enteric bacterial pathogens from raw mince meat in Mafikeng,
North-West Province, South Africa
Collins Njie Ateba,
of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health
Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology,
North-West University – Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046,
Abstract: A large
proportion of the world’s population rely on meat as a source of
food. Enteric bacteria species can cause infections in humans
when undercooked meat products are consumed. The aim of the
study was to isolate enteric bacteria species from raw mince
meat obtained from some supermarkets and butcheries in Mafikeng.
Ten raw mince meat samples were collected from these two types
of meat retail shops in the Mafikeng area in the North-West
Province, South Africa. The makeup of these included; 6 meat
samples from butcheries and 4 from supermarkets. The samples
were analyzed for the presence of enteric bacteria using SSA and
XLD agar. A total of 150 isolates that satisfied the preliminary
biochemical tests (oxidase, citrate utilization and TSI tests)
were further confirmed using API 20E assay and 96 were
positively identified as enteric bacteria species. The
proportion of enteric bacteria was higher in samples obtained
from butcheries (B1 and B3 with 86.7%, respectively) than in the
supermarkets (43.3% to 53.3%). The most frequently identified
species were Serratia odorifera (17.3%), Escherichia
coli (10.0%), Klebsiella oxytoca (6.7%) and
Enterobacter aerogenes (6.0%). Enteric bacteria species were
isolated and positively identified in all meat sample collected
from the different sampling sites in Mafikeng. Although most of
the species identified are pathogenic to humans, some have
strains that are known to cause foodborne outbreaks even in
countries with proper public health facilities. It is therefore
recommended that effective food safety education and training of
personnel that handle food at retail points will help in
reducing the effect of these pathogens on humans.
Njie Ateba, Thato Setona. Isolation of enteric bacterial
pathogens from raw mince meat in Mafikeng, North-West Province,
South Africa. Life Science
Journal. 2011;8(S2):1-7] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Abstract: Twelve Friesian
calves were blocked according to sex and age and assigned to
treatment and control groups (six calves in each group). The aim
of this research was to compare the value of layer chicken
litter and yellow maize meal as a source of Phosphorus (P) in
cattle by determining their concentration in faeces, blood and
bone. To find an inexpensive and useful supplement that can be
used by communal farmers as a feed to improve the mineral status
of their cattle or to supply their phosphorus (P) needs. The
licks were given so that an equal amount of concentrate was
given to both the treatment and the control animals. Faecal,
blood, bone samples and the licks were collected and analysed
for P concentration. Data was collected for P concentration in
mg% for blood and in mg/g for bone, faeces and lick consumption.
The serum inorganic phosphorus (SIP) concentration was
significantly (P<0.05) higher at all sampling periods for the
animals that received layer chicken litter (TCL) than those that
received yellow maize meal (CNT) only. The mean faecal P
concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher for the TCL
animals at all sampling periods on a fresh, dry and ash weight
basis when compared to the CNT animals.
[T. P. Atebaand D. E. Beighle: Effect of layer chicken litter and
yellow maize meal on mineral status of bovine; Life
Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):8-11 ] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Depth of sowing can affect early crop establishment due to poor
seedling emergence. A glasshouse study was conducted to
investigate the effects of sowing depths (1.5, 3.5, 7, 10, 15,
20, 25, 30 mm) on emergence and early seedling development of
two each of African indigenous (Amaranthus hybridus & Cleome
gynandra) and exotic (Spinacia oleracea & Brassica napus) leafy
vegetables. A split plot design with four replicates was used.
Exotic vegetables had significantly higher (p<0.05) seedling
emergence (95%) than the indigenous ones (60%). Among the
indigenous species, Cleome gynandra had a higher emergence (70%)
than Amaranthus hybridus (61%). However, there were no
significant differences on emergence amongst the exotic
vegetables. Exotic vegetables also had significantly higher
(p<0.05) mean plant height (8.6 cm) than indigenous vegetables
(1.01 cm). In all the vegetable species, both emergence and
plant height decreased with deeper sowing due to higher soil
strength. The biomass yields of the seedlings were reduced with
deeper sowing although the differences were not significant.
There were however significant differences (p<0.05) among the
biomass yields of the vegetable species at different sowing
depths. Generally, significantly higher biomass yields (6.4
g/plant) were obtained in exotic species compared with
indigenous ones (0.2 g/plant). The results suggest that seeds of
African indigenous leafy vegetables were more sensitive than the
exotic ones to deeper (>5 mm) sowing and their emergence was
more adversely affected by soil strength at this depth. It is
concluded that seeds of African indigenous vegetables should be
sown at shallower depths (1-5 mm) in order to ensure rapid
emergence and early establishment of seedlings if sown directly
into the soil.
