further studies are needed to determine the possibility of PBEF as a potential therapeutic target in early RA to prevent erosions.

[Dina S. Al-Zifzaf, Eman A. Kaddah, Samah A. El Bakri, Amer Abd ElZaher and Rania Abo- Shady. Pre-B Cell Colony-Enhancing Factor as a Marker of Erosions in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):628-634] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor/ Visfatin, erosions, Rheumatoid arthritis.

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Provably Secure Password-based Three-party Key Exchange Protocol with Computation Efficiency

 

Jih-Ming Fu1, Jeng-Ping Lin2, Ren-Chiun Wang3*

 

1 Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, No.840, Chengcing Rd., Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

2 Department of Commerce Technology & Management, Chihlee Institute of Technology, 313, Sec. 1, Wunhua Rd., Banciao District, New Taipei City, 22050 Taiwan, R.O.C

3 Project Resource Division, Institute for Information Industry

rcwang@icst.org.tw

 

Abstract: Going along with the rapid development of web technologies, people can make a great quantity of service requests to service providers using mobile devices anytime and anywhere. However, the service requester and the service providers may not trust each other and they may locate at different domain. They require a communal trusted third party to help them establish a shared session key for secure communications. It is so-called three-party key exchange. Recently, many password-based three-party key exchange protocols were proposed against various well-known security threats. In those protocols, to prevent the password guessing attack, a widely used way is to employ public-key and/or symmetric-key cryptosystems to protect the exchanged messages. As we known, the encrypted and decrypted operations in a public-key cryptosystem are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a password-based three-party key exchange protocol with the computation-efficiency without using public-key systems. Finally, we prove the security of the proposed protocol in the random oracle model.

[Jih-Ming Fu, Jeng-Ping Lin, Ren-Chiun Wang. Provably Secure Password-based Three-party Key Exchange Protocol with Computation Efficiency. Life Science Journal. 2012;8(4):635-643] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: cryptography; discrete logarithm problem; on-line undetectable password guessing attack; three-party key exchange.

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Optimal Library Inventory System Using EMID Technology

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chin-Ming Hsu2, Chian-Yi Chao3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This paper proposes an optimal library inventory system which is based on electromagnetic identification (EMID) technology with the advantages of using electromagnetic (EM) tag and radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The proposed system is constructed by four processes, including deciding the tag type, finding the optimal tag location for a book, testing the tag readability for multi-layer bookshelves, and connecting a couple of multi-layer bookshelves with multiplexers and updating the tag reading status in the database of the computer terminal. The proposed system is tested at the library of Cheng Shiu University in Taiwan. The quality and quantity of one-side and two-side of antennas applied in reading EMID tags with different time intervals and locations have been tested in the study. According to the experimental results, the designed library inventory system can authenticate the location of a book automatically and can benefit administrating librarians with the capabilities of decreasing the library inventory processing time and reducing the possibility of the books being misplaced.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chin-Ming Hsu, Chian-Yi Chao. Optimal Library Inventory System Using EMID Technology. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):644-649] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Library Inventory; electromagnetic identification (EMID); radio frequency identification (RFID).

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The Cranial Nerves of Mabuya quinquetaeniata III: Nervus Trigeminus

 

*Abdel-Kader, T. G.; Ali, R. S. and Ibrahim, N. M.

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

*tgabdelkader@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study deals with the nervus trigeminus of Mabuya quinquetaeniata. The results showed that the nervus trigeminus has one root, and two separate ganglia, a maxillomandibular ganglion and an ophthalmic one. The maxillomandibular ganglion is continuous with the ophthalmic ganglion. The lateral part of the ventromedial division of the trigeminal root gives off the anguli oris nerve and nerves to the adductor mandibularis externus and the pseudotemporalis muscles. The constrictor dorsalis nerve innervates the protractor pterygoideus, levator pterygoideus, and depressor palpbrae inferioris muscles. It has no anastomosis with ramus palatinus of the nervus facialis. The ramus frontalis is connected with the lacrimal plexus. The ramus nasalis anastomoses with the ethmoidal ganglion and divides into its to rami lateralis and medialis nasi within the nasal capsule. The ramus maxillaris gives off lacrimal and temporal branches in the postorbital region. In the orbital region, it is termed infraorbital nerve and gives off a nerve to the Harderian gland, the supralabial gland and the upper teeth. It fuses with the ramus palatinus lateralis of the nervus facialis. It receives an anastomosing branch from the ramus palatines medialis and fuses with the ramus palatines intermedialis for a short distance. It carries ganglionic cells at the point of fusion. It enters the maxilla as superior alveolar nerve and gives off nerve to the narial muscles. The ramus mandibularis gives off nerves to the pseudotemporalis and pterygomandibularis muscles. It gives off the ramus cutaneous recurrens and then enters the primordial canal as the inferior alveolar nerve, where it gives off a mixed nerve and a sensory one and then receives the chorda tympani (N.VII). The mixed nerve (the inferior alveolar nerve + chorda tympani) gives rise to the rami intermandibularis oralis, intermandibularis medius (ramus paralingualis) and intermandibularis caudalis. The ramus intermandibularis medius is connected with the ramus lingualis lateralis (N.XII). The ramus intermandibularis caudalis gives motor fibres to the intermandibularis muscle.

[Abdel-Kader, T. G.; Ali, R. S. and Ibrahim, N. M. The Cranial Nerves of Mabuya quinquetaeniata  III: Nervus Trigeminus. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):650-669] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key Words: Mabuya, Cranial nerves, Nervus trigeminus

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An Integrated Location Inventory Model for Designing a Supply Chain Network under Uncertainty

 

Mir-Bahador Aryanezhad, Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini, Armin Jabbarzadeh

                                                                                                                   

Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846113114, Tehran, Iran. arminj@iust.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This paper studies a supply chain design problem with an unreliable supplier and random demand. Due to imperfect performance of the supplier, the quantity of the product received from the supplier may be less than the quantity ordered by distribution centers (DCs). In this system, customers have random demands and the supply chain is flexible in determining which customers to serve. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear integer programming model that simultaneously determines which customers are served, where DCs are located and how DCs are assigned to the customers. The objective of the model is to minimize the total costs including location costs, nonlinear inventory costs, transportation costs, and lost sales costs. In order to solve the model, an effective solution method based on genetic algorithm is developed. Finally, computational results for several instances of the problem are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution approach.

[Mir-Bahador Aryanezhadl, Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini, Armin Jabbarzadeh. An Integrated Location Inventory Model for Designing a Supply Chain Network under Uncertainty. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):670-679] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Birth-death process; genetic algorithm; location model; supply chain design model

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Prognostic Significance of Progenitor Cell Markers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

 

Mona Ahmed Ismail*1 and Sherin Mohamed Hosny2

 

Department of Clinical Pathology1 and Internal Medicine2, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. *monaismail1@Yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Until now the prognostic significance of flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been controversial. The decision whether patients with AML should receive a more intensified therapy has been made according to defined risk categories based mainly on genetic criteria. Unfortunately no specific chromosomal abnormalities are found in about half of the patients. So additional prognostic factors are needed. Aim of work:  The aim of the current work was to investigate prognostic value of progenitor cell markers CD34, CD38 and CD90 expression on AML blast cells at initial diagnosis, and to correlate this expression with known prognostic parameters as well as with the clinical outcome.  Patients &Methods: This work was conducted on 80 patients with de novo AML meeting World Health Organization criteria for AML, FAB subtype M0-M5 were included. The levels of progenitor markers were determined by FCI, corresponding cytogenetic results were obtained, appropriate follow-up information were analyzed. Results: Sixty one percent, 82.5% and 35% out of 80 patients were positive for CD34, CD38 and CD90 respectively. No differences in expression were found in different FAB subtypes and cytogenetic risk groups. Cut off values were calculated with values ≥38 for CD34, ≥55 for CD38 and ≥52 for CD90. A significant high resistance to induction therapy and poor outcome were observed in patients with increased progenitor cell expressions. Conclusion: Progenitor cell markers are sensitive indicators as regard response to therapy and clinical outcome in patients with de novo AML. Therefore, their determination should be taken into consideration when designing therapeutic regimens.

[Mona Ahmed Ismail and Sherin Mohamed Hosny. Prognostic Significance of Progenitor Cell Markers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):680-686] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Prognostic, CD34, CD38, CD90, Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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Palynology Of Six Species Of Solanum (Solanaceae)

 

Gamal M. A. Lashin

 

Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

 gamasabaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper presents the palynology of six species of genus Solanum (family: Solanaceae) from Saudi Arabia. The species has been investigated by Light microscopy, Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy. Pollen grains are generally radialy symmetrical, isopolar tricolporates zono-aperturates, prolate, subprolate or spheroidal with tectate and columellate exine. Sexine echinates or punctuates. On the basis of amb axis, three distinct pollen types are recognized, viz.; Solanum sp.aff. anguivi (16-24 µm) type-1, S. gracileps (20-26 µm), S. incanum (21-26 µm) and S. villosum (22-26 µm) type -2 and S. nigrum (20-32 µm) and S. carense (23-37 µm)) type-3. On the basis of pollen shape class, four distinct pollen types are recognized, viz.; type -1, S. incanum (prolate), type-2 Solanum sp.aff. anguivi (prolate-subprolate), type- 3, Solanum carense (subprolate) and type -4, S. villosum, S. nigrum and S. gracileps (prolate- spheroidal). On the basis of exine sculptures, five distinct pollen types are recognized, viz.; type-1, echinate-verrucate exine in S. villosum and S. nigrum, type-2, regulate pislate in S. incanum but type-3, S. gracileps is crenate, type-4 Solanum sp.aff. anguivi is regulate scabrates and type-5, Solanum carense is perforate echinates. From the results, the Solanaceae is considering of an europalynous family. The importance of exine sculpture in taxonomy is detailed underlined. The morphological and palynological results obtained above and other taxonomic differences can be used to enhance proper understanding of the species in particular and the genus Solanum in general.

[Gamal M. A. Lashin. Palynology of six species of Solanum (Solanaceae). Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 687-697] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.                                              

 

Keyword: Palynology, Solanum, LM, SEM, TEM, Saudi Arabia

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Prevalence of cancers in the National Oil Company employees referred to Ahwaz health and industrial medicine in 5 years (Ministry of oil)

 

Kalantari Farhad1, Sarami Abdollah2, Shahba Nariman3, Marashi seyed Kamal 4Reza Shafiezadeh5

 

1-       Anesthesiologist 2- Infectious & MPH specialist 3-  Dermatologist4-pharmacist 5- occupational medicine

Department of health and great oil hospital

 

Abstract: 13% of cancer deaths are, According to Association of America 7. 6 Million People died of cancer in 2007. Cancer is not only a special man and all animals and plants, a cell may also be suffering from cancer. In 2000, six million to ten million new cases of cancer and cancer-related deaths in the world was registered. In America every year for the first time in nearly a half million people are realizing that somehow have been affected by cancer. According cancer kills 556,000 people in 2003 was 1,500 times the daily death and only death from cardiovascular disease with its prevalence is over. In the study (14,957 people) between 2007 to 2011 employees working in the oil industry in Ahwaz on cancer registration in great oil hospital and public health medicine and the oil industry before 5 years were 121 cancer cases were reported from .The commonest cancers are adenocarcinomas, 36 body parts (29.7%),basal cell skin cancer, 26 patients (21.4%), bladder transitional cell carcinoma 12 (9.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma of the number 7 (5.7%) and 2 cases of renal cell carcinoma were reported. 121 cases of cancer reported in eight cases (6.6%) women and 113 (93.3%) were male.

[Kalantari Farhad, Sarami Abdollah, Shahba Nariman, Marashi seyed Kamal, Reza Shafiezadeh. Prevalence of cancers in the National Oil Company employees referred to Ahwaz health and industrial medicine in 5 years (Ministry of oil). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):698-700] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: cancers, Prevalence, industrial medicine

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Evaluations of needle stick people working in great oil hospital of Ahvaz for 4 years (2008-2011)

 

Kalantari Farhad1, Salamanzadeh.Shokrollah 2, Sarami Abdollah3, Salehi Seyedparviz4, Mooresh. Fariba5

 

 Anesthesiologist 2- Infectious specialist 3- Infectious disease MPH specialist 4-  General physician 5- Infection control Nurse

Department of health and great oil hospita

Abstract:  Needle stick injury, a wound that pierced the skin with a needle tip is caused by common tools. It may also be caused by sharp tools. The common people who have had contact with the needle in the treatment works is like a wound that the medical community. This happened because the risk of disease transmission are concerned lies in the blood such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HIC), the AIDS virus (HIV). Despite the importance of the event, but the needle stick injuries have been neglected, and often not reported.In a study on 650 nurses and midwifery personnel services were 50 cases (7%) were reported needle stick. Mostly in the age group 29-47 years. 17 cases (34%) men and 33 cases (66%) were women between people. The most common causes of needle stick in people under the cover of this pricing needle in 37 cases (74%) and  non use of personal protective equipment and spill into the conjunctively secretions of infected people, medical personnel in 5 cases (10%) cases and in 8 cases (16 %) was caused by rupture with a scalpel.

[Kalantari Farhad, Salamanzadeh Shokrollah, Sarami Abdollah, Salehi Seyedparviz, Mooresh. Fariba. Evaluations of needle stick people working in great oil hospital of Ahvaz for 4 years (2008-2011). Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):701-703] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key words: Recap, Needle stick, great oil hospital

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The Relationship of the Self-Focused Attention, Body Image Concern and Generalized Self-Efficacy with Social Anxiety in Students

 

Saeed Bakhtiarpoor1, Alireza Heidarie1, Shahla Alipoor Khodadadi2

 

1- Assistant professor of of department of human sciences in Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, IRAN

2- M. A. graduated in psychology of department of human sciences in Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, IRAN.

