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 Life Science Journal 
 
ISSN:1097-8135; Impact Factor 2010: 0.158
 
Volume 8 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 26), September 25, 2011
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0803
 
To get Word file: When you open Full Text for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from pdf to doc you will get Word file.
 

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Comparing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methods in rural research

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani, Maryam Khodamoradi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: RRA is a social science approach that emerged in the late 1970s. The basic idea of RRA is to rather quickly collect, analyse and evaluate information on rural conditions and local knowledge. This information is generated in close co-operation with the local population in rural areas. Therefore, the research methods had to be adjusted to local conditions, i.e. they had to meet the communication needs of illiterate people or people who are not used to communicating in scientific terms. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) as a method falls under the qualitative and participatory group of research methods. PRA evolved from Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA). In recognition of the fact that the community to which development projects are supposed to serve is not involved in the process and the subsequent flaws implicit in designing and implementing such projects, development practitioners and thinkers started to investigate ways for effective community participation in the overall process. This led to a series of information collection techniques used to collect and analyze data in rural areas, nown as Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), which was developed in the 1970s and 1980s.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani, Maryam Khodamoradi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Comparing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methods in rural research. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):1-6] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.01

 

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), rural research

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2

Importance of Indigenous knowledge in agriculture

 

Maryam Khodamoradi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Esmaeel Ghorbani

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

Abstract: Today, experts from all over the world are reaching to use of this knowledge again and they have accepted the second use of this knowledge in sustainable development provisionally. The condition for accepting this knowledge is to remove negation aspects of Indigenous knowledge and specifying correlate Indigenous knowledge, evolution the constancy of this knowledge and improve it and applying developed Indigenous knowledge in Indigenous environment. In other word in Sustainability development, the Indigenous knowledge should be a compilation of these two knowledge according to mentioned instances.

[Maryam Khodamoradi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Esmaeel Ghorbani. Importance of Indigenous knowledge in agriculture. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):7-10] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.02

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, agriculture

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Necessity of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Utilization in rural research

 

Abbas Emami, Alireza Bolandnazar and Mojtaba Sadighi

1Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: PRA is intended to enable local communities to conduct their own analysis and to plan and take action . PRA involves project staff learning together with villagers about the village. Much of the spread of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as an emerging family of approaches and methods has been lateral, South-South, through experiential learning and changes in behavior, with different local applications. Rapid spread has made quality assurance a concern, with dangers from “instant fashion”, rushing, formalism and ruts. Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review. Changes in personal behavior and attitudes, and in organizational cultures, are implied. PRA parallels and resonates with paradigm shifts in the social and natural sciences, business management, and development thinking, supporting decentralization, local diversity, and personal responsibility.

[Abbas Emami, Alireza Bolandnazar and Mojtaba Sadighi. Necessity of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Utilization in rural research. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):11-16] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.03

 

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), rural research

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4

Private extension in developing countries

 

Ali Badragheh

Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran

*Corresponding author: badraghehali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agricultural extension increasingly has become defined as one or other of (apparently) differentiated activities of technology transfer or rural development. In many situations, the transfer of technology, heretofore considered the purview of public sector systems, has been reconceived. Such changes suggest a refocussing of paradigms for the delivery of public sector extension. In developed industrialized countries, which often provide models for extension service delivery elsewhere, the declining relative importance of agriculture for economic growth, the increasing education and affluence of smaller populations of rural producers, and the increasing use of externally purchased inputs have changed the nature of publicly funded extension services and led to a questioning of the means of delivery of extension services by governments . In developing countries, where publicly funded extension is often more important, there has been considerable questioning of the structure and forms of extension delivery.

[Ali Badragheh. Private extension in developing countries. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):17-22]. ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.04

 

Keywords: private extension, developing countries

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Personal Characteristics as Determinants of Attitude and Importance of Television- based HIV/AIDS Prevention Programme among Secondary School Teachers in, Rural Botswana

 

1Oladele O.I and K P 2Mahudinga

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus. South Africa oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

2Department of Agricultural Economics Education and Extension, Botswana College of Agriculture, University of Botswana Gaborone.

 

Abstract: In Botswana, the urgency with which the prevention of HIV/AIDS should be addressed necessitated the need for the adoption of Teacher Capacity Building Project. Talk Back- programme has contributed to HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation of its impact through interactive distance education and had proved successful in Brazil. Using a random sampling technique, this study examined the personal characteristics as determinants of attitude and importance of television- based HIV/AIDS prevention programme among secondary school teachers in, Molepolole Botswana. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire that has a reliability coefficient of 0.85 and were analyzed with frequency counts, percentages and multiple regressions. The result shows that teachers are favorably disposed to the Talk Back programme and that the topics were most important in building their capacity. Important predictors of importance attached to the programme are tenure status (t = -7.41) and Position (t = 2.03), while significant determinants of teachers’ attitude towards Talk Back programme are age (t =3.40), tenure status(t=-3.51), position(t = 3.58) and reasons for viewership(t = - 2.62). The paper recommends that it is important to ensure that the programmes are not clashing with thing periods, and that teacher in school are of confirmed status so as to serve to motivate them to be committed to the programme.

[Oladele O.I and K P Mahudinga. Personal Characteristics as Determinants of Attitude and Importance of Television- based HIV/AIDS Prevention Programme among Secondary School Teachers in, Rural Botswana. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):23-29] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.05

 

Keywords: Capacity Building, Attitude, Importance, Television broadcast, HIV/AIDS Prevention, Teachers, Botswana

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6

Rural women's role in promoting of indigenous knowledge

 

Fatemeh Bakhtiar, Maryam Abedi and Mohaddaseh Nazarpour

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Experience shows that indigenous knowledge not only has no contradiction with formal knowledge but different indigenous knowledge features, put it as well complementary for formal knowledge. Indigenous knowledge is accessible, useful and cheap. Its perspective is holistic and its transmission is verbal. Knowledge is dynamic and time-tested, and while it has grown within local natural and social environment, so it is very sustainable with indigenous condition. Indigenous knowledge refers to both component and whole part of culture of each nation and this component and whole integration is so that stop to change traditional society of life without indigenous knowledge out of its cultural origin and therefore would lose it concept and effectiveness.

[Ali Badragheh. Rural women's role in promoting of indigenous knowledge. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):30-35] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.06

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, rural women

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Effect of plant density on percent of remobilization, chlorophyll content, light penetration rate and effective grain filling period of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in dry farming

 

Ashraf Alizade1, *Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Masaaod Rafiee3
 

1- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 2- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch (Thesis Supervisor)

3 - Assistant Professor Research Center Khorramabad of Lorestan

*Corresponding Arthur: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract: One of the ways is to increase yield Chickpea, determine the appropriate density and plant varieties. This study aims to determine the effect of three planting densities (25, 50, 75 plants per square meter) on some morphological characteristics such as percentage remobilization of stem, leaf chlorophyll content and grain filling process pea cultivars include: Arman, Hashem, ILC482 and Greet (Local varieties) Was. Factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station in Khorramabad 2005-2006 was conducted. If plant density decreases leading to increased chlorophyll content of leaves was chickpea. On the other hand at low planting densities, due to less competition between plant so number of branches per plant, stem remobilization and percentage light penetration significant increase () were. Most effective grain filling period (EFP) to ILC482 variety approximate was 26 days. The least of EFP to Hashem variety approximately was 26 days. Density of 25 plants /m2 on the highest floor canopy light penetration and density 75 plants /m2 at the bottom of the lowest penetration of light Canopy included.

[Ashraf Alizade, Tayeb Saki Nejad, Masaaod Rafiee. Effect of plant density on percent of remobilization, chlorophyll content, light penetration rate and effective grain filling period of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in dry farming. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):36-39] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.07

 

Key words: Chickpea, plant density, remobilization, chlorophyll, light penetration, grain filling period (EFP)

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8

Assessment Characteristics Morphophysiology of plant varieties horse Bean (Vicia FabaL) in different plant densities

 

Somaye Ghadaksaz1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Alireza Shokohfar

 

1- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 2- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch (Thesis Supervisor)

 3- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

*Corresponding Arthur: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In order to study the effect of different densities on bean cultivars, experimental farm in 2008 Farm Research, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz was executed. Factorial experiment in randomized complete block design in three replications was formed. The first factor consists of three densities (45, 55, 65) plants m and the second factor consists of three cultivar (ZOHREH, SHAME and JAZAYERI) were. The results showed that most varieties LAI ZOHREH to figure the 13 quarters in the early stage of flowering and pod development were achieved. Based on the results, the number of branches to reduce plant density increased. Most biological yield in 55 of the plant density, 3042.89 kg ha was obtained with the other density levels significantly different at 5 percent showed. Process of dry matter accumulation in different cultivars and varieties are not the same ZOHREHs to other two varieties showed superiority, as well as increasing the density of total plant dry matter accumulation increased. The results showed that with increasing density levels also increased CGR and also increase the speed of the CGR in high densities are higher. Bless growth figures earlier CGR respectively higher than the figures had SHAME and JAZAYERI and in shorter time, has reached the maximum CGR. Maximum CGR will be achieved when the vegetation has reached its maximum rate.

[Somaye Ghadaksaz1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Alireza Shokohfar. Assessment Characteristics Morphophysiology of plant varieties horse Bean (Vicia FabaL) in different plant densities. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):40-42] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.08

 

Keywords: Horse bean, density, variety, Morphophysiology

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9

Effect of biological fertilizer of humic acid on metabolic process of biological nitrogen fixation

 

*Simin Haghighi1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Shahram Lack3

 

1- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 2- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch (Thesis Supervisor)

 3- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 *Corresponding Arthur:

 

Abstract: Soil health is one of the key important factors in determining crop performance. Humic materials in soil have multiple effects of the main components; part of humic material is humic acid that can grow on crops through the effect on physical properties, chemical and biological soil to be effective. Use of organic materials in agriculture to reduce pollution from taking a positive step in the way of chemical fertilizers to achieve sustainable agriculture and fertilizer efficiency is. To order these types of effects on acid Humic biological nitrogen fixation process of bean plants in the form of a pilot project testing split plot with randomized complete block design based on crop year 2010 was conducted in Ahvaz. Invoice number (V1 = Barekat, V2 = Jazayeri, V3 = Shame) in the main plot factor with four types humic acid (F0 = control, F1 = humic acid, F2 = full macro humic acid, F3 = Full Micro humic acid) in sub-plots were placed. Humic acid once, and then at 5-6 leaf after flowering to 2 ppm levels (200 ppm) was sprayed to the plants. The highest and lowest number of nodes in humic acid treatment was respectively humic acid micro average 274.3 and controls with a mean number 179.6 respectively. However, three types of acid humic terms of number of nodes there is no significant difference. The greatest average diameter in micro humic acid treatment was rate 1.39 cm respectively. But between acid and acid Humic Micro significant difference was found. The average minimum diameter to control treatment mean number 0.8 is the cm. The results showed that acid humic improve the process and indicators of biological nitrogen fixation in bean plants were. Results of variance analysis table shows the types of acid humic bean root nodules on the amount of nitrogen in the 1% level were significant. Most nitrous acid humic macro nodes to complete the average 2.06 and the lowest value to control the amount of 0.88 were.

[Simin Haghighi, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Shahram Lack. Effect of biological fertilizer of humic acid on metabolic process of biological nitrogen fixation. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):43-48] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.09

Key words: biological fertilizer, BFN, Humic acid

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10

Evaluation of horse bean production components

 

Tayeb Saki Nejad

 

Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

Corresponding Arthur: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract: this study was performed in the Research Station, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz fact Southern city of Ahvaz in the geographic profile: latitude: '20 º 31 Longitude: '40 º 48 Altitude: 18 m and average rainfall: 256 mm in 2006 year. Research projects using the project once chopped plots in a randomized complete block design with treatments main bean varieties: four cultivar horse bean (Vicia FabaL.) plant: BARAKAT, ZOHRE, SHAMI and JAZAYERI and sub-levels of nitrogen fertilizer treatments three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (N1, N2 and N3 treatments, respectively 20 and 40 and 80 kg fertilizer N ha) were performed. A BARAKAT variety with highest yield was 4880 kg ha. Among the cultivar, the BARAKAT & JAZAYERI with the amount of dry matter 8209.06 and 8201.01 kg ha from a higher level than other cultivars, respectively. Process of dry matter accumulation in cultivar BARAKAT and T 80 = N3 kg per hectare were higher in treatments 20 = N1 and 40 = N2 kg ha of nitrogen fertilizer at 1% level with a time difference did not check growth parameters indicate superior varieties BARAKAT on the other cultivar in indicators of total dry matter, crop growth rate and leaf area index is. High yield in the treatments 80 = N3 and 40 = N2 probably due to supply fertilizer base required for plant growth in early stages yet stabilized biological nitrogen begin has not plants need nitrogen fertilizer have to be able to level green field increases and photosynthesis do more are to be. This higher amount of leaf area index of this treatment with a mean 3.7 which leads to higher dry matter accumulation was visible in the cause of dry matter allocation to seeds is more.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad. Evaluation of horse bean production components. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):49-53] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.10

 

Keywords: horse bean, production component

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Characteristics of Online Education and Traditional Education

 

1 Zeynab Behzadi, 2 Azam Ghaffari

 

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: leila11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education is education designed for learners who live at a distance from the teaching institution or education provider. It is the enrollment and study with an educational institution that provides organized, formal learning opportunities for students. Presented in a sequential and logical order, the instruction is offered wholly or primarily by distance study, through virtually any media. Historically, its predominant medium of instruction has been printed materials, although non-print media is becoming more and more popular. It may also incorporate or make use of videotapes, CD or DVD ROM’s, audio recordings, facsimiles, telephone communications, and the Internet through e-mail and Web-based delivery systems. When each lesson or segment is completed, the student makes available to the school the assigned work for correction, grading, comment, and subject matter guidance by qualified instructors. Corrected assignments are returned to the student. This exchange fosters a personalized student-instructor relationship, which is the hallmark of distance education instruction. Historically, most distance education courses were vocational in nature, but today courses are offered for academic, professional, and avocational purposes for students of all ages. There are numerous specialized programs, such as those for blind persons and for parents of small children with hearing impairments.

[Zeynab Behzadi, Azam Ghaffari. Characteristics of Online Education and Traditional Education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):54-58] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.11

 

Keywords: Online Education, Traditional Education

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The Level of Local Participation in Rural Cooperatives in Rural Areas of Marvdasht, Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran. fatemeharef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to describe the level of community participation in rural cooperatives. The paper is based on the survey questionnaire carried out among 250 cooperatives members in rural areas of Marvdasht, Iran. The findings revealed that the level of local participation in rural cooperatives is low. Therefore, the rural residences especially, the cooperatives members have little contribution to the development of rural cooperatives and rural development as well.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi. The Level of Local Participation in Rural Cooperatives in Iran. Life Science Journal.