[T.M. Seeiso and S.A. Materechera. Effects of Seed Sowing
Depth on Emergence and Early Seedling Development of Two African
Indigenous Leafy Vegetables. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):12-17] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Whilst consumption may occur throughout the year, production and
processing of the fruits is seasonal. This necessitates storage
and blending of the juices to produce uniform products. The pH
range of the apple (3.05), pineapple (3.30), and orange (3.50)
juice are within the recommended range (3.0-3.9). The bacteria
isolated from the examined fruit juices were Micrococcus
spp,Flavobacterium, Streptococcus spp,
Staphylococcus sp., and Bacillus spp. The same
type of bacteria Bacillus sp, Streptococcus spp,
Staphylococcus spp and Micrococcus spp are
persistent isolates throughout the period of this study. This
indicated that the bacteria are fruit borne rather than
contaminants from air water and utensils alone. The isolates
could be used as indicators of microbial quality. Further
research is necessary to adequately characterise the bacteria
isolated. This complex problem of liability of fruit juices to
deterioration can be solved by use of healthy fruits for juices
processing and proper product storage.
[Babalola Olubukola O, Fagade Obashola E, and Gopane Ramokoni E.
Microbiological quality control study of some processed fruit
juices by conventional approach.
Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(S2)18-24] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Mining industries are aware of the gainful use of bacteria in
their environment. In this study two soil samples, CHRO1 and
PLAT2, were collected from two mines in Rustenburg, South
Africa. The detection of microorganisms from CHRO1 and PLAT2 was
done by culture assay. The bacteria isolates were of various
colors raging from yellow, orange, red to white and cream white,
which are either rod or coccus shapes. They all stained Gram
negative. Based on the API20E kit identification scheme, the
isolates were identified as Chryseobacterium indologenes,
Klebsiella oxytoca, Pasteuralla pneumotropica, Enterobacter
cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ornothinolytica,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum,
Chryseomonal luteola, Photobacterium clamsela, Enterobacter
sakazakii, Acinotobacter baumannii, Serratia liquefaciens
and Citrobacter koseri.
KeletsoM. and Babalola Olubukola O.
Identification of soil bacteria from mining environments in
Rustenburg, South Africa. Life
Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):25-32] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.
Abstract: The study was
conducted to quantify the biological properties of soil beneath
the canopies of Acacia erioloba trees growing under three
dominant local land-use practices in a semi-arid environment of
South Africa. The results showed that all biological properties
were significantly different (p<0.05) from one land-use practice
to another. Fallow land was found to have significantly higher
(p<0.05) organic carbon (OC), particulate organic matter
fraction (POM), microbial biomass carbon (MBc) and microbial
biomass nitrogen (MBn) than grazing and bare land-use
practices. The order of rating for all the measured properties
was fallow >grazing > bare land. Bare land had the lowest of
all the measured properties signifying limited biological
activity. Significant higher (p<0.05) values of OC and POM were
found in soils that were collected under fallow while MBc and
MBn were higher under grazing land-use practice. In both canopy
locations, all biological properties were significantly higher
(p<0.05) in soils that were collected at 0-10 cm compared to
those that were collected at 10-20 cm. High organic matter
content under fallow and grazing land was attributed to three
possible sources, namely: leaf litter from Acacia erioloba
trees, grass and turnover of roots and also dung from grazing
animals. The major contributing factor under grazing land
was considered to be the large amount of organic materials that
are returned to the soil, especially that from animal dung and
turnover of grass roots. It was concluded that the quantity and
quality of soil organic matter and microbial activity was
enhanced by the micro environment beneath the canopy of Acacia
erioloba tress. This was attributed to higher decomposition of
soil organic matter that takes place on the surface layer of the
soil where most of the organic materials are deposited.
