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Life Science Journal 
 
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 8 - Number 2 Supplement, June 25, 2011
 Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0802s
 

CONTENTS  

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Isolation of enteric bacterial pathogens from raw mince meat in Mafikeng, North-West Province, South Africa

 

Collins Njie Ateba1, Thato Setona1

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University – Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, South Africa.

atebacollins1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A large proportion of the world’s population rely on meat as a source of food. Enteric bacteria species can cause infections in humans when undercooked meat products are consumed. The aim of the study was to isolate enteric bacteria species from raw mince meat obtained from some supermarkets and butcheries in Mafikeng. Ten raw mince meat samples were collected from these two types of meat retail shops in the Mafikeng area in the North-West Province, South Africa. The makeup of these included; 6 meat samples from butcheries and 4 from supermarkets. The samples were analyzed for the presence of enteric bacteria using SSA and XLD agar. A total of 150 isolates that satisfied the preliminary biochemical tests (oxidase, citrate utilization and TSI tests) were further confirmed using API 20E assay and 96 were positively identified as enteric bacteria species. The proportion of enteric bacteria was higher in samples obtained from butcheries (B1 and B3 with 86.7%, respectively) than in the supermarkets (43.3% to 53.3%). The most frequently identified species were Serratia odorifera (17.3%), Escherichia coli (10.0%), Klebsiella oxytoca (6.7%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (6.0%). Enteric bacteria species were isolated and positively identified in all meat sample collected from the different sampling sites in Mafikeng. Although most of the species identified are pathogenic to humans, some have strains that are known to cause foodborne outbreaks even in countries with proper public health facilities. It is therefore recommended that effective food safety education and training of personnel that handle food at retail points will help in reducing the effect of these pathogens on humans.

[Collins Njie Ateba, Thato Setona. Isolation of enteric bacterial pathogens from raw mince meat in Mafikeng, North-West Province, South Africa. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):1-7] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Enteric bacteria, prevalence, meat contamination, Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA), Xylose Lysin Deoxycholate agar (XLD).

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Effect of layer chicken litter and yellow maize meal on mineral status of bovine.

 

T. P. Ateba1* and D. E. Beighle1

 

1Dale Beighle Centre for Animal Health Studies, School of Agricultural Sciences, North-West University-Mafikeng Campus, P. Bag X 2046 Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.

tshepna77@hotmail.com

Abstract: Twelve Friesian calves were blocked according to sex and age and assigned to treatment and control groups (six calves in each group). The aim of this research was to compare the value of layer chicken litter and yellow maize meal as a source of Phosphorus (P) in cattle by determining their concentration in faeces, blood and bone. To find an inexpensive and useful supplement that can be used by communal farmers as a feed to improve the mineral status of their cattle or to supply their phosphorus (P) needs. The licks were given so that an equal amount of concentrate was given to both the treatment and the control animals.  Faecal, blood, bone samples and the licks were collected and analysed for P concentration. Data was collected for P concentration in mg% for blood and in mg/g for bone, faeces and lick consumption. The serum inorganic phosphorus (SIP) concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher at all sampling periods for the animals that received layer chicken litter (TCL) than those that received yellow maize meal (CNT) only.  The mean faecal P concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher for the TCL animals at all sampling periods on a fresh, dry and ash weight basis when compared to the  CNT animals.

[T. P. Ateba  and D. E. Beighle: Effect of layer chicken litter and yellow maize meal on mineral status of bovine;  Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):8-11 ] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Layer chicken litter, yellow maize meal, faecal P and serum inorganic P.

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Effects of Seed Sowing Depth on Emergence and Early Seedling Development of Two African Indigenous Leafy Vegetables

T.M. Seeiso1 and S.A. Materechera

1 Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Science & Technology, North West University (Mafikeng Campus), South Africa.