2011;8(3):59-62] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.12

 

Keywords: participation, rural cooperatives, rural development

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Human Resource Development for Poverty Alleviation in Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi & Abrisham Aref

 

Science and Research Branch,

Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

fatemeharef@gmail.com abrishamaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study illustrate the role of human resource development in poverty alleviation in rural areas of Marvdasht, Iran. Data were collected using focus group discussions. The findings of this study show that, there is a little effort to building human resource for poverty alleviation. The results also indicate that although there is high level of education between local people, but rural areas still face with barriers which hinder their participation in poverty alleviation.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi Human Resource Development for Poverty Alleviation in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):63-66] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.13

 

Keywords: human capital, human resource development, poverty alleviation

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Effect of Citrus Waste Substrate on the Production of Flavor Constituent of Grifola Frondosa

 

Jung Hyun Kim 1, Min Young Kim 2

 

1. Department of Tourism and Food Service Cuisine, Cheju Tourism College, Jeju 695-900, Republic of Korea

2. Faculty of Biotechnology, College of Applied Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea

jeffmkim@jejunu.ac.kr

 

Abstract: No studies have previously been published on the flavor content of Grifola frondosa cultivated on citrus wastes. The free sugars, non-volatile organic acids, and free amino acids components in Grifola frondosa mycelial extracts cultivated on citrus wastes such as citrus peel and premature Hallabong fruit drop, and their substrates were determined in the present study. The extracts of Grifola frondosa mycelium grown on citrus wastes contained fructose (11.0 - 168.4 mg/g), glucose (1.7 - 108.1 mg/g), sucrose (8.4 - 75.3 mg/g) and maltose (13.5 - 21.1 mg/g). The fructose and maltose contents were significantly higher, whereas glucose and maltose contents were declined in mushroom extracts using citrus peel and premature Hallabong as substrate than in their substrates. Non-volatile organic acids analysis showed that lactic acid (108.6 - 181.2 mg/g) is the major organic acid found in mushrooms cultivated on citrus wastes. Monosodium glutamate-like and sweet taste amino acids were 1.4- to 7-fold higher in Grifola frondosa mycelia cultivated on premature Hallabong drop than those of Grifola frondosa cultivated on sawdust and log substrates, which was reported in the previous findings. Taken together, citrus waste substrate may be responsible for the better taste of Grifola frondosa mycelia as compared with conventional substrate and it, therefore, could be utilized as a practical substrate to offer a viable alternative use for these abundant agricultural wastes with a double benefit: the cultivation of valuable mushrooms and a reduction in environmental impact.

[Jung Hyun Kim, Min Young Kim. Effect of Citrus Waste Substrate on the Production of Flavor Constituent of Grifola Frondosa. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):67-71] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.14

 

Keywords: Grifola frondosa; citrus waste; free sugar component; organic acid component; amino acid component

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Destroying of Word War II Metallic Land Mines by the use of Stray Current Electrolysis

 

Ashraf Abdel Raouf Mohamed Fouad Ahmed

 

Arab Republic of Egypt, Ministry of State for Scientific Research, Academy of Scientific Research and Technology

Ashrafahmed9000@yahoo.com; Patent Office - Patent no. 617/2009

 

Abstract: Based on corrosion action caused by stray current electrolysis, it is possible to use such concept as a new technique to destroy metallic buried mines in the soil. This new technique saves a lot of money, effort and time. The idea of this new technique is to remove the metallic material of the mines at one time by the acceleration of the corrosion action. Then, the explosive material will expose to the surrounding soil which in turn will be spoiled by humidity.

[Ashraf Abdel Raouf Mohamed Fouad Ahmed. Destroying of Word War II Metallic Land Mines by the use of Stray Current Electrolysis. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):72-77] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.15

 

Keywords: Destroy; Word War II; Metallic Land Mine; Stray Current Electrolysis

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Andragogy and Pedagogy: differences and applications

 

Abbas Emami 1, Alireza Bolandnazar 2 and Mojtaba Sadighi3

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The field of adult education and literacy is plagued by confusion about definitions. Over the years definitions have evolved from provisions in federal law and initiatives of groups advocating particular methodologies or the needs of specific adult populations. The result is that definitions tend to merge statements about the goals to be achieved (e.g., improving the literacy of a particular population) with a particular means (e.g., adult basic education) to achieve the goal. Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

[Abbas Emami, Alireza Bolandnazar and Mojtaba Sadighi.. Andragogy and Pedagogy: differences and applications. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):78-82] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.16

 

Keywords: Andragogy, Pedagogy, adult education

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Relationship between rural women Employment and empowerment

 

Alireza Bolandnazar 1, Abbas Emami 2 and Mojtaba Sadighi3

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Employment rate, like any social and economic variables directly or indirectly are affected by many factors among which can be reported the production rate, investment, wage levels, price level, government policies and foreign trade. Each of these factors may be positive or negative effects to be followed. Such factors and how they impact on employment rates, have a great influence in planning and policy and making coherent and efficient policy formulation. However, experts believe that China in contrast to other nations, especially developing countries, participation rate of women labor force is in high level and also their participation rate in the villages are a little more than cities. However, this participation is evident in most areas that the dominant form of employment is agriculture. Aside from the economic role of women that clearly has been made in the past decades, the vital role of women in social and cultural dimensions of development process in rural areas has remained hidden from the polls. They train the next generation of farmers and teach them the next generation necessary knowledge. A Chinese proverb says, "If training a man, just training a man but if you teach a woman you teach a family." Women are local knowledge and local educators themselves, in preparing and providing food, health treatments and cultural values are the next generation.

[Alireza Bolandnazar, Abbas Emami and Mojtaba Sadighi. Relationship between rural women Employment and empowerment. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):83-87] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.17

 

Keywords: Employment, rural women, empowerment

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Improving education in adult through online Learning

 

Azam Ghaffari, Abbas Emami

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran. khodamoradi121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in distance education teachers often are separate and comprehensive. Preparation of educational materials, supporting learners under the supervision of a training center takes place almost never do as a group are not. For services to education and electronic learning aids such as printed materials, computers and the Internet rely on. Another look at the educational system of a new e-business and artistic and is a comprehensive solution to the institutions that want to move in the direction that technology and change their teaching methods and environments are possible to achieve the new educational approach provides. In its original form, teachers using distance education traveled to remote sites and taught a class, or corresponded with students through mail, telephone, or fax machine. Individualized study has been a method of reaching the remote student for some time. Detailed course instructions are sent to the learner who performs the assigned tasks and returns the completed work to the teacher for evaluation and reassignment if necessary. rural women take different responsibility and roles such as producers of crops, ranching and keeping poultry, children education, housekeeping, supervising family economy and managing it, collecting firewood, weaving carpet, so illiterate women who haven’t possibility to utilize mass media properly too, wouldn’t able to do their duties and roles and also wouldn’t be affective to develop rural societies.

[Azam Ghaffari, Abbas Emami. Improving education in adult through online Learning. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):88-91] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.18

 

Keywords: education, online Learning

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Distance Education and e-learning: Similarities and differences

 

Mehdi Nazarpour, Azam Ghaffari

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran. saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education is education designed for learners who live at a distance from the teaching institution or education provider. It is the enrollment and study with an educational institution that provides organized, formal learning opportunities for students. Presented in a sequential and logical order, the instruction is offered wholly or primarily by distance study, through virtually any media. Historically, its predominant medium of instruction has been printed materials, although non-print media is becoming more and more popular. It may also incorporate or make use of videotapes, CD or DVD ROM’s, audio recordings, facsimiles, telephone communications, and the Internet through e-mail and Web-based delivery systems. When each lesson or segment is completed, the student makes available to the school the assigned work for correction, grading, comment, and subject matter guidance by qualified instructors. Corrected assignments are returned to the student. This exchange fosters a personalized student-instructor relationship, which is the hallmark of distance education instruction. Historically, most distance education courses were vocational in nature, but today courses are offered for academic, professional, and avocational purposes for students of all ages. There are numerous specialized programs, such as those for blind persons and for parents of small children with hearing impairments. Distance education is available in practically any field, from accounting to zoology. Courses are offered in gemology, high school diploma, journalism, locksmithing, child day care management, yacht design, and many fascinating subjects. Distance education courses also vary greatly in scope, level, and length. Some have a few assignments and require only a few months to complete, while others have a hundred or more lesson assignments requiring three or four years of conscientious study.

[Mehdi Nazarpour, Azam Ghaffari. Distance Education and e-learning: Similarities and differences. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):92-96] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.19

 

Keywords: Distance Education, E-learning

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The role of micro-credit on social participation of rural women

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani1, Maryam Khodamoradi2 and Mehran Bozorgmanesh3

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural women are among those major groups at society who previously were considered less by planners, due to specific reasons in the past. And this problem is more observable at developing countries. While, by looking at women’s history of economic and social life, we can find that this great group, continuously have played basic role in forming economic condition of country. This great group consistent with men have had active role at areas of social-economic activities and always have had major part on economic production of society. Nowadays, supporting family supervisor women is adopted by universal society, as politic, economic a social concern and nearly all countries applied related approaches, and however these efforts have resulted in failure, in so many cases.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani, Maryam Khodamoradi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh. The role of micro-credit on social participation of rural women. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):97-101] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.20

Keywords: participation, rural women, micro-credit

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Required activities before participatory rural appraisal (PRA)

 

Abbas Emami 1, Alireza Bolandnazar 2 and Mojtaba Sadighi3

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is one of the participatory research techniques in the class of qualitative research. Robert Chambers describes PRA as “a growing family of approaches, methods, attitudes and behaviours to enable and empower people to share, analyze and enhance their knowledge of life and conditions, and to plan, act, monitor, evaluate and reflect". There exist different methods of data collection and analysis, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Through time, more appropriate and refined methods have been developed. In the context of rural development, information regarding the communities, their livelihoods, their beliefs, the physical environment in which they live, and their resource endowments need to be gathered and interpreted in a manner that identifies their priorities with a view of developing better understanding of their status and designing appropriate intervention projects directed at resolving their problems. Much of the spread of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as an emerging family of approaches and methods has been lateral, South-South, through experiential learning and changes in behavior, with different local applications. Rapid spread has made quality assurance a concern, with dangers from “instant fashion”, rushing, formalism and ruts. Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review.

[Abbas Emami, Alireza Bolandnazar and Mojtaba Sadighi. Required activities before participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):102-107] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.21

 

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

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Position of Rural women in extension activities

 

Mohaddaseh Nazarpour 1, Maryam Abedi 2 and 3 Fatemeh Bakhtiar

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: Women, being half the population, play an effective role in the economic welfare of family and society. In Iran’s economy, women are one of productive factors, but, so far, researchers and writers have ignored the issue of women’s participation in economic activities. While in present situation considering the role of women’s participation seems to be obligatory. Participation in its broader sense means to motivate people and thus increase the sensitivity to understand and become responsive of development programs and it also carries the concept of local initiatives. In fact, participation is to guide people caught by disability, to help them realize their potentials and to empower them to make the best use of life. According to preceding definition of participation, and the ability of participation to turn potential into imminence power, women should participate more actively in economic affairs. Statistics regarding women and girls’ activities, especially in rural areas, are always presented much lower than the real numbers.

[Mohaddaseh Nazarpour, Maryam Abedi and Fatemeh Bakhtiar. Position of Rural women in extension activities. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):108-112] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.22

 

Keywords: Rural women, participation, extension activities

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Comparative advantage of grape production in Fars province

 

Seyed Nemat Allah Mousavi, Neda Sedghi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Akbari

 

Department of Agricultural Economics Marvdasht Branch,Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study to determine comparative advantage and the product is grape in Fars province. In this study required data through the Agricultural Jahad Organization in 2010 were collected using DRC indices were analyzed. The results of this study showed that grape production in Fars province is a comparative advantage. Therefore, the result for practical suggestions to increase production of this product is available at the end of the article.

[Seyed Nemat Allah Mousavi, Neda Sedghi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Akbari. Comparative advantage of grape production in Fars province. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):113-116] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.23

Keywords: Comparative Advantage, Grapes, Gulf, DRC

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The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in improving agriculture

 

Mohaddaseh Nazarpour 1, Maryam Abedi 2 and 3 Fatemeh Bakhtiar

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The importance of communication in the development process has been acknowledged for many years by the development community. FAO has spent at least thirty years pioneering and promoting - both in thinking and practice - the centrality of communication in development. The most essential ingredient of good communication – putting people at the centre of the communication process - has similarly been understood and documented for many years. agriculture extension and farmer-outreach programs face three major challenges – cost-effective outreach, solutions tailored to needs of individual farmers and an image that is farmer-friendly. The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that. This paper uncovers a whole plethora of ICT emergence as a technology of the new millennium. Against the backdrop of the ongoing ICT boom, this paper makes an attempt towards studying its applications and usage planning process and policy making for the rural communities focusing on how it helps in aligning the key factors and reduce the problems of alienation, fragmentation and dislocation of knowledge.

[Mohaddaseh Nazarpour, Maryam Abedi and Fatemeh Bakhtiar. The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in improving agriculture. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):117-121] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.24

Keywords information and communication technologies (ICT), agricultural development

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Using Distance Education in Agricultural Education

 

Hamid Mohammadi, Azam Ghaffari

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran. saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance learning is expanding and examples of it are increasing dramatically. Fewer than 10 states were using distance learning in 1987; today, virtually all states have an interest or effort in distance education. Distance learning systems connect the teacher with the students when physical face-to-face interaction is not possible. Telecommunications systems carry instruction, moving information instead of people. The technology at distant locations are important and affect how interaction takes place, what information resources are used, and how effective the system is likely to be. Technology transports information, not people. Distances between teachers and students are bridged with an array of familiar technology as well as new information age equipment. What sets today's distance education efforts apart from previous efforts is the possibility of an interactive capacity that provides learner and teacher with needed feedback, including the opportunity to dialogue, clarify, or assess. Advances in digital compression technology may greatly expand the number of channels that can be sent over any transmission medium, doubling or even tripling channel capacity. Technologies for learning at a distance are also enlarging our definition of how students learn, where they learn, and who teaches them. No one technology is best for all situations and applications. Different technologies have different capabilities and limitations, and effective implementation will depend on matching technological capabilities to education needs.

[Hamid Mohammadi, Azam Ghaffari. Using Distance Education in Agricultural Education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):122-126] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.25

Keywords: Distance Education, Agricultural Education

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Effective teaching through distance education

 

Abbas Emami, Mehdi Nazarpour

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran. abbasrezazadeh80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Historically, most distance education courses were vocational in nature, but today courses are offered for academic, professional, and avocational purposes for students of all ages. There are numerous specialized programs, such as those for blind persons and for parents of small children with hearing impairments. Distance education is available in practically any field, from accounting to zoology. Courses are offered in gemology, high school diploma, journalism, locksmithing, child day care management, yacht design, and many fascinating subjects. Distance education courses also vary greatly in scope, level, and length. Some have a few assignments and require only a few months to complete, while others have a hundred or more lesson assignments requiring three or four years of conscientious study.Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is physically separated from the teacher and the institution sponsoring the instruction. It may be used on its own, or in conjunction with other forms of education, including face-to-face instruction. In any distance education process there must be a teacher, one or more students, and a course or curriculum that the teacher is capable of teaching and the student is trying to learn. The contract between teacher and learner, whether in a traditional classroom or distance education, requires that the student be taught, assessed, given guidance and, where appropriate, prepared for examinations that may or may not be conducted by the institution. This must be accomplished by two-way communication. Learning may be undertaken either individually or in groups; in either case, it is accomplished in the physical absence of the teacher in distance education. Where distance teaching materials are provided to learners, they are structured in ways that facilitate learning at a distance.