and R.N. Murovhi. Soil biological properties beneath canopies
of Acacia erioloba(syn. Acacia
under different land-use practices in a South African semi-arid
Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):33-39] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Abstract: The study was conducted to compare the influence of
seed size and soil strength on germination and emergence of
cereal and legume seedlings in a hardsetting soil. The seed
weights (g 100-1 seeds) of the plant species were
45.5 (maize), 4.5 (wheat), 2.5 (sorghum), 3.1 (oats), 0.54
(millet), 46.95 (bambaranut), 19.82 (cowpea), 3.13 (peas) and
45.14 (groundnut). Seedlings of each of the crop species were
exposed to soil strengths of 1.2 and 2.4 kg /cm2.This was achieved by sowing seeds at depths of 2.5 and 5.0
cm for 1.2 and 2.4 kg/cm2 respectively. Emergence of
seedlings was generally high in cereals (96%) than in legumes
(56%). The emergence was in the order: sorghum (99.2%) > oats
(96.7%) > millet (96.7%) > wheat (95.8%) > maize (87.5%) >
cowpea (56.7%) > bambaranut (54.0%) > groundnut (34.2%) > pea
(20.0%). The mean emergence percentage for the two soil strength
levels were 88.0% and 52.5% for soil strengths of 1.2 kg/cm2
and 2.4 kg/cm2 respectively. Generally, cereal
crops had higher emergence (87.6%) percentages than legumes
(76.8%) in both soil strength levels. There was a significant
negative correlation (r=-0.88, p<0.05) between soil strength and
seedling emergence suggesting that poor emergence was caused by
the high soil strength. It is suggested that the hypocotyl shape
of the emerging cereal seedlings could have been able to exert
much force in order to emerge from the strong soil. The study
concluded that both seed weight and sowing depth should be
considered when sowing seeds in a hardsetting soil if optimum
germination and seedling establishment are to be achieved.
[S.A. Materechera. Influence of seed size and soil strength
on emergence and early seedling establishment in a soil with
hardsetting behavior.Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):40-46] (ISSN:
1097 – 8135).
Heavy metal levels in water, catfish
and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer)
specimens from the municipal waste water fed Modimola dam
outside Mafikeng city, North West province, South Africa.
Mathew Nyirenda, Precious D Itumeleng, Blessing M Dzoma,
Lebogang E Motsei, Rendani V Ndou, Francis R Bakunzi.
Centre of Animal Health Studies, North West University (Mafikeng
Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa.
Ten composite samples each of water, sediment, catfish (Clarias
gariepnus) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus
vocifer)from the Modimola dam on the outskirts
of Mafikeng city were analysed for concentrations of Pb, Cd, As
and Cr using atomic absorption spectophotometry. The mean
recoveries in water and catfish samples revealed the
following trends: Pb > As > Cd> Cr and Pb > As > Cr> Cd
respectively. The highest Pb, As, Cd and Cr concentrations in
water of 250, 10, 9 and 0.7ppm respectively were obtained
nearest to the inlet from the waste water facility while the
lowest were from samples in the middle of the dam. The sampling
point near the dam wall, where the water reticulation works are
also situated had the second highest concentrations of Cd, As
and Cr. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr in the water
samples were 125 000, 1 872, 204 and 7 times higher than the
EC/WHO maximum threshold for water while that of Pb was 28 times
higher than that recommended for fish. Sediments generally had
higher concentrations of metals than those in water, although a
reverse trend was noted for Pb. Specimens from catfish and the
fish eagle birds also had varying levels of heavy metals.
The unacceptably high levels of Pb, Cd,
As and Cr in the dam and the bioaccumulation of the metals in
the food chain calls for urgent intervention measures, that
should also focus on the municipal water supplies.
[Mathew Nyirenda, Precious D Itumeleng, Blessing M Dzoma,
Lebogang E Motsei, Rendani V Ndou, Francis R Bakunzi.
Heavy metal levels in water, catfish
and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer)
specimens from the municipal waste water fed Modimola dam
outside Mafikeng city, North West province, South Africa.
Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):47-52] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Abstract: This study was
carried out to determine the effects of anthelmintic treatment
and protein supplementation on health and productivity of
indigenous Tswana goats. Thirty six
goats of around 1 year old and of unspecified breeds were
randomly divided into 4 groups of 9 animals each. The first
group was treated with an oral dose of albendazole every three
months. The second group was fed protein supplement daily, while
the third group was drenched every three months and fed protein
supplement daily. The fourth, control group was neither drenched
nor fed supplement. The control group generally had higher eggs
per gram (EPG) counts than the 3 treatment groups, with the
highest peak in January. There was no significant difference in
EPGs between the protein and the anthelmintic groups, while the
protein supplemented animals had significantly lower mean egg
counts than the controls. The anthelmintic/protein group had
significantly reduced faecal nematode egg counts when compared
to the other 3 treatments. The protein and the
protein/anthelmintic groups gained significantly more weight
than the anthelmintic group, while the anthelmintic group also
gained significantly over the control group. The protein
supplemented and anthelmintic- treated groups had significantly
higher PCV values than the controls. No significant differences
were observed for albumin among the groups. The additive
helminth control effect of anthelmintic and protein
supplementation combinations may go a long way in curbing the
rampant use of anthelmintics that has the potential of promoting
[Francis R Bakunzi*,
Lucky KMogapi, Blessing M Dzoma,
Lebogang E Motsei, Mathew Nyirenda, Rendani V Ndou. Effects
of a protein supplement and anthelmintic treatment on communally
grazed Tswana goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal
nematodes. Life Science Journal.