Corresponding author email: thaky2009@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: Depth of sowing can affect early crop establishment due to poor seedling emergence. A glasshouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of sowing depths (1.5, 3.5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 mm) on emergence and early seedling development of two each of African indigenous (Amaranthus hybridus & Cleome gynandra) and exotic (Spinacia oleracea & Brassica napus) leafy vegetables. A split plot design with four replicates was used. Exotic vegetables had significantly higher (p<0.05) seedling emergence (95%) than the indigenous ones (60%). Among the indigenous species, Cleome gynandra had a higher emergence (70%) than Amaranthus hybridus (61%). However, there were no significant differences on emergence amongst the exotic vegetables. Exotic vegetables also had significantly higher (p<0.05) mean plant height (8.6 cm) than indigenous vegetables (1.01 cm). In all the vegetable species, both emergence and plant height decreased with deeper sowing due to higher soil strength. The biomass yields of the seedlings were reduced with deeper sowing although the differences were not significant. There were however significant differences (p<0.05) among the biomass yields of the vegetable species at different sowing depths. Generally, significantly higher biomass yields (6.4 g/plant) were obtained in exotic species compared with indigenous ones (0.2 g/plant). The results suggest that seeds of African indigenous leafy vegetables were more sensitive than the exotic ones to deeper (>5 mm) sowing and their emergence was more adversely affected by soil strength at this depth. It is concluded that seeds of African indigenous vegetables should be sown at shallower depths (1-5 mm) in order to ensure rapid emergence and early establishment of seedlings if sown directly into the soil.

[T.M. Seeiso and S.A. Materechera. Effects of Seed Sowing Depth on Emergence and Early Seedling Development of Two African Indigenous Leafy Vegetables. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):12-17] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Crop establishment, soil strength, indigenous vegetables, seedling emergence, sowing depth

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Microbiological quality control study of some processed fruit juices by conventional approach

 

Babalola Olubukola O1*, Fagade Obashola E2, and Gopane Ramokoni E1

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Email: olubukola.babalola@nwu.ac.za, Tel:+27183892568, Fax:+27183892134

 

Abstract: Whilst consumption may occur throughout the year, production and processing of the fruits is seasonal. This necessitates storage and blending of the juices to produce uniform products. The pH range of the apple (3.05), pineapple (3.30), and orange (3.50) juice are within the recommended range (3.0-3.9). The bacteria isolated from the examined fruit juices were Micrococcus spp, Flavobacterium, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus sp., and Bacillus spp. The same type of bacteria Bacillus sp, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp and Micrococcus spp are persistent isolates throughout the period of this study. This indicated that the bacteria are fruit borne rather than contaminants from air water and utensils alone. The isolates could be used as indicators of microbial quality. Further research is necessary to adequately characterise the bacteria isolated. This complex problem of liability of fruit juices to deterioration can be solved by use of healthy fruits for juices processing and proper product storage.

[Babalola Olubukola O, Fagade Obashola E, and Gopane Ramokoni E. Microbiological quality control study of some processed fruit juices by conventional approach. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(S2)18-24] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Bacteria, coliform, fruit juice, sachet

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Identification of soil bacteria from mining environments in Rustenburg, South Africa

 

Sebogodi Keletso M. and Babalola Olubukola O*.

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.

Email: olubukola.babalola@nwu.ac.za; Tel: +27183892568; Fax:+27183892052

 

Abstract: Mining industries are aware of the gainful use of bacteria in their environment. In this study two soil samples, CHRO1 and PLAT2, were collected from two mines in Rustenburg, South Africa. The detection of microorganisms from CHRO1 and PLAT2 was done by culture assay. The bacteria isolates were of various colors raging from yellow, orange, red to white and cream white, which are either rod or coccus shapes. They all stained Gram negative. Based on the API20E kit identification scheme, the isolates were identified as Chryseobacterium indologenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pasteuralla pneumotropica, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ornothinolytica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Chryseomonal luteola, Photobacterium clamsela, Enterobacter sakazakii, Acinotobacter baumannii, Serratia liquefaciens and Citrobacter koseri.

[Sebogodi Keletso M. and Babalola Olubukola O. Identification of soil bacteria from mining environments in Rustenburg, South Africa. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):25-32] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).  http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: bacteria, chemolithoautotrophs, chemoorganotrophs, bioleaching, biooxidation, biosorption,

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Soil biological properties beneath canopies of Acacia erioloba (syn. Acacia giraffae) trees under different land-use practices in a South African semi-arid environment

 

S.A. Materechera1 and R.N. Murovhi2

 

1Faculty of Agriculture, Science & Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), P/B X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

2Agricultural Research Council (Institute for Tropical and Sub-tropical Crops), Private Bag X 11208, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa

Corresponding author email: albert.materechera@uniwest.ac.za

 