[Abbas Emami, Mehdi Nazarpour. Effective teaching through distance education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):127-132] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.26

 

Keywords: Distance Education, Developing Countries

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Evaluation of protein in persian Gulf Blue crab (portunus pelagicus) and The Effect of some Biological parameters on it

 

*Ashraf Jazayeri1, Foroogh Papan1, Ahmad Savari2, Mehran Hoseinzade3, Tayeb Saki Nejad4, Manigeh Kadkhodaei3

 

1- shahid chamran university of Ahwaz 2-khoramshahr university of marine science and technology

3- Ahwaz jondi shahpour university of medical sciences

 4- Departement of physiology, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz, IRAN

*Corresponding author: Jazayeriashraf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today role and importannce of correct nutrition Is proved in providing health and preventing some diseases. In medical field also, new researches propose limiting consumption of chemical medicines for treating side effects. Therefore biological and medical spetialists consider aquatic’s meat and their processed products, because they are proved to have useful compositcs such as vitamines, mineral salts, proteins, antioxidant, and unsatuatod fat acids. In this study, nutritional value of persian Gulf blue crab is investigated considering the amount of total protein . besides extracting proteins in muscle tissue of this variety with column chromatography,the effect of some biological parameteis are investigated on the amount of these proteins. Results showed that this species have considerable amounts of animal proteins. Also it is observed that with increasing the crab’s weight, the amount of muscle tissue and protein increased. Also sex had some effect on protein amount. In such a way that always in male crabs, the amount and number of extracted fractions was higher.

[Ashraf Jazayeri. Evaluation of protein in persian Gulf Blue crab (portunus pelagicus) and The Effect of some Biological parameters on it. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):133-137] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.27

 

Keywords: blue swimmer crab, persian Gulf, biological parameters, portunus pelagicus

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Forming branches in the bean and its relation to yield

 

Tayeb Saki Nejad

 

Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN. saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir; Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study was performed in the Research Station, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz fact Southern city of Ahvaz in the geographic profile: latitude: '20 º 31 Longitude: '40 º 48 Altitude: 18 m and average rainfall: 256 mm. Experiment where climate is arid and semi arid and according to weather data Ahvaz 40 213.94 mm average annual precipitation, average annual temperature of 25.24, 32.94 Average annual maximum temperature, mean minimum degree Annual Heat 18.4 ° C is. Minimum temperatures in agricultural experiment 4.2 in January and maximum temperatures in September 52 have been reported. Some results of various investigations have shown that the number of branches with a yield direct positive correlation shows that, as the number of branches in the optimal density keeps the number of pods per unit area results in much desirable, is placed and yield increases examining this relationship in correlation bean plant (0.72 = r) was calculated and a direct positive relationship (but not too high) showed the cause of this is desirable density that can be used in seeding experiments were created with the low number of branches and their small share of production as the main stem pods to be. Applying 100 kg ha, correlation higher than the other two treatments, 50, 20 kg ha of nitrogen fertilizer showed (0.76 = r) and this is production of branches in high levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Split application of fertilizer in different periods together and showed no correlation in terms of average correlation coefficient of them (0.74= r), respectively. With the number of branches per plant FabaL correlation coefficient (0.69 = r) was calculated and a direct positive regression (but not too high) of it's offered. Applying more fertilizer in tests to increase the number of branches found significant spatial yield was increased. Among the figures of the number of digits Blessing had more branches that this figure will increase performance.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad. Forming branches in the bean and its relation to yield. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):138-141] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.28

 

Key words: legume, Forming branches, yield

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Calculated regression equations and correlation of seed yield with its components in bean plants

 

Tayeb Saki Nejad, Alireza Shokoohfar

 

Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN, saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir; Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Research was performed in field research of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, The split plot design experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications and treatments as the main and were performed, The main treatments for nitrogen fertilization at different stages of plant growth and Secondary treatment includes different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer were. when the amount of each component and functional correlation with seed yield can be studied how the effects of these components impact on yield and realized yield will decrease this purpose by providing regression equations of the correlation coefficient was calculated and evaluated in this calculate the highest correlation with number of pods per plant and seed yield showed what pods increased seed yield increase showed a high correlation between weight and the lowest seed yield was obtained with other words whatever pods plant or seed number per pod increased seed weight, high levels of nitrogen decrease trace higher correlation showed statistically significant with other nitrogen fertilizers, which was low, and no fertilizer at bloom periods together the different growth showed no difference, The highest correlation between yield components, number of pods per plant was functioning and seed weight had the lowest correlation:

regression equations and correlation

No. pods per plant

No. seed in pod

seed weight

Seed Yield

Y=-337.02+163X R2=0.97

Y=-562.4+1120.99X R2=0.79

Y=-28987+10998X R2=0.32

The number of pods per plant increase by treatment nitrogen fertilizer in the early stages of growth before flowering, vegetative growth, which increased by the appropriate number of pods per plant, thus increasing yield and high correlation with the indicated.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad, Alireza Shokoohfar. Calculated regression equations and correlation of seed yield with its components in bean plant. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):142-147] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.29

 

Key words: regression equations, seed yield, components

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Effect of Some Production Parameters on Net Wrap Used in Agricultural Products Packaging on the End Use Properties

 

*Ibrahim, G. E. and Dorgham, M. E.

 

Spinning, Weaving and Knitting Dept, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt. *ghalia1980@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research is mainly concerned with designing net wrap used for packaging agricultural products. Twenty seven samples were produced using polyethylene yarns. Warp knitted technique was applied to produce all samples under study using different parameters. Different parameters were studied including, inlay tape thickness 20,25 and 30 micron, inlay tape width 1,1.25 and 1.5 mm, pillar blades number 99, 101 and 213,treatment with ultra violet and anti static. Many tests were carried out in order to evaluate the net according to the final product needs such as tensile strength and elongation of net and inlay tape and linear meter tests. Some more results were reached concerning structures and materials. The results showed that there is a direct relationship between tensile strength and number of pillar, the more inlay tape width, the higher tensile strength of the sample become, the more inlay tape thickness per unit area the more tensile strength of the sample become, the more number of pillar yarns the lower elongation the samples become, and the higher pillar yarns per unit area the more linier meter weight the sample become.

[Ibrahim, G. E. and Dorgham, M. E. Effect of Some Production Parameters on Net Wrap Used in Agricultural Products Packaging on the End Use Properties. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):148-155] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.30

 

Keywords: Production Parameter; Net Wrap; Agricultural Product; Packaging; End Use Property

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Self-assessment competency tool for nurses working in critical care units: development and psychometric evaluation

 

Salwa S.A. Kamel*1., Samah F. Fakhry2, Randa M. Ibrahim3

 

1Medical- Surgical Nursing Dept., 2Nursing Administration Dept, 3Maternal and Neonatal Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing- Ain Shams University. *sosoamoura@live.com

 

Abstract: Aim: this study aimed to develop a self-assessment competence tool for nurses working in critical care units, and to test its validity and reliability. Methods: Design: This operational action-oriented research for development of a tool include an experts group consisted of 41 senior registered senior nurses and physicians working in critical care units, jury group from academia and included 11 professors in field of specialty, a purposive sample of 50 nurses working in critical care units Data collection took place in June 2009 to September 2010 through a semi-structured questionnaire, a preliminary nursing competency list with initial 130 items pool through expert and jury opinionnaires, finally 79-item tool of clinical nurse competency was developed. Findings: Cronbach's α rang from 0.81 to 0.96 for the new tool, with total internal consistency reaching α QUOTE =0.98. Statistically significant positive moderate to strong correlations among the various components of the tool. Statistically significant positive correlations with almost all the new tool dimensions and the standardized tool ranging between 0.256 and 0.725. statistically significant positive correlation between the two scores, with a correlation coefficient r = 0.44.conclusion: a self-assessment competence tool for nurses working in critical care units was developed with a high level of reliability; its content validity was demonstrated, concurrent validity was borderline acceptable. Further improvement of the developed tool is recommended through including a variety of participants, both as experts and juries, and taking a more representative sample. Also, application of the tool in a variety of similar settings would offer data that can help in improving its psychometric characteristics. Moreover, periodic evaluation of nurses' competency can provide longitudinal data that may help in assessing the new tool's predictive validity.

[Salwa S.A. Kamel, Samah F. Fakhry, Randa M. Ibrahim. A self-assessment competency tool for nurses working in critical care units: development and psychometric evaluation. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):156-164] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.31

 

Keywords: self-assessment competence tool, critical care nursing, validity, reliability.

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Molecular Detection and Predominance of Human Torque Teno Virus in Children’s with acute hepatitis and Environmental Waters

 

Shoeib, A.R.S*1, El-Esnawy, N.A1 and Zarouk, A. W.2

 

Water Pollution Department, Environment Research Division, National Research Center,12311 El-Behoos St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt1. Molecular Genetics and Enzymology Department, Human Genetics and Genome Research Division, National Research Center,12311 El-Behoos St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt2.

*ashraf_shoeib@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Epidemiological studies have shown that TTV is described worldwide in various populations. The prevalence of TTV viremia in healthy adults of developed countries is in the range of 1-34%. Prevalence reported from third world countries was found to be higher, typically 40-70%. In people who have received multiple blood transfusion; the virus is almost universally present with more than one subtype in each individual. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the incidence of TTV infection among children's, wastewater, and drinking water, also genotyping of detected TTV strains circulating in the studied samples collected from Cairo. Subjects and Methods: stool samples were collected from 152 Children’s with age range from 6 months to 12 years. Also, 45 wastewater samples and 45 drinking water samples were collected monthly from inlet and outlet from wastewater treatment plant (Zenin) and from El-Giza drinking water treatment plant. Collected samples were submitted to semi- nested PCR for amplification of 3' non translated region of TTV. The expected fragment sizes of PCR products were 390 bp and 271 bp for the first and second round of PCR, respectively. PCR products, of 2nd round of some positive samples, were purified for nucleotide sequence analysis in both directions. Fragments nucleotide sequences were compared to sequences derived from the corresponding TTV genome of the same regions deposited in the Gene Bank. Results and Conclusion: Obtained data showed that the incidence of TTV in children's stool samples was 59.2% (90/152), and in sewage samples was 64.4% (29/45), while it was 17.8% (8/45) in drinking water samples. Statistical analysis indicated that there no significant difference in TTV infection between male and female in infant and early childhood age groups. The phylogenic tree of positive samples confirmed that the isolated virus sequencing was 100% of nucleotide identity to TTV isolate isolated in Germany in 2001 and deposited in the GeneBank with accession no. AF435014, and the sequence of TTV isolated in the present study belong to TTV genotype 28.

[Shoeib, A.R.S, El-Esnawy, N.A and Zarouk, A. W. Molecular Detection and Predominance of Human Torque Teno Virus in Children’s with acute hepatitis and Environmental Waters. Life Science Journal,. 2011;8(3):165-172] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.32

 

Key words: TTV, incidence, PCR, sequencing, genotyping, children, phylogenic tree

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Gender Differences in Financial Well-being, Financial Socialization and Financial Knowledge among College Students

 

Leila Falahati1, Laily Hj. Paim2

 

1. Department of Women Studies, Science and Research Branch, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Putra Malaysia. Laily@Putra.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: This study aims to determine the gender differences in the financial well-being, financial socialization and financial knowledge among college students. The sample comprised 2,430 students in six public and five private universities across Malaysia, which were randomly selected for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection method. The perceived financial well-being was measured by asking students to rate their level of satisfaction on a scale of one (not satisfied at all) to ten (very satisfied) on six items including the amount of savings, financial situation, ability to purchase, savings for emergency expenses, skills to manage money, and ability to spend. The results revealed significant gender differences in financial well-being, financial socialization and financial knowledge. Female students perceived a higher level of financial well-being and a lower level of financial knowledge and later age financial socialization. [Leila Falahati, Laily Hj. Paim. Gender Differences in Financial Well-being, Financial Socialization and Financial Knowledge among College Students. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):173-178] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.33

 

Keywords: Gender, Financial Well-being, Financial Socialization, Financial Knowledge, College Students, Financial Education,

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The impact of Nurse Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Nursing Faculty Commitment in Saudi Arabia

 

Nazik M.A. Zakari

 

Nursing Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

 

Abstract: Nursing education today is one of the merits of the Ministry of Higher Education. Higher education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established to enhance the nation’s growth and the well-being of Saudis. There is movement toward advanced nursing education in order to keep pace with today’s health demand. The Nursing Faculty in Saudi have a mission. Typically, this mission covers teaching, research, and community service. The interaction of these factors may provoke Faculty of Nursing role conflict and role ambiguity that has an impact on their commitments. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of academic nurse role ambiguity and role conflict on nursing faculty commitment in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A non-experimental descriptive cross-sectional correlational study was conducted. Three largest universities were selected. Full-time nurse faculty employees were recruited to participate in the study, with a total of 216 questionnaires returned over a three month period, giving a response rate of 88%. All respondents completed the Meyer and Allen organizational commitment instrument, the role conflict, and role ambiguity scale. Self-reported survey procedures were used to collect the study data. Descriptive procedures, Pearson‘s product-moment correlation coefficients were used in this study. Results: The majority of participants are expatriates with a mean age of 36.61 ± 10.47. The results revealed that the nursing faculty faced role ambiguity and role conflict. In addition, Nursing Faculty commitment was normative commitment followed by continuance commitment. Role ambiguity among faculty was negatively correlated to continuance and normative commitment while role conflict correlated to all commitment dimensions. There were significant mean differences between role ambiguity and role conflict and the nationality of nursing faculty. Recommendations: The results of this study reveal that many nursing faculty are experiencing role ambiguity, role conflict, which can lead to a decrease in organizational commitment. Nursing academic administrators ought to create a work environment that dilutes the role conflict and ambiguity in order to enhance excellence in academic scholarship. This will lead faculty to immerse in their own role of teaching, research, and community service and develop a sense of commitment to the organization.

[Nazik M.A. Zakari. The impact of Nurse Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Nursing Faculty Commitment in Saudi Arabia. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):179-186] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.34

 

Keywords: impact; nurse Ambiguity; Conflict; Saudi Arabia

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The Emergence of Gender Differences in Consumer Socialization among College Students

 

Leila Falahati1, laily Hj. Paim2

 

1. Department of Women Studies, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia. Laily@Putra.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: This study examines the gender differences in consumer socialization among college students. The sample comprised 2,430 students in six public and five private universities across Malaysia, which were randomly selected for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection method. The results revealed gender differences in consumer socialization, in which male students’ perceived earlier socialization regarding financial matters. In addition, the results indicated that females are socialized earlier in receiving allowances and owning bank accounts while males are socialized earlier in financial activity and financial assets.