 (Extracted from M. A. Dissertation in Psychology). Corresponding Author: S.Alipoor@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine The Relationship of the Self-Focused Attention, Body Image Concern and Generalized Self-Efficacy with Social Anxiety in Students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz Branch. The research sample was 151 students (61 males, 90 females) which randomly selected for present study. The research sampling was cluster type. To collect data some scales like, social anxiety (FNE. SAD), Focus of attention (FAQ), Body Image concern (Littleton, Axsom & Pury) and generalized self-efficacy (GSE-10) were used. The research design was correlation type. The results by using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions showed that self-focused attention and body image concern had a positive correlation with social anxiety and generalized self-efficacy had a negative correlation with social anxiety. Also a multiple correlation between self-focused attention, body image concern and generalized self-efficacy with social anxiety was showed.

[Saeed Bakhtiarpoor, Alireza Heidarie, Shahla Alipoor Khodadadi. The Relationship of the Self-Focused Attention, Body Image Concern and Generalized Self-Efficacy with Social Anxiety in Students. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):704-713] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

 Keywords: Self-Focused Attention, Body Image Concern, Generalized Self-Efficacy, Social Anxiety

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Electric Characterization of Gallium Resquitelluride Monocrystals

 

F. S. Bahabri

 

Physics Department, Science Faculty for Girls, King Abdul Aziz University – KSA

f_s_bahabri@hotmail.com

Abstract: Electronic transport measurements were made on single crystal samples of Ga2Te3. The crystals were prepared by a special design based on Bridgman technique. The influence of temperature on the electrical conductivity, hall effect, hall mobility and carrier concentration was investigated in the temperature range 160K to 440K. The study was carried out with the current following parallel to the c-axis and the magnetic field direction perpendicular to the c-axis. The crystal obtained had n-type conductivity with electron concentration of 3.79 x1013 cm-3 at room temperature. The conductivity and hall mobility at 300K were evaluated as 1.479 x 10-3Ω-1cm-1 and 239.88 cm2/V. sec, respectively. The energy gap width and the depth of donor centre was found to be 1.588 eV and 0.20 eV respectively. The scattering mechanism of the charge carrier was discussed in the same range of temperature.

[F. S. Bahabri. Electric Characterization of Gallium Resquitelluride Monocrystals. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4): 714-718] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.                                               

 

Keywords: |Gallium resquitelluride, single crystal, electrical conductivity, Hall effect

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Screening Of Acute And Chronic Diabetic Complications Among A Cohort Of Diabetic Patients Admitted To Intensive Care Unit

 

Fathy Z. El-Sewy1, Abla A. Abou-Zeid2, Tamer A. Helmy3, Amr F. Abou-Alkhair4 and Soha S. A. El baz3

 

1Internal Medicine Dept., 2Clinical and Chemical Pathology Dept., 3Critical Care Medicine Dept., 4Opthalmolgy Dept. Tamer270103@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The present study included two hundreds and fifty patients admitted to intensive care units of the main University Hospital of Alexandria. All patients had diabetes mellitus whether diabetes is the primary or secondary cause for admission. There are 148 females (59.2%) and 102 (40.8%) male patients. The age of these patients varies from 9 to 85 years with a mean 49.55 ± 17.46 years. 80.4% of the patients were type 2 DM and 19.6% were type 1 DM. Aim of the work: was to determine the prevalence of acute and chronic diabetic complications among 250 diabetic patients admitted to the Intensive Care units of the Alexandria main University Hospital. Subjects and methods: All patients were subjected to thorough clinical examination including: Complete history taking, laying stress on the duration of diabetes, treatment given to control diabetes and the occurrence of the different complications of diabetes. Complete general examination, laying stress on the cardiovascular system, chest examination, abdominal examination, and examination of peripheral nervous system. Laboratory investigation especially: Random blood glucose. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen. Serum cholesterol, serum TG. urinary albumin excretion rate. Electrocardiogram. Fundus examination by direct ophthalmoscope. Result: The result of the present study can be summarized as follow: 95.6% of patients are suffering from one or more of the diabetic complications. Either acute in 30.8% or chronic in 81.2% DKA was the most frequent acute complication accounting 23.6% of  these complications. It occurred mostly in type 1 diabetes and to lesser extend in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy was the most common chronic complications accounting for 56% of complications; somatic peripheral neuropathy is the commonest type of diabetic neuropathy, in our study the incidence of somatic neuropathy was 52.8% and autonomic neuropathy was 10%, most of patients suffering from autonomic neuropathy were having in the same time somatic neuropathy. Followed by diabetic nephropathy (41.2%), cardiovascular complications (34.8%), diabetic retinopathy (32.8%), diabetic foot (25.2%), 59 cases have DKA (23.6%), 37 cases have CVS (14.8%). There was positive correlation between BMI and increase in serum cholesterol and serum TG. DKA was significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than those with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, cardiovascular and diabetic complications were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes. There was negative correlation between DKA and duration of diabetes. But, there was positive correlations between duration of diabetes and retinopathy, neuropathy, foot complications, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. There was significant impact present of some metabolic variants like hyperglycemia, HTN and hyperlipidemia on the development of different complications. Also the effect of the body weight (BMI) and its positive correlation with these variables. There is positive correlations between all diabetic complications and blood pressure, RBG, serum cholesterol, and serum TG.

[Fathy Z. El-Sewy, Abla A. Abou-Zeid, Tamer A. Helmy, Amr F. Abou-Alkhair and Soha S. A. El baz. Screening Of Acute And Chronic Diabetic Complications Among A Cohort Of Diabetic Patients Admitted To Intensive Care Unit. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):719-733] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key word: Diabetes mellitus, Incidence, Complications, ICU Admission.

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Using potato processing waste in sheep rations

 

Hamed A.A. Omer1, Soha S. Abdel-Magid1, Fatma M. Salman1, Sawsan M. Ahmed1, Mamdouh I. Mohamed1, Ibrahim M. Awadalla1 and Mona S. Zaki2

 

1Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Hydrobiology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yhaoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Twenty-seven male growing Rahmani lambs aged 6 months with an average weight 27.17 ± 0.31 kg were used to determine the effects of inclusion potato processing waste (PPW) on performance of Rahmani lambs. Animals divided into three equal groups and assigned for control and two experimental diets containing PPW which was at 0% PPW (TMR1), 7% PPW (TMR2), and 14% PPW (TMR3), respectively. The results showed that dietary treatments had no significant effect on feed intake, while water intake insignificantly (P>0.05) increased. Digestibility coefficients of organic matter, crude protein and nitrogen-free extract significantly (P<0.05) improved. However, dietary treatment had no significant effect on dry matter and ether extract digestibilities. Values of total digestible nutrient significantly (P<0.05) increased while, digestible crude protein insignificantly (P<0.05) increased. Nitrogen retention was positive for all groups. Inclusion PPW in sheep rations had no significant effect on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acid concentrations. Both ruminal NH3-N and TVFAS concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) increased, while ruminal pH was significantly (P<0.05) decreased after 3 hours post feeding compared with before feeding. Molar proportion of volatile fatty acids and all blood plasma constituents insignificant affected. Final weight, body weight gain, and average daily gain were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while feed conversion ratio insignificantly decreased. Total daily feeding costs of experimental rations were decreased. It could be concluded that potato processing waste can be successfully fed to lambs without any adverse effect on digestibility coefficients, ruminal fermentation, blood plasma constituents and performance. Also, PPW can be used economically in formulation of sheep rations.

 [Hamed A.A. Omer, Soha S. Abdel-Magid, Fatma M. Salman, Sawsan M. Ahmed, Mamdouh I. Mohamed, Ibrahim M. Awadalla and Mona S. Zaki. Using potato processing waste in sheep rations] Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):734-743] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

 

Keywords: Potato processing waste, Sheep, Digestibility, Ruminal fermentation, Performance, Blood plasma constituents, Economical evaluation

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Molecular Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Symptoms Diversity on Squash Plants

 

M.M.M. El-Shamy

 

Botany Dept., Fac. of Sci. El-Monofia Univ., Egypt.

magdyelshamy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A wide range of severe symptoms were appeared on inoculated squash plants (Cucmus pepo cv. El-Skandrani) with CMV under greenhouse condition. One of the first signs of systemic CMV infection, is vein clearing in the youngest leaves (about 7 days), the veins become translucent and leave produced subsequently showed a mosaic (about 10 days) severe mosaic and mottling (about 15 days). Then changed in leaves growth form i.e. little, malformation and no-Lamina giving shoestring the so-called fern leaf (about 20-25 days). The virus was transferred from each symptom to squash and chenopodium amaranticolor plants by sap mechanical inoculation then conformed by DBIA-assay. The change in chlorophyll contents to ensure that all these symptoms resulted from CMV-s EG. SDS-PAGE, peroxidase isozyme separation and RAPD-PCR to molecular analyze of S-CMV-EG symptoms development on squash plant leaves. SDS-PAGE of protein separation showed variability protein pattern and contents of healthy and S-CMV symptoms infected squash leaves (m-mosaic, S-mosaic, crinkling and malformation) with 24, 26, 28, 25, 20 and 22, 21, 20, 22, 16 soluble and unsoluble  polypeptides respectively. As well as. DISC-PAGE isozyme showed 6, 7, 8 and 8 peroxidase isozymes respectively. RAPD-analysis revealed DNA polymorphic among CMV-symptom development on squash plants. RAPD analysis using two random primers revealed 8 polymorphic of total 15 amplified fragments with 53% under CMV infection. Crinkle symptoms revealed the highest number with 18 markers followed by  S-mosaic 17 and malformation 16 and mild mosaic with 15 bands.

[M.M.M. El-Shamy. Molecular Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Symptoms Diversity on Squash Plants. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):744-753] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words:   Squash plants, CMV symptoms development, SDS-PAGE, DISC-PAGE, PAPD PCR

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Role of Multislice CT in Assessment of Carotid Stenosis

 

Mohammad S. Hassan and Mohsen G. Hassan

 

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objective: the objective of this study is to evaluate the role of multislice CT in evaluation of carotid stenosis. Method: forty five patients who had neurological symptoms suggestive of neurovascular disease and who had 60% stenosis on Doppler study were evaluated by multislice CT and DSA and the results were compared for each of the ninety carotid arteries. Results: Conventional angiograms and CT angiograms were in agreement in 71 arteries (79 %). Disagreement was found in the remaining eighteen arteries were CT angiogram showed the stenosis to be one category less in 13 arteries (14.4%) and one category more sever in 6 arteries (6.66%). No disagreement was found by more than one category. Sensitivity and specifity for detecting sever stenosis or occlusion was 85% and 97 %.

[Mohammad S. Hassan and Mohsen G. Hassan. Role of Multislice CT in Assessment of Carotid Stenosis. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 753-756] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keyword: Role, Multislice CT, Assessment, Carotid Stenosis

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Reliable data delivery and energy efficient aware multi-path routing protocol in wireless sensor network

 

Amir Masoud Bidgoli 1, Mohammad Pajouhesh 2, Mehdi Ahmadi3

 

1.       Department of Computer, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

am_bidgoli@iau-tub.ac.ir

2. Department of Computer, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran

mo.pajouhesh@gmail.com

3. Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Ardal Center, Iran

M_Ahmadi@iaushk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are generally energy and resource constrained. To provide energy efficiency while enhancing reliable delivery the packets, we propose a reliable data delivery and energy efficient aware multi-path routing protocol. The reliable delivery of the source to sink through the creation of safe routes and send data on these routes is done. The hybrid scheme is used to acknowledge received messages at every hop that larger percentages of packets are received at the sink. To reduce the energy consumption used the load balancing on multipath routs to avoid congestion and decrease delivery delay is given below, Also decreased overhead protocols spent time less for data transfer and increased network lifetime. Our protocol uses the residual energy, node available buffer size, and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) with influence hop count metric to predict the best next hop through the paths construction phase. We implemented our protocol using simulator for evaluating its performance. Results show that our protocol has significant improvement in packet delivery ratio and energy savings.

[Amir Masoud Bidgoli, Mohammad Pajouhesh, Mehdi Ahmadi. Reliable data delivery and energy efficient aware multi-path routing protocol in wireless sensor network. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4): 757-763] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Reliable data delivery, Multipath routing, Energy efficiency, Wireless sensor networks.

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Environmental and experimental studies of aluminium toxicity on the liver of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fish

 

Mohammad M.N. Authman

 

Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt

mmauthman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Specimens of water and the freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were sampled from Al-Atf drainage canal, Al-Minufiya Province, Egypt, for one year to determine aluminium (Al) concentrations in water and its accumulation in livers of such fish. It was found that Al accumulated in livers of O. niloticus in levels higher than that of the canal water. The concentrations of Al in water were higher than the world permissible limits. Experimentally, O. niloticus fishes were exposed to three doses of Aluminium sulphate and Al effects were evaluated with regard to hepatosomatic index and liver histopathological alterations. The hepatosomatic indices of fish treated with the three doses of Aluminium sulphate were higher compared to the control group. Fish exposed to the highest dose had significantly higher (P<0.05) hepatosomatic indices than the control fish. Liver tissues of treated fish revealed various histopathological lesions. From this investigation, it was suggested that, the liver of O. niloticus is convenient for testing the toxicity of metals such as aluminium.

[Mohammad M.N. Authman. Environmental and experimental studies of aluminium toxicity on the liver of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fish. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):764-776] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Oreochromis niloticus, liver, bioaccumulation, aluminium sulphate, hepatosomatic index, histopathology, Egypt.

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The Mushroom Extract Schizophyllan Reduces Cellular Proliferation and Induces G2/M Arrest in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

 

Eiman Aleem

 

Alexandria University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Division of Molecular Biology, Moharram Bey 21511, Alexandria, Egypt. eiman.aleem@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. It is also the principle cause of death from cancer among women globally. Several lines of evidence suggest that dietary mushrooms may decrease breast cancer incidence. Schizohyllan (SCH) is a polysaccharide isolated from the medicinal mushroom S. commune and has potential anticancer effects. In a recent study we have demonstrated that SCH alone or in combination with tamoxifen (TAM) reduced the incidence of 7, 12 Dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinomas in mice through inhibition of cellular proliferation. The goal of the present work was to study the molecular mechanism through which SCH inhibits cell proliferation using the estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in vitro. MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of SCH, and the following parameters were studied: cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle kinetics using flow cytometry and expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins by Western blot. It was found that 1500 µg/ml of SCH reduced cell viability and this was not due to cell death by apoptosis but due to G2/M cell cycle phase arrest. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the G2/M phase arrest involved an increased phosphorylation at the inhibitory tyrosine 15 site of CDK1 associated with accumulation of p53. Taken together, this is the first study to show direct anticancer effects of SCH on human breast cancer cells in culture. The therapeutic implications of SCH in human breast cancer warrant further investigation.