Abstract: The study was conducted to quantify the biological properties of soil beneath the canopies of Acacia erioloba trees growing under three dominant local land-use practices in a semi-arid environment of South Africa. The results showed that all biological properties were significantly different (p<0.05) from one land-use practice to another.  Fallow land was found to have significantly higher (p<0.05) organic carbon (OC), particulate organic matter fraction (POM), microbial biomass carbon (MBc) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBn) than grazing and bare land-use practices.   The order of rating for all the measured properties was fallow >grazing > bare land.   Bare land had the lowest of all the measured properties signifying limited biological activity. Significant higher (p<0.05) values of OC and POM were found in soils that were collected under fallow while MBc and MBn were higher under grazing land-use practice. In both canopy locations, all biological properties were significantly higher (p<0.05) in soils that were collected at 0-10 cm compared to those that were collected at 10-20 cm.    High organic matter content under fallow and grazing land was attributed to three possible sources, namely: leaf litter from Acacia erioloba trees, grass and turnover of roots and also dung from grazing animals.     The major contributing factor under grazing land was considered to be the large amount of organic materials that are returned to the soil, especially that from animal dung and turnover of grass roots.  It was concluded that the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and microbial activity was enhanced by the micro environment beneath the canopy of Acacia erioloba tress. This was attributed to higher decomposition of soil organic matter that takes place on the surface layer of the soil where most of the organic materials are deposited.

[S.A. Materechera and R.N. Murovhi. Soil biological properties beneath canopies of Acacia erioloba (syn. Acacia giraffae) trees under different land-use practices in a South African semi-arid environment. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):33-39] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key words: Agroforestry, Land-use, microbial biomass, soil quality, organic matter

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Influence of seed size and soil strength on emergence and early seedling establishment in a soil with hardsetting behavior

 

S.A. Materechera

 

Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

Email: albert.materechera@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The study was conducted to compare the influence of seed size and soil strength on germination and emergence of cereal and legume seedlings in a hardsetting soil. The seed weights (g 100-1 seeds) of the plant species were 45.5 (maize), 4.5 (wheat), 2.5 (sorghum), 3.1 (oats), 0.54 (millet), 46.95 (bambaranut), 19.82 (cowpea), 3.13 (peas) and 45.14 (groundnut). Seedlings of each of the crop species were exposed to soil strengths of 1.2 and 2.4 kg /cm2. This was achieved by sowing seeds at depths of 2.5 and 5.0 cm for 1.2 and 2.4 kg/cm2 respectively. Emergence of seedlings was generally high in cereals (96%) than in legumes (56%). The emergence was in the order: sorghum (99.2%) > oats (96.7%) > millet (96.7%) > wheat (95.8%) > maize (87.5%) > cowpea (56.7%) > bambaranut (54.0%) > groundnut (34.2%) > pea (20.0%). The mean emergence percentage for the two soil strength levels were 88.0% and 52.5% for soil strengths of 1.2 kg/cm2 and 2.4 kg/cm2 respectively. Generally, cereal crops had higher emergence (87.6%) percentages than legumes (76.8%) in both soil strength levels. There was a significant negative correlation (r=-0.88, p<0.05) between soil strength and seedling emergence suggesting that poor emergence was caused by the high soil strength. It is suggested that the hypocotyl shape of the emerging cereal seedlings could have been able to exert much force in order to emerge from the strong soil. The study concluded that both seed weight and sowing depth should be considered when sowing seeds in a hardsetting soil if optimum germination and seedling establishment are to be achieved.

[S.A. Materechera. Influence of seed size and soil strength on emergence and early seedling establishment in a soil with hardsetting behavior.Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):40-46] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

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Heavy metal levels in water, catfish (Clarias gariepnus) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) specimens from the municipal waste water fed Modimola dam outside Mafikeng city, North West province, South Africa.

Mathew  Nyirenda, Precious D Itumeleng, Blessing M Dzoma, Lebogang E Motsei, Rendani V Ndou, Francis R Bakunzi.