[Leila Falahati, Laily Hj. Paim. The Emergence of Gender Differences in Consumer Socialization among College Students. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):187-191] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.35

 

Keywords: Gender, Consumer Socialization, Financial behavior, College Students, Financial Education

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Design and Synthesis of Acridine-4-Carboxamide and Acridine-4- Carboxylate Derivatives as Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

 

Gehan H. Hegazy1*, Maha S. Almutairi2, Ebtehal S. Al Abdullah2

 

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy King Saud University, K.S.A

*gehan_hegazy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Acridine and quinazoline derivatives represent important classes for the treatment of cancer. Many derivatives of them found to be tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this work novel eight acridine-4-carboxamide and acridine-4- carboxylate derivatives were synthesized from quinazoline and acridine scaffolds. Six of the newly synthesized compounds were chosen by NCI for screening as anticancer. The activity of six compounds (8a-d, 9a and 9d) was tested using the national cancer institute NCI disease oriented antitumor screen protocol. Compound 8c proved to be the most active member in this study. This acridine analog 8c could be considered as useful template for further development to obtain more potent antitumor agents.

[Gehan H. Hegazy, Maha S. Almutairi, Ebtehal S. Al Abdullah. Design and Synthesis of Acridine-4-Carboxamide and Acridine-4- Carboxylate Derivatives as Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(3):192-198] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.36

 

Key words: Acridine-4-carboxamide, acridine-4- carboxylate, quinazoline, kinase inhibitors

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Effect of Therapeutic Guidelines for Bronchial Asthma on Adult Patients' Knowledge, Practice, Compliance, and Disease Severity

 

Nadia M. Taha*1 and Zeinab H. Ali2

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Zagazig, Zagazig, Egypt

2Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, of Helwan, Helwan, Egypt

*dr_nadya_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Asthma places a large burden on affected patients and their families. Although asthma is a major cause of patient disability and in rare cases causes premature death, asthma morbidity and mortality are largely preventable when patients and their families are adequately educated about the disease and have access to high quality health care. That is, poor outcomes for patient asthma, such as hospitalizations and deaths, are at least partially sensitive to the quality of ambulatory health care. Aim of the study: to assess asthmatic adult needs, designing therapeutic and nutritional guidelines, and evaluating their effectiveness on improvement of the knowledge, practices, and severity of bronchial asthma as well as patient’s therapeutic compliance. The research hypotheses were that asthmatic adult patients receiving the designed guidelines will have significant improvements in their knowledge, practices, severity of asthma, and compliance to therapeutic regimen. Design: a quasi experimental research design was used with pre-post assessment of outcome. It involved four steps; pre-guidelines, guidelines implementation, post-guided and follow up. Setting: The study was conducted in the outpatient clinic of bronchial asthma at Zagazig University Hospitals and Helwan University Hospitals. Subjects: The study was carried out on (60) a convenience sample of asthmatic adults consecutively recruited from the study setting, uses of inhaler. Patients with other chronic diseases were excluded. Tools: Four tools were used for data collection, 1- An Interview form, 2- An Observation check list, 3- A Compliance assessment form 4- An Asthma severity assessment scale. Results: There were statistically significant effect of bronchial asthma on patient’s daily life activities, work, psychology, self-image, diet and sleep. There was Improvement in knowledge, practice, decreased level of severity of asthma and therapeutic compliance after guidelines implementation. There was a positive coefficients change in knowledge score and guidelines intervention. Also there were negative coefficients change in the severity score of bronchial asthma and Educational level and Knowledge score. The study concludes that the developed guidelines have a significant positive impact on asthma patients' knowledge, practices, therapeutic compliance, and disease severity. This success is attributed to that the guidelines are based on needs assessment and integrate updated technology. Therefore, these guidelines should be adopted as an essential component of the care provided to asthma patients. Continuous follow-up together with selecting the optimal treatment options for each individual patient are recommended. The long-term effects of following the guidelines need to be further studied.

[Nadia M. Taha and Zeinab H. Ali. Effect of Therapeutic Guidelines for Bronchial Asthma on Adult Patients' Knowledge, Practice, Compliance, and Disease Severity. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):199-208] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.37

 

Keywords: Adult asthma, asthmatic needs, guidelines, compliance, nebulizer, deep breathing, coughing exercise and Peak expiratory flow (PEF).

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Geographical analyses of rural well-being of Iran (case study sistan region)

 

Mortaza tavakoli

 

PhD, Faculty Member; Department of Geography, University of Zabol, zabol, Iran

tavakoli@uoz.ac.ir or tavakoly52@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In framework of recognize logic, reason of searching the geographical phenomena in rural well being arena and due to recognize of making clearly is from scientific special necessaries in this connection. Conforming to making clear study and analyses and existence pattern socio welfare field problem, and it is meaning rate vulnerability condition and sistan rural area discussed as a principle of the study. Proportional with the subject, the hypothesis that illustrative relationship among vulnerability in socioeconomic general dimensions and all of the performances was formed. In regard of operational and also providing recognize aspects in relation to scientific theories and explanatory introduces, used by several resources, that it’s result was practicable; intelligible framework for field work achievement, human,, physical, finance social capitals for reach to rural well being, also, should not be neglect from poverty, bereavement, retirement and rural vulnerability reagents. However, modification in theoretic attitudes from physical and material planning direction toward social and human planning is in result of intervention in capacities, abilities, and organize process and have also opportunity and security with regard to above mentioned, in rural; in relationship to different rural well being aspects and vulnerability in framework of training options, information, increasing intervention in making decision, participation increasing, using of local knowledge, reduction of discrimination, diversity livelihood has evaluated. The assessment in sistan region with selection 40 rural used by rural Islamic council. Results shown lack of follow actions pattern of the rural well-being in sistan region, with have rural vulnerability rate. In addition, created changes in depending variable never explained with created chance in independent variables.

[Tavakoli mortaza; Geographical analyses of rural well-being of Iran (case study sistan region). Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):209-214] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.38

 

Keywords: Vulnerability, Rural well being; Sistan region; Iran.

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A Study on Efficacy of Empowerment Training among Diabetes Patients

 

Hsiangchi Wu 1, Sooneng Tan2*, Chinghui Yeh3, Szuming Wu 4

 

1,2 Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Leisure Studies, National University of Kaohsiung, 3 Department of Business Management, National Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University. *corresponding author: Tan, Soon-Eng. E-mail: wu533833@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES — The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment for diabetic patients by empowerment intervention [1]. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —The research sample enrolls 30 patients with type 2 diabetes from one family medicine outpatient department of regional teaching hospitals in south Taiwan. The subjects are randomly assigned into experimental group and control group. Data is collected from July 2010 to December 2010 (7~12) and the effectiveness is re-evaluated three months later [2]. The intervention model is based on empowerment theory and application of diabetes self-management. The intervention of empowerment program which contains major six components: 1. self-management support 2.clinical information systems 3.delivery system design 4.decision support 5.health care organization 6.to make use of community resources. Data collection includes patient’s demographic information, physical examination, serum relevant biochemical parameters, and life quality [3]. RESULTS — After completing such a program, experimental group shows significant improvement than that of the controlled group in the score of life quality (The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36), and serum relevant biochemical parameters including glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and uric acid (p<0.05) [4]. CONCLUSIONS — Application of empowerment, intervention of empowerment by medical professional team and program would improve the treatment outcome of diabetes mellitus, life quality in diabetic patient and significantly improving the ability of self - management [5].

[Hsiangchi Wu, Sooneng Tan, Chinghui Yeh, Szuming Wu. A Study on Efficacy of Empowerment Training among Diabetes Patients. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):215-219] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.39

 

Keywords: Empowerment, Diabetes Mellitus, Life quality, Self-management

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The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Enhancement of Some Economic Traits and Molecular Changes in Hibiscus Sabdariffa L

 

Fadia El Sherif1, Salah Khattab1, Ezzat Goniam2, Nashwa Salem3 and Khaled Radwan4

 

1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

2Medicinal and Aromatic plants Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

3Cyclotron Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.

4 Department of molecular biology, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Woroofss@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:. Seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa were irradiated with gamma rays (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 Gy) for determining the effectiveness of different doses of irradiation on growth behaviour, yield and evaluate of roselle calyx extract and quality. Gamma irradiation at 600 Gy was superior in growth criteria enhancement. Maximum mean values for fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems and roots/plant were recorded at 600 Gy in the first season and 500 or 600 in the second one. The application of 600 Gy gave the highest effect on increasing number of fruit per plant and the most significantly effective treatment for increasing anthocyanin. The significantly higher calyx yield per plant recorded by the application of 700 Gy. The variation in DNA of the irradiated seeds in comparison to the control were successfully assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR).

[Fadia El Sherif, Salah Khattab, Ezzat Goniam, Nashwa Salem and Khaled Radwan. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Enhancement of Some Economic Traits and Molecular Changes in Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):220-229] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.40

 

Key words: Hibiscus sabdariffa, gamma rays, anthocyanin, calyx yield, RAPD- PCR.

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Attitude of Academic Ambulatory Nurses toward Patient Safety Culture in Saudi Arabia

 

Nazik M.A. Zakari

 

Nursing Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. nzakari@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Patient safety issues in Saudi Arabia have received increasing attention. Pressures to improve patient safety within academic healthcare settings are gaining momentum daily. Health care organization providers and policy makers continually strive to promote patient safety culture. The purpose of this study was to examine the nurses’ attitude toward patient safety culture in academic ambulatory healthcare settings in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional correlational descriptive design, using the Safety Attitude Questionnaire Ambulatory version (SAQ-A), was carried out in year 2010. The survey was distributed to four ambulatory academic departments, which included medical, surgical, obstetrics/gynecological, and pediatric in Riyadh. All 250 available (not on vacation or deployed out of the area) ambulatory care staff nurses and nurse managers were recruited yielding 221 responses with a response rate of 88%. Results: The highest positive attitudes were toward job satisfaction and the work experience. Working conditions and the quality of the work environment and its logistical support received the second highest positive attitudes. However, the quality of collaboration between personnel and the proactive organizational commitment to safety had the lowest positive attitudes among nurses. Strong significant relationship was indicated between job satisfaction among nurses and work conditions. Statistically significant differences in mean scores were observed for registered nurse toward stress recognition and acknowledgement of the effects of stress on patient safety than nurse mangers. Recommendations: Enhancing the quality of collaboration between personnel and the proactive organizational commitment to safety may promote safety culture in academic care settings. Assessment of workplace safety culture is the first step in identifying barriers that nurses face to provide safe patient care. Improving safety culture attitudes in academic settings can take a considerable amount of effort and resources.

[Nazik M.A. Zakari. Attitude of Academic Ambulatory Nurses toward Patient Safety Culture in Saudi Arabia. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):230-237] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.41

 

Keywords: patient safety culture, nursing, academic ambulatory, Saudi Arabia, attitude, healthcare organization

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Aerobic Degradation of Paraffin and Olefin Synthetic Based Drilling Mud Base Fluids by Gulf of Guinea Sediments under Natural Environmental Conditions

 

Okoro Chuma. Conlette

 

Dept. of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Caleb University Imota, Lagos, Nigeria. chuma2k2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aerobic biodegradation of synthetic Paraffins and Olefins in the Gulf of Guinea sediments were monitored over a 120 day period in an indoor benthic chamber basin tests measuring 18 x 30 inches. At each 30 day interval, residual hydrocarbons were measured with gas chromatograph while microbial populations were quantified with the most probable plate number method (MPN). At the end of the 120 day monitoring period, the following % degradation rates were recorded for different hydrocarbon substrates; Linear Olefin (90%), Synthetic Paraffin (82%), and Internal Olefin (86%). The overall degradation sequence showed that the Olefins degraded faster than the Paraffins but both hydrocarbon substrates were readily biodegradable by the indigenous microbial flora of the Gulf of Guinea sediments. This study demonstrated that over 85% of the degradation of Synthetic Paraffins and Olefins on the surface of sediments were carried out by aerobic microorganisms.

[Okoro Chuma. Conlette. Aerobic Degradation of Paraffin and Olefin Synthetic Based Drilling Mud Base Fluids by Gulf of Guinea Sediments under Natural Environmental Conditions. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):238-244] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.42

 

Keywords: Aerobic biodegradation, Synthetic Paraffins, Linear Olefins, Internal Olefins, Gulf of Guinea Sediments

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Impact of Nigella Sativa Supplementation on the Outcome of Systemic Inflammatory Response /Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndromes in Aged Rats

 

Nehal M. Bahgat*1, Gehane M. Hamed1, Rania A. Salah El Din2, Ghada Z.A. Soliman3

 

1Physiology Department, 2Anatomy Department Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 3National nutrition institute (NNI), Egypt. *nehalgamil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a poorly understood condition that may proceed to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. Aged people are more susceptible to SIRS/MODS than adults with more morbidity, mortality and increased cost burden on health care systems. The present study was planned to investigate the effects of pretreatment with Nigella Sativa seeds on the prognosis of systemic inflammatory response/multiple organ dysfunction syndromes in aged rats. The present study was carried out on 42 aged male Wistar albino rats (23-25 months). Rats were allocated into three groups; Sham-operated group (C, n==10); Colonic ligation and puncture group (CLP, n=17) comprised of rats given distilled water (10 ml/Kg b.w./day) by gavage for 4 weeks and Nigella Sativa/Colonic ligation and puncture group (NS/CLP, n=15) comprised of rats given ground seeds of Nigella Sativa (1 g/Kg b.w./day) by gavage. for 4 weeks. Thereafter, CLP and NS/CLP rats underwent colonic ligation and puncture operation (CLP) and after 2 days, rats were examined for body weight, rectal temperature and ECG recording. Blood samples were withdrawn to estimate arterial blood gases, complete blood picture and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine and adiponectin. Livers, kidneys and lungs were excised for histopathological study. Obtained results revealed that two days after colonic ligation and puncture operation, CLP and NS/CLP groups showed high death rate (35% and 20%, respectively), significant decrease in body weight, hyperthermia, hypoxemia, significant increase in serum levels of ALT and creatinine as well as significant decrease in serum adiponectin compared to C group. CLP group exhibited significantly higher in vivo heart rate, deeper Q wave, lymphopenia and elevated serum levels of AST compared to C group, while NS/CLP group exhibited significant decrease in hemoglobin content, packed cell volume and red blood cell count compared to C group. However, when compared to CLP group, NS/CLP rats showed significant decrease of Q wave voltage as well as leukocytosis. Histopathological examination of livers, kidneys and lungs from CLP group revealed leukocytic infiltration, cytoplasmic vacuolation and vascular congestion compared to C group. These changes were less extensive in NS/CLP group. In conclusion pretreatment with ground seeds of Nigella sativa in diet improved survival rate as well as some features of SIRS/MODS in aged rats.

[Nehal M. Bahgat, Gehane M. Hamed, Rania A. Salah El Din and Ghada Z.A.Soliman. Impact of Nigella Sativa Supplementation on the Outcome of Systemic Inflammatory Response / Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndromes in Aged rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):245-256] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.43

 

Key words: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), Colonic ligation and puncture (CLP), Nigella Sativa (NS). Intensive care unit (ICU).

