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 Life Science Journal 
 
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 8 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 25), June 25, 2011
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0802
 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Estimate water use efficiency (WUE) and determining the period of irrigation in corn plant

 

Tayeb Saki Nejad

 Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir; Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in order to examine the effect of drought stress in different periods of plants grow on process factor along with four levels as Main plot ( I0 : Full irrigation point of FC, control, without water stress, I1 : 75% of the amount of irrigation treatments I0, mild stress, I2 : 50% of the amount of irrigation treatments I0, severe stress, I3 : 25% of the amount of irrigation treatment I0, very severe stress and point of PWP and Sub-plots: Different growth phases: S0: growing phase, the establishment of the plant stem to the emergence, S1: natal phase: to stem the rise of coffee being resilient and end silk pollination, S2: grain filling phase: the end of pollen grain maturity and the emergence of black layer) in research farm of Islamic Azad University. although the frequency difference between irrigation treatments and amounts of irrigation I0 & I1, 6 times water (6 = 16-22) and also in terms of grain yield in two different irrigation treatments Performance 1.5 ton per hectare there and Duncan test time difference performance meaningful shown so should be treated I0 as the best irrigation, the number of irrigated 22 times during the growing season be introduced but if precise will be investigated is observed I1 that 75 percent of the treated water FC state farm yield acceptable 12.8 ton in ha plots managed in a 1502 liter (26460-27962) that consume less water, saving the farm level is very valuable and Due to water shortage and drought phenomenon can be considered and it should be used now in Khuzestan IRAN irrigation takes place between 20-21 times in the same treatment that I0 is using treatment I1 with some loss of performance seed-saving high water is done, on the other hand WUE in these two treatments (I0 & I1) of Duncan test at 1% level statistics has been that this can also cause other using treatment I1 is.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad. Estimate water use efficiency (WUE) and determining the period of irrigation in corn plant. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):1-6] (ISSN:1097-C8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.01

Key words: water use efficiency (WUE), period of irrigation, corn

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Field Studies Encysted Metacercariae infested Natural Male Tilapias and Monosex Tilapias in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate Fish Farms

 

Eissa, I. A.M.1; Gado, M. S.2; laila, A.M3. Mona S. Zaki*3 and Noor El-Deen, A. E3

 1Dept. of Fish Diseases and Management, Fac. of Vet. Med. Suez Canal University

2Dept. of Fish Diseases and Management, Fac. of Vet. Med., kafr El -Sheikh University

3Dept.of Hydrobiology, Vet. Division, National Research Centre.

*dr_mona_zaki@uk.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out on 1800 specimens of Tilapia fishes Oreochromis niloticus (O.niloticus) (phenotypic, hybrids and monosex O.niloticus of different size and body weight. They were randomly collected at different seasons from Kafr El- Sheikh Governorate cultured fish farms. The clinical signs of most examined fishes revealed no pathognomonic abnormalities on the external body surface except black spots were detected on skin and fins. Tilapia fishes were shown emaciation. The postmortem findings the black spots were detected on skin and fins. Encysted metacercariae including Euclinostomum heterostomum, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Heterophidae and Haplorochoidae were investigated and recorded. The highest prevalence possessed in hybrids while monosex O.niloticus occupied the last position. The histopathological examination in different organs of infested fish revealed pathological changes in gills and musculatures.

[Eissa, I. A.M.; Gado, M. S.; laila, A.M.; Mona S. Zaki and Noor El-Deen, A. E. Field Studies Encysted Metacercariae infested Natural Male Tilapias and Monosex Tilapias in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate Fish Farms. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):7-12] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.02

Key word: Encysted metacercariae, O.niloticus, Hybrids, monosex

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Self-management in Primary Dysmenorrhea: Toward Evidence-based Education

 

Maryam Kabirian 1, Zahra Abedian 2, Seyed Reza Mazlom 3, Behroz Mahram 4

 1. MSc in midwifery, Department of Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2. Faculty Member, Department of Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3. Faculty Member, Department of Medical & Surgical Nursing, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4. Faculty Member, Mashhad Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

Abedianz@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: There is not an evidence-based education that reinforces use of scientific research in the context of self- management in primary dysmenorrhea. This study was conducted to determine the effect of evidence-based education on dysmenorrheic girl’s self-care behaviors and the severity of primary dysmenorrhea at dormitories of Ferdowsi University in Mashhad, Iran. The method of this study involves the following steps: A) Formulation of answerable questions to address self-care methods in primary dysmenorrhea. B) Systematic searching for the research evidence that could be used to answer the questions. C) Appraisal of the validity, relevance and applicability of the research evidence. D) Designing of the protocol of evidence-based education based on the best acquired evidence. E) Evaluation the effect of evidence-based education on dysmenorrheic girl’s self-care behaviors and the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. There was a significant reduction in pain score at the first (-0.6±1.7 VS 1.1±2.1 P=0.000) and second (-1.9±1.5 VS 0.1±1.6 P=0.000) menstrual period after intervention in the evidence-based education group compared with the girls in the control group. Also, the difference in self-care behaviors between evidence-based education versus control group at the second menstrual period after intervention (105.8±8.9 VS 80.4±11.3 P=0.021) was significant. Evidence-based care leads to remarkable advances in the management of primary dysmenorrhea. Health education systems can use evidence-based education in order to promote self-management behaviours among primary dysmenorrheic girls.

[Maryam Kabirian, Zahra Abedian, Seyed Reza Mazlom, Behroz Mahram, and Mehrdad Jalalian. Self-management in Primary Dysmenorrhea: Toward Evidence-based Education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):13-18] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.03

 Keywords: Evidence-based Education; Self-management; Primary Dysmenorrhea

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Evaluation Of Serum Hyaluronic Acid And Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 As Non Invasive Markers Of Hepatic Fibrosis 

 

Elham Ragab Abdel-Samea1, Soma Sherif Abd El Gawad1 and Mohammed Abd El Hamid Ali2

1. Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

2. Department of Hepatology Gastroenterology and Infectious Disease, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

elhamelngar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard for assessing liver fibrosis and non reliable non invasive approach is available, therefore a suitable serologic Biomarker is needed. Several biochemical markers have shown promise for the detection of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of the present work is to study the diagnostic value of serum hyaluronic acid (SHA) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as indicators for the stage of hepatic fibrosis, and to correlate the liver pathology and liver function tests with serum fibrosis markers. Eighty treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C [CHC] with or without HBV and forty healthy subjects are used as a control group. The patients were divided according to Metavir classification of liver biopsy into 3 groups. Group 1 with normal biopsy (17 patients), group 2 was 35 patients with mild fibrotic changes (stage 1-2) and group 3 of 28 patients with severe fibrosis (stage 3-4). SHA level was significantly higher in patients with severe fibrosis than patients with mild or no hepatic fibrosis. (378.7+147.5, 226.2+123.7 and 85.3+52.2 pg/ml). (P<0.0001). MMP-2 was also significantly higher in severe fibrosis (group 3) than group 2 or group 1 (1196.2+119.5, 918.1+175.8 and 841.1+224.5 pg/ml) respectively (P<0.001). SHA and MMP-2 were not correlated to age, S bilirubin AST, ALT or spleen size. Group 3 was correlated significantly to the SHA and MMP, platelet count, S albumin and liver size but not correlated to AST, ALT, S. bilirubin or spleen size. The Specificity of fibrosis markers SHA and MMP-2 in prediction of severe fibrosis were 94.4% and 90.0% respectively and the sensitivity were higher to SHA 90.0% than MMP-2 80% but not a predictor of mild or normal biopsy. The cut of value of SHA, MMP-2, platelet count and prothrombin time (PT Activity), in diagnosis of severe fibrosis were 294.84 pg/ml, 1003 pg/ml., 115.084/cmmm, 72.116% respectively. Measurement of SHA and MMP-2 can be used to differentiate cirrhotic from non-cirrhotic patient and can be regarded as a useful non invasive test in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.

[Elham Ragab Abdel-Samea, Soma Sherif Abd El Gawad and Mohammed Abd El Hamid Ali: Evaluation of non invasive markers of hepatic fibrosis. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):19-25] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.04

 

Keywords: Hyaluronic Acid, hepatic Fibrosis, Matrix metalloproteinase

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The Effects of Tourism on Quality of Life: A Case Study of Shiraz, Iran

 

Fariborz Aref

 School of Management and Economics, Science and Research Branch

 Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

fariborz.aref@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Does tourism contribute to quality of life in tourism destinations? This study investigates the effect of tourism upon quality of life in Shiraz, Iran. The results revealed that tourism has the positive effect on quality of life of residents. According to the survey, the strongest tourism impacts are found to be linked with emotional well-being, community well-being, and income and employment. While health and safety well-being are found to be the least favorable in terms of the effect of tourism on quality of life. The findings of this study will aid in the planning of strategic development programs for tourist destinations.

[Fariborz Aref. The effects of tourism on quality of life. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):26-30] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.05

 Keywords: quality of life, tourism, community, well-being

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6

Zinc and Boron Fertilization on Concentration and Uptake of Copper and Nitrogen in Corn Grain in a Calcareous Soil

 

Farshid Aref

Department of Soil Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

farshidaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A farm experiment was conducted to study the effect of Zn and B interaction on the concentration and total uptake of Nitrogen (N) and Copper (Cu) in corn grain at Fars Province, Iran. Treatments including five levels of Zn (0, 8, 16 and 24 kg ha-1 and Zn foliar spray) and four levels of B (0, 3, and 6 kg ha-1 and B foliar spray) in a completely randomized block design were set up. A high Zn content in the soil helped increasing the concentration and uptake of N in the grain by B application; that is, at high levels of Zn, there was a synergism between B and N. Boron spraying helped with increasing the concentration and uptake of N in the grain by Zn application. There was a negative correlation between N and Cu concentration in the grain and a positive correlation between N and Cu uptake in the grain.

[F. Aref. Zinc and boron fertilization on concentration and uptake of copper and nitrogen in the corn grain in a calcareous soil. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):31-37] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.06

 Keywords: Antagonism, Deficiency, Fertilizer, Interaction, Nutrients, Synergism

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Rural Cooperatives for Poverty Alleviation in Iran

 

Abrisham Aref

 School of Humanities and Social Science, Science and Research Branch

Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; abrishamaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper provides evidence on the contribution of rural cooperatives to poverty alleviation in Iran. Rural cooperatives are certainly a major contributor to poverty alleviation in many countries. But, there are a significant number of barriers to effectively using rural cooperatives as a tool for poverty alleviation in developing countries. The result of this study found that rural residents have negative perception towards contribution of rural cooperatives for poverty alleviation. They refereed to the dependency of rural cooperatives to government and lack of cultural capacity for group collaboration as main barriers related poverty alleviation through rural cooperatives. The finding can assist the rural developers at the local and national level for remove this problem in face of rural cooperatives for poverty alleviation.

[Abrisham Aref. Rural Cooperatives for Poverty Alleviation in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):38-41] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.07

 Key words: Poverty alleviation, rural cooperatives, rural development

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Awareness of Hospital Internal Disaster Management Plan among Health Team Members in A University Hospital

 

Hemat Abd elazeem1, Samia Adam*1, and Gehan Mohamed2

1Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 2 Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt. *asamia@hotmail.com

 

 Abstract: A disaster management plan is a formal plan of action which enables the hospital staff to respond effectively and efficiently when confronted with a disaster. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of health team regarding hospital internal disaster management plan at a university hospital. The study was conducted in a university hospital using a cross-sectional design. It included six groups of subjects namely, medical leaders, head nurses, staff nurses, technicians, employees, housekeepers, in addition to a jury group to test validity of the study tool. A self-administered questionnaire form was used to assess staff awareness about the internal disaster management plan in the hospital. The results showed the absence of a disaster plan in the study setting and absence of a hospital evacuation plan. Also the majority of various categories of the study subjects had low awareness about all items of the disaster plan. It is concluded that there is a need for an internal disaster plan for the hospital, and the awareness of study subjects about internal disaster preparedness need to be raised. Therefore, it is recommended that the hospital administration should develop policies for disaster management and pay more attention to the problem of internal disasters and preparedness for their management. Training programs are essential for all categories of hospital staff in order to increase their awareness about disaster management.