[Eiman Aleem. The Mushroom Extract Schizophyllan Reduces Cellular Proliferation and Induces G2/M Arrest in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):777-784] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.                                       

 

Keywords: schizophyllan, mushroom, MCF-7 cells, Schizophylum commune, apoptosis, cell cycle, CDK1, p53

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Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in Vitiligo Patients

 

Fatma A. Abd Rabou1, Hesham A.Elserogy2, Shereen F. Gheida*1 and Amal A. EL-Ashmawy1

 

Departments of Dermatology and Venereology1 and Clinical Pathology2, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. gheidas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin characterized by white areas on the skin and pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) are absent from vitiligo lesions. Oxidative stress is a major pathogenesis hypothesis of vitiligo. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are group of polymorphic enzymes that are important in protection against oxidative stress and chemical toxicity. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the relation between glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1) and pathogenesis of vitiligo. Subjects and Methods: This study included 40 patients with vitiligo and 10 healthy subjects served as controls, attending the Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology and Venereology Department of Tanta University Hospitals. Blood samples were collected from all patients for detection of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and blood samples were collected from control subjects for comparison. Results: In this study, there was non significant association with null type of both GSTM1& GSTT1 genotype and vitiligo susceptibility. There was significant association of vitiligo risk with GSTM1 null/ GSTT1 null type as well as GSTM1 present/GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null/ GSTT1 present when compared to the GSTT1 present/ GSTM1 present. There was non significant association with GSTM1 null type of vitiligo in focal, segmental and generalized subtypes. There was significant association with GSTT1 null type of vitiligo in generalized subtypes but GSTT1 null type of vitiligo in focal and segmental types showed non significant association with vitiligo susceptibility. Non significant association was shown in GSTM1 null/GSTT1 null type of vitiligo in focal and generalized types while it was significant in segmental type. Significant association with GSTM1 present/GSTT1 null type of vitiligo in focal and generalized types but non significant in segmental type. The GSTM1 null/GSTT1 present types of vitiligo subtypes showed a significant association with focal and generalized types but non significant association in segmental type. Significant association with GSTM1 present/ GSTT1 present type in segmental and generalized types but non significant in focal type. Conclusion: Collectively, the mechanistic study revealed new pieces in the vitiligo ’’puzzle’’, such as GST and 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-protein which, together with the known one, namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), may well be included in the hypothetic redox-regulated mechanism of melanocyte loss, and might represent good candidates as therapeutic targets for this skin disease.

[Fatma A. Abd Rabou, Hesham A.Elserogy, Shereen F. Gheida and Amal A. EL-Ashmawy. Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in Vitiligo Patients. Life Science Journal, 2011;8(4):785-792] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

 

Key words: Vitiligo,Glutathione S-transferase,Oxidative stress

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Pneumonia and Impaired T Cell Function in Children with Down's Syndrome: Double Strike

 

Amany Abuelazm1, Zeinab Galal*2 and Samia El Sahn3

 

Pediatric Department, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital1,   Clinical Pathology2 and Pediatric Departments, Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University3

*dr_zgalal@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Down's syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality in humans and is the most common known genetic cause of intellectual disability. DS is known for increased incidence of respiratory infections and autoimmune diseases, indicating impaired immunity. Subjects and methods: This study included sixty seven children; 49 preschool children with DS, with ages ranging from 2 to 6.5 years and 18 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls. Free T4, TSH, and thyroid autoantibodies (antithyroglobulin and anti-TSH receptor antibodies) were measured. Evaluation of total leucocytic count, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ cells was performed for each subject. Sputum specimens were collected from all DS subjects and controls for microscopic examination and culture. Results: Among 49 DS child 23 (46.9%) had signs and symptoms of respiratory tract infection, 11 of DS children (22.4%) were suffering from pneumonia. The culture results of sputum samples revealed that staphylococcus aurous was the most common organism; it represents 37.9% of the total bacterial pathogen isolates and 45.4% of the pneumonic patient’s isolates. Nineteen DS subjects (38.78%) were hypothyroid according to the thyroid profile tests. Thyroid autoantibodies were detected in 5 (10.2%) of DS children, 1 euthyroid and 4 hypothyroid children. The values of total leucocytic count, lymphocyte, CD3+ and CD4+ cells (5772.2 ± 1861.1/mm3, 2234.2±597.8, 1774.2±396.5 and 760.9±298.4 respectively), were lower in DS children than healthy controls (7908.0±1464.8/mm3, 3158.9±722.5, 2252.0±636.8 and 1389.3±379.4 respectively) and the differences were statistically significant. CD8+ and CD56+ cells were higher in DS children (979.4±285.2 and 393.2± 102.9 respectively) than healthy controls (741.8±170.6 and 175.5±52.8 respectively) with significant statistical differences. CD4/CD8 ratio was reversed in DS children (0.78± 0.27). In conclusion, respiratory tract infection is very common in DS children and can easily complicate to pneumonia because of the complex impairment of T-lymphocytes which is one of the reasons of the defective immune responses among DS children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism causing pneumonia in children with DS. Annual screening for thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies in preschool DS children is very important to prevent further intellectual deterioration and improve overall development.

[Amany Abuelazm, Zeinab Galal and Samia El Sahn. Pneumonia and Impaired T Cell Function in Children with Down's Syndrome: Double Strike. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):793-799] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Pneumonia, T cell, children, Down's syndrom

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Double Paraproximity Spaces

 

A. Kandi l1, O. Tantawy2, K. Barakat3, and N. Abdelnaby4

 

1,3,4 Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, P.O. Box 11795, Cairo Egypt.

2Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University.

nagahlibya@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We introduce the concept of a double completely normal topological space or DT5 – space and double Paraproximity space showing that every double Paraproximity space induces a double completely normal topological space and vice verse.

[A. Kandi l, O. Tantawy, K. Barakat, and N. Abdelnaby. Structure Double Paraproximity Spaces. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4):800-804] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: topological space; double Paraproximity space; mathematics

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Combined Effects of Temperature and Algal Concentration on Filtration and Ingestion Rates of Crassostrea gigas: Bivalvia

 

Mona,M. H.1, Elkhodary, G.M.*2 and Khalil, A.M

 

1 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damnhour University, Damnhour, Egypt.

3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

*gihankhodary@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The effect of varying algal cell concentration, food items and temperature on the filtration and ingestion rates of the eyed larva of Crassostrea gigas were investigated under laboratory condition. The filtration and ingestion rates were measured according to the indirect method in which the flow of water into the passage cavity is inferred from the rate of removal of suspended particles. Cultures of the unicellular alga Isochrysis galbana and Pavlovia lutheri were used in the test solutions. Three different concentrations of the two algal species (100,50 and  25 cells/µl)  and three temperature degrees (25 şc, 20 şc and 13 şc) were used to study the effect of these factors at different time intervals from starting the experiments (1, 6 and 12 days) on the filtration and ingestion rates of the eyed – larvae. The filtration and ingestion rates of the larvae of C.gigas that recorded by using I. galbana were large than that of P. lutheri. These results might depend on the size of the filtered particles. Moreover, the larvae of C. gigas regulate filtration rates according to the particle concentration in the surrounding medium, filtration was more actively in lower concentrations (25 x 10 6 L-1I . galbana ) than at the higher ones (100 x 10 6 L-1I galbana). The mean value of filtration and ingestion rates of  C.gigas were significantly increased by the increase in temperature degree and 25şc were considerable the perfect temperature to achieve high values of both filtration and ingestion rates if it is compared by 20 şc and 13 şc  . These results help to explain the feeding behavior of C.gigas

[Mona,M. H., Elkhodary, G.M.and Khalil, A.M. Combined Effects of Temperature and Algal Concentration on Filtration and Ingestion Rates of Crassostrea gigas: Bivalvia. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):805-813] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key Words: Edible bivalve, Crassostrea gigas,Feeding behavior, Filtration rate, Ingestion rate-algal cell,Temperature

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Leadership behavior as perceived by clinical teacher and nursing students

 

1*Olfat A. Salem; 2Fatma M. Baddar and 3Gusrina Komara Putri

 

1Female Nursing Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing, Riyadh, King Saud University, , Kingdom Saudi Arabia. Associate Professor Menofiya University

2Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt. Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing. King Saud University

3Nursing Administration and Education Department. King Saud University, College of Nursing, Riyadh, Kingdom Saudi Arabia. osalem@ksu.edu.sa         

 

Abstract: Leadership behavior of clinical teacher influences the effectiveness of clinical teaching. However, leader perception of their leadership behavior might be different with follower perception of it. Based on it, the study aim to describe the relationship between clinical teacher perception of leadership behavior and compared with student perception of it. 27 clinical teachers and 214 nursing students were participated in this study using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The results revealed statistically significance difference between leadership behaviour perception of clinical teacher and their students (p < 0.05). 

[Olfat A. Salem; Fatma M. Baddar and Gusrina Komara Putri. Leadership behavior as perceived by clinical teacher and nursing students] Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):814-820] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

 

Keywords: leadership, transformational leadership behaviours, transactional leadership behavior, clinical teaching

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Pneumonia and Impaired T Cell Function in Children with Down's Syndrome: Double Strike

 

Amany Abuelazm1, Zeinab Galal*2 and Samia El Sahn3

 

Pediatric Department, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital1,   Clinical Pathology2 and Pediatric Departments, Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University3

*dr_zgalal@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Down's syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality in humans and is the most common known genetic cause of intellectual disability. DS is known for increased incidence of respiratory infections and autoimmune diseases, indicating impaired immunity. Subjects and methods: This study included sixty seven children; 49 preschool children with DS, with ages ranging from 2 to 6.5 years and 18 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls. Free T4, TSH, and thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin and anti-TSH receptor antibodies) were measured. Evaluation of total leucocytic count (TLC), lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ cells was performed for each subject. Sputum specimens were collected from all DS subjects and controls for microscopic examination and culture. Results: Among 49 DS child 23 (46.9%) had signs and symptoms of respiratory tract infection, 11 of DS children (22.4%) were suffering from pneumonia. The culture results of sputum samples revealed that staphylococcus aurous was the most common organism; it represents 37.9% of the total bacterial pathogen isolates and 45.4% of the pneumonic patient’s isolates. Nineteen DS subjects (38.78%) were hypothyroid according to the thyroid profile tests. Thyroid autoantibodies were detected in five (10.2%) of DS children, one euthyroid and four hypothyroid children. The values of TLC, lymphocyte, CD3+ and CD4+ cells (5772.2 ± 1861.1/mm3, 2234.2 ± 597.8, 1774.2 ± 396.5 and 760.9 ± 298.4 respectively), were lower in DS children than healthy controls (7908.0 ± 1464.8/mm3, 3158.9 ± 722.5, 2252.0 ± 636.8 and 1389.3 ± 379.4 respectively) and the differences were statistically significant. CD8+ and CD56+ cells were higher in DS children (979.4 ± 285.2 and 393.2 ± 102.9 respectively) than healthy controls (741.8 ± 170.6 and 175.5 ± 52.8 respectively) with significant statistical differences. CD4/CD8 ratio was reversed in DS children (0.78 ± 0.27). In conclusion, respiratory tract infection is very common in DS children and can easily complicate to pneumonia because of the complex impairment of T-lymphocytes which is one of the reasons of the defective immune responses among DS children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism causing pneumonia in children with DS. Annual screening for thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies in preschool DS children is very important to prevent further intellectual deterioration and improve overall development.

[Amany Abuelazm, Zeinab Galal and Samia El Sahn. Pneumonia and Impaired T Cell Function in Children with Down's Syndrome: Double Strike. Life Science Journal, 2011;8(4):821-827] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Pneumonia, T cell, children, Down's syndrome

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Bayesian censored data viewpoint in Weibull distribution

 

Abd-Elfattah A.M1. And Marwa O. Mohamed2

 

1King Abdul-Aziz University, Statistics Department, Faculty of Science, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Mathematics, Zagazig University, EGYPT

mo11577@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The time of failure and average life of a component, measured from some specified time until it fails, is represented by a continuous random variable. Extensively in recent years, one distribution that has been used as a model to deal with such problems for product life is the Weibull distribution. The objective of this paper is to consider the estimation problem of the probability  for Weibull distribution. Based on Classical Type I censored samples. The maximum-likelihood estimators (MLE) are obtained for stress–strength reliability. Bayes estimates under various loss functions are researched. Some computational results from intensive simulations are presented. In the end, in order to investigate the accuracy of estimations, an illustrative example is examined numerically by means of Monte Carlo simulation.

[Sahar Yassien. Effect of Web-Based Brain Training Program on Cognitive and Academic Functions of Student Nurses with Sickle Cell Disease. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):828-837] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key-Words: Weibull distribution, Bayesian estimator, LINEX loss function, Reliability function, stress-strength model, Risk function and squared error loss function, Type-I censored data

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Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Prognostic Significance of Angiogenesis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

 

Samia, M. Sanad1, Mahmoud, A. El-Baz2 and Mohamed,  A. Erfan3

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of  Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

3Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: In the present study, evaluation of tumour angiogenesis has been carried out in a group of patients with renal cell carcinoma. The retrospective study included 97 patients for whom radical nephrectoly was carried out between 1997 and 1999 in the Urology and Nephrology Center belonging to Mansoura University, Egypt. Patients were stratified according to grade, stage, age, lymph node status, tumour size and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis was evaluated by measuring the mean microvessel density (MVD). Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained using monoclonal antibody that reacted with endothelial cells linning the wall of blood vessels and was called CD34. Microvessels were counted in active areas of angiogenesis (hot spots) under magnification of X250 and the mean of 3 counts (MVD) was used for univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. The results of the present study indicated that, evaluation of microvessel density is of no appreciable value in the assessment of prognosis for renal cell carcinoma. Tumour stage could provide more objective tool for better judgment on the patient survival and might help in choice of the more convenient therapy for the individual patient.