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Molecular Modeling Based, Design Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Substituted Arylidene Piperazinoquinoline, a Hybrid Pharmacophore, Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Tyrosine Kinase

 

Enayat Ibrahim Aly

 

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. enayat_Ibrahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A series of 1-(2-(4-substitutedarylidene) hydrazinyl-4-(7-chloro- quinolin-4-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione VI was designed by molecular hybridization approach and synthesized for biological evaluation. Virtual screening was carried out through docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to predict if these compounds have similar binding mode as the EGFR inhibitors. Subsequently, the compounds were examined for their cytotoxic effect on human breast cell-line (MCF-7) in which the EGFR is highly expressed. Although most of the compounds were quite effective on the breast cancer cell line examined, the compounds II, III, IV a, IVc, VIa, VIc emerged as the most active among the prepared series. Thus 7-chloro-4- (2,5-dioxo 4-substitutedarylidene piperazinoquinoline can serve as the prototype molecule for further development of a new class of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors and anti-breast cancer agents.

[Enayat Ibrahim Aly. Molecular Modeling Based, Design Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Substituted Arylidene Piperazinoquinoline, a Hybrid Pharmacophore, Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Tyrosine Kinase. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):257-265] (ISSN:10978135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.44

 

Keywords: Anti-breast cancer activity . 4-Arylidine piperazinoquinoline. EGFR inhibitors. Hybrid pharmacophore approach

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Study of the predictive factors of body mass index in a group of Iranian undergraduate students

 

Hakimeh S. Sajjadi 1, Ali Akbar Shaikhi Fini 2, Mitra Yousefzadeh 2, Abdolvahab S. Samavi 2

 

1. Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Ostandari Blvd, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2. University of Hormozgan, Minab Street, Bandar Abbas, Iran

hakimeh.sajjadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: As part of research, predictive factors of body mass index (BMI) such as nutritional behavior (NB), nutritional knowledge (NK), attitude toward nutrition (ATN), physical exercise (PE) and demographic variables of age and gender among undergraduate students (US) of hormozgan university, Iran were studied, in a correlation trial. Two hundred seventy five US (137 boys and 138 girls) were randomly selected, responded to the study questionnaire and then weighed as the height was measured using a standard protocol in order to calculate BMI. Predictor factors such as NB, NK, ATN and PE were significantly positive for the normal BMI while age and gender were not positively predicted the normal BMI. Among the predicted variables, NB and PE had more important roles for explain the normal body mass index variance. It is concluded that, nutritional behavior and physical exercise could be an applicable approach for predict the health status of students.

[Hakimeh S. Sajjadi, Ali Akbar Shaikhi Fini, Mitra Yousefzadeh, Abdolvahab S. Samavi. Study of the predictive factors of body mass index in a group of Iranian undergraduate students. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):266 -270]( ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.45

Keywords: undergraduate students; BMI; nutritional behavior and knowledge; attitude towards nutrition; physical exercise

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Serum Amyloid A an Early Diagnostic Marker for Neonatal Sepsis

 

Mohamed S. Mostafa1, Zeinab M. Mounir1, Hisham Waheed 2, Hanan A. El-Gamal1, William M. Morcos1, Nahed A. Emara3, Wael H. Eltaae2

 

1Pediatrics, Institute of Postgraduate Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University

Departments of Child Health2, Clinical Pathology3, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: 100 term neonates were included in the study. 50 neonates with clinically suspected sepsis, in which blood culture, SAA measurement, CRP, CBC, were done for all neonates when sepsis was first suspected (Reading A) and 48 hours post sepsis evaluation (Reading B). The other 50 matched neonates served as a control group and the same investigations were done once for all of them, during routine follow-up or bilirubin evaluation. Patients and Methods: Of 50 neonates with clinically suspected sepsis, 41 had positive blood culture (septic group) and 9 had negative blood culture (non-septic group). The SAA levels of septic group were significantly higher than those of the control and non-septic group (p<0.001) at Reading A. in comparison with CRP, SAA levels rose earlier and in a sharper manner, had the higher levels and returned faster to normal. Results: When sepsis was first suspected (Reading A), SAA had an overall diagnostic accuracy for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis (97.6%), compared to CRP (36.6%). Statistical evaluation of SAA testing showed a sensitivity of 97.6%, specificity of 88.9%, positive predictive value of 97.6%, negative predictive value of 88.9%, and test efficiency of 96% in diagnosing of neonatal sepsis.

[Mohamed S. Mostafa, Zeinab M. Mounir, Hisham Waheed, Hanan A. El-Gamal, William M. Morcos, Nahed A. Emara, Wael H. Eltaae. Serum Amyloid A an Early Diagnostic Marker for Neonatal Sepsis. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):271-277] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.46

 

Keywords: Neonatal sepsis, serum Amyloid A, C-reactive protein.

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Damage Assessment of Buildings Due to Different Parameters of Pipeline Deterioration

 

 Metwally k. G.1, Hussein M. M. 2 and Akl . A. Y. 2

 

Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Benisuef University1, Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University2, Egypt

manar.m.hussein@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Due the high interaction between sewer pipelines deterioration and existing structures in urban areas, the operation of pipeline failure in urban areas draws much attention. In this study a thorough analysis of the pipeline failure influence in different soils on adjacent buildings was investigated. Numerical simulations were performed by means of the finite element program ANSYS/CivilFEM. The purpose of the coupled analyses (soil, pipeline and building in the same model) was to investigate the general mechanisms of soil structure interaction that occur in this type of problem. Each of these analyses produced a large amount of output data. This study highlights how the ground surface and building foundation displacements are used to estimate the damage category of buildings due to failure in pipeline. The variable parameters used to simulate the pipeline failure are pipeline settlement, position of settlement, burial depth, soil stiffness, infiltration of sewage and groundwater. For each case, results are presented as vertical and horizontal displacements of ground beneath the building and estimated category of damage is calculated.

[Metwally k. G., Hussein M. M. and Akl . A. Y. Damage Assessment of Buildings Due to Different Parameters of Pipeline Deterioration. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3): 278-289] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.47

 

Keywords: Soil structure interaction, Sewer, Pipeline, Deterioration, building damage.

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Effects of knocking-down Nucleostemin gene on apoptosis of HL-60 cells in vitro

 

YUE Baohong1, WANG Yuanyuan1, YU Lina1, FU Shuzhen1, ZHANG Qinxian2, KAN Quancheng1

 

1. Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China; 2. Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China; 3. The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

Corresponding AuthorKAN Quancheng, E-mail: johnyue70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Objective. To explore whether the apoptosis of leukemia cells could be induced by knocking-down Nucleostemin (NS) gene in vitro. Methods. HL-60 cells were taken as a model, and was directly transfected with Nucleostemin specific short hairpin RNA (NS-shRNA). Sequences that unrelated with NS gene were taken as a control. The blocking effect of NS-shRNA was detected by RT-PCR, the morphology changes in culture state were observed under inverted microscope, and the changes of cell shape and nucleus were detected by Wright-Giemsa staining. The amount of apoptotic cells were assayed by flow cytometer (FCM) and Tunel technique, and the positive rate of apoptosis was determined in the meanwhile. Results. Two NS-shRNA were synthesized in vitro, and the more effective one was selected to be transfected into HL-60 cells. The blocking rate of NS-mRNA reached up to 74.94%. 48 hours after transfection, nuclear fragmentations showed in HL-60 cells and “apoptosis bodies”, observed by Wright-Giemsa staining. The apoptosis rates in transfected groups were (25.32±3.06)% and (27.3±3.21)% respectively, but were only (3.12±0.38)% and (3.30±1.52)% in control group, detected by FCM and Tunel technique. The difference between the treated group and the control group was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion. The apoptosis of HL-60 leukemia cells can be induced by the silencing of NS gene in vitro, which NS as a candidate gene for the theoretical therapy principle of leukemia.

[YUE Bao-hongWANG Yuan-yuanYU Li-naFU Shu-zhenZHANG Qin-xian, KAN Quan-cheng. Effects of knocking-down Nucleostemin gene on apoptosis of HL-60 cells in vitro. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):290-294] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.48

 

Key words: Nucleostemin; apoptosis; short hairpin RNA; leukemia; HL-60 cell line

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Evaluation of Breast Milk in Lactating Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Mothers. Is it a Crime for the Pregnant Woman to Breastfeed her Infant?

 

Mohamed, M. El-Meligui

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. prof.meligui@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare milk composition in lactating pregnant and lactating non-pregnant mothers in order to know to what extent pregnancy could affect milk composition, and how this could be reflected on both child development and health. The study included 64 lactating females attending the Outpatient Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of El-Sahel Teaching Hospital during the period from March 2006 to February 2009. The cases were classified into three groups: Group I included 23 lactating and amenorrhoeic females, Group II included another 23 lactating and menstruating females and Group III included 18 lactating pregnant women with a gestational age that ranged from 8-16 weeks. The milk samples obtained from the patients were analyzed for their total protein, lipid and lactose contents. The quantity of milk lactose and lipids were significantly lower in pregnant lactating mothers than non-pregnant lactating women. These two nutrients are essential for the physical development of the newly born in general and for the development of its nervous system in particular. In conclusion, it is our responsibility to strongly advice against pregnancy during lactation, so that the newly born receives the best nutritional support to ensure its full physical and neurological development.

 [Mohamed M. El-Meligui. Evaluation of Breast Milk in Lactating Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Mothers. Is it a Crime for the Pregnant Woman to Breastfeed her Infant?. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):295-298] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.49

 

Key wards: Breast Milk, Pregnancy, Breastfeeding

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The Armenian-Iranian Common Ritual Festivals

 

Maryam Maki

 

 PhD Student, Department of Cultures and languages of ancient Iran, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Maki_maryam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Armenia-Iran has had relations for thousands of years. Their cultural interactions, especially, have not yet been investigated multilaterally and objectively. Some of the celebrations, which were celebrated before Christ, are celebrated by Armenian as their religious celebrations. Some of these are common between Iranian and Armenian. In this paper, the author wants intentionally to investigate these ritual common festivals. The findings of present investigation may describe the relation and accessibility of the rite, religion and history of these two countries during the year longs.

[Maryam Maki. The Armenian-Iranian Common Ritual Festivals. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):299-303] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.50

 

Keywords: Armenian-Iranian, Ritual Festivals, religion, celebrations

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Combined 20 G with 23 G Transconjunctival Vitrectomy For Complicated Vitreoretinal Cases

 

Ehab S. El Zakzouk *, MD, Mohamed A. Marzouk *, MD, Sherif H.Emerah *, MD, and Ahmed T. Shoer *, MD.

 

* Research Institute of Ophthalmology – Giza – Egypt. *marrzouk@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: Suturless posterior segment surgery has the advantages of faster wound healing, minimal surgical trauma, and reduced postoperative astigmatism; however, it is still difficult to deal with cases of advanced PVR where peripheral vitreous dissection and silicone oil injection are needed. We combined 23 – gauge and 20 – gauge vitrectomy to improve the outcome of vitreoretinal surgery. Settings: Accurus 800 (Alcon) vitrectomy machine, Alcon disposable 23- G trocar and cannula set, normal 20- G vitrectomy surgical set. Patients and Methods: The study included 20 cases of combined 20 and 23 G pars plana vitrectomies. The indications for surgery included proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) grade C and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) with tractional retinal detachment. Eyes being injected with silicone oil had 1000 cs silicone oil injected manually through the 20 G port. At the end of the surgery, the single 20 G opening was sutured with 7-0 vicryl. Results: 20 Cases were operated upon, 10 had PVR grade C, and 10 had PDR with tractional retinal detachment. 7 cases with PVR needed single operation while the other 3 cases needed second interference. 8 Cases with PDR with tractional retinal detachment needed single operation and the other 2 cases needed re-interference. Conclusion: Combination of 20-G with 23-G vitrectomy appears to be an efficient technique in dealing with complicated vitreoretinal cases. Besides, being viable from the economical point of view.

[Ehab S. El Zakzouk, Mohamed A. Marzouk, Sherif H.Emerah and Ahmed T. Shoer Combined 20 G with 23 G Transconjunctival Vitrectomy For Complicated Vitreoretinal Cases. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):304-308] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.51

 

Keywords: Transconjunctival vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

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Symbol of lotus in ancient world

 

Pedram Rezania

 

PhD Student, Department of Cultures and languages of ancient Iran, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. pedramrezania@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research has been performed in purpose of definition and explanation of Total quality management advanced model and investigating its role in organizations’ strategic evolution. This article is in type of developmental researches and its performance method is survey and library studies. Moreover information collecting tool is taking notes. In literature of subject of this article initially the principles of total quality management has been discussed, so that we can obtain better perception in order to applying this system in business and improvement of organizations’ performance. In order to apply total quality management in organizations strategically, we have examined TQM movement in Japan and some cases about using of this method have been mentioned. In fact, in this article the model which has been named Total Quality Management Advanced Model (TQMEX) is based on TQM facts and has been modeled according to instructions of this model. A referendum which has been done in Japan, Hong Kong and South Korea indicates the importance of Japanese system of total quality management advanced model in order to implement total quality management system in organizations. Finally, results and information obtained from this research provide criteria and methods for which are the result of the large organizations’ experiences that not only have passed two world’s oil crisis and Asian financial crisis successfully, but also have continued their growth while these two crises.

[Pedram Rezania. Symbol of lotus in ancient world. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):309-312] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.52

 

Keywords: Mythos of lotus, ancient world, symbol of lotus

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Identification and Prioritization of Factors Affecting the Dropouts of the Employees: A case study of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy-Based Approach from Tehran

 

Davood Vahdat 1, Sevil farshid 2

 

1. Lecturer, IT and Computer Engineering Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

2. MSc. in Management of Information Technology, IT and Computer Engineering Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran

se_farshid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: If organizations wish to achieve their goals, they should have the capacity to attract, maintain and preserve their human resources. The desire to quit the job is one of the factors that make the organization face problems in achieving its goals. In this research, after the literature review and the background of the study, the dimensions and the components which force the employees to leave their jobs are identified. Then with the use of the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), the degree of importance of each of the components is specified. This research aims to determine the degree of importance of each of the factors causing the nurses to quit their jobs. The statistical population of this research consists of the nurses from the governmental hospitals of Tehran province. The findings of this study indicate that such factors as supervision style, job identity, job significance, job security, and salary have great effects on the decision of the nurses in the governmental hospitals of Tehran province to leave their jobs. It has also become known that the availability of resources, age and role conflict as well as role ambiguity have no significant influence on their decisions.