[Hemat Abd elazeem, Samia Adam, and Gehan Mohamed. Awareness of Hospital Internal Disaster Management Plan among Health Team Members in A University Hospital. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):42-52] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.08

 Keywords: Internal disaster, disaster management plan, hospital preparedness

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Patient Safety: Assessing Nurses' Perception and Developing an Improvement Plan

 

*1Neamatallah Goma Ahmed, 2Samia Mohamed Adam and 3Iman Ibrahim Abd Al-Moniem

 

1Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, 2 Nursing Administrations and 3 Paediatric Nursing

Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University. Cairo., Egypt. *nemata55@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: patients' safety is a core value of healthcare service. A positive patient safety culture contributes to the environment necessary to maintain patient safety and avoid needless patient deaths. The impact of medical errors has been widely reported. The traditional blame and shame culture in healthcare organization have been criticized for being largely responsible for causing medical errors and obstructing the possibility of learning from those errors. Employees' perceptions about safety are important because organizations with strong safety culture consistently report fewer workplace injuries and fewer harmful events than do organizations with weak safety culture. The study aims to assessing nurses' perceptions of patient's safety culture at medical and paediatric hospitals and developing an improvement plan to enhance patient safety at the study settings. The study was conducted in tow university hospitals using a descriptive design. Sample: 148 nurses (120 staff nurses and 28 head nurses) were included in the study. Tools of the study included 1) Interview questionnaire sheets were used to collect the participants' characteristic data, 2) The Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ (2004). Results: nurses perceive patient safety culture more positive. There were statistically significant differences between perception of nurses working in critical care units and perception of nurses working in general wards in two dimensions. There were a statistically significant differences between perception of the staff nurses and perception of head nurses in all items related to patients' safety except organizational learning. The highest percentages of the nurses working in the general wards and critical care units scored their hospital as very good (59.5% & 33.7%, respectively). While half of the head nurses scored the hospital as acceptable (50%). The highest percentage of the staff nurses (34.2%) reported no events related to patients safety over the past 12 months. No correlation was found between head nurses age and perception of patient safety culture, while there was a positive weak correlation between staff nurses' age and their perception. Conclusion: nurses perceive patient's safety culture more positively. There was a statistically significant difference between nurses working in critical care units and nurses working in general wards. Head nurses perceived the patient's safety culture more positively than staff nurses did. The majority of the nurses did not report events related to patient's safety. Non-punitive environment scored high negative responses. Recommendation: nurses need to be encouraged to improve the reporting events related to patients' safety. Further studies are needed for testing the reliability of the suggested developed improvement plan and accordingly implementing it at the study settings.

[Neamatallah Goma Ahmed, Samia Mohamed Adam and Iman Ibrahim Abd Al-Moniem. Patient Safety: Assessing Nurses' Perception and Developing an Improvement Plan. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):53-64] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.09

 Keywords: Patient; Safety; Nurse

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Detection and Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis from Saliva of Schizophrenia Patients by Culture and Taqman Real-Time PCR: A Pilot Study

 

1*Maggie M. Fawzi, 2Mounir M. Fawzi, 2Hany M. El-Amin, 3Mahmoud H. Elafandy

 1Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2 Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

3Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*mag0000eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: P. gingivalis is a periodontopathogen implicated in a number of systemic diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease. Little, if any, is known about the prevalence and quantity of this organism in the mouth of patients with schizophrenia who are, nevertheless, known to have poor oral health and die early from cardiovascular disease. Aim: to estimate the prevalence and quantity of P. gingivalis in saliva of schizophrenia patients compared to non-psychiatric controls and to correlate the quantity of P. gingivalis with the severity of psychopathology of schizophrenia. Materials and methods: Thirty five consecutive attendees of the out-patients clinic of a psychiatric Hospital in Jeddah, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and compared with 35 non-psychiatric controls, in terms of the prevalence and quantity of P. gingivalis in their saliva. For this purpose, anaerobic culture and real-time PCR with TaqMan probe were used. Results: Real-time PCR results were matching those obtained with anaerobic culture in 95.7% of cases. Using Real-time PCR, P. gingivalis was detected in 25 patients (78% ) and 6 controls (17%) (p=0.000). The P. gingivalis median (range) number of copies in salivary samples of patients and controls were 5.3x107 (0- 2.7310) and 1.91x105 (0- 6.817), respectively (p=0.009). Also, the P. gingivalis levels were significantly positively correlated with the scores on all the PANSS scales. Conclusion: real-time PCR, in confirmation of the results of quantitative culture, demonstrated (a) significantly higher prevalence and quantity of P. gingivalis in saliva of schizophrenia patients compared to non-psychiatric controls and (b) positive correlation between quantity of P. gingivalis cells and severity of psychopathology of schizophrenia. Hopefully, the results of this pilot study will encourage further research into the relationships between oral microbiota and schizophrenia. Real-time PCR is a promising tool in this area. Hopefully too, some preventive dental programs will become an integral part of psychiatric management to meet the need of this vulnerable group of population.

[Maggie M. Fawzi, Mounir M. Fawzi, Hany M. El-Amin, Mahmoud H. Elafandy. Detection and Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis from Saliva of Schizophrenia Patients by Culture and Taqman Real-Time PCR: A Pilot Study. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):65-74] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.10

 Keywords: Oral health, PANSS, PCR, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Quantification, real-time, schizophrenia, TaqMan

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The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural development

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Review of literature shows that intervention of information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural development initiatives are capable of development, but are not successful. Lack of community participation, absence of an integrated approach and non-inclusion of traditional knowledge systems (TKS) in the project designs are the major impediments. We therefore suggest a systems-based approach in the design of e-Governance projects, and brief some future directions. Sustained development using rural informatics is possible, only if ICT interventions are able to respond to the local needs and re-adjust as per the prevailing knowledge (Traditional Knowledge Systems- TKS) of the rural areas. To capture the needs and local knowledge prevalent at the grassroots, these interventions should preferably have an effective bi-directional link.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural development. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):75-80] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.11

Keywords: information and communication technologies (ICT), rural development

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Evaluation of Curvularia lunata as an Biological Control Agent in Major Weeds of Rice Paddies

Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh1

1. Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Guilan Province 41335-3516, Iran. Tel:00989111384168

*Corresponding author’s email: ssafarimotlagh@yahoo.com

 Abstract: Common water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L.), arrowhead (Sagitaria trifolia L.) and Echinochloa spp. (L.) are among the most important damaging weeds of rice paddies. In this research, Curvularia lunata (Waker) Boedijn was isolated from the said weeds. Then, its effect in different growth stages, i.e. seed, 2-3 leaf stage (seedling) and also in greenhouse conditions was examined in Alisma plantago-aquatica, Sagitaria trifolia, Echinochloa spp., and five rice cultivars including 2 bred (Sepidroud and Khazar) and 3 indigenous (Ali Kazemi, Hashemi and Binam) ones in a totally random design with three replications. To do so, pure fungal colonies and a spore suspension containing 10conidia/ml distilled water were used. The disease rating caused by this fungus in the 2-3 leaf stage (seedlings) of the said weeds was more than that in the rice cultivars. Also, the fungus decreased the germination of the weeds seeds. Results showed that in the evaluation of the disease rating, the studied rice cultivars showed no significant reaction to greenhouse conditions while weeds’ reactions were significant. The greatest effect of C. lunata was on Alisma plantago-aquatica. The evaluation of fresh weight, dry weight and height of the said weeds and rice cultivars indicated that the above-mentioned fungus could affect these traits in weeds and rice cultivars and would reduce them. Hence, Curvularia lunata can be considered as a probable agent for the biological control of Alisma plantago-aquatica, Echinochloa spp., and Sagitaria trifolia provided that modification of rice cultivars is done with useful traits.

[Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh. Evaluation of Curvularia lunata as an Biological Control Agent in Major Weeds of Rice Paddies. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):81-91] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.12

 Keywords: Alisma plantago-aquatica; biological control; Curvularia lunata; Echinochloa spp. ;Sagitaria trifolia

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Review the reasons for the decentralization of agricultural extension

 

 Sharareh Khodamoradi1 and Mohammad Abedi2

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agricultural extension is a non-formal type of education that provides advisory services by the use of educational approach in acquiring knowledge and skills to deal with the growing needs of global world. Diverse agricultural extension funding and delivery arrangements have been undertaken since the mid-1980s by governments worldwide in the name of "privatization." When agricultural extension is discussed, privatization is used in the broadest sense – of introducing or increasing private sector participation, which does not necessarily imply a transfer of designated state-owned assets to the private sector. In fact, various cost-recovery, commercialization, and other so-called privatization alternatives have been adopted to improve agricultural extension. The form and content of decentralization has dominated development discourse and public sector reform agenda in Kenya in the last two decades. The case of agricultural extension service presents decentralization in a difficult context partly due to lack of information on its possible diverse impacts especially on resource poor farmers.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Review the reasons for the decentralization of agricultural extension. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):92-99] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.13

Keywords: Decentralization, Agricultural extension

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Ceftriaxone versus Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid Fever.

 

Osama Mohamed Hammad1, Tamer Hifnawy2*, Dalia Omran3, Magda Anwar El Tantawi4 and Nabil Isaknder Girgis5

 1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University-Egypt.

2Public Health & Community Medicine Department Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University-Egypt.

3Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

4Bacteriology Department, Abbassia Fever Hospital.

 5Former NAMRU3, Cairo, Egypt. *daliaomran@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Typhoid fever is a global health problem, with an estimated 20 million cases and 700.000 deaths annually. In Egypt, since the beginning of the 1980s, there has been an increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistance to the first line antimicrobials used in the treatment of the disease such as chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and thus other drugs, the fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins, had to be evaluated for their efficacy in the treatment and their side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chloramphenicol, which was the classical drug for treatment of acute typhoid fever in Abbassia fever hospital (AFH) and many parts of the world where typhoid fever is endemic, with ceftriaxone which became a first line drug for treatment of it after the appearance of multidrug resistant MDR isolates of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi )in the last fifteen years. As part of the study we investigated whether or not the organisms were still sensitive to the quinolones and third generation cephalosporins and to detect if multidrug resistant (MDR) typhoid fever was still a problem in Egypt. A phase IV open label, prospective, randomized clinical trial study was implemented in the period between March 2007 and June 2009. Fifty two patients with positive blood culture for S. typhi were included in this study. They were 32 (62%) males and 20 (38%) females ranging in age from 3 to 47 years (mean±SD: 22±8.5years). Drug sensitivity tests showed that 4 (8%) of Salmonella typhi isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and 18 (35%) and 21 (40%) isolates were resistant to ampicillin and TMP-SMX respectively. Two (4%) isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and TMP-SMX. No isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone. Twenty seven (52%) patients were treated with chloramphenicol and twenty five (48%) patients were treated with ceftriaxone. All patients were cured. The mean time (mean±SD) for patients to become afebrile was 3.3±1.2 days for ceftriaxone and 5.8±1.2 days for chloramphenicol. In patients treated with ceftriaxone the time taken to become afebrile was shorter with chronic infection as compared to those treated with chloramphenicol(P value= 0.0001 95% CI= 1.831-3.169). From this study, it can be concluded that: ceftriaxone was associated with a significantly shorter time of defervescence making it the drug of choice for treatment of severe and complicated cases of typhoid fever.There is a marked reduction of the prevalence of MDR Salmonella typhi isolates and marked increase in the susceptibility of these isolates to chloramphenicol, returning it to be one of the drugs that could be used in the treatment of acute typhoid fever in most of the underdeveloped parts of the world where the disease is endemic and medical resources are limited.No drug resistance to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was reported after many years of using them for treatment of acute typhoid fever.Due to high degree of resistance to ampicillin and TMP-SMX, they should not be used as first line drugs for treatment of acute typhoid fever.

[Osama Mohamed Hammad, Tamer Hifnawy, Dalia Omran, Magda Anwar El Tantawi and Nabil Isaknder Girgis. Ceftriaxone versus Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid Fever. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):100-105] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.14

Key words: Typhoid fever, Multidrug resistance, Chloramphenicol, Ceftriaxone

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Exposure of Adult Male Rats to Cadmium: Assessment of Sexual Behaviour, Fertility, Aggression as well as Anxiety like Behaviour with Special Reference to Biochemical and Pathological Alterations.

 

Mervat M. Kamel1*, Abeer H. Abd El Razek 1, Kawkab A. Ahmed 2 and Gehan M. Kamel 3

1Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, 2Department of Pathology, 3 Department of Pharmacology. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. * mevy58@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Because Cadmium is widely used in industry and in our daily life, it’s likely that many people are exposed to it. The main aim of this study is to further investigate the effects of cadmium on sexual and aggressive behaviour as well as anxiety – like behaviour in adult male rats. Forty five male Wistar rats weighing (140-160 g) were administered CdCl2 in drinking water at one of three concentrations: 0, 5 and 50 mg / L for a period of 12 weeks. Sex organs tissues (testes, prostate glands & seminal vesicles), representing all treatments were taken for biochemical, histopathological examination and male fertility assessment (semen quality analysis). Results revealed marked impairment in sexual activity with noticed influence on both territorial aggressive behaviour and anxiety – like behaviour in males exposed to CdCl2. These behavioural alterations were paralleled by biochemical changes, showing that CdCl2 at concentrations (5mg) and (50 mg ) induced a serious decrease in the level of testosterone and a significant elevation in serotonin. Additionally, increased oxidative stress in testicular tissue. Poor semen quality (sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability) was observed in the treated male rats. furthermore, histopathological alterations were observed in the testes, prostate gland and seminal vesicles of the cadmium treated rats. Our results strongly suggest that Cd intoxication produces adverse effects on sexual behaviour, aggression, fertility and anxiety – like behaviour, with biochemical and pathological alterations in adult male rats.