[Samia, M. Sanad, Mahmoud, A. El-Baz and Mohamed, A. Erfan. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Prognostic Significance of Angiogenesis in Renal Cell Carcinoma. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):838-851] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.                                               

 Key words: Histopathological, Immunohistochemical, Angiogenesis, Renal cell carcinoma

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Construction of a HSV-1 strain HF Based Replication Defective Vector with LR-Recombination Sites

 

Qingzhi Wang, Bo Song, Xinjing Liu, Zhiqiang Han, Jiameng Lu, Ting Yang, Chenyang Jiang, Xiaolu Zhang, Chandra Avinash, Shilei Sun, Yuming Xu*

 

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

Corresponding author: Yuming Xu, yumingxu@zzu.edu.cn; Co-first author: Bo Song, songbo76@sina.com;

Co-corresponding author: Shilei Sun, sunshilei@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, we incorporated the lambda phage based specific recombination sites attR into HSV-1 replication-defective vector by using Red recombineering, and constructed the HSV-1 replication-defective vector BAC-HSV1-HF-ICP27-attR-GK. In addition, a red fluorescence reporter gene DsRed was introduced to the vector to construct the BAC-HSV1-HF-ICP27-attB-DsRed by LR recombination approach. To conduct research on the expression of exogenous gene integrated to the vector, the plasmid BAC-HSV1-HF-ICP27-attB-DsRed was transfected to the 2-2 Vero cells, 72hr later, CPE and the red fluorescence protein were observed. These results indicated that we successfully constructed HSV-1 replication-defective vector BAC-HSV1-HF-ICP27-attR-GK which carrying LR recombination specific sites attR, and the vector can incorporate exogenous gene by a one-step LR recombination in vitro. This method simplified the procedure of site-directed integration of exogenous gene into HSV-1 replication-defective vectors, and greatly facilitated the research of HSV-1 derived vectors for gene therapy.

[Qingzhi Wang, Bo Song, Xinjing Liu, Zhiqiang Han, Jiameng Lu, Ting Yang, Chenyang Jiang, Xiaolu Zhang, Chandra Avinash, Shilei Sun, Yuming Xu. Construction of a HSV-1 strain HF Based Replication Defective Vector with LR-Recombination Sites. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):852-857] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: HSV-1, Red recombineering, LR recombination, replication defective vectors, site-directed integration

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Evaluation of Different Immunological Techniques for Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis haematobium in Egypt

 

1 Mahfouz, A., 1 Mahana, N., *2 Rabee, I., 1El Amir, A.

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Theodore Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

*noha_mahana@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The detection of soluble egg antigen (SEA) in serum and urine could be more valuable in diagnosis; hence early treatment would be applied before irreparable damage occurs. In this study, Schistosoma (S.) eggs were isolated from the intestine of infected hamsters and purified by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified SEA was injected in rabbits to raise specific polyclonal antibodies (pAb) against S. haematobium. The purified pAb was further used as a primary capture to coat ELISA plates. The secondary capture of pAb was by conjugation with horse-raddish peroxidase (HRP). According to parasitological examination, this study included 150 S. haematobium infected patients, 50 other parasites infected patients and 30 negative control samples. Latex agglutination technique (LAT) was performed for both serum and urine in comparison to sandwich and dot-ELISA on 150 infected individual. Comparison was evaluated between LAT, sandwich and Dot-ELISA in serum samples, it showed 92%, 98% and 98.66% sensitivity and 92.50%, 96.25% and 98.75% specificity, respectively, while in urine samples showed 88.66%, 90.66% and 94.66% sensitivity and 91.25%, 93.75% and 96.25% specificity, respectively. It was clear that, the sensitivity of LAT in urine was significantly higher than the parasitological examinations. From the obtained results and with consideration to sandwich and Dot-ELISA assays, LAT assay have an important value as an applicable, fast and accurate diagnostic technique for schistosomiasis in the field.

[Mahfouz, A.,  Mahana,  N.,  Rabee  I.,  and El Amir A. Evaluation of Different Immunological Techniques for Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis haematobium in Egypt. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):858-867] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Schistosoma, LAT, Sandwich ELISA, Dot-ELISA

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Effect of Intratympanic Dexamethasone Administration on Cispaltin-Induced Ototoxicity in Adult Guinea Pigs, Is It Time-Dependent?  Audiological and Histological Study

 

Mirahan T. Thabet1, Rasha Elkabarity1, Nevine Bahaa E. Soliman2, Nagwa Kostandy Kalleny2 and Amr Gouda3

 

Audiology1, Histology2, and Otolaryngology3 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. nbahaasoliman@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Cisplatin is a cornerstone chemotherapeutic drug often dose-limited by ototoxicity. Many trials have been introduced for a complete cure or prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity but unfortunately, with un-satisfactory results. Intratympanic steroids have been recently tried and shown competitive results in terms of reduction of ototoxicity. However, perfect timing of drug administration remains controversial. Aim of the work: To evaluate the effect and safety of intratympanic dexamethasone administration on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in adult male guinea pigs and to assess the differences between early and late protection from this ototoxicity. Materials and methods: Forty eight adult male guinea pigs were divided as follows: Group I served as control group. Group II was subjected to intratympanic saline (subgroup IIa) or dexamethasone (subgroup IIb) injection. Group III was intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin. Groups IV and V were subjected first to intratympanic dexamethasone administration in both ears for 5 days starting 1 day and 1 hour -respectively- before cisplatin intraperitoneal injection. Results: Dexamethasone intratympanic injection revealed similar functional and structural results compared with control. Cisplatin intraperitoneal injection resulted in a profound cochlear functional and structural damage in group III. Non-significant otoprotection resulted from intratympanic dexamethasone administration one day before cisplatin. Intratympanic dexamethasone injection one hour before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea. Conclusion:  Intratympanic dexamethasone administration is a safe, easy and efficient way to protect from cisplatin ototoxicity especially when administered one hour before cisplatin treatment.

[Mirahan T. Thabet, Rasha Elkabarity, Nevine Bahaa E. Soliman, Nagwa Kostandy Kalleny and Amr Gouda. Effect of Intratympanic Dexamethasone Administration on Cispaltin-Induced Ototoxicity in Adult Guinea Pigs, Is It Time-Dependent?  Audiological and Histological Study. Life Science Journal, 2011;8(4):868-882] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.                                        

 

Key words: dexamethasone, cisplatin, ototoxicity, guinea pigs

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Extracellular Metabolites Produced by a Novel Strain, Bacillus alvei NRC-14:  3. Synthesis of a Bioflocculant that has Chitosan-Like Structure

 

Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz*1, Hoda A. Hamed1, Foukia E. Mouafi2, and Nayera A. M. Abdelwahed3

 

Microbial Chemistry Dept.1, Microbial Biotechnology Dept.2, Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept.3, National Research Centre Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*abdelaziz.sm@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An extracellular biopolymer flocculant (BPF) was produced by a novel strain, Bacillus alvei NRC-14, cultivated in low nutritional medium. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources as well as the initial pH and medium components, on production of the BPF were studied. Production of this BPF is induced in presence of chitosan or chitosan-containing substrate as carbon source, suggesting a correlation between the activities of several key enzymes involved in the pathway with the yield of the BPF. Therefore, biosynthetic pathway of this BPF may starts with an aminosugar as a precursor which was then, presumably, polymerized and converted to a  bioflocculant. The highest production was achieved in low nutrition medium containing: dried mycelium of the fungus Mucor rouxii (10g/L), (NH4)2SO4 (1.5g/L) and MgSO4.7H2O (0.5g/L). The flocculating activity reached 98% in less than 48 hr of growth. The produced bioflocculant is a polysaccharide consisting of aminosugars and has good flocculating activity in charcoal or kaolin clay suspension, without any cation addition. IR-spectra elucidate that, the BPF has chitosan-like structure with a molecular weight of 6.9 x 104 Da. Surprisingly, shelf-life studies of this BPF revealed that it retained 94% of its flocculating activity after keeping at room temperature for up to 6 months period, indicating its higher stability. This is the first report about a bioflocculant that has chitosan–like structure produced by a novel strain, Bacillus alvei NRC-14.

[Shadia M. Abdel-Aziz, Hoda A. Hamed, Foukia E. Mouafi and Nayera A. M. Abdelwahed. Extracellular Metabolites Produced by a Novel Strain, Bacillus alvei NRC-14: 3. Synthesis of a Bioflocculant that has Chitosan-Like Structure. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):883-890] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.                                              

 

Key words: Extracellular metabolites, Bacillus alvei NRC-14, biopolymer flocculant, Mucor rouxii, chitosan

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Resveratrol Mediated Protection of Dacarbazine-Induced Mutagenicity in Mice

 

Ramadan, A.M. Ali

 

Zoology Dept., University College for Women, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Dacarbazine (DTIC) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs that have been successfully applied to treat malignant melanoma, soft tissue sarcoma, renal adenocarcinoma, osteogenic sarcoma, neuroblastomas and malignant lymphomas.  In vivo studies showed that, DTIC induced oxidative DNA damage and cell cycle arrest.  Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol (trans-3, 5, 4-trihydroxy stilbene) found in grapes and attracts public attention because; it possesses diverse biochemical, anticancer and antigenotoxic actions.  The present work was aimed to investigate the antigenotoxic activity of RES against DTIC-induced chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (Mn-PCEs) formation, micronucleated peripheral blood reticulocytes (Mn-Ret) development and DNA fragmentation in bone marrow cells of mice. The animals received either single doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w. DTIC or pretreated daily with 0, 50 mg/kg b.w. for 15 days with RES. Animals were sacrificed 24 h post treatment with DTIC.  Animals treated with RES for 15 days showed a fair decrease in the control base line of CA, Mn-PCEs, Mn-Ret incidences and DNA fragmentation. As well as, RES did enhance the averages of mitotic indices and PCEs/NCEs.  Treatment with 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg DTIC without and with 50 mg/kg resveratrol induced 1.83±0.75, 6.83±13.67, 23.67±1.63, 43.83±3.97 and 1.50±0.84, 2.0±0.89, 8.67±1.63, 18.17±1.94, 33.17±3.31 Mn-PCEs per 2000 PCEs, respectively.  Similarly, RES reduced the averages of CA, percentages of Mn-Ret and DNA fragmentation induced by DTIC (P<0.05).  Moreover, RES significantly elevated the averages of PCEs/NCEs and percentages of mitotic index induced by DTIC (P<0.05). It was noted that, in the combined treated the frequency of all the mutagenic parameters were significantly less than that treated with dacarbazine alone. It is concluded that, administration of resveratrol improved the genotoxic effects of dacarbazine. The results of this work draw attention for application of a safer chemotherapeutic protocol for cancer treatment by using strong antioxidants concurrently with chemotherapeutic agents.

[Ramadan, A.M. Ali. Resveratrol Mediated Protection of Dacarbazine-induced Mutagenicity in Mice. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):891-899] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Dacarbazine; Resveratrol; Micronucleus; Chromosomal aberrations; DNA fragmentation; Mouse; Bone marrow cells

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Nervi Terminalis, Vomeronasalis and Olfactorius of Uromastyx aegyptius (Squamata – Lacertilia - Agamidae)

 

Dakrory, A.I.*1; Issa, A.Z.1 and Ali, R.S2

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egy

dakrory2001@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: The present work was aimed to study the anterior cranial nerves which innervate the olfactory apparatus of Uromastyx aegyptius. The olfactory apparatus of Uromastyx aegyptius includes the main olfactory organ and the vomeronasal organ or organ of Jacobson. The main olfactory organ is innervated by the olfactory nerve which arises from the sensory olfactory epithelium and leaves the capsular cavity through a separate foramen, i.e., there is no foramen olfactorium advehens. The vomeronasal organ is innervated by two nerves: the terminal and the vomeronasal nerves. They arise from the sensory epithelium in combination. The terminal nerve carries a terminal ganglion. The nervi terminalis and vomeronasalis combined together as one separate nerve which leaves the cavity of the nasal capsule together with few bundles of the olfactory nerves through a special foramen. The nervi terminalis, vomeronasalis and olfactorius enter the cranial cavity through a large foramen olfactorium evehens and they connect separately the anterior part of the brain. The vomeronasal nerve enters the accessory olfactory bulb (vomeronasal formation) of the fore brain. The nervus olfactorius enters the main olfactory bulb whereas the terminal nerve connects the anterior end of the olfactory lobe. The olfactory bulb has a long olfactory peduncle. The three nerves carry pure special somatic sensory fibres.

[Dakrory, A.I.; Issa, A.Z. and Ali, R.S. Nervi Terminalis, Vomeronasalis and Olfactorius of Uromastyx aegyptius (Squamata – Lacertilia - Agamidae). Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4):900-907] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Uromastyx aegyptius – Nervus terminalis – Nervus olfactorius.