[Davood Vahdat, Sevil farshid. Identification and Prioritization of Factors Affecting the Dropouts of the Employees: A case study of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy-Based Approach from Tehran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):313-317] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.53

 

Keywords: Dropout; Hospital, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP)

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Control of Experimental Colisepticaemia in Broiler Chickens Using Sarafloxacin

 

*Wafaa A. Abd El-Ghany and K. Madian

 

Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. *Wafaa.ghany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work was conducted to detect the effect of using sarafloxacin (5 mg/kg body weight) in the drinking water of broiler chickens to control experimental colisepticaemia in broiler chickens. One hundred and seventy, day old broiler chicks were used in the study. Twenty chicks at the day of arrival were sacrificed and cultured to ensure absence of E. coli infection. One hundred and fifty chicks were divided into three equal groups, each consists of 50 birds. Group (1) was challenged with E. coli and not treated with sarafloxacin (control positive), group (2) was challenged with E. coli and treated with sarafloxacin, while group (3) was neither challenged with E. coli nor sarafloxacin treated (blank control). Challenge was done intramuscularly (I/M) at 2 weeks of age in groups (1 and 2) as each bird received 0.5 ml of the nutrient broth culture containing 108 colony forming unit (CFU) E. coli O78 / ml. One appearance of signs, sarafloxacin was added to the drinking water for 3 successive days. All the birds were kept under complete observation for 6 weeks for estimating the bird’s performance (body weight and feed conversion rate) and recording signs, mortalities, gross lesions, re-isolation of the organism and microscopical examination of the organs. The obtained results indicated significant (P<0.05) improvement in chickens performance in chickens challenged with E. coli and treated with sarafloxacin than those challenged and not treated. On the other hand, significant (P<0.05) decrease in morbidity and mortality rates, gross organs lesion score and re-isolation of E. coli O78 from the internal organs of chickens treated with sarafloxacin when compared with E. coli challenged non treated birds. Also, improvement of the microcscopical lesion scores was also detected in sarafloxacin treated group. It could be concluded from the above results that sarafloxacin used in a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight in the drinking water for 3 consecutive days is very effective in controlling of colisepticaemia in broiler chickens.

[Wafaa A. Abd El-Ghany and K. Madian, Control of Experimental Colisepticaemia in Broiler Chickens Using Sarafloxacin. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):318-328] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.54

 

Keywords: Sarafloxacin, E. coli, Chickens, Treatment

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Assessment the impact of 17α-methyltestosterone hormone on growth, hormone concentration, molecular and histopathological changes in muscles and testis of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

 

Wagdy K. B. Khalil1, Wafaa S. Hasheesh2, Mohamed- Assem S. Marie2, Hossam H. Abbas*3 and Eman A. Zahran4

 

1Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

3Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt

4Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency

*h3abbas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to explain clearly why methyltestosterone is widely used by the Egyptian producers of farmed tilapia and also to investigate its fate in treated fish to guarantee that no hazards on consumers, producers and on the environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated Nile tilapia were collected at several time intervals. Water quality parameters were within the acceptable range for fish growth. The present analyses showed highly significant increase in body weight, body length, condition factor (K), HSI and GSI, between different time intervals (April - November, 2009) in the untreated control and treated groups. On the other hand, plasma testosterone and residual concentration of testosterone hormone in muscle showed highly significant differences between the studied months in untreated control and treated groups. Molecular biological analyses revealed that methyltestosterone was able to induce DNA fragmentation and molecular genetic variability (using RAPD- PCR fingerprinting pattern) in the testis tissues of the treated Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, which was higher in the first four studied months than the untreated control tilapia. Additionally, histopathological examination showed no changes and no traces of hormone accumulation in the muscle structure. Testis showed moderate number of spermatozoa followed by increasing in number of spermatozoa at the end of the study.

[Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Wafaa S. Hasheesh, Mohamed-Assem S. Marie, Hossam H. Abbas and Eman A. Zahran, Assessment the impact of 17α-methyltestosterone hormone on growth, hormone concentration, molecular and histopathological changes in muscles and testis of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(3):329-342] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.55

 

Keywords: Nile tilapia, 17α- methyltestosterone, Sex reversal, Growth indices, Plasma testosterone, DNA damage, RPD-PCR

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An Evaluation of the Effect of 17α-Methyltestosterone Hormone on some Biochemical, Molecular and Histological Changes in the Liver of Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

 

Wafaa S. Hasheesh 1, Mohamed-Assem S. Marie 1, Hossam H. Abbas*2, Mariam G. Eshak 3 and Eman A. Zahran 4.

 

1 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Hydrobiology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

4Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Egypt

*h3abbas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present field investigation was designed to explain clearly why methyltestosterone is widely used by the producers of farmed tilapia. Also to demonstrate why there are no known risks to consumers, producers and on the environment from using this hormone provided the recommended best practices for methyltestosterone used in aquaculture of fish. In this study, all water quality parameters were within the acceptable range for fish growth. The present analyses showed no significant differences in plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, AST, ALT, LDH, it showed highly significant differences in plasma CPK activities. Molecular biological analyses revealed that using of methyltestosterone was able to induce DNA fragmentation and molecular genetic variability (using RAPD- PCR fingerprinting pattern) in the liver tissues of the treated Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, which was higher in the first four studied months than the untreated control tilapia. Additionally, histopathological examination in liver sections of control fish showed normal structure followed by diffuse severe hepatocytic vacuolations, the treated fish showed diffuse vacuolar degeneration followed by mild and severe hepatocytic vacuolations .

[Wafaa S. Hasheesh, Mohamed- Assem S. Marie, Hassam H. Abbas, Mariam G. Eshak and Eman A. Zahran. An Evaluation of the Effect of 17α-Methyltestosterone Hormone on some Biochemical, Molecular and Histological Changes in the Liver of Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus]. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(3): 343-357] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.56

 

Keywords: Nile tilapia, 17α- methyltestosterone, sex reversal, plasma constituents, DNA alteration.

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Early Marker for Renal Impairment and Angiopathy in Diabetic Egyptian Children

 

Azza Abdel Shaheed Abdallah1, Karima Abbas El-Shamy2, William M. Morcos1, Tahani Hanna Mikhail2and Nevein Naim Fadl2

 

Departments of 1Child Health and2Physiology Department National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. *william_M_Morcos@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Since diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for early onset of many complications (atherosclerotic vascular disease, coronary heart disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), there is therefore an essential need to know and understand more about the early detection of these complications in order to develop effective prevention strategies.Objective: The current work was carried out on type 1 diabetic children to investigate the level of retinol-binding-protein (RBP4) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) as an early marker for renal impairment and angiopathy. Methods: Forty-eight children (7-15 years) with type diabetes, 18 children with micro-albuminuria (MA+ group) and 30 children were normoalbuminuria (MA- group) and these two groups are compared with 24 apparently healthy non-diabetic children. A comparative study was performed for these groups as regarded to the levels of RBP4, insulin, ET-1 and testosterone. Results: The high levels of serum and urine RBP4 in MA- (normoalbuminuria) type 1 diabetic children group, indicates that RBP4 could be an early marker for renal impairment even in the absence of renal impairment (MA). The significantly higher level of plasma ET-1 in MA- than in MA+ diabetic group, may indicate that endothelial dysfunction, precedes the appearance of microabuminuria in type 1 diabetic patients, and could be used as an early marker for diabetic microangiopathy. Level of serum testosterone was significantly reduced in male diabetic children and showed direct correlation with age and insulin dose.Conclusion: (1) High levels of serum and urine RBP4 in MA+ type 1 diabetic children groups, indicates that RBP4 (retinol binding protein) is an early marker for renal impairment even in the absence of MA; (2) The significantly higher level of plasma ET-1 (Endothelin-1) in MA+ (normalalbuminurea) than in MA+ (microalbuminurea) group, may indicate that endothelial dysfunction, precedes the appearance of microalbuminurea in type 1 diabetic patients, and could be used as an early marker for diabetic microangiopathy. In addition, no correlation was found between plasma ET-1 and both of serum insulin and insulin dose in the diabetic children; (3) Level of serum testosterone is reduced significantly in the diabetic children males and showed direct correlation with age and insulin dose.

[Azza Abdel Shaheed Abdallah, Karima Abbas El-Shamy, William M. Morcos, Tahani Hanna Mikhail and Nevein Naim Fadl. Early Marker for Renal Impairment and Angiopathy in Diabetic Egyptian Children]. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):358-366] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.57

 

Key words: Diabetes children, angiopathy albuminuria

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1-4 years old infant’s acute diarrhea treatment with zinc sulfate and ORS solution:

A case study at Eshkenan city, Fars province, Iran

 

Hakimeh S. Sajjadi 1, Ali Akbar Shaikhi Fini 2, Abdolvahab S. Samavi 2

 

1. Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Ostandari Blvd, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2. University of Hormozgan, Minab Street, Bandar Abbas, Iran

hakimeh.sajjadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of treatment efficiency of zinc sulfate and ORS solution in combination or with ORS (only) on intensity and duration of diarrhea in 1-4 years old infants. A total of one hundred two of 1-4 years old cases were treated in two groups, control group (52 cases) and experimental group (50 cases). Treatment period were done at health-care center of Eshkenan city, Fars province, Iran. Obtained data were evaluated by t-test for detection of significant difference. Findings showed that zinc sulfate in combination with ORS had better treatment efficiency on shortening of acute diarrhea and lowering its intensity, in comparison with ORS, alone. From the results of this study, it is concluded that zinc sulfate is a suitable completive treatment accompanying with ORS in treating infant’s diarrhea term. [Hakimeh S. Sajjadi, Ali Akbar Shaikhi Fini, Abdolvahab S. Samavi. 1-4 years old infant’s acute diarrhea treatment with zinc sulfate and ORS solution: A case study at Eshkenan city, Fars province, Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):367-369] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.58

 

Key words: 1-4 years old infants; diarrhea; zinc sulfate; ORS solution

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[Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):370-372] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.59

As the result of critical review, this article has been withdrawn.

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Hepatotoxic Potential of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) in Adult Male Albino Rats

 

Wafaa F. Hussein1, Fatma Y. Farahat1, Marwa A. Abass1 and Azza S. Shehata2

 

Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology,1 Histology and Cell Biology2, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background and Aim of the Work: Gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator, is widely used in agriculture of many countries including Egypt. However, its potential hazardous effects on human health were relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sub- chronic toxicity of GA3 on hepatic function and structure in adult male albino rats and also to determine the effects of withdrawal of GA3 on the affected parameters following 6 weeks of follow up. Material and Methods: Forty adult male albino rats were equally divided into four groups; the first group was used as a negative control, while the second group (positive control group) received NaOH; the vehicle. Animals of the third group (GA3 group) received 75 ppm of GA3 daily in drinking water for six weeks. Animals of the last group (Recovery group) received the same treatment as the third group for six weeks then were left without any treatment for another 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed for assessment of liver function tests; ALT, AST, GGT and ALP. Liver specimens were collected for histopathological examination and assessment of hepatic levels of SOD, CAT, GSHPx and MDA. Results: GA3 sub-chronic toxicity induced a significant increase in AST, ALT, GGT and ALP as compared to control group. There was also a significant increase in hepatic malondialdehyde level with a significant decrease in SOD, CAT, and GSHPx enzymes activity in comparison with control groups. Histopathological examination using light microscope showed; hepatocyte vacuolization and inflammatory cellular infiltration with sinusoidal dilatation. Most of hepatocytes appeared shrunken with pyknotic nuclei. Moreover, bcl-2 immunolocalization revealed over-expression of this protein in both hepatocytes and endothelial cells of hepatic sinusoids. Electron microscopic examination revealed most of hepatocytes were with shrinkage nuclei with condensation of its heterochromatin and the cytoplasm appeared electron dense with many mitochondria. On the other hand, stoppage of GA3 administration for 6 weeks has resulted in some sort of regression of the previously mentioned hepatoxic effects. Conclusion: results of the current study suggested gibberellic acid was a potent pro-oxidant that induced a significant hepatotoxicity in adult male albino rats, while 6 weeks period of follow up was in sufficient for complete recovery of these toxic effects.

[Wafaa F. Hussein, Fatma Y. Farahat, Marwa A. Abass and Azza S. Shehata, Hepatotoxic Potential of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) in Adult Male Albino Rats] Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(3):373-383] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.60

Keywords: Plant Growth Regulators; Gibberellic Acid; Hepatoxicity; Oxidative Stress; and Lipid Peroxidation

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Laboratory diagnosis of FMD using real-time RT-PCR in Egypt

 

*Laila EL-Shehawy; Abu-Elnaga H.; Abdel Atty M.; Fawzy H.; Al-Watany H. and Azab A.

 

Department of Foot and Mouth Disease, Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt. *drlaila15@yahoo.com; h.abu-elnaga@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Definitive diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) requires the detection of virus antigen or genome in clinical material. The aim was performance of real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for this purpose. Twenty nine cattle samples of vesicular epithelial and nasal swabs from four localities of Ismailia governorates were examined by ELISA, VN, RT-PCR and rRT-PCR. The results showed that 11 samples were positive by ELISA and virus isolation, 8 of serotype O and 3 for type A. Fourteen samples out of 29 were positive by RT-PCR and rRT-PCR. The features that influence sample quality appear to be less important for the rRT-PCR and RT-PCR as they can detect a small fragment of FMDV genomic RNA. Real-time RT-PCR provided an extremely sensitizer and rapid procedures that contributes to improved laboratory diagnosis of FMD.

[Laila EL-Shehawy; Abu-Elnaga H.; Abdel Atty M.; Fawzy H.; Al-Watany H. and Azab A. Laboratory diagnosis of FMD using real-time RT-PCR in Egypt] Life Science Journal,. 2011;8(3):384-387] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.61

 

Keywords: foot-and-mouth disease virus, rRT-PCR

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Comparison between Uses of Therapeutic Exercise and Heat Application on Relieve Pain, Stiffness and Improvement of Physical Function for Patient with Knee Osteoarthritis

 

Wafaa I. Shereif and Amira A. Hassanin

 

Department of Adult Care Nursing, Faculty of Nursing,Mansoura University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Osteoarthritis is a common chronic disease and a major worldwide problem for medical, psychosocial, and economic reasons. Osteoarthritis leads to considerable morbidity in terms of pain, functional disability, lowered quality of life, and psychological problems and affected people are mainly cared for in the community. The aim of this study was to compare between uses of therapeutic exercise and heat application on relieve pain, stiffness and improvement of physical function for patient with knee osteoarthritis. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the out patient clinic of orthopedic at Mansoura University main hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 90 osteoarthritis patients of both sex and equally divided into 3 groups (G1) received training to used heat application with pharmacological treatment to decrease symptoms of osteoarthritis, (G2) received training of physical exercise with pharmacological treatment to decrease symptoms of osteoarthritis, (G3) received a combination training from physical exercise and heat application with pharmacological treatment prescribed by physician. The main inclusion criteria was diagnosis osteoarthritis of the knee based on attendant to out patient clinic at least twice / week. Results: knee stiffness improves from {mean= (G1, G2 & G3) 9.17, 22.08& 1.25 respectively to 66.25, 47.92& 85 respectively} after implementing education intervention. There were statistical significant difference between the three groups of studied sample pre – post teaching phase regarding experiencing total knee stiffness score ( P ≤ 0,001, 0,001& 0,001 respectively). Conclusion: the use of a combination of therapeutic exercise and heat application together for relieving pain, stiffness and improving physical function for patient with osteoarthritis was successful

 [Wafaa I. Shereif and Amira A. Hassanin, Comparison between Uses of Therapeutic Exercise and Heat Application on Relieve Pain, Stiffness and Improvement of Physical Function for Patient with Knee Osteoarthritis] Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(3): 388-396] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.62

 Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis, Pain; Exercise; Heat application; Functional improvement.