2011;8(S2):53-57] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Abstract: Interrelating of research and learning has always been
the primary role of all universities. The symbiotic relationship
between research and teaching creates an environment in which
learners develop reflective, inquiry and lifelong learning
skills. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review teaching
of research module across selected modules in two universities. Research as a module in the School of Health Professions at both
Universities of Plymouth and Limpopo, is taught throughout the
programme (4 years at MEDUNSA and 3 in Plymouth).The
research based approach that is used in teaching research method
at the school is aimed at linking research to learning by
encouraging the working of students in groups. The active,
student-centred approach to learning encourages active
engagement of students at the School of Health Professions.
Methods: Content analysis of the two programmes was done to
identify common grounds for collaboration and
[A gap of common grounds for interdisciplinary collaboration was
identified. Teaching research through interdisciplinary and
collaboration methods: analysis of research modules in two
schools of Health Professions Ushotanefe Useh. Life Science Journal.
2011;8(S2):58-62] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
orally administered calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate on the
gastrointestinal absorption of lead acetate in cattle.
Verster, R. S
Department of Animal
Health, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology,
Northwest University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, 2735 South
*Author for correspondence: E-mail
Cell (027)766296832, Tel (018) 3892715, Fax (018) 3892748
Lead is one of the most frequently observed heavy metal
toxicoses in domestic animals, especially cattle. The objective
of the study was to test the effect of calcium carbonate and
zinc sulphate on the absorption of lead acetate in cows, when
the lead and minerals were both administered orally. In study 1,
experimental cows were dosed with lead acetate at 2 mg/kg plus
calcium carbonate at 50 mg/kg, while control cows received only
lead acetate at 2 mg/kg. During study 2, experimental steers
received zinc sulphate at .2 mg/kg and lead acetate at 2 mg/kg,
while the control steers received lead acetate at 2 mg/kg. Blood
samples were taken in heparin tubes from the jugular vein at 0,
3 and 6 hours post-dosing.. Blood lead concentrations were then
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using the
graphite furnace method. The results indicated that both
minerals decreased the absorption of lead acetate in cows after
3 hours and the effect was sustained at 6 hours.
The recommendation to farmers is to provide supplementary
minerals to animals in areas with high risk of lead poisoning.
[Verster, R. S. Evaluation
of orally administered calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate on
the gastrointestinal absorption of lead acetate in cattle.Life Science Journal.
2011;8(S2):63-69] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
ABSTRACT: The study was aimed
at investigating the factors affecting the feeding behaviour of3 free ranging Tswana and 3 Boer goat does in the False
Thornveld of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Feeding
was observed and recorded during winter (cool dry season) and
the summer (hot wet season). Observations included the
following categories: browsing, grazing and non-feeding
activities (NFA). Browsing activity included bi-pedal stance
(recorded separately) and represented the browsing of all woody
species. Tree/Bush species browsed at the time of recording
were visually identified and recorded separately. Grazing
activity represented the grazing of grasses without the
identification or recording of species. Non-feeding activities
include separate recordings of walking, standing, lying and
drinking. Results showed goats spent 21.9 %, 44.7 % and 33.3 %
of their day on browsing, grazing and non-feeding activities. Goats spent more time on NFA in the cold-dry season (68.8) than
the hot-wet season (31.9). Though diurnal variations were
observed across breed and season in terms of browsing and non
feeding activities, no diurnal variations were found between the
breeds. Knowledge of seasonal and breed variations in feeding
behaviour of goats is fundamental to the development of
management strategies for small scale farmers aimed at optimal
and sustained use of the natural vegetation.
[Lebopa C.K. Boomker E.A, Chimonyo M, Mulugeta S.D.
Factors affecting the feeding behaviour of free ranging Tswana
and Boer goats in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Cape, South
Life Science Journal.