 

Centre of Animal Health Studies, North West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa. Email:-  mathew.nyirenda@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Ten composite samples each of water, sediment, catfish (Clarias gariepnus) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) from the Modimola dam on the outskirts of Mafikeng  city were analysed for concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Cr using atomic absorption spectophotometry. The mean recoveries in water and catfish samples revealed the following trends: Pb > As > Cd> Cr and Pb > As > Cr> Cd respectively. The highest Pb, As, Cd and Cr concentrations in water of 250, 10, 9 and 0.7ppm respectively were obtained nearest to the inlet from the waste water facility while the lowest were from samples in the middle of the dam. The sampling point near the dam wall, where the water reticulation works are also situated had the second highest concentrations of Cd, As and Cr. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr in the water samples were 125 000, 1 872, 204 and 7 times higher than the EC/WHO maximum threshold for water while that of Pb was 28 times higher than that recommended for fish. Sediments generally had higher concentrations of metals than those in water, although a reverse trend was noted for Pb. Specimens from catfish and the fish eagle birds also had varying levels of heavy metals. The unacceptably high levels of Pb, Cd, As and Cr in the dam and the bioaccumulation of the metals in the food chain calls for urgent intervention measures, that should also focus on the municipal water supplies.

[Mathew  Nyirenda, Precious D Itumeleng, Blessing M Dzoma, Lebogang E Motsei, Rendani V Ndou, Francis R Bakunzi. Heavy metal levels in water, catfish (Clarias gariepnus) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) specimens from the municipal waste water fed Modimola dam outside Mafikeng city, North West province, South Africa. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):47-52] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keyword: Heavy metal levels in water, catfish (Clarias gariepnus) and African fish eagle.

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Effects of a protein supplement and anthelmintic treatment on communally grazed Tswana goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

 

Francis R Bakunzi*, Lucky K Mogapi, Blessing M Dzoma, Lebogang E Motsei, Mathew Nyirenda, Rendani V Ndou

Centre of Animal Health Studies, North West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa.

*Corresponding author: Francis. Bakunzi@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of anthelmintic treatment and protein supplementation on health and productivity of indigenous Tswana goats. Thirty six goats of around 1 year old and of unspecified breeds were randomly divided into 4 groups of 9 animals each. The first group was treated with an oral dose of albendazole every three months. The second group was fed protein supplement daily, while the third group was drenched every three months and fed protein supplement daily. The fourth, control group was neither drenched nor fed supplement. The control group generally had higher eggs per gram (EPG) counts than the 3 treatment groups, with the highest peak in January. There was no significant difference in EPGs between the protein and the anthelmintic groups, while the protein supplemented animals had significantly lower mean egg counts than the controls. The anthelmintic/protein group had significantly reduced faecal nematode egg counts when compared to the other 3 treatments. The protein and the protein/anthelmintic groups gained significantly more weight than the anthelmintic group, while the anthelmintic group also gained significantly over the control group. The protein supplemented and anthelmintic- treated groups had significantly higher PCV values than the controls. No significant differences were observed for albumin among the groups. The additive helminth control effect of anthelmintic and protein supplementation combinations may go a long way in curbing the rampant use of anthelmintics that has the potential of promoting drug resistance.  

[Francis R Bakunzi*, Lucky K Mogapi, Blessing M Dzoma, Lebogang E Motsei, Mathew Nyirenda, Rendani V Ndou. Effects of a protein supplement and anthelmintic treatment on communally grazed Tswana goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):53-57] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

Key words: additive effects, anthelmintic treatment, gastrointestinal nematodes, protein supplement.

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Teaching research through interdisciplinary and collaboration methods: analysis of research modules in two schools of Health Professions Ushotanefe Useh

 

Prof U Useh

 

School of Environmental and Health Sciences, North West University, Mafikeng Campus

Email: 22839968@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Interrelating of research and learning has always been the primary role of all universities. The symbiotic relationship between research and teaching creates an environment in which learners develop reflective, inquiry and lifelong learning skills. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review teaching of research module across selected modules in two universities.  Research as a module in the School of Health Professions at both Universities of  Plymouth and Limpopo, is taught throughout the programme (4 years at MEDUNSA and 3 in Plymouth). The research based approach that is used in teaching research method at the school is aimed at linking research to learning by encouraging the working of students in groups. The active, student-centred approach to learning encourages active engagement of students at the School of Health Professions. Methods: Content analysis of the two programmes was done to identify common grounds for collaboration and interdisciplinarity.

[A gap of common grounds for interdisciplinary collaboration was identified. Teaching research through interdisciplinary and collaboration methods: analysis of research modules in two schools of Health Professions Ushotanefe Useh. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):58-62] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key Words: Common grounds; Collaboration; interdisciplinary learning

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Evaluation of orally administered calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate on the gastrointestinal absorption of lead acetate in cattle.

 

Verster, R. S

 

Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, Northwest University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, 2735 South Africa.