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Seasonal Variations and Prevalence of Some External Parasites Affecting Freshwater Fishes Reared at Upper Egypt

 

Mahmoud A. El-Seify¹, Mona S. Zaki*², Abdel Razek Y. Desouky¹, Hosam H. Abbas², Osman K. Abdel Hady² and Attia A. Abou Zaid³

 

1Fac. of Vet. Medicine Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

2 Hydrobiology Department,National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3Animal Health Research Institute Kafrelsheikh, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

*dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to detect prevalence and seasonal variation of external parasites affecting freshwater fishes. 330 Oreochromis niloticus and 140 Clarias gariepinus were collected from three different ecosystems at Kafrelsheikh province. Obtained results revealed that, the highest infection rate was recorded among O.niloticus followed by C. gariepinus. Also, seasonal dynamics among the examined O.niloticus were recorded.The isolated ectoparasites among examined fishes were Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Cichlidogyrus aegypticus, Cichlidogyrus cirratus, Quadricanthus aegypticus, Macrogyrodactylus clarii, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Trichodina rectinucinata, Chillodinella hexastica, Ichthyophthirius multifillis, Henneuguya branchialis, Lamproglena monody, Ergasilus sarsi and Copepodit stage (2nd stage) of Lernea cyprinacea.

[Mahmoud A. El-Seify, Mona S. Zaki, Abdel Razek Y. Desouky, Hosam H. Abbas, Osman K. Abdel Hady and Attia A. Abou Zaid, Seasonal Variations and Prevalence of Some External Parasites Affecting Freshwater Fishes Reared at Upper Egypt].Life Science Journal;2011;8(3):397-400](ISSN:10978135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.63

 

Key words: External parasites, monogenetic trematodes, external protozoa, crustaceans, O.niloticus, C. gareipinus

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Some Study on Clinopathological and Biochemical Changes in of Some Freshwater Fishes Infected With External Parasites and Subjected to Heavy Metals Pollution in Egypt

 

Mahmoud A. El-Seify¹, Mona S. Zaki*², Abdel Razek Y. Desouky¹, Hosam H. Abbas², Osman K. Abdel Hady² and Attia A. Abou Zaid³

 

1Fac. of Vet. Medicine Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

2 Hydrobiology Department,National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3Animal Health Research Institute Kafrelsheikh, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

*dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to study the impact of external parasites and heavy metals pollution on some liver function tests of some freshwater fishes. 470 Fish species (330 Oreochromis niloticus and 140 Clarias gariepinus) were collected alive from three different ecosystems in Kafr-Elshiekh province, Egypt. The obtained results revealed that both aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes activities as well as creatinine and urea values were elevated in the external parasites infected fish as well as in the fish exposed pollutants. While fishes exposed to both external parasites infection and heavy metal pollution led to more drastic increase in serum AST and ALT enzymes activities as well as creatinine and urea values. In addition; heavy metals pollution increased the susceptibility of fish to protozoa infection while decrease prevalence of monogenea and crustacean infection. On conclusion; infection with external parasites in fishes exposed to heavy metals had the highest effect on liver and kidney functions in the studied fishes.

[Mahmoud A. El-Seify, Mona S. Zaki, Abdel Razek Y. Desouky, Hosam H. Abbas, Osman K. Abdel Hady and Attia A. Abou Zaid, Some Study on Clinopathological and Biochemical Changes in of Some Freshwater Fishes Infected With External Parasites and Subjected to Heavy Metals Pollution in Egypt] Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(3): 401-405] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.64

 

Keywords: External parasites, Heavy metals, Oreochromus niloticus, Clarias gariepinus, AST, ALT.

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Efficacy of Myrrh Extract "Mirazid®" to Reduce Lead Acetate Toxicity in Albino Rats with Special Reference to Cerebellum and Testes

 

Nahla AG Ahmed Refat *1 and Marwa A Abass2

 

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine*1 and Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine2, Zagazig University, Egypt

 *Nahla_kashmery@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Lead is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant with a worldwide health problems. A total fifty adult male albino rats were equally divided into five groups to evaluate the toxic effects of lead acetate on liver, kidneys, brain and testes of albino rats, besides assessing the efficacy of myrrh extract in reducing these toxic changes. Group (1) was left without treatment. Each rats in group (2) was orally given 2 ml distilled water. Each rats in group (3) was given 20 mg lead acetate / kg B.wt. Each rats in group (4) was given 500 mg myrrh-extract / kg B.wt. Each rats in group (5) was simultaneously given similar doses of lead acetate and myrrh-extract as those given to groups (3&4). Treatments of groups (1-5) were administered daily by stomach tube for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed, necropsied and the gross lesions were recorded. Moreover, specimens were collected from the liver, kidneys,,brain and testes of groups(1-5) and prepared for histopathological examination and morphometrical analysis of cerebellum and testes.. Histopathological examination of group (3) showed degenerative and necrotic changes in the hepatic and renal cells. Interstitial and perivascular aggregations of lymphocytes and hyperplasia of epithelial lining of some bile ducts with newly formed bile ductules were detected . Some hepatocytes and renal cells showed karyomegaly and cytomegaly with presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The brain revealed congestion, degenerated neurons, satellitosis, neuronophagia, encephalomalacia and coagulative necrosis of Purkinje cell. The testes showed interstitial edema among degenerated seminiferous tubules. The previous changes in cerebellum and testes were supported by the morphometric results which revealed a significant reduction of the mean thickness of the Purkinje cell layer when compared with the control rats. A significant decrease (p<0.001) of the width of germinal epithelial layer of the affected seminiferous tubules and number of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes was detected. Group (5) showed marked amelioration of the encountered lesions in group (3). It could be concluded that, the adverse effects, induced by lead acetate, were markedly ameliorated by co-treatment with myrrh extract.

[Nahla AG Ahmed Refat and Marwa A Abass, Efficacy of Myrrh Extract "Mirazid®" to Reduce Lead Acetate Toxicity in Albino Rats with Special Reference to Cerebellum and Testes] Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(4): 406-414] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.65

 

Keywords: Lead-acetate, Mirazid (Myrrh -extract), pathology, morphometrical analysis

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Some studies on fish deformity in freshwater fish in Egypt

 

Shawer.. R1., Safinaz Gomaa2, Saleh. W3., Soliman. M. K4., Khalil R5 and Mona S. Zaki6 

 

1General Organization of Veterinary Services, Egypt

2National Inst. of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alex . Branch, Egypt

3Dept. of Microbiology, Fac. of Agriculture, Cairo Univ., Egypt

4Dept. of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Fac. of Vet. Med., Damanhour Univ., Egypt

5Dept. poultry and Fish Diseases, Fac. of Vet. Med, Alex. Univ., Egypt

6 Hydrobiology Dept.,Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo Egypt.

elzahra2002@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Fish anomalies are defined as presence of defects in particular parts of the body like vertebral column, mouth and caudal peduncle regions. This study was carried out on 400 fishes showed signs of anomalies (250 cultured, and 150 wild) collected from Alexandria, Kafr El-Sheikh and El-Behera Governorate in the period from June 2006 to May 2008. The clinical signs were in the form of, deformity of vertebral column, mouth and caudal peduncle. Also most fish were emaciated with dark discoloration of the external body. Internally, congestion of some internal organs (spleen, kidney and gills) with enlargement and paleness of liver, watery fluid in abdominal cavity were the main observed signs. Ration analysis from affected farms was carried out to detect calcium deficiency effect on fish deformity which revealed 17 samples had calcium deficiency from total examined 250 by a ratio of 6.8%. Deformed fish were examined for cytogenetic effect which revealed 6 samples have cytogenetic anomaly. Infection with Ichthyophonus hoferi was 68 samples from total number of 250 cultured fish by a ratio of 27.2% and 30 samples from total number of 150 wild fish by a ratio of 20% . Infestation with Myxosoma cerebralis was 68 from total examined 250 cultured fish by aratio of 27.2% and 14 samples from total examined 150 wild fish by a ratio of 9.3%. The prevalence of infection with Ichthyophonus hoferi and Myxosoma cerebralis were higher in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate followed by El- Behera and Alexandria. The prevalence of infection site with Ichthyophonus hoferi and Myxosoma cerebralis were higher in liver followed by kidneys, spleen and intestine respectively Histopathological changes of natural infected fish revealed changes of most affected organs as will as presence of cyst of Myxosoma cerebralis and spores of Ichthyophonus hoferi in many organs. Through this study we found that fish anomaliesproved to be affect fish economically either by low production or marketabilityAlso infectious causes of anomalies were of high percentage, so more studies and researches are of important in this situation to make planning for control.

[Shawer.. R., Safinaz Gomaa, Saleh. W., Soliman. M.K., Khalil R and Mona S. Zaki, Some studies on fish deformity in freshwater fish in Egypt] Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(3):415-422] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.66

 

Keyword: fish deformity freshwater

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Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptor 2 in Pregnant Females Prior To Pre-Eclampsia

 

Khaled K. Aly1, Mohammad Abdel Hameed M. Nasr Ad Deen1, Gehane M. Hamed2 and Nermeen G. Mohamed2

 

1Department of Obstetricsand and Gynecology, 2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to measure the level of circulating soluble serum TNF-R2 to assess its accuracy as a predictor of pre-eclampsia during early pregnancy. Ninety pregnant women at 22-26 weeks of gestation having criteria making them liable to develop pre-eclampsia attending to the antenatal care and obstetric clinic department, at the faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Maternity Hospital. They included 2 groups of women: Group I (n=45) including women who developed pre-eclampsia; and Group II (n=45) including women who remained normotensive and non-proteinuric till delivery. Both groups were subjected to careful history taking and physical examination, all the cases were subjected to serum collection within 22-26 wks of gestation, the blood was collected for determination of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 level using ELISA technique. The results of the present study showed that there were no significant differences between women of both groups concerning age and gestational age at recruitment. The mean value of serum level of TNF-R2 was significantly higher in women who developed pre-eclampsia when compared to women of the control group. In addition, significant increase in mean serum TNF-R2 was found in women who developed severe preeclampsia. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between serum TNF-R2 and each of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure in preeclamptic women.

[Khaled K. Aly, Mohammad Abdel Hameed M. Nasr Ad Deen, Gehane M. Hamed and Nermeen G. Mohamed, Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptor 2 in Pregnant Females Prior To Pre-Eclampsia] Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3): 423-432] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.67

 

Keyword: Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptor 2 in Pregnant Females Prior To Pre-Eclampsia

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Gastroprotective effect of Assyrian plum (Cordia myxa L.) fruit extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats

 

Inas, Z.A. Abdallaha, Hala, A.H. Khattaba and Gehan, H. Heebab

 

aNutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan University, Egypt

bPharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Egypt

izaa2011@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases in the world. Although there are many drugs used for the treatment of gastric ulcer, most of these produce several adverse reactions. This study investigated the protective effects of Assyrian plum (Cordia myxa L. ) fruit extract (CME) against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg -1 b.wt.). CME was administered orally at a dose of 125 mg/kg b.wt. and ranitidine (RAN), a reference drug, at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.wt. two weeks prior to indomethacin injection. Pretreatment with CME produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions (U.I.), malondialdehyde (MDA), and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) associated with significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. A similar increase in mucin content, NO and PGE2 was not observed with RAN although it generated a preventive index of 75.9%. RAN significantly increased pH value and decreased pepcin activity, and gastric juice free and total acidity. Histological studies of stomach mucosa confirmed these results. Stomach of rats administrated with RAN showed leukocytic infiltration in submucosal layer. Meanwhile, stomach of rats administrated CME either alone or with RAN showed no histopathological changes. CME can protect indometacin-induced gastric ulceration due to its antioxidative and mucin enhancing properties. The protection afforded by co-administration of CME and RAN was found to be better than that of RAN alone. Results of the present study suggest that RAN should be used together with CME for better gastroprotective effect as well as to reduce H2 antagonists drugs adverse effects.

[Inas, Z.A. Abdallah, Hala, A.H. Khattab and Gehan, H. Heeba. Gastroprotective effect of Assyrian plum (Cordia myxa L.) fruit extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats]. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3): 433-445] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.68

 

Keywords: Cordia myxa Extract, Gastroprotective, Indomethacin, Ranitidine

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Evaluation of safety and efficacy of intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute stroke in patients 80 and older − two center study

 

ZHAO Jie1, XU Hao-wen1,TAN Song1, LI Ming-hua2, FANG Chun2, XU Yu-ming1

 

1. Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

2. Department of Interventional Radiology, the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200026, China.

Co-first author: XU Hao-wen, neuron@126.com; Corresponding author: XU Yu-ming, xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

[Abstract] Object The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of very elderly patients (≧80 years) with acute ischemic stroke treated with intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. Method The characteristics and clinical outcome of patients aged ≧ 80 years (n =21) were compared retrospectively contemporaneous patients aged ˂ 80 years (n =65) from a registry of consecutive patients treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis and control group who aged ≧ 80 years and did not received thrombolytic therapy (n =50). Results There were no significant difference in favorite recanalization rate, short-term outcome and incidence of symptom intracranial hemorrhage between the very elderly and younger cohorts who received thrombolytic therapy (P=0.528, P=0.102, P=0.353). The incidence of symptom intracranial hemorrhage in the very elderly patient group was lower than that of normal age patient group (42.9% versus 50.8%, P=0.042), however, which is higher than that of the control group (42.9% versus 16%, P=0.017). The mortality of very elderly group who received thrombolytic therapy was similar to that of the control group (23.8% versus 28%, P=0.816), which was higher than that of younger cohort group (23.8% versus 10.8%, P=0.034). Conclusions There were relatively high feasibility, safety and efficacy in very elderly patients (80 years) with acute ischemic stroke treated with intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. These findings demonstrate that the use of intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy in very elderly patients should not be avoided but pursued advisably.