2011;8(S2):70-80] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
dry matter and crude protein degradation of woody plant species
in Tswana and Boer goats
Lebopa C. K.1#. Boomker E. A.2 Chimonyo M.3
& Mokoboki H. K.
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agric. Science and
Technology, North-West University, Private bag x 2046 Mmabatho,
2735, South Africa
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary
Science, University of Pretoria, Private bag x 04, Onderstepoort,
0110, South Africa
of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Agriculture and
Science, University of Fort Hare, Private bag x 04, Alice, South
study was aimed at determiningin sacco dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradation of woody
plant species incubated in the rumen of Tswana and Boer goats. The ruminal degradability of the three most selected woody plant
species by goats during the cold-dry season (G.
occodentalis, O. africana
and S. myrtina) and hot-wet season (A. karroo, R.
refracta and S. myrtina),
were measured in situ, using in sacco digestion
The nylon bag incubation revealed large differences in the rumen
degradability of DM of the three woody plant species during both
seasons. Ruminal degradation constants (a, b and a+b
and c) varied significantly (P<0.001) between breeds
and between goats within a breed. Thus, no breed difference in
in sacco degradation of DM and CP was found between
Tswana and Boer goats. There was a strong positive correlation
between DMD, CPD and time of incubation in the rumen. The crude
protein content of the woody plant species positively influenced
the rumen digestion of dry matter. Both species preference and
degradability of plant species are of importance as they are
needed to estimate range suitability for browsing animals.
The effect of
propagation media and growth regulars on rooting potential of
Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) stem cuttings at different
Hae, M. and Funnah S.M
Crop Science Programme, Faculty of
Science and Technology, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus,
Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra)
is a recent commercially promising indigenous fruit tree, but
there is no documented literature on its propagation and
germplasm management. This study was carried out to determine
the best growth regulator, growing medium and cutting age on
successful rooting of its stem cuttings under non-mist nursery
conditions. The experiment was laid out as a 5 x 3 x 3 split
plot factorial design. The three factors tested were (i)four
growth regulators (Dynaroot 1, Dynaroot 2, Dynaroot 3, and
Dip’n root) plus the control, (ii) three rooting media (River
sand= SND, Commercial rooting media- hygrotex (CRM) and manure-ammended
soil 50:50 v/v (M+S) and (iii) three stem cutting types (soft
wood cuttings, semi-hard wood cuttings and hardwood cuttings.
Parameters recorded were percent rooting, root length (cm) and
root number. The effect of cutting type and growth regulator was
highly significant (<0.0001). Soft wood cuttings did not produce
any roots. There were significant differences between hardwood
cuttings and semi hardwood cuttings where the former gave the
higher rooting percent. The highest rooting percent and root
length were obtained where cuttings were treated with Dip’n
root. Dynaroot 3 gave the highest number of roots. There were no
significant differences among the three media. However visual
assessment showed that SND performed better, followed by M+S and
then CRM. The treatments interacted significantly to affect the
results. Dip’n root was identified as the best rooting enhancer
and and hardwood cutting as the best cutting type for successful
rooting of D. caffra cuttings.
Crop Science Programme, Faculty of Agriculture,
Science and Technology, North West University, Mmabatho 2735,
Abstract: The effect of pre-sowing treatments on the germinating Kei apple
seeds harvested at different stages of maturity is being
investigated. Germination values recorded were Germination
Percent, (GP) Mean Germination Time (MGT), and Time to 50%
Germination (T50) compared between seed collected at
varying maturity stages as; Green (GN), ripe (RP) and over ripe
(OR). Pre-sowing treatments tested were soaking in cold water (CW),
soaking in boiling water (HW), and treatment with Indole Acetic
Acid (IBA), Abrasion against sand paper (AB), Sulphuric acid
(SA) and the control (CNT). Seed maturity was significant
(P<0.0001) with the greatest GP for the GN (88.14±0.54) and RP
(88.25±0.54) stages. GP from the OR stage differed significantly
(P<0.0001) compared to the other two maturity stages and it was
associated with the GP (83.46±0.54). The effect of pre-sowing
treatments was significant (ANOVA).The comparison between means
showed significant differences in germination due to pre-sowing
treatments. IBA, CW, HW, AB, gave the highest GP. MGT
corresponding to these pre-sowing treatments ranged between 7.9
– 8.0 days. Intermediate GP of 77.01±0.77 was obtained in
untreated seeds while the lowest GP which failed to reach 50%
was obtained where Sulphuric acid was used. However, the
corresponding MGT to sulphuric acid was the least of 4.3±0.04
days and that corresponding to the CNT was 11.0±0.04 days. Seed
maturity x pre-sowing treatments interacted significantly to
influence germination. It was concluded that since a reasonable
GP was obtained from the control, dormancy is not responsible
for hindrance of germination and that all pre-sowing treatment
are effective in improving germination but SA is not suitable
M and Funnah S.M.