[Mervat M. Kamel, Abeer H. Abd El Razek, Kawkab A. Ahmed and Gehan M. Kamel. Exposure of Adult Male Rats to Cadmium: Assessment of Sexual Behaviour, Fertility, Aggression as well as Anxiety like Behaviour with Special Reference to Biochemical and Pathological Alterations. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):106-119] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.15

Keywords: Cadmium chloride (CdCl2), sexual behaviour, aggression, anxiety–like behaviour, fertility, testosterone, serotonin, SOD, TBARs, histopathological changes

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Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Growth Pattern in Egyptian Rachitic Children

 

Somaia Ismail1; Moushira Erfan2*; Manal Abd EL-Salam3; Sanaa Kamal 2; Soheir Ibrahim3; and Hala Nasr1

 1Medical Molecular Genetics Department, Human Genetics Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC) 2Biological anthropology Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC)

3Pediatric Department, Faculty of medicine (for girls) AL-Azhar university. *moushiraz@yahoo.com

 Abstract: Nutritional rickets may be caused by either calcium or vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D affects skeletal metabolism indirectly. The association between Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and genetic and environmental factors plays a role in the majority of cases. Several studies reported association between rickets and VDR gene polymorphism and growth parameters. Vitamin D affects skeletal metabolism by regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine the association between VDR gene polymorphism and vitamin D deficiency in Egyptian children with rickets and assess the relationship between the VDR gene polymorphisms and growth parameters. The study included 42 (16 girls and 26 boys) patients recruited from AL-Zharaa hospital, AL-Azhar University. Their age ranged from 4-36 months. Forty eight healthy individuals matched in age and sex with patients was recruited for comparison.VDR gene ApaI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms, biochemical and growth parameters were studied. Results showed that the most common VDR genotype was Ff among patients and Aa among controls, with no significant differences. The allele frequency showed significant increase in the “f” (FokI) allele in patients compared to controls (33.3% vs 20.8%, P=0.04). While, there were no significant differences between patients and controls in frequency of TaqI and ApaI alleles. The frequencies of combinations of VDR genotypes for the FokI, ApaI, and TaqI polymorphic sites, were significantly different between rachitic and control subjects (p <0.01). The AaFfTT genotype was the most frequent one among the rachitic group, while the AaFFTT is the most predominant in the control group. The FF and tt genotypes were associated with reduced SDS of weight and height. This denotes that the VDR polymorphism has functional significance on growth parameters. In conclusions, the study shows that there is a relation between VDR gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to rickets. These results might help in risk assessment of rickets and in predicting response to treatment.

[Somaia Ismail; Moushira Erfan; Manal Abd EL-Salam; Sanaa Kamal; Soheir Ibrahim; and Hala Nasr.Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Growth Pattern in Egyptian Rachitic Children. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):120-131] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.16

 Keyword: Vitamin D; Receptors; Gene polymorphism; Rickets, Egyptians

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Lifestyle factors influencing bone mineral density in postmenopausal Malaysian women

 

Fatemeh Mohammadi 1, Tengku Aizan Hamid 2, Mohd Nazri Yazid 3, Zanariah Othman 4, Rozi Mahmud 5,

 1. Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

2. Ph.D., Professor, Director of Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

3. Ph.D., Associate professor, head of Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

4. M.D., Lecturer in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

5. Ph.D., Associate professor, Lecturer in Imaging Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

fatimohammadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent osteoporosis is a major public health problem affecting millions of people, especially elderly and postmenopausal women worldwide. Although the key role of a healthy lifestyle on chronic diseases has been established, the importance of these characteristics along with other factors influencing BMD is still controversial. Further, previous studies addressing this issue in postmenopausal Malaysian women are very limited. This study aimed to determine the lifestyle habits that may affect BMD in postmenopausal Malaysian women. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 201 healthy postmenopausal women were interviewed to obtain information on their socio-demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle status. Calcaneal BMD was measured by quantitative ultra sonography (QUS) and was expressed in broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) as well as T-score. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for calcium intake evaluation and visual analog scale (VAS) was applied for activity level assessment. Correlations of lifestyle factors with BMD were investigated using Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. A chi-square test and an independent-sample t-test were conducted to compare categorical and continuous lifestyle variables, respectively, in subjects. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to explore independent variables associated with BMD. All tests were two-tailed, and a 5 percent level of statistical significance was chosen. In a total of the 201 postmenopausal women, 28.4 percent of individuals were osteoporotic and 71.6 percent were normal. BMD was correlated with calcium intake and physical activity while there was no correlation between BMD and coffee consumption. Significant relationships were found between BMD and most investigated socio-demographic and reproductive factors. However, results from a two-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors that remain significant after adjustment were age, BMI, osteoporosis history, lactation, calcium intake, and physical activity. On the basis of our data, calcium intake and physical activity seem to be major determinants of BMD in post-menopausal Malaysian women.

[Fatemeh Mohammadi, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Zanariah Othman, Rozi Mahmud, Mohd Nazri Yazid. Lifestyle factors influencing bone mineral density in postmenopausal Malaysian women. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):132-139] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.17

Keywords: Bone mineral density; Lifestyle; Osteoporosis; Physical activity; Calcium intake; Postmenopause

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Nurse – physician collaboration: A comparative study of the attitudes of nurses and physicians at Mansoura University Hospital.

 

Karima A. EL Sayed1; Wafaa F. Sleem2 and Neamat M.EL Sayed2 

1Department of Nursing Adminstration, Tanta Univeresity - Egypt

2 Department of Nursing Adminstration, Mansoura Univeresity - Egypt

 

Abstract: Collaboration and team work between physicians and nurses is crucial for patient care and morale, each team member has his or her own perspective regarding assessment and plan of care for a patient and only through collaboration and an exchange of information can appropriate treatment plans be made. The study aims to study attitudes of nurses and physicians regarding nurse-physician collaboration in general medical and surgical units at Mansoura University Hospital and to measure differences in attitudes of nurses and physicians regarding nurse – physician collaboration. All nurses and physicians (n=135) available at time of data collection, who were working in medical and surgical units. Data were collected by using Jefferson scale of attitudes toward nurse-physician collaboration. The Jefferson scale has four subscales that measure:(a) shared education and teamwork (7 items with responses from 1-4, with a subscale score range of 7-28); (b) caring versus curing (3 items with a subscale score range of 3-12); (c) autonomy (3 items with a subscale score range of 3-12) and physician dominance (2 items, with a subscale score range of 2-8). Results revealed that the total scores indicated that nurses have more positive attitudes toward nurse- physician collaboration than physicians.

[Karima A. EL Sayed1; Wafaa F. Sleem2 and Neamat M.EL Sayed. Nurse – physician collaboration: A comparative study of the attitudes of nurses and physicians at Mansoura University Hospital. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):140-146] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.18

Keywords: Collaboration, mercury, Jefferson scale, surgical units, physician collaboration.

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Analysis of different techniques in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

 

Mohammad Abedi1 and Sharareh Khodamoradi2

 1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: skhodamoradi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: PRA is intended to enable local communities to conduct their own analysis and to plan and take action. PRA involves project staff learning together with villagers about the village. The aim of PRA is to help strengthen the capacity of villagers to plan, make decisions, and to take action towards improving their own situation. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is considered one of the popular and effective approaches to gather information in rural areas. This approach was developed in early 1990s with considerable shift in paradigm from top-down to bottom-up approach, and from blueprint to the learning process. In fact, it is a shift from extractive survey questionnaires to experience sharing by local people. PRA is based on village experiences where communities effectively manage their natural resources.

[Mohammad Abedi and Sharareh Khodamoradi. Analysis of different techniques in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):147-157] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.19

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

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Micro Vascular Free Tissue Transfer Surgeries: Impact of a Designed Teaching Protocol on Nurse's Performance for Reduction or Prevention of Post Operative Flap Failure

 

Samia Y. Sayed*1, Hala M. Ghanem1, Warda Y. Mohamed2 and Tarek A. El-Gamal3

*1Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Asiut Univesity., Asiut, Egypt

2 Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3 Orthopedic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine Assiut University, Asiut, Egypt

 

Abstract: Introduction: Micro vascular transplants, also known as a free flap or free tissue transfer, involves transplanting nonessential donor tissue from one part of the body to another to restore form or function using microsurgical techniques. The transplanted tissue must have a single blood supply with an artery and draining vein that are both adequate to sustain circulation and life in the transplant. The free flap is anastomosed (blood vessels connected) to the recipient vessels and blood flow is re-established. Aim of the study is 2-fold: first: to design a teaching protocol for nurses working with patients undergoing microvascular free tissue transfer surgeries, and second: to evaluate the effect of implementing the designed teaching protocol on nurse's performance for reduction or prevention of post operative flap failure. Quasi-experimental research design has been utilized in this study. Subjects and Methods: A study was conducted in Assiut University Hospitals. A sample of convenience including all nurses working in Reconstructive Microsurgical Unit (10) & Traumatology Care Unit (20) in addition to (30) patients with free tissue transfer surgeries. Tools utilized were:-a) Nurses performance regards care of patients undergoing free tissue transfer surgeries questionnaire sheet to assess nurse's knowledge in addition to some sociodemographic data.b) Nurses performance regards care of patients undergoing free tissue transfer surgeries observation checklist sheet to assess nurse's skills .c) Flap observation checklist sheet among patients undergoing free tissue transfer surgeries to monitor postoperative free tissue transfer surgeries complications, D) Patients assessment sheet for free tissue transfer surgeries to assess flap failure that might develop among all patients admitted to reconstructive microsurgery. Results: A sharp improvement in the mean knowledge and practice scores were found after the application of the teaching protocol. The flap failure decreased from 20% pre-protocol to 3.3% after protocol implementation. A positive correlation was found between nurse's knowledge and practice scores immediately and 2 months after application of the teaching protocol. A significant relationship was found between flap failure and other complications as regards hyperthermia, pain, venous and arterial obstruction. Venous and arterial obstructions are significantly correlated with ischemia time. Conclusions and Recommendations: Patients with free tissue transfer surgeries are at high risk for postoperative complications, which in turn increase the development of the flap failure. These complications include hyperthermia, pain, infection, venous and arterial obstructions and need effective measures to prevent/reduce this considerable profound problem. Improving nurses' knowledge and practice can favorably affect the incidence and outcome of flap failure. Continued nursing education and in-service training programs on reconstructive microsurgery should be well organized within Assiut University Hospital and equipped with the necessary educational facilities and materials necessary to upgrade the knowledge and skills of practicing nurses, which will be reflected on better outcome and service for inpatients.

[Samia Y. Sayed, Hala M. Ghanem, Warda Y. Mohamed and Tarek A. El-Gamal. Micro Vascular Free Tissue Transfer Surgeries: Impact of a Designed Teaching Protocol on Nurse's Performance for Reduction or Prevention of Post Operative Flap Failure. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):158-170] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.20

Key ward: Micro vascular free tissue transfer surgeries, flap failure and nurse's performance

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Effects of livin over-expression on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

 

Yanyan Zhao, Yu nwei Li, Guojie Yang, Zihan Wei 

Department of Geriatric Cardiology, the first Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China. yang63315@126.com

 

Abstract To evaluate the effects of livin over-expression on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Rats were subjected to 30 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion with treating the rats by retroviral vector expressing livin 24h before left coronary artery occlusion. Both caspase-3 and livin mRNA expression were detected by real time PCR and the caspase-3 protein was detected by immunohistochemical study; Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL assay. Myocardial infarction size were detected by TTC dyeing mehod. Caspase-3 mRNA expression increased during IR and decreased significantly after the transfection of retroviral vector expressing livin. Meanwhile the apoptosis index and MI size were increased in IR group and decreased significantly in livin group. Livin overexpression could down-regulate the expression of caspase-3, attenuate myocardial apoptosis, and decrease myocardial infarction size.

[Yanyan Zhao, Yunwei Li; Guojie Yang Zihan Wei. Effects of livin over-expression on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):171-175] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.21

Key words: myocardial infarction; acute; livin; apoptosis

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Selected Ventilatory Functions Response to Closed and Open Kinematic Chain training of the arm in elderly

 

Olfat A Diab Kandil*1 and Hala M. Ezz El-Deen Hamed 2 

1Department of Basic Science (Biomechanics Unit) College of Physical Therapy, Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiopulmonary Disorders and Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*dro_kandil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aging is associated with pulmonary alterations; these changes culminate in a decrease in muscle strength, lower level of endurance and impairment of mobility. Fortunately, increasing the level of physical activity may affect the declines of these parameters. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of open vs. closed kinematic chain exercises on ventilatory functions in elderly subjects. Thirty elderly subjects (13 female and 17 male) participated in the study their age ranged from 60 to 75 years. They were divided into two study groups equal in number. Group І comprised of 15 subjects received a training program of closed kinematic chain "supported arm exercise" and group Π received a training program of open kinematic chain "unsupported arm exercise". Hand held Spirometer was used for measuring ventilatory functions. Arm ergometer, was used for closed kinematic chain (supported arm exercise group). Both groups were trained for 8 weeks, three times a week. The results showed that the vital capacity, the forced expiratory volume in 1st second, and the maximum voluntary ventilation were significantly improved in both groups but the percentage of improvement was significantly higher in group I of closed kinematic chain training. It is concluded that the outcomes of this study may help to outline the most effective, curative and safety type of arm exercise to be included in training programs for pulmonary and orthopedic problems in elderly.