*Author for correspondence: E-mail 20561776@nwu.ac.za; Cell (027)766296832, Tel (018) 3892715, Fax (018) 3892748

 

Abstract: Lead is one of the most frequently observed heavy metal toxicoses in domestic animals, especially cattle.  The objective of the study was to test the effect of calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate on the absorption of lead acetate in cows, when the lead and minerals were both administered orally. In study 1, experimental cows were dosed with lead acetate at 2 mg/kg plus calcium carbonate at 50 mg/kg, while control cows received only lead acetate at 2 mg/kg.  During study 2, experimental steers received zinc sulphate at .2 mg/kg and lead acetate at 2 mg/kg, while the control steers received lead acetate at 2 mg/kg. Blood samples were taken in heparin tubes from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 6 hours post-dosing.. Blood lead concentrations were then determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using the graphite furnace method.  The results indicated that both minerals decreased the absorption of lead acetate in cows after 3 hours and the effect was sustained at 6 hours. The recommendation to farmers is to provide supplementary minerals to animals in areas with high risk of lead poisoning.

[Verster, R. S. Evaluation of orally administered calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate on the gastrointestinal absorption of lead acetate in cattle. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):63-69] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

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Factors affecting the feeding behaviour of free ranging Tswana and Boer goats in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

 

Lebopa C.K1#. Boomker E.A2,  Chimonyo M3, Mulugeta S.D1

 

1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agric. Science and Technology, North-West University, Private bag x 2046 Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa

2 Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private bag x 04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa

3Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Science, University of Fort Hare, Private bag x 04, Alice, South Africa

 

ABSTRACT: The study was aimed at investigating the factors affecting the feeding behaviour of 3 free ranging Tswana and 3 Boer goat does in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Feeding was observed and recorded during winter (cool dry season) and the summer (hot wet season).  Observations included the following categories: browsing, grazing and non-feeding activities (NFA).  Browsing activity included bi-pedal stance (recorded separately) and represented the browsing of all woody species.  Tree/Bush species browsed at the time of recording were visually identified and recorded separately.  Grazing activity represented the grazing of grasses without the identification or recording of species.  Non-feeding activities include separate recordings of walking, standing, lying and drinking.  Results showed goats spent 21.9 %, 44.7 % and 33.3 % of their day on browsing, grazing and non-feeding activities.  Goats spent more time on NFA in the cold-dry season (68.8) than the hot-wet season (31.9).  Though diurnal variations were observed across breed and season in terms of browsing and non feeding activities, no diurnal variations were found between the breeds.  Knowledge of seasonal and breed variations in feeding behaviour of goats is fundamental to the development of management strategies for small scale farmers aimed at optimal and sustained use of the natural vegetation.

[Lebopa C.K. Boomker E.A,  Chimonyo M, Mulugeta S.D. Factors affecting the feeding behaviour of free ranging Tswana and Boer goats in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):70-80] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

KEYWORDS: Feeding behaviour, Range Tswana goats, Range Boer goats, Season, Diurnal variation

1 Corresponding author.  E-mail: cornelia.lebopa@nwu.ac.za

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In sacco dry matter and crude protein degradation of woody plant species in Tswana and Boer goats

 

Lebopa C. K.1#. Boomker E. A.2 Chimonyo M.3 & Mokoboki H. K. 1

 

1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agric. Science and Technology, North-West University, Private bag x 2046 Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa

2 Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private bag x 04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa

3Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Science, University of Fort Hare, Private bag x 04, Alice, South Africa

 

Abstract:The study was aimed at determining in sacco dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradation of woody plant species incubated in the rumen of Tswana and Boer goats.  The ruminal degradability of the three most selected woody plant species by goats during the cold-dry season (G. occodentalis, O. africana and S. myrtina) and hot-wet season (A. karroo, R. refracta and S. myrtina), were measured in situ, using in sacco digestion techniques.  The nylon bag incubation revealed large differences in the rumen degradability of DM of the three woody plant species during both seasons. Ruminal degradation constants (a, b and a+b and c) varied significantly (P<0.001) between breeds and between goats within a breed.  Thus, no breed difference in in sacco degradation of DM and CP was found between Tswana and Boer goats.  There was a strong positive correlation between DMD, CPD and time of incubation in the rumen.  The crude protein content of the woody plant species positively influenced the rumen digestion of dry matter. Both species preference and degradability of plant species are of importance as they are needed to estimate range suitability for browsing animals.

Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):81-90] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: In sacco digestion, Woody plant species, Range Tswana goats, Range Boer goats, Season,  

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The effect of propagation media and growth regulars on rooting potential of Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) stem cuttings at different physiological ages

Hae, M. and Funnah S.M

Crop Science Programme, Faculty of Science and Technology, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

E-mail: norara33ls@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract: Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) is a recent commercially promising indigenous fruit tree, but there is no documented literature on its propagation and germplasm management. This study was carried out to determine the best growth regulator, growing medium and cutting age on successful rooting of its stem cuttings under non-mist nursery conditions. The experiment was laid out as a 5 x 3 x 3 split plot factorial design. The three factors tested were (i)four growth regulators (Dynaroot 1, Dynaroot 2,  Dynaroot 3, and Dip’n root) plus the control, (ii) three rooting media (River sand= SND, Commercial rooting media- hygrotex (CRM) and manure-ammended soil 50:50 v/v (M+S) and (iii) three stem cutting types (soft wood cuttings, semi-hard wood cuttings and hardwood cuttings. Parameters recorded were percent rooting, root length (cm) and root number. The effect of cutting type and growth regulator was highly significant (<0.0001). Soft wood cuttings did not produce any roots. There were significant differences between hardwood cuttings and semi hardwood cuttings where the former gave the higher rooting percent. The highest rooting percent and root length were obtained where cuttings were treated with Dip’n root. Dynaroot 3 gave the highest number of roots. There were no significant differences among the three media. However visual assessment showed that SND performed better, followed by M+S and then CRM. The treatments interacted significantly to affect the results. Dip’n root was identified as the best rooting enhancer and and hardwood cutting as the best cutting type for successful rooting of D. caffra cuttings.

Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):91-99] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Kei apple; propagation; growth regulator; rooting potential

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Effects Of Various Pre-Sowing Treatments On Germination Of Kei Apple (Dovyalis Caffra) Seeds Harvested At Different Maturity Stages.

 

Hae. M and Funnah S.M

 

Crop Science Programme,  Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. E-mail: norara33ls@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract:  The effect of pre-sowing treatments on the germinating Kei apple seeds harvested at different stages of maturity is being investigated. Germination values recorded were Germination Percent, (GP) Mean Germination Time (MGT), and Time to 50% Germination (T50) compared between seed collected at varying maturity stages as; Green (GN), ripe (RP) and over ripe (OR). Pre-sowing treatments tested were soaking in cold water (CW), soaking in boiling water (HW), and treatment with Indole Acetic Acid (IBA), Abrasion against sand paper (AB), Sulphuric acid (SA) and the control (CNT). Seed maturity was significant (P<0.0001) with the greatest GP for the GN (88.140.54) and RP (88.250.54) stages. GP from the OR stage differed significantly (P<0.0001) compared to the other two maturity stages and it was associated with the GP (83.460.54). The effect of pre-sowing treatments was significant (ANOVA).The comparison between means showed significant differences in germination due to pre-sowing treatments. IBA, CW, HW, AB, gave the highest GP. MGT corresponding to these pre-sowing treatments ranged between 7.9 – 8.0 days. Intermediate GP of 77.010.77 was obtained in untreated seeds while the lowest GP which failed to reach 50% was obtained where Sulphuric acid was used. However, the corresponding MGT to sulphuric acid was the least of 4.30.04 days and that corresponding to the CNT was 11.00.04 days. Seed maturity x pre-sowing treatments interacted significantly to influence germination. It was concluded that since a reasonable GP was obtained from the control, dormancy is not responsible for hindrance of germination and that all pre-sowing treatment are effective in improving germination but SA is not suitable pre-sowing treatment.

[Hae. M and Funnah S.M. Effects Of Various Pre-Sowing Treatments On Germination Of Kei Apple (Dovyalis Caffra) Seeds Harvested At Different Maturity Stages. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):100-105] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

Keywords: Kei apple; Germination; Pre-sowing treatments; Dormancy

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Physiological Responses Of Water-Restricted Tswana And Boer Goats

 

M. M. Qinisaa*, E. A. Boomkerb, H. K. Mokoboki a

 

aDepartment of Animal Science, North West University, P/Bag x 2046, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa.

bDepartment of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Pretoria, Privatebag x 01, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