Effects Of Various Pre-Sowing Treatments On Germination Of Kei
Apple (Dovyalis Caffra) Seeds Harvested At Different
Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):100-105]
(ISSN: 1097 – 8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com
of this study was to investigate the effect of 50 % water
restriction on body weight and blood parameters status of Tswana
and Boer goats while fed teff and lucerne. Twelve (12) Tswana
and Boer goat wethers (six of each breed) were randomly
allocated to form two groups of 6 goats, comprising of 3 goats
of each breed. One group was adapted to teff (Eragrostis
teff) for 10 days while the other was adapted to Lucerne (Medicago
sativa). After the adaptation period, the goats continued
receiving feed ad libitum but their water intake was
restricted to 50 % of their average daily intake (calculated for
each animal from the adaptation data). Once the first trial
period was completed, the trial was repeated by changing the
diets of each group. The group that had been on teff was then
fed lucerne and vice versa. Both breeds lost 10 % of their body
weight when offered lucerne while water-restricted and then
regained 13 -14 % of their dehydrated body weight. The
haematocrit, total plasma proteins, heart rate and rectal
temperature values were not affected by water restriction.
Temperature values tended to be higher in goats fed on lucerne
hay. Respiration rate increased in both breeds during water
restriction. On average, the urine: plasma osmolar ratio for
both breeds was about 7:1. Restricting the water intake of these
goats to 50 % of their average daily water intake did not tax
their maximum physiological capabilities as shown by lack of
change in their heart rate and rectal temperature. Tswana and
Boer goats can easily survive under arid conditions.
[M. M. Qinisa, E. A. Boomker, H. K. Mokoboki.
Physiological Responses Of Water-Restricted Tswana And Boer
Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):106-111]
(ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Eight trees leave foliages (Acacia nilotica, Acacia karroo,
Acacia tortilis, Acacia rhemniana, Acacia galpinii, Acacia
sieberiana, Acacia hebeclada and Dichrostachys cineria)
were collected in winter, summer and spring to determine crude
protein, acid and neutral detergent fibre, packed volume, total
phenolics, radial diffusion, extracted condensed tannins,
hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins in acid and neutral
detergent fibre content. The experimental design was completely
randomized design. From this study all species expect A.
galpinii and A. rhemniana in summer and spring and
species A. sieberiana and A. hebeclada in winter
were expected to have high intake, due to low packed volume.
Species A. sieberiana, A. hebeclada and D.
cineria in all seasons have high crude protein contents than
the other species. Species A. hebeclada and A.
sieberiana had low levels of total phenolics and extracted
condensed tannins in all seasons. During ranking analysis,
species A. sieberiana and A. hebeclada in all
seasons have highcrude protein content, low packed
volume, and low anti-nutritional factors as compared to A.
rhemniana. The level of nutritive value and anti-nutritional
factors for other species varies among seasonal changes. This
result implies that there were effects of species within season
on nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors of browse tree
leaves. These suggest a need for a detailed study on effects of
season on nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors over a
number of years.
[H K. Mokoboki.
Effect of species within season on techniques used to measure
nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors in browse tree
leaves. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):112-119]
(ISSN: 1097 – 8135).
Abstract: Using the second law of thermodynamics, we
examine the macroscopic equations for mass, momentum, energy and
entropy for a biphasic system whose interface has thermodynamic
properties. This system is made up of mesoscopic particles and a
uid, including mass exchange and di erent phase temperatures. By
exploiting the entropy inequality in terms of Coleman and Noll's
method we obtain nonequilibrium and equilibrium results. We show
how the solid phase stress tensor depends on the solid phase
pressure, the Terzaghi stress, the hydration stress and the
stress contributed by the interface properties, which is similar
to the Terzaghi stress. We determine the heat uxes. We further
linearize the non-equilibrium parts of their constitutive forms
in terms of heat conduction, uid viscosity and viscoelasticity
about the equilibrium. Finally we obtain expressions of the
total stress and the total heat ux for a particle.
[Tshepo O Tong and Matthew T Kambule. Total
stress tensors and heat uxes of single ow through a porous
viscoelastic medium. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):120-134]
(ISSN: 1097 – 8135).