[Olfat A Diab Kandil and Hala M. Ezz El-Deen Hamed. Selected Ventilatory Functions Response to Closed and Open Kinematic Chain training of the arm in elderly. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):176-186] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.22

Key words: kinematic chain, mechanics of shoulder elevation, pulmonary functions

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Cultural & social effects of rural women's financial self-reliance

 

Mohammad Abedi1 and Sharareh Khodamoradi2

 1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: skhodamoradi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural women are among those major groups at society who previously were considered less by planners, due to specific reasons in the past. And this problem is more observable at developing countries. If rural women can work through receiving credits, loan and others finance facilities at favorite jobs and live through earned income (as it called “self-reliance and independence”), so undoubtedly we would see changes in social, economic and cultural relations of village.

[Mohammad Abedi and Sharareh Khodamoradi. Cultural & social effects of rural women's financial self-reliance. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):187-192] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.23

Keywords: financial self-reliance, rural women

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The Immune Function as Response to Level and Source of Protein in Pre-Mature and Mature Male Rats.

 

*Eman I. Abd El-Gawad and Amal I. Hassan

 Radioisotopes Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

dr.eman_57@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Dietary protein plays a significant and site-specific role in the developmental expression of the secretary immune system. In this sense, the aims of this study were as follows: 1) to evaluate in rats the severity effect of a protein-deficient diet (4%) on non specific cellular immune response (phagosytosis, killing and lymphocytes transformation index), immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) and cytokine (IL-6). 2) to assess these parameters in rats re-fed on normprotein diet (20% casein) and rats re-fed on faba bean (20% raw bean) as alternative sources of protein. 3) to compare between premature and adult rats under the various levels and source of dietary protein. Forty eight rats were used in the present study, premature aging 40 days (weighted 85±5 gm) and adult aging 120 days (weighted 170 ±10 gm). Each animal age was divided into two groups, control (n=8) and experimental groups (n=16). Control group fed on a normoprotein chow, while experimental group fed on a diet having 4% protein (diet 1), for 3 weeks. After then, the experimental group of each age was divided into two groups. The first group received a normoprotein diet containing 20% casein (diet 2) and the second group received a diet containing 20% faba bean (diet 3) as alternative source of protein. The experiment was lasted for six weeks and the animal mortality and body weight were regularly recorded. At the end of experiment, the blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture from all animals under light anesthesia. The blood of each animal was split into two essay tubes, one heparinzed for the determination of the complete phagocytosis, killing and lymphocyte transformation index and the other wasn’t; to obtain the serum for subsequent analyses of IgG, IgM and IL6 activity, total protein, albumin and thyroxin activity (T3 and T4). The results revealed that the body weight was reduced in protein-deficient rats as related to age associated with appearance of some cases of mortality. The rats re-fed on normoprotein chew (diet 2) showed increase in body weight more than the animal received diet 3 (20% faba bean) and this increase was more pronounced in premature rats. As a function of circulating levels of total protein, albumin and thyroxin, hypoproteic diet induced significant decrease in total protein content as well as T3 activity in both ages but the albumin and T4 level showed insignificant decrease. Nutritional recovery by diet containing 20% casein (diet 1) decreased the activity of T3 in premature rats. Regarding to rats re-fed on either diet 1 or diet 3, they showed significant increase in protein, albumin, T3 and T4 levels as compared to protein-deficient rats but this recovery was more pronounced in rats re-fed on a diet 1. With respect to immune function, low dietary protein induced disorder in the activity of phagocytosis, killing, lymphocytes transformation index (TL index) as well as IgG, IgM & IL6 in premature than in mature rats. But, these remarks of immune function were improved in both ages rat re-fed on diet 1 more than rats re-fed on diet 3. From the present results, it could be suggested that poor protein nutrition or inclusion of faba bean as the only source of protein in diet especially, young rats bring about a reduction in growth as well as impairment of undeveloped immune system because the absence of essential amino acids will comprise the ability of tissue to grow, be repaired or be maintained.

[Eman I. Abd El-Gawad and Amal I. Hassan. The Immune Function as Response to Level and Source of Protein in Pre-Mature and Mature Male Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):193-203] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.24

Key words: hypoprotein diet, non cellular immune cells, immunoglobulin, cytokine, thyroxin, total protein.

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Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of SGLT1 gene and tertiary structure prediction of deduced protein in Cyprinus carpio L.

 

Guoxing Nie*, Caixia Hou¶, Junli Wang, Jianxin Zhang, Dongying Song, Bei Wang, Xuejun Li, Xianghui Kong

 College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, Henan, P R. China

niegx@henannu.edu.cn

 

Abstract:Na+/glucose cotransporter SGLT1 plays an important role in transporting Na+ and glucose and maintaining the adjustment of metabolism. The aim to study gene SGLT1 is to further understand the regulation mechanism of SGLT1 gene in fish. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Na+/glucose cotransporter gene was cloned in intestine of Cyprinus carpio L. using RT-PCR and RACE methods, which included 2856 bp involved in 113 bp 5'-untranslated region, 766 bp 3'-untranslated region, and 1977 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encoded 658 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was the highest similar with that of Danio rerio (90.70%), and the lowest similar with that of rabbit (71.40%). Fourteen transmembrane domains were predicted in the 3-D protein model using comparative protein modeling program SWISS-MODEL. The structural core was comparative of 5 TM helices (TM2-TM6 and TM7-TM11) with the inverted repeat. It was demonstrated that Glucose might be bounded in the center of the structural core, and a possible Na+-binding site was located at the intersection of TM2 and TM9. Thereby, the functional roles and regulation mechanism of SGLT would provide unique opportunities to investigate the biochemical processes in intestine of Cyprinus carpio L., and lay the foundation for artificial culture of the species involved.

[Guoxing Nie, Caixia Hou, Junli Wang, Jianxin Zhang, Dongying Song, Bei Wang, Xuejun Li, Xianghui Kong. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of SGLT1 gene and tertiary structure prediction of deduced protein in Cyprinus carpio L. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):204-212] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.25

Keywords: SGLT1 gene; cDNA sequence analysis; Protein tertiary structure; Cyprinus carpio L.

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Towards Rural Women’s Empowerment and Poverty Reduction in Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 School of Humanities and Social Science, Science and Research Branch

Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

faaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper provides an approach for rural women’s empowerment to poverty reduction in Iran. Although, rural women are certainly a major contributor to poverty reduction in many rural areas in developed countries. But the result of this study found that women’s empowerment is limited by the same cultural restrictions that limit their access to education and health services, and these impose serious constraints on their autonomy, mobility, and on the types of livelihoods that are available to them. The finding can assist the local and national organizations for remove this problem in face of women’s participation for poverty reduction in Iran.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi. Towards Women’s Empowerment and Poverty Reduction in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):213-216] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.26

 

Key words: Poverty reduction, women’s empowerment, rural area

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A Prospective and Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Post-Stroke Epilepsy Presenting at Tertiary Care Hospital

 

Baig S, Sallam K, Al Ibrahim I**, Amin TT*

 Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Family & Community Medicine*, College of Medicine Al-Ahsa, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

King Fahad Hospital, Hafuf, Saudi Arabia**; sallamk1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Stroke is one of the most common causes of disability in Saudi Arabia and when seizures complicate the stroke, the disability, cost, psychological impact and post traumatic stress on the family are tremendously increased. As for the best of author’s knowledge there is no available data regarding the incidence, frequency, outcome and the risk factors or predictors of seizures after stroke in Saudi Population. Our study was conducted in King Fahd Hospital located in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. It is the main tertiary care Hospital in the region. We collected our sample in three consecutive years from 2007 to 2009. In the first two years data was collected from medical records system and in the third year the data of patients and controls was collected from newly admitted stroke patients. The study concluded mean incidence of post stroke epilepsy (PSE) to be about 9.6 %. A lower blood sugar and higher Rankin Disability scores were found to be significantly higher amongst patients with post-stroke epilepsy. There was no significant difference in co morbid diseases on developing PSE. The present study also showed that the occurrence of post stroke epilepsy was positively associated with increasing age and male gender.

[Baig S, Sallam K, Al Ibrahim I, Amin TT. A Prospective and Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Post-Stroke Epilepsy Presenting at Tertiary Care Hospital. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):217-221] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.27

Keywords: Analysis; Patients; Post-Stroke; Epilepsy; Tertiary; Hospital

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Assessing Employment of rural women and its effect on other empowerment

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women form great part of total workforce that needed for agriculture part at universe, as one of the intangible factors at agriculture economy. So, statistics that was represented in relation to extent of women’s activity is very lower than real extent. Because in this statistics, mostly, seasonal jobs, part time job, no wage job and their housekeeping activities, aren’t considered. rural women, have different roles and duties such as husband, mother, crops producer, participate at ranching activities, planting,maintaining, harvesting, processing, marketing and preparing food. Rural women maybe venturing to culture cash products, while cultivating subsistence products and if they have no farm land, they have to work for others instead receiving wage. We can consider such women as agriculture propagator, production expert and even in some case as policy maker. Other than activity at agriculture field, women’s participation at rural development is critical and is considered in order to supply adequate and needed food.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Assessing Employment of rural women and its effect on other empowerment. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):222-226] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.28

Keywords: empowerment, rural women

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Corneal Topography and in vivo Confocal Microscopy in Different Types of Posterior Polymorphous Dystrophy

 

Weihong Zhang1, Jinguo Wang1, Yang Jing2

 1. The Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

2. Henan Eye Institute, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

Zwhong306@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To observe the morphologic changes in the corneas of patients with posterior polymorphous dystrophy (PPMD), using in vivo confocal microscopy and Orbscan corneal topography. Four patients with clinical diagnosis of PPMD, presenting to the Henan Institute of Ophthalmology, were included in this observational case series. The eyes of the 4 patients were examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, Orbscan corneal topography, and in vivo confocal microscopy. Two patients presented with corneal steepening on topography, as well as large areas of irregular polymorphous changes of the corneal endothelium on in vivo confocal microscopy consistent with PPMD. Confocal microscopy demonstrated craters, streaks, and cracks over the corneal endothelium surface. Pleomorphism and polymegathism were present in eyes with PPMD. Guttata and clusters of abnormal endothelial cells were also identified in corneas of these PPMD patients. In vivo confocal microscopy is potentially useful for monitoring of disease progression and excluding suspected cases of subclinical PPMD. Abnormalities on the corneal topography were observed, this report brings forth the descriptions of morphologic changes on Orbscan topography.

[Weihong Zhang, Yang Jing. Corneal Topography and in vivo Confocal Microscopy in Different Types of Posterior Polymorphous Dystrophy. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):227-238] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.29

Keywords: posterior polymorphous dystrophy; topography; in vivo confocal microscopy

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hTERT expression extends the life-span and maintains the cardiomyogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord blood

 

 Liu Rui Min, Bai Hui Ling, Du Yao Wu, Ma Yuan Fang

 Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Henan University. Kaifeng, Henan 475004,China.

lrmzzx@163.com

 

Abstract: Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs) represent a population of stem cells that are capable of differentiation into multiple lineages and are expected to serve as an excellent alternative to bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. However, these cells exhibit senescence-associated growth arrest and phenotypic changes during long-term culture. To overcome this problem, we established UCBMSCs (hTERT-MSCs) with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. We found that the hTERT-MSCs proliferated faster than non-infected and had longer life-span. Induced hTERT-MSCs with 5-azacytidine to cardiac muscle and detected the specific marker of myocardiocyte. The hTERT-MSCs were able to form cardiomyocyte evidenced by positive staining for Connexin-43 and α-Sarcomeric actin. We concluded that the hTERT gene does not influence some type of differentiation potential of MSCs.

[Liu Rui Min, Bai Hui Ling, Du Yao Wu, Ma Yuan Fang. hTERT expression extends the life-span and maintains the cardiomyogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord blood. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):239-243] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.30

Keywords: hTERT; mesenchymal stem cell; life span; cardiomyogenic potential

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Phenol Toxicity Affecting Hematological Changes in Cat Fish (Clarius lazera)

 

Mona S. Zaki*1, Olfat, M. Fawzi2 and S. I. Shalaby

 1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Biochemistry National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of animal Reproductive, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Phenol and phenolic compounds are xenobiotics stressful environmental factors to which fish and animals are subjected to, and have become environmental problem due to anthropogenic impact on the environment The present study aimed to investigate the effect of phenol pollution on fish with special reference to the hematological, immunological, serum biochemical parameters, where fifty healthy Clarius lazera fish were divided into 3 groups. Fish of gp1 served as a control. Fish of gp. 2 & 3 were used for the determination of acute lethal concentration dose and the pathological effect of Phenol on the exposed fish. Blood samples were collected to obtain serum for biochemical studies and heparinized blood for hematological investigations. RBCs, Hb, HCt, and MCHC showed significant elevations, the serum GPT and GOT were increased significantly. L.D.H, glucose and cortisol were elevated, while serum cholesterol concentration was reduced significantly in high tem30oC.