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Role of IL28B Gene Polymorphisms in Response to the Standard of Care Treatment in Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV Genotype Four

 

Olfat M Hendy1, Elhamy Abd El Moneam1, Mona A Al shafie2, Maha El-Sabawy3, Mohammed A Rady 3 and Sherif A El Baz4

                                                                                                    

Departments of Clinical Pathology1& Hepatology3 - National Liver Institute- Menoufiya University, Clinical Pathology2 – Menoufiya Faculty of Medicine and Tropical Medicine4 –NMC

aklrady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV (predominantly genotype 4) all over the world with 9% countrywide and up to 50% in certain rural areas. Combined PEG-IFN and ribavirin is still the only standard of care treatment in spite of its side effects, high costs and low sustained virological response rates. Hence, this provides a compelling reason for the identification of biomarker predictors of disease response to treatment. Genetic variation in the interleukin 28B (IL28B) genes has been associated with the response to interferon-alfa/ribavirin therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1-infected patients, however its importance for HCV genotype 4-infected patients is still unevident. This study aimed at assessing whether specific IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNPs), known as rs8099917 and rs12979860 could predict treatment outcomes among chronic HCV genotype4 patients treated with the standard of care treatment. Methods: One hundred of  naďve chronic HCV patients were selected and submitted to combined interferon/ ribavirin therapy, 48% of them have sustained viral response and (SVR) while the remaining 52% failed to respond (non responders). SNPs for rs12979860 and rs8099917 were done by PCR-RFLP technique for all patients before therapy. The CC genotype of rs12979860 was identified in 39 patients, 34 of them (87.2%) achieved SVR, while the CT heterozygous was detected in 51 (51%) patients, 13 of them achieved SVR (25.5%) and the TT was found in 10 patients and only one of them (10%) was responder. The SVR was significantly associated with CC genotypes as compared to other two genotypes (p<0.001), but TT genotype was associated with failed response to therapy. The TT homozygous of rs8099917 genotype was detected in 46 (46%) of overall HCV patients, 37 of them (80.4%) achieved SVR. The GT heterozygous was detected in 42 (42%) of HCV patients, SVR was achieved in 9 (21.4%) of them. While, the GG genotype was found in 12 patients and two of them only (16.7%) were responders. Conclusion: These data suggest that host genetics may be useful for the prediction of treatment outcomes and that IL28B SNP genotype is an important predictive biomarker for SVR in patients with HCV genotypes 4. Further studies based on a larger number of patients are necessary to investigate the present results.

[Olfat M Hendy, Elhamy Abd El Moneam, Mona A Al shafie, Maha El-Sabawy, Mohammed A Rady and Sherif A El Baz. Role of IL28B Gene Polymorphisms in Response to the Standard of Care Treatment in Egyptian Patients with Chronic HCV Genotype Four. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):908-915] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: IL28 gene polymorphism, SOC therapy in CHC, HCv genotype 4 in Egyptian patients

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Securing Computerized Personal Identification Data with Confidentiality and Non-repudiation Capabilities Based on Programmable System on Chip (PSoC) Technology

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chian-Yi Chao 2, Chin-Ming Hsu 3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: In this study, a cipher/decipher based on programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) technology is proposed to prevent unauthorized people from revealing and abusing users’ computerized personal identification data (PID) during transit and at rest. The proposed PSoC-based cipher/decipher consists of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) authentication protocol, a programmable microcontroller named AT89S51 single chip, and an application specific integrated chip (ASIC) named EPF10K Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device. The PKI authentication protocol with the registration and transaction processes for verification/identification is used to secure the encrypted PID data transmitted on the Internet. The programmable microcontroller mainly programs the encrypting/decrypting codes and the ASIC device is implemented with the stream cipher’s logical operations, including, segmentation, exclusive or (XOR), and rotation. This design supports off-line encryption of numerous users’ PID. The proposed approach has been simulated using C programming language running on a 1,500MHz Pentium PC with 512 MB of RAM. From the experimental results, the size of the ciphertext, the size of the key stream, and the encryption time are dependent on the secret key, nonce, and plaintext; the design of ASIC hardware device is of low hardware cost and low design complexity; and the software of PSoC-based cipher/decipher could provide better code density. Conclusively, using certificates and dynamic cookies for verification/identification ensures that only authorized users can obtain the access to their personnel record.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chian-Yi Chao, Chin-Ming Hsu. Securing Computerized Personal Identification Data with Confidentiality and Non-repudiation Capabilities Based on Programmable System on Chip (PSoC) Technology.  Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):916-922] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Computerized personal identification data, cipher/decipher, PKI, and authentication

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A Tea Brewing Service Device with the Added Value of Increasing Tea Drinking Quality in Our Leisure Life

 

Sung-Tsun Shih1, Chin-Ming Hsu2, Chian-Yi Chao3

 

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Department of Information Technology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

stshih@csu.edu.tw

 

Abstract: This study proposes a loose-leaf tea brewing service device with the added value of increasing tea drinking quality in our leisure life. The proposed device with multi-infusion timing control and user friendly interface characteristics utilizes AT89S51 programmable microcontroller to detect the input signals and trigger the corresponding outputs. The input signals come from a power switch for turning the controller on/off, three push buttons for setting the brewing time, and two other push buttons for controlling initial/extra brewing time setting and start/stop time control. The corresponding outputs include a power LED for indicating whether the controller is working or nonworking, a buzzer for reminding the completion of timing, and three 7-segment displays for showing the remaining time. Conclusively, the proposed microcontroller-based tea brewing service device can remind users remembering pour the water out timely, allow users to reset brewing time based on personal favorite tastes, and allow users to make the second or third rounds of tea infusion time for each individual setting. Therefore, the tea taste quality can be guaranteed.

[Sung-Tsun Shih, Chin-Ming Hsu, Chian-Yi Chao. A Tea Brewing Service Device with the Added Value of Increasing Tea Drinking Quality in Our Leisure Life.  Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):923-928] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Leisure life quality, loose leaf tea, infusion, timing controller, and microcontroller

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Prevalence and Factors Associated with Aggression among Preschool Age Children at Baraem Bader Nursery School in Al-Asher 10th of Ramadan city, Egypt

 

Fatma M. Amin1 ; Sahar G. Behalik2 and Wafaa H. El Soreety3.

 

         1Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, 2Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, 3Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University. behilak_s@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Childhood aggression is a major public health problems leading to children at a significant risk for continued behavior problems and other social and emotional challenges throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to study the prevalence and factors associated with aggression in preschool age children. Baraem Bader nursery school of Al-Asher 10th of Ramadan city was chosen as the study setting. The study sample compromised 50 preschool age children from both sex. The validated observational checklist sheet which is designated to detect developing behavior problems of the preschool age children was used to collect required data. The study confirms that the prevalence of preschool age aggression were 68% who occasionally suffering from aggression and 32 % who always suffering from aggression. The associated factors of aggression are increased with age category, male, and first birth child, also they tend to be from mothers who are working and less than university education. The study recommended that professional nurse play a critical role in partnering with parents, educators, school psychologist for early identification, prevention and intervention of aggression in preschool age children, which are essential in the prevention of serious and costly problems in later childhood.

[Fatma M. Amin; Sahar G. Behalik and Wafaa H. El Soreety. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Aggression among Preschool Age Children at Baraem Bader Nursery School in Al-Asher 10th of Ramadan city, Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(4):929-938] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

                                      

Key words: prevalence, aggression, aggressive behavior, preschool and risk factors

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Effect of Dopamine Antagonist (Resperdal)® on Ovarian Activity of Egyptian Baladi Goats Out-Off Breeding Season

 

Sabra, H. A  and  Hassan, S. G

 

Department of Animal Reproduction & A.I, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

Sabra_hussein@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation aimed to treat the female goats out – off breeding season by means of one of dopamine antagonist preparation which block dopamine receptors in the reproductive system. Two groups of mature non cyclic Baladi does (experimental and control) fed and managed under the natural Egyptian environmental conditions were used at the end of the breeding season. The experimental animals were treated orally by 16 mg. dopamine receptor antagonist drug (Resperdal)® / doe divided into two doses with three days interval. The estrous signs and ovarian activity were investigated by ultra- sonography and the results were confirmed by blood plasma progesterone assay. The results indicated more number of does showing estrus signs and improvement in the ovarian activity as well as blood plasma progesterone in experimental animals than in control ones. It was concluded that administration of dopamine receptor antagonist (Resperdal)® can be used for treating more than 50% of does out – off breeding season which reflect positively on the kidding crop.

[Sabra, H. A and Hassan, S. G. Effect of Dopamine Antagonist (Resperdal) ® on Ovarian Activity of Egyptian Baladi Goats Out-Off Breeding Season. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):939-942] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

    

Key words:  (Resperdal)®;  ovarian activity; goats; dopamine antagonist

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Measurement of Monocyte CD86 Expression as Prognostic markers of Post Inflammatory Immunodeficiency in Critically Ill Patients

 

F. Ragab, M. Khaled, A. Mahmoud Kamel*, A. Abd El Bary, M.Abd El Monem

 

Critical Care Department, *National Cancer Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt mkhicu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Post inflammatory immunodeficiency frequently becomes life threatening since patients are predisposed to nosocomial infection. MHC-II molecules are essential for the activation of CD4+ cells and therefore for the initiation of any adaptive immune response and enhancement of the innate immunity. Aim Of The Work: The aim of this work is to study the prognostic effect of the level of monocyte CD86 expression as an indicative of post inflammatory immunodeficiency states in critically ill patients. Also to study the relation of the level of monocyte CD86 to patient outcome. Study Design: This is a prospective non randomized control trial conducted in Critical Care Department, Faculty of medicine Cairo University, Egypt. Inclusion criteria: Twenty critically ill patients who were admitted to critical care department. Exclusion criteria was age more than 80 years, Age less than 18 years, Disseminated malignancy and Co-morbid severe organ dysfunction. All patients subjected to:1. History taken, 2. Complete detailed clinical examination, 3. vital signs 4. Complete blood count (CBC), Liver profile, Coagulation profile & Daily arterial blood gases. 5. Measurement of monocyte expressive co-stimulatory factor CD86 using systematic flow cytometry analysis technique starting from day 1 to day 4. Results: Out of the twenty patients 7 survivors and 13 non survivors. Age of the survivor group ranged from 30-60 years, non survivors age ranged from 35 to 70 years. Five out of 14 males (35.7%) were survivors as compared to 2/6 females (33.3%). There were statistically significant difference between both groups as regards higher mean of arterial blood pressure and central venous pressure in survivors, and a highly significant difference was encountered as regard higher hear rate, temperature and respiratory rate in non survivors. A highly statistically significant difference was encountered also as regards total leucocytic count, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum creatinine, prothrombin time and international normalized ratio which was higher in non survivors (P<0.001). Of the 7 surviving patients, only 30% showed positive blood culture; while in non survivors 70% of pts showed positive blood C/S and there was no statistically significant difference (P: 0.089). Positive sputum culture was encountered in 43% of the 7 surviving patients, and it was +ve in 70% of non survivors with borderline significance statistically (P: 0.05). In day 1 CD86 monocytes expression by mean fluorescent ratio showed statistically significant higher level in non survivors, in day 2 there were no statistically significant difference. In day 3 CD86 monocytes expression was higher in survivors and in day 4 both CD86 were statistically significant higher in the survivor group. Survivors vs non survivors mean fluorescent (4+2 vs 7+2.5) (4+2.4 vs 5+2.2, 6.3+2.1 vs 4.2+1.5 & 7+2.5 vs 3.5+1.6) with P value 0.01, 0.4, 0.0 & 0.001 respectively).  The trend of CD86 expression change over the 4 days is presented as CD86 mean showed an increasing pattern in survivors. Conclusion: Semiquantitative measurement of CD86 level expressed by mean fluorescent ratio is a good and valid prognostic test of mortality in post inflammatory immuno deficiency patients.

[F. Ragab, M. Khaled, A. Mahmoud Kamel, A. Abd El Bary, M.Abd El Monem. Measurement of Monocyte CD86 Expression as Prognostic markers of Post Inflammatory Immunodeficiency in Critically Ill Patients. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):943-950] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.  121

 

Key words: Monocyte CD86, Nosocomial infection, MHC-II molecules

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The Potential Pharmacological and Histological Benefits of Carvedilol on the Hippocampal Post- Stroke Seizures in Rats

 

Omnyah Ali El-Kharashi*1 and Abeer A. Abd El Samad2

 

Departments of Pharmacology1 and Histology2, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. omnyah2011@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Stroke is the most common cause of seizures in the elderly, and seizures are among the most common neurologic sequel of stroke. About 10% of all stroke patients experience seizures, from stroke onset until several years later. We have investigated in the current study the possible protective effects of carvedilol versus the use of carvedilol immediately post stroke in a global cerebral ischemic model in rats. Twenty six male Wistar albino rats were divided into normal control (n=6), ischemic vehicle treated group n= (8) with neck tourniquet for 7.5 minutes and preinjected with phentolamine (0.5 mg/rat), group received daily injections with carvedilol (3mg/kg) for four days before induction of ischemia and group treated with carvedilol single injection (3mg/kg) immediately after induction of ischemia. Our results demonstrated that carvedilol either  pre or post  treatment significantly decreased the duration and the severity of seizures and consequently the mortality of the rat. Histological examination showed that pyramidal cells had features of cell degeneration and there was significant increase in the immunohistochemical reactions for GFAP, caspase-3 and TNF- α in ischemic group. Whereas, the pre-treated group showed protection of the pyramidal cells with significant decrease in the immunoreactions, the post-treated group showed less improvement in signs and immunoreactions than that of the pre-treated group. Therefore, it is regarded that the use of carvedilol has a neuroprotective beneficial effect over the use of carvedilol just after ischemia. Weather the repeated injections with carvedilol after stroke for a given duration will give a more neurotherapeutic effect or not, this is for further evaluation.

[Omnyah Ali El-Kharashi and Abeer A. Abd El Samad. The Potential Pharmacological and Histological Benefits of Carvedilol on the Hippocampal Post- Stroke Seizures in Rats. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(4):951-960] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 122

 

Keywords: carvedilol, cerebral ischemia, seizures, TNF-α, GFAP, caspase

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Three dimensional assessment of a newly designed distalizer (Bidirectional Distalizer)

 

Wael M Refai* & Ahmed H El Sherbini**

 

* Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, Egypt

** Orthodontic Department, Dentistry Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

w_refai_67@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The study was designed to three dimensionally assess the effects of a newly designed distalizer: bidirectional distalizer. Method: Ten patients suffering from Class II molars were included.  Force was applied from the buccal and palatal sides. Cone beam CTs were taken before and after distalization. The cone beam images were then transferred to Mimics Dicom 10.01. The pre and post distalization images were superimposed and the difference was calculated. Depending on three reference planes, each cusp and root of the distalized molar was three dimensionally assessed. In addition, the loss of anchorage in the anterior region was inspected. Moreover, the plane in which most movement took place was detected by taking the centre of the crown and centre of the triangle connecting the three roots as references. Results: The crowns moved distally, laterally and occlusally while the roots moved distally, medially and occlusally. Anteroposterior movement was almost triple rotation and four times intrusion. Mesio-buccal cusp moved laterally. Disto-buccal cusp showed maximum antero-posterior movement. Maximum extrusion and intrusion were presented in Mesio-buccal and Mesio-palatal cusps respectively. Lateral movement was equal among Mesio-buccal & Palatal roots. Palatal root extruded. Maximum antero-posterior movement was found in disto-buccal root. Mean distal molar tipping was 1.68°.   Protrusion of anterior incisors in relation to SN plane indicated loss of anterior anchorage.  Conclusion: Bidirectional distalizer proved to be effective in molar distalization

[Wael M Refai and Ahmed H El Sherbini. Three dimensional assessment of a newly designed distalizer (Bidirectional Distalizer). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(4):961-969] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 123

 

Keyword: Distalization, three dimensional analysis, Cone beam.