#Corresponding author. E-mail: meshack. qinisa@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 50 % water restriction on body weight and blood parameters status of Tswana and Boer goats while fed teff and lucerne. Twelve (12) Tswana and Boer goat wethers (six of each breed) were randomly allocated to form two groups of 6 goats, comprising of 3 goats of each breed.  One group was adapted to teff (Eragrostis teff) for 10 days while the other was adapted to Lucerne (Medicago sativa).  After the adaptation period, the goats continued receiving feed ad libitum but their water intake was restricted to 50 % of their average daily intake (calculated for each animal from the adaptation data). Once the first trial period was completed, the trial was repeated by changing the diets of each group. The group that had been on teff was then fed lucerne and vice versa. Both breeds lost 10 % of their body weight when offered lucerne while water-restricted and then regained 13 -14 % of their dehydrated body weight. The haematocrit, total plasma proteins, heart rate and rectal temperature values were not affected by water restriction. Temperature values tended to be higher in goats fed on lucerne hay. Respiration rate increased in both breeds during water restriction. On average, the urine: plasma osmolar ratio for both breeds was about 7:1. Restricting the water intake of these goats to 50 % of their average daily water intake did not tax their maximum physiological capabilities as shown by lack of change in their heart rate and rectal temperature. Tswana and Boer goats can easily survive under arid conditions.

[M. M. Qinisa, E. A. Boomker, H. K. Mokoboki. Physiological Responses Of Water-Restricted Tswana And Boer Goats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):106-111] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Water restriction, body weight, blood parameters

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Effect of species within season on techniques used to measure nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors in browse tree leaves

 

H K. Mokoboki#1

 1Animal Science Programme, North West University, Private Bag X 2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

* Corresponding author. Tel: +2718 389 2744; fax +2718 389 2748

E-mail address: kwena.mokoboki@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: Eight trees leave foliages (Acacia nilotica, Acacia karroo, Acacia tortilis, Acacia rhemniana, Acacia galpinii, Acacia sieberiana, Acacia hebeclada and Dichrostachys cineria) were collected in winter, summer and spring to determine crude protein, acid and neutral detergent fibre, packed volume, total phenolics, radial diffusion, extracted condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins in acid and neutral detergent fibre content. The experimental design was completely randomized design. From this study all species expect A. galpinii and A. rhemniana in summer and spring and species A. sieberiana and A. hebeclada in winter were expected to have high intake, due to low packed volume. Species A. sieberiana, A. hebeclada and D. cineria in all seasons have high crude protein contents than the other species. Species A. hebeclada and A. sieberiana had low levels of total phenolics and extracted condensed tannins in all seasons. During ranking analysis, species A. sieberiana and A. hebeclada in all seasons have high crude protein content, low packed volume, and low anti-nutritional factors as compared to A. rhemniana. The level of nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors for other species varies among seasonal changes. This result implies that there were effects of species within season on nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors of browse tree leaves. These suggest a need for a detailed study on effects of season on nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors over a number of years.

[H K. Mokoboki. Effect of species within season on techniques used to measure nutritive value and anti-nutritional factors in browse tree leaves. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):112-119] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: techniques, browse, acacia, season

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Total stress tensors and heat uxes of single ow through a porous viscoelastic medium
 

Tshepo O Tong and Matthew T Kambule


Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University, Ma keng, South Africa.
e-mail: matthew.kambule@nwu.ac.za


Abstract: Using the second law of thermodynamics, we examine the macroscopic equations for mass, momentum, energy and entropy for a biphasic system whose interface has thermodynamic properties. This system is made up of mesoscopic particles and a uid, including mass exchange and di erent phase temperatures. By exploiting the entropy inequality in terms of Coleman and Noll's method we obtain nonequilibrium and equilibrium results. We show how the solid phase stress tensor depends on the solid phase pressure, the Terzaghi stress, the hydration stress and the stress contributed by the interface properties, which is similar to the Terzaghi stress. We determine the heat uxes. We further linearize the non-equilibrium parts of their constitutive forms in terms of heat conduction, uid viscosity and viscoelasticity about the equilibrium. Finally we obtain expressions of the total stress and the total heat ux for a particle.

[Tshepo O Tong and Matthew T Kambule. Total stress tensors and heat uxes of single ow through a porous viscoelastic medium. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(S2):120-] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.


Keywords: Cauchy stress tensors; heat uxes; Hybrid mixture Theory method; viscoelaticity.

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