[Mona S. Zaki, Olfat, M. Fawzi and S. I. Shalaby. Phenol Toxicity Affecting Hematological Changes in Cat Fish (Clarius lazera). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):244-248] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.31

Key words: Phenol pollution, Tilapia Zilli, Biochemical changes

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Oxdative stress on sertoli cells of rats induced by microcystin-LR

 

Dan Yi1, Xiaohui Liu1,2, Fengquan Zhang1, Jun wang1,Yang Zhao1, Dongjie Sun1, Jinwei Ren1, Huizhen Zhang1

 1.College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zheng zhou 450001, China2. School of Basic Medicine, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, China

huizhen1972@126.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To study the oxidative stress effects of microcystin-LR on rats sertoli cells, and to explore the toxic mechanisms of microcystin-LR on reproductive system. Methods: Extracted sertoli cells were exposed to different concentrations of MC-LR. Feulgen staining method was used to identify the purification and viability of Sertoli cells. Subsequently we established the growth curve of Sertoli cells in vitro and ascertained the maximum dose of non-cytotoxicity of MC-LR on Sertoli cells with MTT method. Sertoli cells were cultured with different concentrations (0 μg/L, 0.15 μg/L, 1.5 μg/L, 15 μg/L) of MC-LR for 6, 12, 24h. Then LDH, MDA, SOD, ROS of Sertoli cell line were analyzed. Results: The Sertoli cells model was obtained to study the toxic effects of MC-LR. The highest non-toxicity concentration of MC-LR was 15μg/L. The level of ROS in cells increased after exposed to the different MC-LR, and there was a statistically significant difference when cells were exposed to 15g/L (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference of MDA between cells exposed and contrast cells (P>0.05). The changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage amount were not significant after cells were cultured with the different concentration of MC-LR (P>0.05). The decreases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found to be dependent on the dose (P0.05). Conclusion: MC-LR in this study caused change of ROS, but it had no effects on MDA. MC-LR had no effects on leakage rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) but enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results suggested that MC-LR can induce oxidative stress in primary cultured rat sertoli cell, but can not lead to lipid peroxidation.

[Dan Yi, Xiaohui Liu, Fengquan Zhang, Jun Wang, Yang Zhao, Dongjie Sun, Jinwei Ren, Huizhen Zhang. Oxdative stress on sertoli cells of rats induced by microcystin-LR. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):249-253] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.32

Keywords: MC-LR, Sertoli cells, oxidative stress

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The role of agricultural extension in Integrating indigenous knowledge and modern knowledge in rural

 

Mohammad Abedi1 and Sharareh Khodamoradi2

1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: skhodamoradi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Experience shows that indigenous knowledge not only has no contradiction with formal knowledge but different indigenous knowledge features, put it as well complementary for formal knowledge. Indigenous knowledge is accessible, useful and cheap. Its perspective is holistic and its transmission is verbal. Knowledge is dynamic and time-tested, and while it has grown within local natural and social environment, so it is very sustainable with indigenous condition. Indigenous knowledge refers to both component and whole part of culture of each nation and this component and whole integration is so that stop to change traditional society of life without indigenous knowledge out of its cultural origin and therefore would lose it concept and effectiveness.

[Mohammad Abedi and Sharareh Khodamoradi. The role of agricultural extension in Integrating indigenous knowledge and modern knowledge in rural. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):254-258] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.33

Keywords: agricultural extension, indigenous knowledge, modern knowledge

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The detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antigen in cervical secretions and serum antibodies in infertile females undergoing ICSI and its impact on pregnancy success.

 

Salah Abd- Raboh1, Hesham Ali Saleh1, Nesrine Fathi Hanafi2, Huda Basiony Darwish1

 1Obstetrics& Gynecology,2 Medical Microbiology& Immunology. Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University. drnesra1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Chlamydia vaginosis is a commonly reported bacterial infection, with an incidence that varies according to population. Some researchers have studied the association of such condition and infertility. In our study we aimed at evaluation of the incidence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques & its impact on its success to achieve pregnancy. Methods: A study group of 150 infertile females attending infertility centers for ICSI and a control group of 150 multiparus females attending outpatient clinics for IUD introduction have been included. Endocervical swabs from cases and controls have been examined for chlamydial antigen using immunochromatography. Also sera were examined for IgG and IgM for Chlamydia trachomatis in both groups. Results: 12 positive cases for serum Ig G in study group (8.0%) and 16 in controls (10.67%) has been revealed. While serum IgM was found in 4 study cases (2.7%), with no positives in the controls. Regarding chlamydia antigen detection in endocervical swab, there was 6 positive study group cases (4.2%), while no cases were positive in controls. Conclusion: our study reports a very low prevalence rate of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Egyptian females, which minimizes its role as cause of infertility in Egyptian population and subsequently its impact on success of ICSI is not much expressed. Cultural impact on sexual life style in Egyptian population could justify our findings.

[Salah Abd- Raboh, Hesham Ali Saleh, Nesrine Fathi Hanafi, Huda Basiony Darwish. The detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antigen in cervical secretions and serum antibodies in infertile females undergoing ICSI and its impact on pregnancy success. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):259-263] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.34

Key words: Chalmydia, antigen, antibody

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A study on GRP ground wave method for the variation of dune in surface soil water content in summer

 

Khampasith Thammathevo1, Prof. Dr Jianguo Bao1*, Assistant Prof. Dr. Mupenzi Jean de la Paix1, 2, Bounthanome Singsuaisagna3

 1China University of Geosciences, Environmental studies school, 388 Lumo road, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei, China

2 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Key laboratory of oasis ecology and desert environment, 818 Beijing Road South, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830011, China

3 Civil Engineering Departments, Engineering Faculty, National University of Laos, Sokpaluang Campus; P.B 1366.

Corresponding author: bjianguo888@126.com

 

Abstract: The Changes in soil moisture in summer is one of the important factors that influence the state of germination and plant growth. The variation of dunes in the surface of the soil water content was measured using GPR ground wave method from May to July 2010. The results show that in this period, the water content of soil on top of the dunes is declining. It shown that during summer, the appearances of the high amount precipitation and the evaporation were the important factor in the distribution of soil water content.

[Khampasith, T., Jianguo, B., Mupenzi, J.P. and Bounthanome, S. A study on GRP ground wave method for the variation of dune in surface soil water content in summer. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):264-268] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.35

Keywords: GPR ground wave method; precipitation and Evaporation; soil water content

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Assessing Criteria of rural women empowerment

 

Mohammad Abedi1 and Sharareh Khodamoradi2

 1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: skhodamoradi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Enabling is process that, during it, people of society do activities to overcome barriers of advancement that finally cause their domination to determine their own density. The term “enabling” means overcoming fundamental inequalities. So it is different from self-reliance. Enabling, enables individual to overcome any problematic condition and consider barriers and problems as part of life and positive campaign. Finally, enabling provides energy to overcome most intellectual barriers and external problems at private life.

[Mohammad Abedi and Sharareh Khodamoradi. Assessing Criteria of rural women empowerment. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):269-274] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.36

Keywords: empowerment, rural women

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Adiponectin in African Egyptian Obese Adolescents

 

Nayera E. Hassan1, Sahar A. El-Masry*1, Tarek S. Ibrahim2, Walaa A. Fouad3, Wagdi M. Hanna2, and Mehrevan M. Abd El-moniem4

 1Biological Anthropology Dept., 2Child Health Dept.,3Community Medicine Dept, 4Medical Biochemistry Dept., Medical Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

*masrysa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine shown to have insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin level, unlike that of other adipocytokines, is decreased in obesity and type 2 diabetes and increased after weight reduction. Recent studies suggest that adiponectin plays an important role in linking obesity with different cardiometabolic risk factors. Neverseless, a few studies have investigated this relationship in obese children. Racial differences in adiponectin level were observed, but little work has been done to determine if plasma adiponectin concentrations differ as a result of ethnicity. In few studies in African American, lack of a relationship between plasma adiponectin, obesity, and insulin sensitivity were reported despite the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance in this population. However todate, there are no reports examining similar relationship of adiponectin and different cardiometabolic variables in African Egyptian. Aim of the study: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin, and different cardiometabolic and anthropometric variables in African Egyptian adolescence, in a trial to further explore, whether this relation in the African race differ from other ethnic population. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by the National Research Centre, Egypt. The survey comprised 3708 adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), aged from 12 to 18 years (+ 6 months). Of the total sample, only 340 students (9.2%) were obese (8.1% boys and 10.2% girls); with mean age 14.36+1.66 years. The included 180 obese students; who accepted to share in the laboratory tests; underwent complete physical examination, including different anthropometric measures (Height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio). Blood pressure was also measured. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to detect fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin and adiponectin levels. Meanwhile insulin resistance was calculated. Results: Serum adiponectin level was low compared to the kit reference range. It did not show any significant correlations with the studied anthropometric parameters; both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the fasting plasma glucose, insulin level and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Conclusion: Although the present study, proved that serum adiponectin level was low in the studied African Egyptian obese adolescence, but it could not prove a direct link between adiponectin and the studied anthropometric measures, and cardiometabolic variables. This may provide additional support for the notion that what applies to other ethnic populations might not apply to the African population.

[Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Tarek S. Ibrahim, Walaa A. Fouad, Wagdi M. Hanna, and Mehrevan M. Abd El-moniem. Adiponectin in African Egyptian Obese Adolescents. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):375-380] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.37

Keywords: Adiponectin; African; Egyptian; Obese; Adolescent

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Memantine decreases apoptosis and attenuates the activation of caspase-3 and MDA release in Rats with ischemia-reperfusion Injury

 

Shilei Sun, Yanpo Zhao, Haowen Xu, Jie Qin

 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

E-mail qinj77@163.com

 

Abstract: To investigate the effects of memantine on the expression of Caspase-3, malonaldehyde (MDA) and apoptosis after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat. 135 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group and memantine intervention group. The changes of cell morphology and the expression of caspase-3 in cerebral cortex neurons at 12h, 24h, and 48h after ischemia-reperfusion were observed by Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) stain and immunohistochemistry respectively. The expression of caspase-3 activity and MDA levels at different time points were detected by spectrophotometer. Investigating the apoptosis in situ in the CA1 region of hippocampus of the rats with TdT-mediated dUTP nicked labeling (TUNEL) method. The results show that in memantine intervention group, the expression levels of caspase-3 and MDA in ischemia-reperfusion injury region increased, in comparison with sham-operated group (p=0.00), while lower than that of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group (p =0.00). Caspase-3 activity remarkably increased in ischemia-reperfusion brain in rats in a time-depended manner. The number of TUNEL positive cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus in the memantine treated rats (7.00±2.04) and model rats (11.57±2.64) were significantly increased compared with the sham operation controls (1.57±4.72) (p =0.00), while the number of TUNEL positive cells in the memantine treated rats decreased as compared with that of the model rats (p =0.00). Suggesting that mamantine may probably have the function of neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model by suppressing the expression of caspase-3 activity and MDA and inhibiting the apoptosis of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in ischemia-reperfusion rats.

[Sun Shilei, Zhao Yanpo, Xu Haowen, Qin Jie. Memantine decreases apoptosis and attenuates the activation of caspase-3 and MDA release in Rats with ischemia-reperfusion Injury. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):281-285] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.38

Key words: Mamantine; cerebral ischemia-reperfusion; Caspase-3; MDA; apoptosis

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Two Different Methods of Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Associated with Moyamoya Disease and Review of the Literature

 

Xu.Hao.Wen1, Li.Meng.Hua2, Guan.Sheng1, Sun.Shi.Lei3

 1 Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2 Department of Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Sixth People’s hospital, Shanghai 260000,China

3 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

sunshilei@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and feasibility of two different embolization methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysm with moyamoya disease. Two intracranial aneurysms with moyamoya disease treated with coils embolization and glue embolization respectively between September 2006 and December 2010 were analyzed and the related literatures were reviewed as well. The two intracranial aneurysms were successfully embolized and no complication of endovascular therapy occurred. We think that endovascular treatment may be a safe and efficacious method for the intracranial aneurysm with moyamoya disease, if coil embolization is difficult for some aneurysm, glue emboliation may be a choice.

[Xu.H.W, Li.M.H, Guan.S, Sun S.L. Two Different Methods of Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Associated with Moyamoya Disease and Review of the Literature. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):286-289] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.39

Keywords: Endovascular treatment; intracranial aneurysm; moyamoya disease

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How the villagers participate in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Much of the spread of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as an emerging family of approaches and methods has been lateral, South-South, through experiential learning and changes in behavior, with different local applications. Rapid spread has made quality assurance a concern, with dangers from “instant fashion”, rushing, formalism and ruts. Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review. Changes in personal behavior and attitudes, and in organizational cultures, are implied. PRA parallels and resonates with paradigm shifts in the social and natural sciences, business management, and development thinking, supporting decentralization, local diversity, and personal responsibility.

[Mohammad Abedi, Sharareh Khodamoradi. How the villagers participate in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):290-294] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.40

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), participation

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Information and communication technologies (ICT) and agricultural extension

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Policy makers and service providers have increasingly come to view information and communication technologies (ICT), and particularly the Internet, as an important tool in providing disadvantaged groups and areas with access to information, services and markets that would otherwise be inaccessible. The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that. This paper uncovers a whole plethora of ICT emergence as a technology of the new millennium. Against the backdrop of the ongoing ICT boom, this paper makes an attempt towards studying its applications and usage planning process and policy making for the rural communities focusing on how it helps in aligning the key factors and reduce the problems of alienation, fragmentation and dislocation of knowledge.