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Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Adrenal Cortical Tumors in Egyptian patients

 

1Samia, M. Sanad, 2Mahmoud, A. El-Baz, 3Omar, I. Ghonemy and Hassan, 4F. Abo El-Nazar

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt

4Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt

egypt_sbes@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The presnet study provides guidelines for the diagnosis of adrenal cortical tumors in Egyptian patients. This retrospective study included 40 patients of adrenal cortical tumors (28 adenoma and 12 carcinoma). They were admitted to Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center between 1985-2002. All patients were surgically treated by adrenalectomy. Patients with adenoma were followed for a period ranging from 24-67 months. Clinical and laboratory improvement of adenoma was observed. Nine patients of carcinoma died of distant metastasis after 8 months and the other 3 patients were still alive 24 months after surgery. Hyaline globules which are PAS positive were detected in adrenal cortical adenoma and carcinoma and both types were positive for reticulin stain. Immunohistochemically; cytokeratin was expressed in 22/28 cases of adenoma and all cases 12/12 of carcinoma. Vimentin was expressed in 20/23 cases of adenoma and 8/12 cases of carcinoma. The present study concluded that: (1)- Reticulin staining is useful for the diagnostic differentiation of adrenal cortical carcinoma from adrenal cortical adenoma. (2)- The expression of cytokeratin and vimentin is helpful in diagnosis, but the histopathological examination of paraffin sections remains the basic method. (3)- No significant correlation between immunohistochemical pattern of adrenocortical tumors and survival was observed.

[Samia, M. Sanad, Mahmoud, A. El-Baz, Omar, I. Ghonemy and Hassan, F. Abo El-Nazar. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Adrenal Cortical Tumors in Egypt. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):970-978]. (ISSN:  1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 124

 

Key words: Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry, Adrenal cortical tumors,    Cytokeratin, Vimentin

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Expression of p27kip and XIAP in patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma

 

Maaly M Mabrouk1,Enaam Salah1, Medhat A Ghazy2, Dina H. Ziada3, Hassan El Batae 3, Ghannam Amr and 4 Abd Elfattah Omnia*4

 

Departments of Clinical Pathology1, Internal Medicine2, Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease3 and Clinical Oncology Department4, Faculty of Medicine -Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*omniaabdelfattah@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Introduction:  The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) being a major health problem. Functional alterations of cell cycle regulators (e.g. p27kip) can be observed in HCC as it considered being potent tumor suppressors.  Dysregulation of the balance between proliferation and cell death represents a pro-tumorigenic principle in human hepatocarcinogenesis. X-linked of apoptotic inhibitors (XIAP) is a regulator of apoptosis, cytokinesis and signal transduction. The aim was to evaluate the expression of p27kip and XIAP in HCC and their clinico-pathological significance.   Subjects & Methods: The study was carried on forty patients with newly diagnosed HCC and 10 controls matched for age. Liver function tests, Serum alpha-feto protein, serologic markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasonography, triphasic computer tomography abdomen, liver biopsy and real-time PCR expression of p27kip and XIAP were done for all cases of the study. Result: There was a significant change in expression of p27kip or XIAP in HCC patients either by decrease (p27kip) or increase (XIAP) as compared to the controls (p<0.05). The decreased expression of p27kip or increased XIAP expression were associated with decrease of overall survival, increased incidence of recurrence and associated with more unfavorable prognosis.   Conclusion: p27Overexpression may expect good prognosis while overexpression of XIAP suggests poor prognosis for HCC patients and they can be used as an independent prognostic factors for predicting disease-free and overall survival rates of these patients.

[Maaly M Mabrouk,Enaam Salah, Medhat A Ghazy, Dina H. Ziada, Hassan El Batae, Ghannam Amr and Abd Elfattah omnia. Expression of p27kip and XIAP in patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma. Life Science Journal, 2011;8(4):979-986] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 125

 

Keywords: Carcinoma; Hepatocellular; p27kip; XIAP; Prognosis

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DNA Image Cytometry of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

 

Samia, M. Sanad1, Amal, M. Mangoud2, Amr A. Shalaby1 and Mahmoud S. Abd El-Wahed2

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

egypt_sbes@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present investigation forty three (11 HCC, 12 cirrhosis and 20 chronic hepatitis) cases were chosen from the paraffin blocks and unstained slides of fine needle aspirates biopsies which were preserved in the archive of the Early Cancer Detection Unit (ECDU) belonging to the Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. All the cases were previously diagnosed and proved by PCR to have HCV. 50 mm thick paraffin sections and fine needle aspirates smears were prepared for evaluating DNA ploidy and S- phase fraction (SPF) by DNA image analysis. The results indicated that, the hepatocyts of chronic hepatitis C cases have a regular multiplicity of normal diploid DNA (Euploid polyploidization). All of the studied HCCs cases and only one cirrhotic case revealed aneuploidy. It was concluded that, patients infected with chronic HCV are predominantly affected by HCC and the DNA image analysis techniques can be considered as early predictors of cellular abnormality and different malignant criteria, which can lead to early and well diagnosis as well as rapid manipulation of the patients.

[Samia, M. Sanad, Amal, M. Mangoud, Amr A. Shalaby and Mahmoud S. Abd El-Wahed zar. DNA Image Cytometry of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Life Science Journal 2011;8(4):987-995]. (ISSN:  1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 126

 

Keywords: DNA image cytometry, Liver, Hepatitis C virus, Hepatocellular carcinoma. Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

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Contributing Factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia among Children under Two Years Attending Family Health Centers in Alexandria.

 

Amina Ahmed Mohamed and Ahmed samir abo-donia

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of nursing, Alexandria University

Department of Home Economics, Faculty of Agriculture- El-Shatby, Alexandria University

 

Abstract: Iron deficiency is one of the biggest contributing factors to the global burden of anemia. It is an indicator of both poor nutrition and poor health. Iron deficiency is considered as one of the ten leading global risk factors in terms of its attributable disease burden. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the contributing factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under 2 years attending family health centers in Alex. Exploratory descriptive study design was adopted to carry out this study. The study was conducted at four family health centers in Alexandria chosen randomly from seven zones .Total sample was 400 healthy children aged 12 to 24 months and their mothers. Two tools were developed and used by the researcher in order to collect the necessary data. The findings of the present study revealed that, the prevalence of anemia was 77% among children under 2 years. Minimum to maximum age was 12-21months for not anemic infants with a mean age of 15.3±3.1 and 12-24 months for anemic infants with a mean of 17±2.6. male infants constitute more than half (54.3%) not anemic and 50.3% anemic infants, while, female infants constitute 45.7% of not anemic infants, and 49.7% of anemic infants. Statistically significant differences was found between two groups regarding level of father & mother education ,residence, weight ,height ,hemoglobin% of children and intake of iron. About 50% of not anemic mothers’ practices regarding weaning practices were scored as good (correct) practices (which means correct time &types of food) compared to only11.7% of anemic mothers’ practices. The study concluded that the socio economic factors, faulty weaning and feeding practices are the main contributing factors of anemia among children under 2 years. It is recommended that all efforts should be directed to promote nutrition well-being of young children. As the nutritional well of young children reflects household, community, and national investments in family health and contributes in both direct and indirect ways to the country’s development.

[Amina Ahmed Mohamed and Ahmed samir abo-donia. Contributing Factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia among Children under Two Years Attending Family Health Centers in Alexandria. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):996-1007]. (ISSN:  1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 127

 

Key Words: contributing, factors, Iron, deficiency, anemia / children

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Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Liver  of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

 

Samia, M. Sanad1, Amal, M. Mangoud2, Amr A. Shalaby1 and Mahmoud S. Abd El-Wahed2

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

egypt_sbes@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, seventy five cases which has been previously proved to have HCV by PCR and preserved in the Early Cancer Detection Unit (ECDU) archive belonging to the Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University, Egypt were submitted for this work. Routine Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain for histopathological and cytopathological studies, histochemical (Collagen and Reticulin) stains, immunohistochemical stains (AFP & CEA) were applied to predict and evaluate the role of HCV in liver cirrhosis and development to HCC. Normal architecture was still preserved in most of the chronic hepatitis cases while it was partially lost in few cases. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and all of the cirrhotic cases completely lost their normal architecture. Liver fibrosis was absent in some of chronic HCV cases and it was observed in severely infected cases.  On the other hand, the malignant criteria of HCC appeared in three types, well differentiated HCC, moderately differentiated HCC and poorly differentiated HCC. Immunohistochemical investigations played a good role in evaluating malignant changes of the studied cases, particularly AFP, although absence of AFP sometimes does not exclude the diagnosis of HCC, meaning, that HCC may not produce AFP. We noticed also that, CEA staining is somewhat similar to AFP in that, there was a high significant correlation between the different histopathological changes and the intensity of reaction, while no correlation could be proved between the tumor grades of  HCC and the intensity of CEA staining.

[Samia, M. Sanad, Amal, M. Mangoud, Amr A. Shalaby and Mahmoud S. Abd El-Wahed. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Liver  of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Life Science Journal 2011;8(4):1008-1025]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 128

 

Key words: Histopathological, Immunohistochemical, Liver, Chronic Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Egyptian patients, Sharkia Governorate.

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Sequential Ultrastructural Investigation of Pulp Tissue Responses to Rabbit`S Teeth Bleaching

 

Heba Ahmed Adawy1, Mohamed Mohamed Fekry Khedr2 and Mohamed Gomaa  Attia-Zouair3

 

 1Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Oral Medicine, Periodontology, X-Ray and Diagnosis, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Oral and Dental Pathology, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

hebaadawy@yahoo.com;   hebaadawy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Teeth bleaching have been documented for teeth whitening by oxidizing agent are associated with morphological alterations of the enamel surface. To investigate the sequential changes of the pulp tissue structures, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), after enamel bleaching utilizing light enhanced bleaching, this study was performed.  Rabbit’s teeth were randomly divided into six groups (Gs) as follows: control group (G1) was received no treatment, while test groups included (G2: 24 hours following treatment, G3: one week following treatment, G4: two weeks following treatment, G5: one month following treatment, and G6: two months following treatment). After termination of each period, the rabbits were sacrificed, the teeth were carefully dissected and removed. Each tooth was split open with chisel and hammer and the pulp was removed with a sharp excavator, and prepared for TEM investigation. The results revealed that bleaching effects on pulp tissue elements were of various degrees cellular alterations. The observed pattern of tissue changes fell into four phases: a) mild to moderate pulp tissue injuries may be produced as an early response of teeth bleaching, b) development of localized regions of severe cellular injuries and/or necrosis, c) regression in the signs of degeneration accompanied initial recovery of cellular elements of pulp tissue, and d) complete recovery and reassuming of various tissue elements of the pulp.

[Heba Ahmed Adawy, Mohamed Mohamed Fekry Khedr and Mohamed Gomaa Attia-Zouair. Sequential ultrastructural investigation of pulp tissue responses to rabbit`s teeth bleaching. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1026­1033]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 129

 

Key Words:  bleaching, pulp, TEM, ultrastructural

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Genetic Diversity among Five Egyptian Non-Poisonous Snakes Using Protein and Isoenzymes Electrophoresis

 

Nadia H. M. Sayed

 

Zoology Dept., College for Women for Science, Arts and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. dr1nadiah@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present work is an attempt to discover the genetic diversity among five Egyptian non-poisonous snakes; Psammophis sibilans sibilans, Psammophis schokari aegyptius, Spalerosophis diadema, Lytorhynchus diadema and Coluber rhodorachis by using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis for two water soluble isoenzymes as well as protein of liver samples. Obtained results revealed that, protein samples showed a total of 21 bands with molecular weight ranged from 250-18 kDa. 12 common bands were recorded in all species. Also, the genetic similarity is 83.8% among all species.  The Spalerosophis diadema is closer to the Coluber rhodorachis (90%) than to Lytorhynchus diadema (89%) while the highest similarity is present between Lytorhynchus diadema and Coluber rhodorachis (92%). Moreover, there is a high similarity between Psammophis sibilans sibilans and Psammophis schokari aegyptius (91%).  The two isoenzymes; α-esterase (Est) and peroxidase (Px) yielded 9 heterogeneous alleles arranged in six loci. The genetic similarity is 27.2% between all species. The high similarity observed between Spalerosophis diadema and Coluber rhodorachis (67%) than between Spalerosophis diadema and Lytorhynchus diadema (50%) and the similarity between Lytorhynchus diadema and Coluber rhodorachis is 50%. It is concluded that, the Species in the same subfamily have high similarity coefficient. The phylogenetic  tree showed that, the Psammophis species are grouped in one cluster and the other colubrid species are grouped in other cluster.