[ZHAO Jie, XU Hao-wen,TAN Song, LI Ming-hua, FANG Chun, XU Yu-ming. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute stroke in patients 80 and older − two center study. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):446-450] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.69

 

Key words: elderly; cerebral infarct; intra-arterial thrombolysis

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Developing methods for anatomical identification of the genus Zygophyllum L. (Zygophyllaceae) in Saudi Arabia. Original research

 

Nahed M. Waly*, Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi**, Rahma I. Al-Shamrani,**

 

Faculty of Science- Botany department- Cairo University, Egypt*

* Faculty of Science- Biology department- King Abdel Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia*

*Corresponding author, e-mail: nwaly89@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Zygophyllum L., the largest genus of Zygophyllaceae comprises about 100 species known from the Mediterranean to Central Asia, more than eleven species growing in Saudi Arabia specially in desert and saline habitats. This study deals with taxonomy of Zygophyllum species growing in Saudi Arabia depending on anatomical characters of, leaves, and petioles to eleven investigated species. Anatomical features of leaves and petiole of the eleven investigated Zygophyllum species show characters of major importance such as stem outline, leaf outline, the arrangement of leaf vascular tissue, in addition to the number of vascular bundles in the inner leaf whorl, and characters of minor importance such as leaf mesophyll, and the branching of the main vascular bundle in the petiole Those characters enable us to separate Z. simplex from the other ten species by its cup shape transverse section in stem. Leaf vascular tissue is arranged either in straight line, or in two whorls . Petiole vascular bundles tissue arranged in two whorls the outer with number of vascular bundles, the inner whorl with two type: one main central vascular bundle and one main central vascular bundle, associated with two peripheral vascular bundles. According to all Those anatomical characters an artificial key explain the difference between the eleven investigated Zygophyllum species. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):451-459] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.70

 

Keywords: Zygophyllum species, anatomical features, leaf vascular tissue

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H-type Hypertension and Recurrence of Ischemic Stroke

 

Tan Song1, Zhao Lu1, Wang Haili1, Song Bo1, Li Zhuo1, Gao Yuan1, Lu Jiameng1, Chandra Avinash1, Xu Yuming1

 

1. Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Co-first author: Zhao Lu; Corresponding author: XU Yu-ming, xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Both hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia are important risk factors of ischemic stroke. The hypertension with hyperhomocysteinemia is defined as “H-type hypertension”, with a prevalence of 75% among Chinese hypertensive population. The correlation between H-type hypertension and recurrence of ischemic stroke needs to be confirmed. In this study, we prospectively recruited and followed up 602 ischemic stroke patients in Henan province, China. The average age of patients was 59.33±13.20 years and 67.3% being male. Average level of homocysteine was 19.09±11.19 mmol/L and 57% patients had hypertension. There were 310 (51.5%) H-type hypertension patients and 292 (48.5%) non H-type hypertension patients. 23.5% patients had past stroke history in H-type hypertension group and 15.1% in non H-type hypertension group. Stroke recurrence was recorded in 6.1% patients with H-type hypertension and in 1.7% patients non H-type hypertension group at 6-month follow-up. Multivariate Logistic analysis demonstrated a weak association between the H-type hypertension and stroke recurrence at 6-month follow-up. Thus, H-type hypertension could be a risk factor for stroke recurrence in Henan Chinese population.

[Tan Song, Zhao Lu, Wang Haili, Song Bo, Li Zhuo, Gao Yuan, Lu Jiameng, Chandra Avinash, Xu Yuming. H-type Hypertension and Recurrence of Ischemic Stroke. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):460-463] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.71

 

Keywords: H-type hypertension; ischemic stroke; recurrence

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Stent displacement during the Y-stent assisted coil embolization of wide-neck basilar tip aneurysm

 

Tan Song1; Xu Hao-wen2; Song Bo1, Chandra Avinash 1, Xu Yu-ming1

 

1. Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

2 Department of Interventional Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

Co-first author: Xu Hao-wen; Corresponding author: Xu Yu-ming, xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: Y-stent technique has been widely used in the treatment of wide-neck basilar tip aneurysm. Compared to single stent assisted technique, one of the distinguished complications in Y-stent technique is the stent displacement. This is first report about analysis of stent displacement during the Y-stent assisted coil embolization of wide-neck basilar tip aneurysm. Two Cases with wide-neck basilar tip aneurysm were initially planned to introduce Y-stent assisted coil embolization; however, inadvertent migration of stent occurred during the procedure. In one case, the distal portion of the displaced stent migrated into the aneurysm lumen. In another case, the proximal portion of the stent displaced, resulting in a horizontal stent across the aneurysm neck.The two aneurysms were successfully embolized preserving important vessels.These cases highlight the potential tendency of stent displacement during procedure of Y-stent technique of wide-neck basilar tip aneurysm. The former stent seems to displace more easily than the latter stent, and longer length of stent may reduce the incidence of stent displacement.

[Tan Song, Xu Hao-wen, Song Bo, Chandra Avinash, Xu Yu-ming. Stent displacement during the Y-stent assisted coil embolization of wide-neck basilar tip aneurysm. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):464-466] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.72

 

Key words: Stent; Displacement; Coil; Aneurysm; Wide neck

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Surface Topography and Spermiogenesis of Lamellodiscus Diplodicus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae), A Parasite of Gerres Oyena (teleostei, Gerridae) from The Suez Gulf, Egypt

 

Elsayed M, Bayoumy*1 and Sayed Abd El- Monem2

 

1 Hydrobiology Researches Dept., National Research, Cairo, Egypt

2 Zoology Dept. Faculty of Science Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*bayoumy2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Out of 150 Gerres oyena fish examined only, 60 were found infected with the Diplectinid parasite, Lamellodiscus diplodicus with an infection rate of 40%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the worm body pocesses an anterior prohaptor and a symmetrical posterior one. The opithaptor contains squamodisc of 19–20 concentric rings; each is fringed with enormous number of small spinose structures. The squamodisc is rich in small rounded-shaped presumed sensory structures. Tegumental corrugations are present on the dorsal and ventero-lateral surfaces of both the fore and hind bodies in the form of ridges running longitudinally forming folds. Between the folds, pit- like depressions are found, besides microvillus-like tegumental projections. Numerous tapering small sized uniciliated structures are found around the region of the vaginal pore. Moreover, non- ciliated dome-shaped sensory papillae occur on the clamps and haptoral vicinity, while on the ventral surface there is a pair of cone-like presumed protruded sensillae covered with large dome-like structures. Concerning spermiogenesis, transmission electron microscopy showed the occurance of a common cytoplasmic mass of the spermatids. Each spermatid contains a large nucleus with scattered chromatin and numerous mitochondria. At the beginning of spermiogenesis, the common cytoplasmic mass shows protrberances; each with two distinct regions: a basal region (the pre-zone of differentiation) and a distal cone shaped region (zone of differentiation). The distal pointed region of the zone of differentiation contains two centriols. On either side of the inter-centriolar body, three growing elements are attached at the pointed distal extremity of the differentiation zone; two free flagella originating from the two centriols and a central element termed the median cytoplasmic process. After the flagellar elements have rejoined, the main central process, the nucleus and mitochondria have migrated into the projection. Then, the zone of differentiation constricts and each spermatozoon is released from the general cell mass. Mature spermatozoon, transverse section, is found to be surrounded with a membrane containing nucleus, mitochondrion, a single axoneme and an incomplete ring of peripheral microtubules that disappear gradually.

[Elsayed M, Bayoumy and Sayed Abd El. Monem Surface Topography and Spermiogenesis of Lamellodiscus Diplodicus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae), A Parasite of Gerres Oyena (teleostei, Gerridae) from The Suez Gulf, Egypt] Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(3):467-476] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.73

 

Keywords: Monogenea, Diplectanidae, Lamellodiscus diplodicus, surface topography, Spermiogenesis.

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The Health Status and Its Influence Factors of Stroke Patients in Community of Zhengzhou, 2010

 

Zhang Zhenxiang, Liu Lamei, Lin Beilei, Zhang Yaqi, Xie Junfang, Mei Yongxia, Zhang Weihong

 

The Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

Zhangzx6666@126.com

 

[Abstract] Objective Learning about the health status and analyzing its influence factors of stroke patients in communities, to improve the health level of the patients. Methods Choosing 177 cases of stroke patients as the study objects from communities of Zhongyuan, Erqi, Jinshui, in Zhengzhou. Using the brief questionnaire of SF-36 to investigate the health status of the patients. Results Health status scores of the 177 cases of patients are lower than normal people. Each dimension score of the forty to sixty years old patients is lower than normal people, except the social function dimension. Every dimension score of the male stroke patients that sixty or above sixty years old is lower significantly than the normal people. This is the same to female patients except body pain, energy, social function and mental health. The factors that influencing the health status of stroke patients are working situation, medical insurance, types of diagnose, frequency of incidence and duration of illness. Conclusions There is varying degrees of decline of the health status of stroke patients in communities comparing with normal people. And its influence factors are various. So the suggest is that the health of stroke patients should be taken seriously and carrying out corresponding rehabilitation nursing service to improve the patients’ health level.

[Zhang Zhenxiang, Liu Lamei, Lin Beilei, Zhang Yaqi, Xie Junfang, Mei Yongxia, Zhang Weihong. The Health Status and Its Influence Factors of Stroke Patients in Community of Zhengzhou, 2010. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):477-481] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.74

 

Key words: Stroke; Health status; Factors

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Families of maps Singularities and its Gauss maps

 

M. A. Soliman1, Nassar. H. Abdel-All1, Soad. A. Hassan1 and E. Dahi2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt

2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt

Dahi_80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper mainly studies the Singularities of smooth mapping. The singularities of the families of Gauss maps corresponding to the family of mappings are studied and the shape of these families and their singularities using mathematica program are illustrated and plotted.

Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):482-487] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.75

 

Keywords: extrinsic dierential geometry, Families of Maps, Gauss map, theory of singularities

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Study of ladybirds (Col:Coccinellidae) in Khorramabad district and the first report of Hyperaspis quadrimaculata (Redtenbacher 1844) for Iranian fauna

 

A. Ansari pour1, J. Shakarami2

 

1- Graduated University of Arak, Arak, Iran.

2- Faculty at the University of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran.

 

Abstract: Ladybird fauna of the farms, orchards and pastures of Khorramabad city were studied during 2009 and 2010. In this study, a total of 22 species belonging to 13 genus of ladybird were detected, among them four new species for the province of Lorestan (marked *) and one for Iranian fauna (marked **) were identified. Samples were collected using a valid key and identified by characteristics of their appearance and their genitalia. The species identified are as follows:

1. Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus 1758)

2. Adalia decempunctata (Linnaeus 1758)

3. Chilocorus bipustulatus (Linnaeus 1758)

4. Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus 1758)

5. Coccinella undecimpunctata (Linnaeus 1758)*

6. Coccinula elegantula (Weise, 1980)*

7. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant 1853)*

8. Exochomus flavipes (Goeze 1777)

9. Exochomus pubescens (Kuster 1848)

10. Exochomus quadripustulatus (Linnaeus 1758)

11. Exochomus undulatus (Linnaeus 1758)

12. Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777)

13. Hyperaspis quadrimaculata (Redtenbacher 1844) **

14. Oenopia conglobata (Linnaeus 1758)

15. Oenopia oncina (Olivier 1808)*

16. Propylea quatuordecimpuctata (Linnaeus 1758)

17. Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata (Linnaeus 1758)

18. Scymnus apetzi (Mulsant 1846)

19. Scymnus flavicollis (Redtenbacher 1844)

20. Scymnus syriacus (Marseul 1868)

21. Stethorus gilvifrons (Mulsant 1850)

22. Stethorus siphonulus (Kapur 1948)

[Study of ladybirds (Col:Coccinellidae) in Khorramabad district and the first report of Hyperaspis quadrimaculata (Redtenbacher 1844) for Iranian fauna. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):488-495] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.76

 

Keywords: ladybird, Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran

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Intracranial Stent Placement for Recanalization of Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion

 

Shilei Sun1, Tan Song1; Xu Haowen2; Chandra Avinash 1, Xu Yuming1

 

1. Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

2 Department of Interventional Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

Co-first author: Tan Song; Corresponding author: Xu Yuming. xuyuming@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of intracranial artery recanalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) using a self-expandable stent. All patients treated with an intracranial stent for acute cerebral artery occlusion were included. Treatment comprised intraarterial thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty and stent placement. Recanalization result was assessed by follow-up angiography immediately after stent placement. Complications related to the procedure and outcome at 3 months were assessed. Twelve patients (median NIHSS 14, mean age 63 years) were treated with intracranial stents for AIS. Occlusions were located in the posterior vertebrobasilar circulation (n=6) and in the anterior circulation (n=6). Stent placement was feasible in all procedures and resulted in partial or complete recanalization (TIMI 2/3) in 92%. No vessel perforations, subarachnoid, or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages occurred. Three patients (25%) had a good outcome (mRS 0 to 2), 3 (25%) a moderate outcome (mRS 3), and 6 (50%) a poor outcome (mRS 4 to 6). Mortality was 33.3%. Intracranial stent placement for AIS management has an excellent recanalization rate. However, it is associated with high complication risks as our series showed. We believe that the decision to treat acute ischemic stroke with intracranial stent placement should be made after careful consideration of potential benefits and risks.

[Shilei Sun, Tan Song; Xu Haowen; Chandra Avinash, Xu Yuming. Intracranial Stent Placement for Recanalization of Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):496-499] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.77

 

Keywords: Intracranial stent; Recanalization

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Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Immune Factors On Residents in High-incidence Areas of Cancer Along S River

 

Ping LI*, Jingyuan ZHU*, Yue BA*, Shiqun LI*, Xuemin CHENG*, Hua LI#, Yutang XUE#, Ruichang LIU#, Qiting ZUO, Liuxin CUI*1

 

*Department of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 450001, Zhengzhou, China

^ Department of Water and Environment, Zhengzhou University, 450001, Zhengzhou, China

# Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, ShenQiu town, Zhoukou, China

Clx@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: This study was conducted via questionnaire among the residents from 30 to 60 years old in two areas to explore the influence of water pollution on people’s health condition. The Contaminated area situated less than 2 km away from S river whereas the control area was chosen at least 20 km away from the river. The subjects were divided into four groups according to family history of cancer, gastrointestinal diseases history, gastrointestinal symptoms and smoking or drinking habit, including high-risk group group 1and normal groupgroup 2who lived in Contaminated area, high-risk group group 3and normal groupgroup 4who lived in control area respectively. Immunoblotting method was applied to test HP antibodies in serum, levels of IL-2 and INF-γ in serum were measured by ELISA method.We found that typeHP infections ( CagA or VacA-positive) in group 1, group 2 and group 3 were all significantly higher than that in group 4 (p<0.001), while type HP infection (UreA or UreB positive) had no significant difference among groups (p> 0.05)which points out that the residents living in the contaminated area along S River had significantly higher Helicobacter pylor. Values of IL-2 and INF-γ in group 1 was significantly higher than that in the other groups (p <0.05), while levers of IL-2 in group 2 and group 3 were higher than group 4 (p <0.05). Group 1 had a higher level of INF-γ than group 2 (p <0.05), these results indicated that the contaminated area residents along S River also had significantly higher immune factors . Both of which are risk factors of gastrointestinal cancer.

[Ping LI, Jingyuan ZHU, Yue BA, Shiqun LI, Xuemin CHENG, Hua LI, Yutang XUE, Ruichang LIU, Qiting ZUO, Liuxin CUI. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Immune Factors On Residents in High-incidence Areas of Cancer Along S River. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(3):500-504]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. #78

doi:10.7537/marslsj080311.78

 

Key words: Cancer; High-incidence areas; Residents; Helicobacter pylori; Immune factors.

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On Bipreordered Approximation Spaces

 

1A. Kandil QUOTE , 2M. Yakout QUOTE , and *2A. Zakaria

 

1Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo-Egypt.

2Mathematics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

*amr_zakaria2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We used preordered relations to define a bipreordered space and hence bitopological space and introduced a condition (*) on these relations such that QUOTE  , where QUOTE  , and hence we get a topology QUOTE   on QUOTE