[Mohammad Abedi, Sharareh Khodamoradi. Information and communication technologies (ICT) and agricultural extension. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):395-399] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.41

Keywords: information and communication technologies (ICT), agricultural extension

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Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangement—one case report and lecture review

 

Li Yulong, Shang Baojun, Zhai Yaping,Chen Xiangli, Shi Jie, Lei Pingchong, Cheng Wei

 Institute of Hematopathy, People’s Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, China

liyulong418@163.com

 

Abstract: We report one case of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangement (EMS) here. The patient presented with generalized lymphodenopathy and fever.The bone marrow aspirates indicated CML but karyotype analysis discovered the translocation of t(8;13)(p11;q12),not t(9;22) and the BCR-ABL fusion transcript was not found.The histology was T-cell lymphoblast lymphoma(LBL) from the lymph node biopsy. Therefore the diagnosis of EMS was made.After chemotherapy,bone barrow assessment improved and most of the lymph nodes shrinked to untouchable.But the t(8;13) still remained.From the lecture review,we can see that on most occasions EMS presents as an atypical myeloproliferative disease characterized by myeloid hyperplasia, eosinophilia, translocation always involes the band 8p11 and high incidence of T-LBL.The fibroblast growth factor receptor- which locates at 8p11 is broken and fuse the other paterner gene to start the malignant transformation. By now, only allogeneic stem cell transplantation appears to cure.

[Li Yulong, Shang Baojun, Zhai Yaping,Chen Xiangli, Shi Jie, Lei Pingchong, Cheng Wei. Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangement—one case report and lecture review. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):300-304] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.42

[Key words] Myeloproliferative disease; Eosinophilia; 8p11; Lymphoma; Fibroblast growth factor receptor-

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Effective technological pectinase and cellulase by Saccharomyces cervisiae utilizing food wastes for citric acid production

 

Magdy Mohamed Afifi1&2*

 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit 71524, Egypt. 2Department of Applied Medical Science, Faculty of Science and Arts, King Khalid University, Bisha 551, Saudia Arabia.

magdy_afifi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The production of a notable and highly effective pectinase and cellulase, by the commercial baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cervisiae utilizing potato processing wastes, was achieved in 5-day solid state fermentation (SSF) cultures, at temperature 25 °C, pH range 4.0-5.0 and additive of ferric chloride. Pectinase and cellulase activities were stimulated by using potato wastes supplemented with urea, as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources, resulted in 70.20 and 98.85 % reduction of viscosity. It is concluded that citric acid production from pectinolytic and celluolytic Saccharomyces cervisiae optimization with Aspergillus niger MAF3, maximally 46.67 and 68.44 g/kilogram solid potato wastes.

[Magdy Mohamed Afifi. Effective technological pectinase and cellulase by Saccharomyces cervisiae utilizing food wastes for citric acid production. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):305-313] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.43

Keywords: Saccharomyces cervisiae, Potato wastes, Solid state fermentation (SSF), Pectinas and cellulase, Citric acid

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Field Trial Evaluation of Levofloxacin and Erythropoietin in Treatment of Hemorrhagic Enteritis in Dogs

 

Wael, M. Kelany

 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Vet. Med., Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

wael6kelany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Enteric fever was a marked problem allover the world in domestic pets and it plays a major role in zoonosis to contact human. The target of our investigation to confirm diagnosis of enteric fever caused by S. paratyphi A using rapid Widal test and isolation and identification of the causative organism. Also the present study was aimed to evaluate clinically and clinicopathologically by a field work-up, the therapeutic value of levofloxacin and human erythropoietin. The present study was carried out on fourteen dogs (9 diseased dogs and 5 apparently healthy dogs). Clinical manifestations were severe watery bloody diarrhea (n.=3), acute diarrhea with occult blood in fecal examination (n.=4), high fever (n.=7), prolonged capillary times (n.=7), enophthalmos (n.=7), loss of skin turgor (n.=7), increased respiratory and pulse rates (n.=7). Clinical examination was revealed abdominal distension (n.=3), hepatomegally (n.=2), abdominal tenderness (n.=7), tympanic sound (n.=7) and increased peristaltic movements (n.=7). Clinical remission of signs occurred after treatment with levofloxacin within 14 days. Widal agglutination test was displayed the titer of 7 positive cases ranged from 1:80-1:320 and 2 negative cases (1:40). Isolation and identification was revealed S. paratyphi A (100%) and S. paratyphi B (22.2%). Significant decreases of PCV %, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes and leucocytes count was recorded which was became significant increases after treatment within 8 weeks. Significant increase of ALT activities was denoted hepatic involvement during the infection. Erythropoeitin exerted an excellent therapeutic effect within 4- 8 weeks on basis of erythrogram investigations. It was concluded that combination of levofloxacin and human erythropoietin was the first record for treatment of hemorrhagic enteritis caused by S. paratyphi A in companion dogs in Egypt. (n.= number)

[Wael, M. Kelany. Field Trial Evaluation of Levofloxacin and Erythropoietin in Treatment of Hemorrhagic Enteritis in Dogs. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):314-322] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.44

Keywords: Dogs, S. paratyhi A, Widal, hemorrhagic, enteritis, levofloxacin, Erythropoeitin

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Agricultural Labor among School Children in Rural Assiut, Egypt

 

Safaa A. M. Kotb*, Asmaa G. Mohamed * Ekram M. Abdel Khalek**, Doaa A. Yones***

 * Community Health Nursing, Assiut Faculty of Nursing. ** Public Health & Community Medicine, and *** Parasitology, Assiut Faculty of Medicine, Egypt. safaaktb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Child labor is alarmingly prevalent in Egypt, a country with a population of nearly 75 millions; there are some 1.5 million (12%) child workers between 6 and 15 years. Agricultural work posses several characteristics that are risky for health: exposure to extremes of weather, close contact with animals and plants, extensive use of chemical and biological products, difficult working postures and lengthy hours and use of hazardous agricultural tools and machinery. Aim of the study: Determine the causes of agricultural child labor in Koom Abousheel village, Assiut, Egypt and highlight some of its related health problems. Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study included 630 randomly selected students enrolled in primary and preparatory schools aged from 6 to 17 years old in Koom Abousheel village 2008-2009. Data collection from the target population using structured personal interview. Anthropometric measures: weight, height and body mass index were measured. Laboratory investigations including urine and stool examination were done to detect parasitic infections in these children. Urine samples were collected, centrifuged and examined microscopically. Stool examination was done macroscopically and stored in two different fixative (10% formalin and sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin), concentrated and examined microscopically by: direct wet mount using saline, iodine and lacto-phenol cotton blue and stained by modified Kinyoun acid-fast stain. Data analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 52.7% of the studied students worked in agricultural duties and 73.2% of them began work at early age (less than 10 years). Boys were more often involved in labor activities than girls. About half of the worked students helped their fathers in their work. Worked students reported negative impact on their education and social life. Health hazards at the farm such as exposure to high temperature, animal bite, and injuries were prevalent among them. Parasitic infections were more prevalent in worked students (69.3 %). The detected parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma doudenale, Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Blastocystis hominis and Entamoeba coli. Conclusion: The problem of child labor is serious. In rural areas especially, children work as cheap labor because their parents are poor and do not earn enough to support the family, thus the problem of child labor will persist and it exposes the children to many health hazards and risks. Improving legislation and enforcement measures to establish a legal minimum age for work, community education and mobilization are essential and have been the traditional response to the problem of child labor.

[Safaa A. M. Kotb, Asmaa G. Mohamed Ekram M. Abdel Khalek, Doaa A. Yones Agricultural Labor among School Children in Rural Assiut, Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):323-339] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.45

 

Keywords: Child labor – agricultural work– occupational health problems - school students

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The role of rural women in agricultural activities

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

1, 2 Department of Environment, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women form great part of total workforce that needed for agriculture part at universe, as one of the intangible factors at agriculture economy. So, statistics that was represented in relation to extent of women’s activity is very lower than real extent. Because in this statistics, mostly, seasonal jobs, part time job, no wage job and their housekeeping activities, aren’t considered. rural women, have different roles and duties such as husband, mother, crops producer, participate at ranching activities, planting,maintaining, harvesting, processing, marketing and preparing food. Rural women maybe venturing to culture cash products, while cultivating subsistence products and if they have no farm land, they have to work for others instead receiving wage. We can consider such women as agriculture propagator, production expert and even in some case as policy maker. Other than activity at agriculture field, women’s participation at rural development is critical and is considered in order to supply adequate and needed food.

[Mohammad Abedi and Ali Badragheh. The role of rural women in agricultural activities. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):340-344] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.46

Keywords: Rural women, Agriculture

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Importance of indigenous knowledge in rural areas

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

1, 2 Department of Environment, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Indigenous knowledge of each nation has enabled them to supply their needs from natural sources without reducing these sources. So, indigenous knowledge collection of world is valuable source of practices and time-tested tool that would be useful for sustainable development of all societies. At third world countries, unconsidered triumph of world development policies has led to various social, economic, cultural and environmental issues (Agrawal, 2002). Imbalance population growth, non-sustainable efficiency of natural sources and unequal distribution of resources, goods and services made involved societies in confusing issues and impasses. In these countries, inappropriate sampling of abroad countries and inordinate imports (e.g. heterogeneous and non-indigenous technology ) devastated independent collection of micro local systems, and instead has established heterogeneous and dependent system to global economy system, that obviously couldn’t supply people’s needs. Since, this development process is formed without considering social, cultural and environmental consequents so isn’t continuing and human have to find strategies which can make development sustainable and humane(Popzan, 2002).

[Mohammad Abedi and Ali Badragheh. importance of indigenous knowledge in rural areas. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):345-350] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.47

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, rural

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Micro-credit for rural women in Iran

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

1, 2 Department of Environment, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays micro-credits and supplying micro financial resources, has changed human’s life and cause to revive different societies at poorest and richest countries of world, so that we can see growth in human’s power to access to common financial services. By accessing to wide range of financial tools, families according to their priorities, invest on cases such as costs of education, healthcare, healthy and good nutrition or housing. Applicants for Microfinance resources mostly involved family supervisor women, pensioners, homeless people, frugal workers, small farmers and micro entrepreneurs. These people are divided into four groups: Poor, very poor, relatively poor and vulnerable poor. Whenever repayment afford, bond terms and accessing to data, in this classification will change, in order to supply sustainable financial needs of various clients, procedures and operation structures will be develop. Generally, in most countries, micro finance sources are considered for poor women. By women’s access possibility to finance services, they committed to loan and ensure its repayment and preserve their saving accounts and also enjoy insurance cover. Supplying programs for micro financial resources have strong message for families and societies. Most of qualitative and quantitative studies and researches have proven that accessing to financial services; will improve women’s conditions in family and society. Women’s confidence has increased and they are aware of their abilities.

[Ali Badragheh and Mohammad Abedi. Micro-credit for rural women in Iran. Life Science Journal.

2011;8(2):351-356] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.48

Keywords: Micro-credit, rural women, IRAN

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Effect of Reflexology on Pain and Quality of Life in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

1Nadia Mohamed Taha and 2Zeinab Hussain Ali

 1Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Zagazig, Zagazig, Egypt

 2Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, of Helwan, Helwan, Egypt

dr_nadya_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) face considerable physical, social and emotional disabilities. In this chronic disease, for which a cure is not yet available, improving patients’ health, quality of life and reduce pain is of the utmost concern. The purpose of this work was to measure the effect reflexology has on pain and quality of life (QOL) in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Using an 8-week course of reflexology treatments were given to a patient who has RA. A quasi experimental research design was used with 2- month follow-up. The study was conducted in the outpatient clinic of the RA Departments at Zagazig University Hospitals. On 39 female adult patients diagnosed as having RA without deformity of bones or destruction of joints. The exclusion criterion was the presence of any other chronic illness that may affect patient's QOL as diabetes, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and stroke. Perceived pain and QOL were assessed using three validated outcome measures: Bio-socio-demographic and disease (RA) characteristics, the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQOL) questionnaire, the Pain Assessment Questionnaire (Numerical Rating Scale) and Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). The study results revealed that, improvements in patients' QOL, pain and health status at the post-intervention phase and at the follow-up phase. Satisfaction QOL scores had moderate statistically significant negative correlations with the duration of illness throughout the study phases, while the scores of the importance of QOL had weak to moderate statistically significant negative correlations with age and duration of illness. On the other hand, the poor health status scores had moderate statistically significant positive correlations with age and duration of illness throughout the study phases, while pain had no correlation with either of them. The study concludes that hands and feet reflexology applied to rheumatoid arthritis patients is effective in reducing their pain, improving their QOL and their total health status, and these positive impacts are not affected by patient’s age and duration of illness. Therefore, reflexology must be considered as a complementary treatment modality in rheumatoid arthritis. It should be introduced to nursing and medical students, and in postgraduate staff development programs. Further research is recommended for the long-term effects of this treatment modality in terms of pain and disablement. Research may also extend to assess the effectiveness of as a useful modality in geriatric care and for patients with other chronic conditions.