 [Nadia H. M. Sayed. Genetic Diversity among Five Egyptian Non-Poisonous Snakes Using Protein and Isoenzymes Electrophoresis] Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1034-1042]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 130

 

Keywords: Egyptian snakes; Serpents; SDS-protein; Isoenzymes; SDS-Page; Electrophoresis

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Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Adrenal Medullary Tumors in Egyptian Patients

 

Samia, M. Sanad1, Mahmoud, A. El-Baz2, Omar, I. Ghonemy3 and Hassan, F. Abo El-Nazar4

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt

4Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt

egypt_sbes@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The presemt study provies guide lines for the diagnosis of adrenal medullary tumors in Egyptian patients.This retrospective study included, 73 cases of adrenal medullary tumors (39 pheochromocytoma, 13 neuroblastoma, 12 ganglioneuroblastoma and 9 ganglioneuroma) admitted to Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Egypt. All tumors were studied histologically and immunohistochemically. In pheochromocytomas, 33 patients became normal after 24 hours, the other 6 died from distant metastases. 6 patients with neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma were still living after adrenalectomy, while the other 19 patients received chemotherapy and were non-living after 24 months. Nine patients with ganglioneuroma were still living after adrenalectomy. All prepared slides were stained with periodic-acid Schiff reaction (PAS) and reticulin stains. Hyaline globules which were (PAS) positive were pheochromocytomas, while, they were not detected in neuroblastoma groups. All tumors were positive for reticulin stain.  All cases of adrenal medulalry tumors were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against chromogranin A, S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase. Chromogranin A was expressed in all cases (39/39) pheochromocytoma, 5/13 neuroblastoma, 7/12 ganglioneuroblastoma and 7/9 ganglioneuroma. S-100 protein was expressed in 32/39 pheochromocytoma, 9/13 neuroblastomas, and all cases of ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma. Neuron-specific enolase was expressed in all cases of pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma. The neuroendocrine tumors were stained with high specificity and sensetivity for the neuroendocrine markers; chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase. Histomorphological features of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas may be similar. Neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase) are useful in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Frequency of S-100 protein positive sustentacular cells is high in benign pheochromocytomas and low in malignant pheochromocytoma.(our results suggest that, S-100 immunostaining is a useful marker to predict malignant behavior in pheochromocytoma. Intensity of neuron-specific enolase may be similar in both benign and malignant pheochromocytoma). No significant correlation was observed between expression of chromogranin A and    neuron-specific enolase in pheochromocytoma and survival. The features of histopathological changes are the most important basis to make diagnosis for neuroblastomas group. Immunohistochemical staining can verify it further and play an     important role in its differential diagnosis.

[Samia, M. Sanad, Mahmoud, A. El-Baz, Omar, I. Ghonemy and Hassan, F. Abo El-Nazar.  Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies on the Adrenal Medullary Tumors in Egyptian Patients. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1043-1057]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.131

 

Keywords: Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry, Adrenal medullary tumors, Chromogranin A, Neuron specific enolase, S-100 protein

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Genes Reprogramming During ATRA-induced Differentiation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells

 

Yiwu Sun, Kafeel I Muhammad, Neal Hakimi

 

Department of Medicine, Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA

yiwu_sun@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The therapeutic and preventive activities of retinoids in cancer are due to their ability to modulate the growth, differentiation, and survival or apoptosis of cancer cell. An acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line AP-1060 presents an abrupt response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) which depends on its mutant PML/RARα. Microarray analysis of 9265 sequences demonstrated a complex cascade of reprogramming of AP1060 upon treatment with ATRA characterized by the differential expression of gene sets between induced (100nM ATRA) and sub-induced (10nM ATRA) cells. Among 1550 modulated genes by ATRA, 47% shown differential expression. A number of the small G-protein family was extensively involved in this reprogramming. The early up-regulated IL1 and down-regulated its angonistor may initiate the apoptosis pathway mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Seven in absentia (Drosphila) homologies (SIAH-1, 2, and 3) considered as the inducers of apoptosis were repressed. Thus, a balanced functional network seem emerge and contribute to ATRA inducing differentiation based on the uniquely biologic and molecular characters of AP1060.

[Yiwu Sun, Kafeel I Muhammad, Neal Hakimi. Genes Reprogramming During ATRA-induced Differentiation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells. Life Science Journal 2011;8(4):1058-1067]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 132

 

Keywords: Acute promyelocytic leukemia; Retinoic acid; Induced differentiation

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Early Clinical and Echocardiographic Effects of Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

 

Mohamed Amin, Rania El Hosieny, Dalia Ragab and Ashraf Wadie

 

Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University

raniaelhoseiny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Early effect of elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is important in clinical practice. Knowledge of different variables for suboptimal effects of PCI may help to refine indications of and to guide strategies aimed at improving outcome. Objectives. To detect the early effects of elective PCI on different clinical and echocardiographic variables in the studied group and in different patient subgroups. Methods. Twenty-four patients with established coronary artery disease who are candidates for elective PCI of one or more of coronary vessels were enrolled in the study after exclusion of pts with acute MI and any contraindication for coronary angiography.  After obtaining complete history and full clinical examination; every pt was subjected to clinical assessment using Minnesota questionnaire & Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina Classification (CCSAC), transthorasic echocardiographic examination with measuring of the following: Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (LVEDV & LVEDV) with calculation of LV ejection fraction (LVEF), 17 segment model scoring system, wall motion score index (WMSI) & Myocardial performance index (MPI). Elective coronary angiography was performed with implantation of one or more stents. Clinical assessement and echocardiographic parameters were reevaluated 1 month post PCI. Analysis of data was done in the studied population & in pts subgroups according to risk factors, medications type, lesion classifications, type of revascularization, stent type and number of vessel affected. Results. 24 pts; 17 males & 7 females with mean age 55.7±9.3 years were studied at the Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University. The commonest risk factors were hypertension, and obesity each in 54.2%, followed by Diabetes Mellitus and family history of CAD each in 41.7%, smoking in 37.5%, and finally dyslipidemia in 33.3%. Both CCSAC and Minnesota questionnaire significantly improved after PCI. Mean LVEDV was 117±26.9 at baseline and 110.9±26.3 after 1 month, mean LVESV was 58.8±22 and 53.1±21.2 at follow up and mean LVEF was 50.9±8.1% and 53.1±7.5 after 1 month, all with significant p value. The Minnesota Score, LVEF, LVESV & MPI significantly improved in pts with impaired baseline LVEF than those with normal LVEF. 408 segments were analysed, 84 segments showed RWMA in the form hypokinesia in 18%, and akinesia in 3%. Analysis of the affected segments revealed hypokinesia in 86.9% and akinesia in 13.1%. At follow up 33 segments (39.3%) showed improvement in the RWMS. According to different risk factors, the presence of HTN, absence of DM, & the absence of dyslipidemia were in favor with more improvement in the LV volumes and EF. None of the other risk factors showed significant effect before & after PCI.  According to the type of medications, the use of β-Blockers (βB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or the absence of Ca Channel Blockers (CCB) was in favor of significant improvement in the Minnesota score, LV volumes and function, and regional LV function. According to angiographic criteria; pts with type A lesion (38%) showed improvement in Minnesota score, EF, ESV, MPI, and RWMSI than type B (33%) or C (29%). All patients showed clinical improvement by CCSAC whatever the lesion type. Pts with single vessel disease (58%) showed significant improvement in Minnesota score, EF, EDV, ESV, and MPI than those with 2 or more vessel affection. Pts who underwent total revascularization (62.5%) showed significant improvement in Minnesota score, EF, EDV, ESV, and MPI than those with subtotal revascularization (37.5%). Patients using Bare Metal Stents (75%) showed significant improvement in Minnesota Score, EF, EDV, ESV, MPI, and RWMSI than those using Drug Eluting Stents (25%). Conclusion. Early clinical & echocardiographic improvements after elective PCI. Absence of DM or dyslipidemia or the use of βB or ACEIs was in favor of better PCI effect.  Complex lesion and higher number of affected vessels showed less improvement after elective PCI.

[Mohamed Amin, Rania El Hosieny, Dalia Ragab and Ashraf Wadie. Early Clinical and Echocardiographic Effects of Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1068-1077]. (ISSN:  1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 133

 

Key words: Elective PCI, early, clinical effect, echocardiography

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Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase and Cardiovascular Morbidity among Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

 

Emam Waked1, Faten El Shanawani 2, Manar Raafat, Amna Metwally3, Ashraf Abdel- Khalek3 , Mona Hassan 2 and Hoda Abu taleb4

 

Nephrology1, Clinical chemistry2, Intensive care3 and Environment research4, Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Vascular calcification is common in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and significantly correlated to the high cardiovascular death risk. In advanced CKD, stages 3 through 5, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), along with renal osteodystrophy, are common and may be associated with abnormal mineral metabolism and / or abnormal serum or tissue mineral levels, vascular calcification, and poor survival, especially among those who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a biochemical marker of bone turnover and is used to monitor metabolic bone disease associated with renal insufficiency. Higher levels of serum ALP were associated with vascular calcification in maitenance hemodialysis patients MHD. Bone-specific ALP (bALP) is a byproduct of osteoblasts and is a more specific measure of bone formation as well as bone turnover and is increased in MHD patients, probably as a result of high turnover bone disease. Atherosclerosis, in addition to being a disease of lipid accumulation, also represents a chronic inflammatory process. Inflammatory markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) may provide an adjunctive method for global assessment of cardiovascular risk. Objectives of this work: (1) Estimate the clinical utility of serum biomarkers of bone metabolism like ALP, bALP, intact parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus as potential markers and indicators in diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy in MHD patients aiming to improve their clinical outcomes. (2) Evaluate the association between renal osteodystrophy and progression of vascular calcification detected by echocardiography and carotid Duplex in MHD patients. (3) Testing the role of CRP and hsCRP in mediating the increased cardiovascular risk in MHD patients. Patients and methods: Seventy MHD patients and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All patients and controls were subjected to echocardiography, carotid duplex and predialysis blood sampling for estimation of routine blood chemistry (Calcium, Phosphorus, urea, creatinine, glucose, albumin, ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDLc), intact parathormone (iPTH) and hsCRP. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) was also measured. Results: Plasma levels of ALP, bALP, iPTH, CRP, hs-CRP, urea, creatinine, glucose, phosphorus, were significantly higher in MHD group compared to control group. Statistical analysis revealed highly significance statistical difference in EDD, ESD, EF, IVS, PWT, IMT in MHD group compared to the control group. Mitral valve and aortic valve calcification was found in 27.4%, 71.4% respectively in hemodialyzed patients. b-ALP sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the test at a cut off > 10 IU/L were found to be 89%, 67% and 79% respectively. Conclusion: Plasma bALP can be measured with a reliable immunoassay in hemodialysis patients represents a highly sensitive and specific biochemical marker of skeletal remodeling in these patients, even better when associated with plasma iPTH levels. Abnormal mineral metabolism and inflammation are pivotal factors for the increased cardiovascular risk in CKD patients.

[Emam Waked, Faten El Shanawani, Manar Raafat, Amna Metwally, Ashraf Abdel- Khalek, Mona Hassan and Hoda Abu taleb. Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase and Cardiovascular Morbidity among Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis. Life Science Journal 2011;8(4):1078-1087]. (ISSN:  1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 134

 

Keywords: Bone; Alkaline Phosphatase; Cardiovascular; Morbidity; Patients; Hemodialysis

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Liver Transplantation: An Experience in Post-Operative Follow Up Of 80 Patients

 

Zeinab Kamar1, Medhat El-Sahhar2, Hala Agena3, Nehal A Radwan1, and Charles Nelson4

 

1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Consultant of  Hepatology & Gastroenterology, Police Hospital, Agouza, Giza, Egypt.

3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt.

4Department of Hepatology, St. James Hospital, Leeds University, UK.

zeinab_kamar@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:  Background:  Orthotopic liver  transplantation (OLT) is regarded as the only choice  for treatment of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) and  liver failure. Outcome for those patients is much better after liver transplantation resulting in reasonably good quality of life, provided complications are detected and treated promptly. Evaluation of needle liver graft  biopsies and extensive clinicopathological correlation play an important role in the determination of liver allograft dysfunction after transplantation. Objective: To evaluate possible post-transplant outcome of patients underwent OLT. Methods: We analyzed 80 patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) over a 10–year period in a cohort and observational study. The study was performed from June 2000 to June 2010  and  included 75 men and 5 women.  Results: Among all patients; origin of cirrhosis was post-viral in 76 patients, brimary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in 2 cases, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in one case and cryptogenic cirrhosis in another case. The cases of post-viral cirrhosis were all of viral C etiology with 20 cases associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and 2 associated with hepatitis B viral infection. The patients are followed up for at least 18 months after enrolling in the study. They all had routine tests at the start of the study used as baseline for each patient. These tests are repeated according to the requirements of the individual patient. All patients had Tacrolimus (FK 506) as an immunosuppressive agent. Patients with hepatitis B viral infection had hepatitis B immunoglobulin, along with Lamivudine for relapse prophylaxis.  Out of 80 patients, postoperative liver biopsy was performed, at least once, for 73 patients. The results of the biopsies revealed that recurrent HCV was detected in 46 (63.01%) cases, acute rejection in 14 (19.18%) cases, chronic rejection in 4 (5.48%) cases, cirrhosis  in 2 (2.74%) cases, fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in  2 (2.74%) cases, chronic active hepatitis with cholangitis and bile duct obstruction in 2 (2.74%) cases, recurrent primary biliary cirrhosis in 2 (2.74%) cases and one case (1.37%) with  acquired schistosoma japonicum. A total of 24 (30%) patients died during follow up. Conclusion: The results of liver graft  biopsies revealed that recurrent HCV is the prominent cause of organ dysfunction. Meanwhile; organ rejection was less frequently encountered. The complications of liver transplantation can be controlled and managed if diagnosed promptly and treated early.

[Zeinab Kamar, Medhat El-Sahhar, Hala Agena, Nehal A.Radwan and Charles Nelson. Liver Transplantation: An Experience in Post-Operative Follow Up Of 80 Patients. Life Science Journal 2011;8(4):1088-1096]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 135

 

Keywords: Orthotopic liver transplantation, Post operative follow up, Experience.