[Nadia Mohamed Taha and Zeinab Hussain Ali. Effect of Reflexology on Pain and Quality of Life in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):357-365] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.49

 

Keywords: Reflexology; Rheumatoid arthritis; Quality of life; Pain; Health assessment questionnaire

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Effect of Regular Aerobic Exercises on Behavioral, Cognitive and Psychological Response in Patients with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

 

Gehan M. Ahmed*1 and Samiha Mohamed2

 1Department of Neuromuscular Disorder and its Surgery, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Health Rehabilitation Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

*gehannour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder started in childhood and is characterized by one or a combination of three behaviors, named hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsiveness. The aim of this study was to find out the value of aerobic exercises on improvement symptoms of ADHD. Patients, Materials and Methods: This study included 84 students diagnosed as having ADHD. Their age ranged from eleven to sixteen years. The students were randomly divided into two equal groups. The exercise group received ten weeks aerobic exercises program included upper limb, lower limb, trunk and neck exercises as well as running three sessions per week( In the first four weeks the session lasted for about 40 minutes and in the last six weeks the session extended to be 50 minutes). Behavior Rating scale was used to assess the students behavior before starting and after the end of ten weeks of the exercise program. Results: Results of the exercise group revealed a significant improvement in three of the five items involved in the scale(attention, motor skills and academic and classroom behavior) with p < 0.05 while there was no improvement in the control group (p> 0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that regular aerobic exercises program has a positive effect in improving symptoms of ADHD.

[Gehan M. Ahmed and Samiha Mohamed. Effect of Regular Aerobic Exercises on Behavioral, Cognitive and Psychological Response in Patients with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):366-371] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.50

 

Key words: Aerobic exercise-Cognition-Behavior-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

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Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Bone Histomorphometry in Rats

 

Sahar M. Adel *1, Khaled E. Ayad2, Afaf A. Shaheen 1

 1Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

dr_sahar_adel@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the histological effect of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) (904 nm) on the repair of standardized bone defects on the femur of rats. Sixty male wistar rats were assigned into two equal groups. Group (A: laser group) and group (B: control group). A surgical fracture was done in middle third of femur of all rats. In group (A) a continuous wave 904 nm infrared laser was applied at dose 4 j/cm2 at fracture site immediately post operative for 7 sessions, each session was 5 minutes. The animals were killed by over dose of general anesthesia on the 15th,30th and 45th days after surgery, The specimens were processed and stained with Hematoxylin-eosin (H/E(, special stain Masion trichrome and analyzed by light microscopy. The descriptive analysis of histological imaging showed greater degree of new bone formation, osteoblastic surface and collagen fiber in the irradiated group when compared with the control group. Based on the obtained results, this study concluded that LLLT was efficient in promoting bone healing, and increasing new bone formation in the process of surgically fractured femur in animal study.

[Sahar M. Adel, Khaled E. Ayad and Afaf A. Shaheen. Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Bone Histomorphometry in Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):372-378] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.51

 

Key words: Wistar rats, Low Level Laser Therapy, Bone histomorphometry, Bone repair.

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Study of the Derivatives of Benzimidazole and Applications For Organic Thin Film Transistor 

 

An-Chi Yeh

 

 Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chengshiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Rd., Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan R.O.C.

 

Abstract: This article reviews the development of the derivatives of benzimidazole and applications for organic thin film transistor. With special molecular structure that causes the gathering of holes by electric field can increase the carriers’ mobility up to practical application stage.

[An-Chi Yeh. Study of the Derivatives of Benzimidazole and Applications For Organic Thin Film Transistor. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):379-391] (ISSN:1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.52

 

Keywords: organic thin film transistor; benzimidazole

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Effect of Regular Aerobic Exercises on Behavioral, Cognitive and Psychological Response in Patients with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

 

Gehan M. Ahmed*1 and Samiha Mohamed2

 1Department of Neuromuscular Disorder and its Surgery, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Health Rehabilitation Sciences, King Saud University

*gehannour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: ackground and purpose: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder started in childhood and is characterized by one or a combination of three behaviors, named hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsiveness. The aim of this study was to find out the value of aerobic exercises on symptoms of ADHD. Patients. Materials and Methods: This study included 84 students diagnosed as having ADHD. Their age ranged from eleven to sixteen years. The students were randomly divided into two equal groups. The exercise group received ten weeks aerobic exercises program included upper limb, lower limb, trunk and neck exercises as well as running three sessions per week( In the first four weeks the session lasted for about 40 minutes and in the last six weeks the session extended to be 50 minutes). Behavior Rating scale was used to assess the students behavior before starting and after the end of ten weeks of the exercise program. Results: Results of the exercise group revealed a significant improvement in three of the five items involved in the scale (attention, motor skills and academic and classroom behavior) with p < 0.05 while there was no improvement in the the control group (p> 0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that regular aerobic exercises program has a positive effect in improving symptoms of ADHD.

[Gehan M. Ahmed and Samiha Mohamed. Effect of Regular Aerobic Exercises on Behavioral, Cognitive and Psychological Response in Patients with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):392-397] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.53

 

Key words: Aerobic exercise-Cognition-Behavior-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

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Molecular Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection in human serum and feces by using Polymerase Chain Reaction

 

Samir H. Haggag and Saleh M. Abdullah* 

 

Medicinal Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

 * Medical Laboratory Department, College of Health Sciences, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

samirhih@yahoo.com

Abstract: A Fast, sensitive and specific detection of cercariae of human schistosomes is required for better definition of risk of infection. So, a novel method for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni in human samples that is based on the amplification of a highly repeated DNA sequence has been developed. By use of simple DNA extraction techniques and a rapid 2-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it was possible to amplify S. mansoni DNA in human fecal and serum samples. The high sensitivity of the approach enabled the detection of the parasite DNA in fecal samples containing as few as 3 eggs per gram of feces, which makes it 10 times more sensitive than the Kato-Katz examination. A detection limit of 1 fg of Schistosoma sp. DNA was determined when pure DNA was used as PCR template. The amplification reaction showed to be specific giving no cross-reaction with DNA from other helminths. The PCR assay developed in this study may constitute a valuable alternative for the diagnosis of the Schistosoma sp. infection.

[Samir H. Haggag and Saleh M. Abdullah. Molecular diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection in human serum and feces by using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):398-404] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.54

 

Key words: Schistosoma mansoni, molecular Diagnosis, DNA, PCR, serum, feces

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Effect of Erythropoietin on Experimental Unilateral Testicular Torsion Detorsion in Rat Model

 

Gehane M. Hamed*1, Ramadan M. Ahmed 1, Maher M. Emara2, and Manar H. Mahmoud 3

 1Physiology Dept., 2Histology Dept., 3Biochemistry Dept. Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. *gihane_68@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Testicular torsion is a common syndrome that could lead to infertility. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of erythropoietin on experimental unilateral testicular torsion detorsion in a rat model. Fourty male albino rats were divided into three groups: Group I (10): Sham operated rats, Group II (15) untreated torsion detorsion (T/D); torsion of the right testis by rotating the testis 720O (2 times around the longitudinal axis of the spermatic cord) in a clockwise direction for 2 hours, and after 2 hours, the right testis was detorted by rotating the testis 2 times (720o) in an anticlockwise fashion and then fixed in the right position for 30 days, Group III (15): treated torsion detorsion (T/D): the same surgical procedure was done as in group II, in addition EPO at a dose of 1000 IU/Kg was injected i.p, 3 times per week for 12 doses. After the end of the study, ECG was performed, abdominal aorta was exposed and blood samples were collected in plain tube and then centrifuged to obtain serum, to determine serum Testosterone, both testes were removed, weighed, then divided into 2 halves, one half for histopathological examination and the other half for determination of testicular malonyldialdehyde, testicular glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and testicular catalase levels. The results of the present study showed significant increase in Q wave voltage and ST segment slope in untreated T/D compared to sham operated rats. Biochemical parameters showed significant decrease in serum testosterone in untreated T/D rats compared to treated rats and to sham operated rats. In addition significant increase in right and left testicular MDA level and significant decreases in right and left testicular GPx and catalase levels compared to sham operated rats, these parameters were greatly ameliorated in treated T/D rats. These biochemical changes were further confirmed by histopathological examinations showing severe destruction of semineferous tubules of the right testes, left testes affection were also observed but to a lesser degree in untreated T/D. EPO treatment greatly ameliorated the damage of ipsilateral and contralateral testes of T/D model. In conclusion, the protective effect of erythropoietin on testicular torsion could serve as a promising intervention to oxidative stress associated infertility problems, such as testicular torsion.

[Gehane M. Hamed, Ramadan M. Ahmed, Maher M. Emara, and Manar H. Mahmoud. Effect of Erythropoietin on Experimental Unilateral Testicular Torsion Detorsion in Rat Model. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):405-412] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.55

 

Keywords: Erythropoietin; Unilateral Testicular; Torsion; Detorsion; Rat

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Laser versus Nerve and Tendon Gliding Exercise in Treating Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

 

Azza Mohamed Attya*1 and Waleed Talat Mansour2

1Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Physical Therapy for Neuromuscular Disorders and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. *azzaatya73@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a highly prevalent entrapment neuropathy with a major impact on hand functions. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effect of low level laser (LLLT) with nerve and tendon gliding exercise as a conservative treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: Thirty female patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome; ranged in age from 30-45 years, participated in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of equal number; patients in group (A) received low level laser, while those in group (B) received nerve and tendon gliding exercises. Treatment was conducted three times / week for two successive months for both groups. Outcomes were assessed at the baseline and at the end of the two months using visual analogue Scale, grip strength measurement and nerve conduction studies. Results: Both groups showed a statistically significant reduction in pain, improvement of the grip strength and nerve conduction in favor to the group (A), that showed significant differences in all measured variables compared with group (B). Conclusion: LLLT has to be more effective treatment option than nerve and tendon gliding exercises for treatment of mild to moderate CTS. Further studies are recommended to investigate the combined effects of both interventions for treating CTS.

[Azza Mohamed Attya and Waleed Talat Mansour. Laser versus Nerve and Tendon Gliding Exercise in Treating Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):413-420] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.56

 

Key Words: carpal tunnel syndrome – low level laser –nerve gliding exercises –tendon gliding exercises

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Andragogy implications and differences with children education

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran

 

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

[Mohammad Abedi and Ali Badragheh. Andragogy implications and differences with children education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):421-425] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.57

Keywords: Andragogy, education, adult education

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Application of distance learning in adult education

 

1Ali Badragheh, 2Mohammad Abedi

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: There are two types of programs offered by distance education schools: synchronous learning programs and asynchronous learning programs. With synchronous learning, distance education students must log on to the school’s website at a set time. Often, they interact with their peers and professors via group chats, web seminars, video conferencing, and phone call-ins. With asynchronous learning, distance education students complete all coursework on their own time. They often learn via assignment sheets, message boards, email, pre-recorded video lectures, mp3s, and traditional mail correspondence. Many students find that distance education courses give them the freedom to complete a degree while meeting their personal and professional obligations. Motivated learners are often able to complete distance education degrees in a fraction of the time often required. Distance education courses also allow students to network with participants from all over the nation. On the downside, distance education courses do not offer the face-to-face interaction found in traditional classrooms. Some students find that they struggle to stay motivated and meet deadlines due to the independent nature of distance education courses.

 [Ali Badragheh and Mohammad Abedi. Application of distance learning in adult education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):426-432] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.58

 

Keywords: distance learning, adult education

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Assessing Principles of Adult Learning in agricultural education

 

Arezoo Mirzaei1 and Mohsen Elini2

1Former Graduate Student (M. S), Young Researchers Club, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran

2Assistant Professor of Planning Economic and Rural Development Research Institute

*Corresponding author: Arezoo_agri@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: Good assessment is a collaborative process involving the assessor, learners and others, where appropriate. Your assessment process should be transparent and allow for ongoing feedback from and to the learners. Remember these adult learners want to improve their skills in managing money and are not necessarily interested in formal recognition or being ranked against their peers in the group. Where possible, presenters should emphasize from the start that no-one is going to ‘fail’ the program. Even where students are seeking formal certification of their achievement, presenters can advise that there is no competition between the learners in the group or between an individual and the topic material – it’s all achievable and everyone can make it work for them. Your program should employ methodologies so that your trainers establish a friendly, open atmosphere that shows the participants they will help them learn rather than present as ‘experts’ imparting knowledge. No-one engages well with a trainer/teacher who is just ‘showing off’ what they know. Financial services have a plethora of jargon and complicated ideas that can put many lay people off. Exposing this sort of terminology and explaining it in simple terms – or deciding whether some of it needs exposure at all – is paramount to keeping your learner’s trust and interest.

[ArezooMirzaei and Mohsen Elini. Assessing Principles of Adult Learning in agricultural education. Life sience Journal. 2011;8(2):433-439] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.59

 

Keywords: adult learning, education

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Cluster Analysis and Dendrogram Mapping of 51 Silkworm Varieties based on Phenotypic Data

 

Morteza Salehi Nezhad 1, Alireza Seidavi 2*, Seyed Ziaeddin Mirhosseini 3, Moeinoddin Mavvajpour 4

 1. Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, 413353516, Iran

2. Department of Animal Science Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, 413353516, Iran

3. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Guilan University, Rasht, 4185743999, Iran

4. Iran Silkworm Research Center (ISRC), Rasht, 4185743999, Iran

*alirezaseidavi@iaurasht.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In different breeding programs, knowledge of inbreeding and genotype similarities and differences of various varieties is necessary. In many breeding projects, hybridization planning and in different crosses, there is a need to exist varieties with far and close genetic characteristics to each other. Based on this, it is necessary to identify the similarities between various breed. This experiment aiming to sort Japanese varieties group of Iran silkworm gene bank and to investigate genetic relationships between them based on individual economic characteristics was designed and planned. Data of the mentioned traits had been recorded based on performance tests. In order to group lines based on several important economic traits, Cluster analysis with UPGMA method performed on the studied genotypes using Ntsys-pc software. For each of concerned economic traits, the matrix analogous indicates Japanese varieties distance to each other had been determined and according this phylogenic diagram of this varieties that expressing near or far different varieties of Iran Japanese silkworm based on individual economic traits was drawn. According to the results from this research, the studied varieties can locate in different groups, accurately, and express their distance to each other.