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Assessment of Liver Fibrosis in Hcv Infection in Egyptian Patients

 

Samia, M. Sanad1, Amal, M. Mangoud2, Ahmed A. Hendawy1 and Gaber E. Saadon2

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of  Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

egypt_sbes@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: One trial to replace liver biopsy with a simple blood test(s) (whose levels can reflect the severity of liver disease) is the aim of this work. The present investigation was carried out on 72 cases (62 fibrotics and 10 hepatocellular carcinomas; HCCs) who referred to the Early Cancer Detection Unit belonging to the Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt for liver biopsy assessment. Their sera were tested for liver enzymes (alanine aminotrasferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and AST/ALT ratio), HCV viraemia and type, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP).  The relationships between the values of these serum tests and the stages of liver fibrosis or the presence of HCC were studied in this work. The results indicated that, the serum ALT level at 60 U/L was indicative of significant fibrosis in 81%. Serum AST level at 130 U/L was indicative of significant fibrosis in 88%. However, the transaminases levels can’t differentiate, at any level between cancerous and non-cancerous lesions. The transaminases ratio (AST/ALT) at a cut off value 1.0 reflected significant fibrosis in 93% of patients but can’t differentiate between cancerous and non-cancerous lesions. Similarly, the serum level of MMP-9 was diagnostic at a level of 160 mg/dl or less for severe fibrosis in 87% of patients but not for HCC. On the other hand, the level of AFP at 1000 ng/ml or more was diagnostic for cancerous lesions in 90% of patients but cannot differentiate at any level between mild and significant fibrosis. Unfortunately, the HCV level of viraemia and type did not affect the severity of liver disease. The age of patient at the biopsy was found to correlate positively with liver disease. The significant fibrosis was found in 81% of patients aged 45 years or more. While, at a cut off value of 55 years, age at the biopsy was diagnostic for HCCs in 88% of patients with a specificity of 71%. On the other hand, the sex of the patient had no effect on severity of liver disease. In conclusion, there is no single blood test whose value can predict the severity of liver diseases in HCV infection with 100% accuracy, but the use of the above significant serum parameters together with age of the patient can help to exclude the need for liver biopsy in many patients, at least those with contraindications for liver biopsy or those refuting this investigation.

[Samia, M. Sanad, Amal, M. Mangoud, Ahmed A. Hendawy and Gaber E. Saadon. Assessment of Liver Fibrosis in Hcv Infection in Egyptian Patients. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1097-1117]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.136

 

Key words: HCV infection, Egyptian patients, Liver fibrosis, Histopathology, Serum markers.

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A Note on Characterization by Renewal Variable

 

Ali A. A- Rahman

 

Institute of Statistical Studies and Research, Cairo University

 

Abstract:  The concept of renewal variable associated with a non-negative random variable X is used to identify the distribution of X as well as its failure rate. Some illustrated examples are given.

[Ali A. A- Rahman. A Note on Characterization by Renewal Variable. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1118-1119]. (ISSN:  1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 137

 

Keywords: Characterization, Renewal process, Mean residual life, Failure rate, Exponential, Pareto and Pearsonian distributions.

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Assessmenmt of Some Cardiovascular and Biochemical Parameters Induced in Rats by Chronic Noise Stress

 

Samia M. Sanad1, Ali K. Asala2, Nabil A. Soliman3 and Rabab A. Balata1

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

egypt_sbes@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to assess some cardiovascular and biochemical parameters induced in rats by chronic noise stress. Moreover, changes produced in the histological architecture of the heart and aorta were also investigated. For this purpose, forty healthy adult male albino rats weighting 200±30 grams were used in the study. They were divided equally into two main groups; noise group (n=20) which was exposed to chronic white noise stress (100 dBA) 6 hours daily for 30 days and control group (n=20) which was kept away from any stress source and was hold in the same conditions. After 30 days, animals exposed to chronic noise stress exhibited significant increase in the heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure associated with a significant decrease in serum Mg++ levels. There was a strong significant negative correlation between reduction in serum Mg++ and elevation in mean arterial blood pressure. A significant elevation in serum levels of ACTH, corticosterone, and leptin was detected after exposure to noise stress. Moreover, the data obtained indicated that, under these conditions of chronic and high noise exposure levels, there was significant increases in the serum levels of TC, TGs,VLDL and LDL-C and  a significant decrease in the level of serum HDL-C. The histopathological examination of the heart tissue demonstrated that, exposure of rats to chronic noise stress has resulted in areas of hemorrhage inbetween the cardiac myocytes, necrosis and small areas of myocardial infarction. Microscopic examination of the aorta showed the presence of thickening of elastic fibers in the media with perivascular infiltration by acute inflammatory cells (neutrophils & eosinophils) and non-specific inflammatory cells.

[Samia M. Sanad, Ali K. Asala, Nabil A. Soliman and Rabab A. Balata. Assessmenmt of Some Cardiovascular and Biochemical Parameters Induced in Rats by Chronic Noise Stress. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1120-1141]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 138

 

Key words: Rats – Noise – Cardiovascular – Biochemical – Histopathological – Parameters.

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Effect of Bilateral Chronic Secretory Otitis media on Childhood Autistic Rating Score (CARS) Test.

 

*E. Ahmed, ** A. Azza, ***A. Youssri O. and ****S. Abdelrahim

 

*Phoniatric Unit, E.N.T, Department, Sohag University, Egypt

 **Audiology Unit, E.N.T, Department, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

   ***Department of Otolaryngology, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Egypt

 **** Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department,  Sohag University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of bilateral  chronic Secretory Otitis Media (S.O.M) on childhood autistic rating score in delayed language development children.: This study included 140 children having bilateral chronic secretory otitis  , autistic feature and Delayed language development (DLD) in addition to 40 normal hearing, autistic feature children with DLD as a control. All children under the study came to Phoniatrics clinic in the period between 2007 to 2010, complaining from delayed language development with autistic features. Children in this study were classified into 2 groups; control and study groups. The study group was subdivided into 3 subgroups according to their hearing threshold level. All children were subjected to Childhood Autistic Rating Score (CARS) and Psychometric evaluation. Obtained results revealed that Children who had high hearing threshold level, found to be had high score at CARS with as, there was increase in the severity of CARS scores  increasing hearing threshold level. In conclusion bilateral chronic Secretory Otitis Media  can affect the severity of CARS results together with its obligate  change borderline CARS score into autistic one.

[E. Ahmed, A. Azza, A. Youssri O. and S. Abdelrahim. Effect  of Bilateral Chronic Secretory Otitis media On Childhood Autistic Rating Score (CARS) Test.. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1142-1147]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 139

 

Keywords: childhood autistic rating score, chronic conductive hearing impairment, DLD, Autism. 

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Effect of Hypertonic Saline on Adequacy of Resuscitation, Progression of Inflammation and Outcome of Critically Ill Septic Patients.

 

Helmy Elgawaby1; Mohamed Shehata1; Sherif Sabri2 and Mohamed  Soliman1

 

1Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Bani Suef University, Egypt

dr_sabri@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Many studies discussed the use of hypertonic solutions (HTS) for treatment of septic shock; however, they do not refer to the possible prophylactic benefit of early use of such solutions (before development of severe sepsis or septic shock). Aim of the work: to evaluate the effect of early administration of hypertonic saline on adequacy of resuscitation, progression of inflammation and outcome of critically ill septic patients. Patients and methods: Thirty patients with sepsis were enrolled in our prospective study in El-helal hospital. Patients were divided into two groups: The study group(group A) (15 patients) with sepsis received 4ml/kg b.wt 7.5% hypertonic saline over 15 minutes plus standard medical therapy, compared to the control group(group B) (15 patients) with sepsis received standard medical therapy alone. Both groups were monitored as regard to hemodynamics (MAP, HR, UOP, CVP), respiratory parameters (R.R, ABG, CVSO2) and laboratory parameters (WBCs, CRP, TNF-α). Results:  group A showed significant reduction in heart rate(P=0.049) and respiratory rate(P=0.001), occurrence of metabolic acidosis (p=   0.019), inflammatory markers (WBCs, CRP) (P=0.019, 0.034, respectively) , TNFα (p=   0.001), the rate of occurrence of septic shock (p = 0.006), need for mechanical ventilation (p = 0.006), the mean ICU length of stay (p = 0.001) , ICU mortality (p =0.032) and increase in CVSO2 (P = 0.034) compared to group B. Conclusion: HTS 7.5% has no inferior results on critically ill septic patients, but it has superior results in comparison to other fluids as it decrease inflammatory markers (WBCs, CRP), inflammatory mediator TNF-α and improve secondary outcome (occurrence of septic shock, need for mechanical ventilation, ICU mortality) with significant reduction of the mean ICU length of stay when given in early sepsis.  

[Helmy Elgawaby; Mohamed Shehata; Sherif Sabri and Mohamed  Soliman. Effect of Hypertonic Saline on Adequacy of Resuscitation, Progression of Inflammation and Outcome of Critically III Septic Patients.] Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1148-1153]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 140

 

Keywords: Hypertonic saline, inflammation, critically- ill septic patients

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Assessment of the Role of Interleukin-18 in diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma related to Hepatitis C Virus infection

 

Amal Ahmed1, Sahar Maklad2, Ghada Hussein3, Ingy Badawy4, Alaa Abou Zeid5 and Said El-Feky6

 

Departments of 1Biochemsitry and 2Tropical, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute

3Cilinical Pathology Department, National Institute of Diabetes & Endocrinology

4Biochemsitry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Biotechnology, Misr Science and Technology

5 Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

6Biochemsitry Department, Damanhur National Medical Institute

amalahmedhcp@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 90% of primary liver neoplasms. Representing one of the most common cancers and is responsible for up to 1 million deaths annually worldwide. Egypt has the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) worldwide and has rising rates of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prognosis of most patients is unsatisfactory due to rapid clinical deterioration after the initial diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to detect HCC and the recurrence at its earlier period. Alpha Feto protein (AFP) has been the most widely used plasma marker for diagnosis, surveillance and as a prognostic indicator of HCC patients’ survival. Several studies indicated that high plasma levels of AFP are related to poor prognosis, as well as histological grades of malignancy. However, it has been recognized that AFP has a low sensitivity in detection of HCC, and that AFP level often increases in the absence of HCC. Thus the identification of novel biochemical markers for HCC remains an important goal for many laboratories around the world. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays a critical role in the host defense against intracellular microbe’s infection and also it induces autoimmune diseases and propagating inflammatory process also it was found that, IL-18 could play a key role in the pathogenesis of HCC. Methods: This study was conducted on a total number of 120 patients admitted to Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department in Faculty of medicines, Ain Shams University. The patients of this study were subdivided as follows. Group I: included 20 normal healthy subjects (as controls). Group II: included 100 patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by pathology, cytology, imaging (computer tomography and ultrasound) and serum α -fetoprotein. Results: The mean level of IL-18 was significantly higher in HCC patients (238.69±145.5 pg/ml) compared to the controls (52.8±13.32 pg/ml), P <0.001). There was significant positive correlation between IL18 and Tumor size. Conclusion: IL-18 could be used as an additional non invasive marker for monitoring the degree of disease severity in Hepatocellular carcinoma.

[Amal Ahmed, Sahar Maklad, Ghada Hussein, Ingy Badawy, Alaa Abou Zeid and Said El-Feky. Assessment of the Role of Interleukin-18 in diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma related to Hepatitis C Virus infection. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1154-1158]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 141

 

Key words: HCC, HCV, AFP, IL-18.

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Type-A Nucleophosmin (Npm1) Gene Mutation as a Prognostic Marker in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients with Normal Karyotypes

 

Enas Swelam1; Ahmad Baraka1; Mohamed H. Murad1 and Hatem M. Salem2

 

1Clinical Pathology and Internal Medicine; 2Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

barakalab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: MDS are stem cell disorders characterized by impaired hematopoiesis, and variable risk of AML. MDS can be primary or secondary with several risk factors incriminated. Increased apoptosis, genetic aberrations and autoimmune disorders are the key mechanisms incriminated in disease pathogenesis. NPM1, a shuttling protein that has several functions, is a commonly investigated marker in AML. NPM1 gene mutations occur frequently in AML, and are strongly associated with normal karyotypes. Exact molecular factors underlying progress from MDS to secondary AML are largely unknown. Aim of this work: was designed to investigate the prognostic value of nucleophosmin (NPM1) exon 12 mutation type A in adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and normal karyotype. Subjects and method: This study included 30 subjects divided into two groups: Patient group, 30 adults with de novo MDS and normal karyotype, their age ranged 17-85 years with a mean±SD 47.70±18.31years. The diagnosis of patients was described according to the revised WHO classification. Accordingly, 12 patients (40.0%) had refractory cytopenia (RC), 9 patients (30.0%) suffering from refactory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), 4 patients (13.3%) had refractory anemia with excess blast type I(RAEB-I) and 3 patients (10.0%) classified as (RAEB-II) and 2 (6.6%) diagnosed as unclassified MDS (MDS-u). According to International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), the patients were classified into low risk (15 patients, 50%), intermediate-1 risk(10 patients, 33.33 %) intermediate-2 risk (5 patients, 16.66 % ), High risk (0 % ). Control group; 10 apparently healthy adult volunteers of matched age and sex. Age range from 19 to75 with a mean ±SD 43.25±20 years. Results: By using of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), Two (6.6%) patients were positive for  a nucleophosmin gene mutation (NPM1-mutA), one case with RAEB-I and one case had RAEB-II. NPM1 mutA was restricted to patients with intermediate risk, while no healthy individual was positive for it. Conclusions; (NPM1-mutA) is a rare finding in adult patients with de novo MDS and normal karyotype, and appears to be restricted to those patients with intermediate risk of progression to AML. None of these patients had a disease that progressed to AML. We concluded that NPM1 mutA may be a favourable early molecular event that confers some protection against evolution of AML, and thus might be a good prognostic factor in a disease that lies on the verge of AML, but this needs to be confirmed with further  Studies on large cohort.

[Enas Swelam; Ahmad Baraka; Mohamed H. Murad and Hatem M. Salem. Type-A Nucleophosmin (Npm1) Gene Mutation as a Prognostic Marker in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients with Normal Karyotypes. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(4):1159-1165]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 142

 

Key words; NPM-1, MDS , RT-PCR, Myelodysplastic, Nucleophosmin.

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