[Morteza Salehi Nezhad, Alireza Seidavi, Seyed Ziaeddin Mirhosseini, Moeinoddin Mavvajpour. Cluster Analysis and Dendrogram Mapping of 51 Silkworm Varieties based on Phenotypic Data. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):440-452] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.60

 

Keywords: Silkworm; dendrogram; reproduction; performance; larvae

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Preliminary Study in diagnosis and early prediction of Preeclampsia by Using FTIR Spectroscopy Technique

 

Gehan A. Raouf1*, Abdel-Rahman L. Al-Malki2, Nesma Mansouri3, Rogaia M. Mahmoudi4

 1Medical Biophysics Lab., King Fahd Medical Research Centre; Biochemistry Dep., Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21551 Jeddah –KSA B.O.Box:42805

2,4Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah –KSA

3 Obstet. Gyneo. Dept., Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah–KSA

*gehan_raouf@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous condition, potentially involving several separate pathophysiological pathways; currently no clinical screening test is useful for prediction of preeclampsia development. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) holds great promise for clinical chemistry measurements. Methods: FT-IR spectra of serum samples from pregnant women -14 patients and 31 normotensive were obtained. Absorbance ratios, second derivative spectra, ANOVA test and personal correlation statistical analysis were tacking in comparison studies. The parameters studied were proteins and lipids. Results: Different absorbance ratios for specific bands were calculated and plotted versus the patient samples. These ratios yielded statistically significant increase/decrease among the groups under investigation. The results showed that among the normotensive control group three subjects later developed preeclampsia. The results obtained from the IR-measured (amide A/amide B) ratio of serum confirmed, with 92.9 % confidence level, the effectiveness of this technique for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Normotensive pregnant women who developed preeclampsia were considered as subjects at high risk. Conclusion: This study suggests, for the first time that FT-IR spectroscopy can be successfully used as an accurate and rapid test, for diagnosis and early prediction of preeclampsia, starting from 20 week of gestation.

[Gehan A. Raouf, Abdel-Rahman L. Al-Malki, Nesma Mansouri, Rogaia M. Mahmoudi. T. Preliminary Study in diagnosis and early prediction of Preeclampsia by Using FTIR Spectroscopy Technique. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):453-464] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.61

 

Key words: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR); Oxidative Stress; Dyslipidemia; Preeclampsia; Serum

Abbreviations: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)

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Effects of Ten Dietary Management Programs on Performance of Silkworm Hybrids

 

Mohammad Molaei 1, Moeinoddin Mavvajpour 2, Afsane Merat 2, Alireza Seidavi 3*

 1. Department of Animal Science, Kaleybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kaleybar, 4185743999, Iran

2. Iran Silkworm Research Center (ISRC), Rasht, 4185743999, Iran

3. Department of Animal Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, 413353516, Iran

*Corresponding Author: alirezaseidavi@iaurasht.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to investigation on different delay times in starting of feeding in different instars, and their effects on the performance and uniformity of silkworm larvae. Silkworm egg production stages, egg washing, disinfecting, maintenance of silkworm eggs, microscopic tests in order to removing of contaminated samples against pebrin pathogen, first to fifth larval instars rearing, cocoon production framework and cocoon recording was conducted based on standard guidelines. Ten dietary management programs were used as ten treatments. Performance records analyzed using generalized linear models procedure. All the measured indices was compared between different treatments based completely randomized design model. From obtained results, it has showed that among studied methods, the highest level of best cocoon number belonged to 5th treatment (80.75), and 3rd treatment (44.70) remained at lower level than other methods (P>0.05). The highest level of best cocoon weight belonged to 5th treatment (80.75 gr), and 3rd treatment (44.70 gr) remained at lower level than other methods (P>0.05). The highest level of larva weight (5th day of 5th instar) belonged to 3rd treatment (3.48 days), and 9th treatment (3.24 days) remained at lower level than other methods (P<0.05). Among studied methods, the highest level of female cocoon weight belonged to 1st treatment (2.13 gr), and 2nd treatment (1.90 gr) remained at lower level than other methods (P<0.05). The highest female cocoon shell weight belonged to 1st treatment (0.42 gr), and 2nd treatment (0.36 gr) remained at lower level than other methods (P<0.05). Among studied methods, the highest level of female cocoon shell percentage belonged to 9th treatment (24.18%), and 2nd treatment (18.94%) remained at lower level than other methods (P>0.05). The highest level of male cocoon weight belonged to 6th treatment (1.69 gr), and 2nd treatment (1.56 gr) remained at lower level than other methods (P<0.05).

[Mohammad Molaei, Moeinoddin Mavvajpour, Afsane Merat, Alireza Seidavi. Effects of Ten Dietary Management Programs on Performance of Silkworm Hybrids. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):465-475] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.62

 

Keywords: Silkworm; instar; feeding; schedule, performance; hybrid

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Effect of Knowledge, Attitude and Constraints on Postharvest losses among plantain farmers and wholesalers in south-western Nigeria

 

1Ladapo M.A and 2Oladele O.I.

 Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. E-mail: oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za,

 

Abstract: Postharvest losses have been a constraining factor in plantain production such that increase in yield brought about by advances in technologies through research did not make any significant impact on the economy of small scale farmers. The study examined the influence knowledge, attitude and constraints on postharvest losses among farmers and wholesalers in south-western Nigeria. A combination of multistage random sampling and Snowball techniques were used to select farmers and wholesalers respectively. Primary data was collected through pre-tested structured questionnaire and analysed using frequency counts, percentages and t-test. The result shows a significant relationship between knowledge and constraints to postharvest activities and postharvest losses among farmers and wholesalers. Similarly, significant differences were recorded in the attitude (t = 4.04, p < 0.05) and knowledge (t = 2.23, p < 0.05) and postharvest losses (t = 3.98, p < 0.05) among the respondents, while no significant differences was observed in the constraints they faced with (t = 1.26, p < 0.05). The result shows that there is need for an improved knowledge on the postharvest activities, an improvement in the constraints faced by them to reduce the post harvest losses incurred.

[Ladapo M.A and Oladele O.I. Effect of Knowledge, Attitude and Constraints on Postharvest losses among plantain farmers and wholesalers in south-western Nigeria. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):476-482] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.63

 

Keywords: postharvest activities, postharvest losses, attitude, knowledge and constraints

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[Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):483-490] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 8 pages

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.64

As the result of critical review, this article has been withdrawn.

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Incidence of Nosocomial Infection with Nasal Continuous Positive Air Way Pressure Versus Mechanical Ventilation During Treatment of Respiratory Distress in Preterm Neonates

 

Amira Ahmed*, Hisham Waheed+, Wagdi M. Hanna+, Tarek S. Ibrahim+, William M. Morcos+, Ilham Ezzet++

 

Departments of +Child Health, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

* Neonatology, ++ Microbiology Al Galaa Teaching, Hospital

hishamwb@ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: to determine the incidence of nosocomial infections in preterm infants with respiratory distress, if treatment with continuous positive air way pressure (CPAP) compared to treatment with mechanical ventilation (MV). Patients and Methods: Sixty premature neonates admitted to the intensive care unit in Al Galaa Teaching Hospital, in their first day of life suffering from respiratory distress, the infants were divided into two groups, 1st group include 30 patients supported by CPAP and the 2nd group include 30 patients who were supported by mechanical ventilation. Blood cultures and early endotracheal cultures were taken in the 1st day of life from the sixty neonates in both groups then another late endotracheal culture was taken from them in the 5th day of life. Results: 36.67% of patients in the MV group had +ve blood culture and 63.33% had no growth, while in the CPAP group 16.67% had +ve blood culture and 83.33% showed no growth. Early endotracheal cultures showed +ve growth in 63.33% in the MV groups a 23.33% in the CPAP group. (P=0.002), on the other hand late endotracheal cultures showed +ve growth in 36.67% in the MV group and 16.67% in the CPAP group. Klebsiella was the most frequent organism in all +ve cultures. Conclusion: The incidence of positive infection in blood cultures and endotracheal cultures is higher in the MV group than in the CPAP group. The incidence of klebsiella among the whole population in the two studied groups was higher in MV group more than in the CPAP group in all the cultures. Within the cases having positive cultures, MV patients needed longer duration on ventilation than patients on CPAP (whether the cultures were taken from the blood or endotracheal).

[Amira Ahmed, Hisham Waheed, Wagdi M. Hanna, Tarek S. Ibrahim, William M. Morcos, Ilham Ezzet. Incidence of Nosocomial Infection with Nasal Continuous Positive Air Way Pressure Versus Mechanical Ventilation During Treatment of Respiratory Distress in Preterm Neonates. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):491-497] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 65. doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.65

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.65

 

Keywords: Premature infant, Respiratory distress, cultures, mechanical ventilation, continuous positive air way pressure.

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Perceived Impact of Education on Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas of Iran

 

Abrisham Aref

 

Science and Research Branch

Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

abrishamaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Education and learning are widely recognized as essential to processes of development and poverty reduction. In many developing countries, issues of educational access, equity, and quality have been identified as prerequisites to the achievement of development goals. The objective of this study is, through reviewing the available evidences and analyses in the role of education in rural poverty reduction, to identify weaknesses pertinent to basic education achieving poverty reduction and to come out with some conclusions that can be taken into consideration in planning successful basic education for poverty reduction. The findings through focus group groups indicated that there are some rural structural barriers in educational system on rural poverty reduction.

[Abrisham Aref, Perceived Impact of Education on Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas of Iran, Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(2):498-501] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.66

 

Keywords: Education, poverty reduction, rural development

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Socio-economic constraints to sunflower production in Bojanala farming community of the North-West province, South Africa

 

Lekunze J, Antwi, M.A and Oladele O.I.

 Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus. South Africa oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This paper examined the socio-economic constraints to sunflower production in Bojanala farming community of the North-West province, South Africa. Simple Random sampling was carried out to select 150 farmers from a list of 257 farmers. Primary data based on 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons were obtain by use of the questionnaires. Data were collected on socio-economic, output levels, inputs costs measured in rand; and key role players and analyze with SPPS using percentages and double log function of the linear multiple regression. Results of the analysis show that, very few young people below 30 years of age are engage in sunflower production in the Bojanala Region. On gender, 69.5% of all the sunflower producers were male, 51% of the farmers had household size of 4 to 6 children, while 59.8% were married, and 58.5% were with less than three dependants. Farmers with educational levels from standard 8 to 10 constitute 34.10%. Also, 59.7% had 1.1-1.5 tons as output per hectare. Sunflower farmers who had access to the extension services constitute 70.7%. Significant determinant of the socio-economic constraints include number of plantings per year, storage costs, price, income, access to market and farm size.

[Lekunze J, Antwi, M.A and Oladele O.I. Socio-economic constraints to sunflower production in Bojanala farming community of the North-West province, South Africa. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):502-506] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.67

 

Keywords: socio-economic characteristics, sunflower, South Africa, output, extension contact

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Adult Learning and the related requirements

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

 1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adults learn most effectively when they have an inner motivation to develop a new skill or gain new knowledge. They resist learning material if it is forced on them, or if the only reason given is that the material will, in some vague way, be "good for them to know." Adults need to know why they are being asked to learn something; and they definitely will want to know what the benefits will be before they begin learning. This means the best motivators for adult learners are explicit interest and self benefit. If they can be shown that the program will benefit them pragmatically and practically, they will learn better, and the benefits will be much longer lasting. Typical motivations include a desire for better handling of personal money matters, say in retirement, wanting a new or first job, promotion, job enrichment, a need to reinforce old skills in say, handling credit or learn new ones, a need to adapt to community changes such as on-line banking and so on. Remember the tone of the program should be motivating. Your program should employ methodologies so that your trainers establish a friendly, open atmosphere that shows the participants they will help them learn rather than present as ‘experts’ imparting knowledge.

[Mohammad Abedi and Ali Badragheh,. Adult Learning and the related requirements. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):507-513] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.68

 

Keywords: adult education, Adult Learning

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Assessing of Ways to Strengthen Adult Education

 

1Ali Badragheh, 2Mohammad Abedi

 1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult learners have a different approach to learning. By the time you reach adulthood, you’re most likely responsible for your own success and you’re perfectly capable of making your own decisions once you have the information you need. Adults learn best when learning is focused on them, not the teacher. This is called andragogy, the process of helping adults learn. Types of content and educational resources in various parts of adult curriculum materials motivational book, course materials, supplementary materials, track materials (continued) participatory form and materials. Incentives aimed at providing content that audiences are produced primarily to attract different groups of adults interested in design, so that their participation in learning programs are encouraged. Motivational training materials for learners and have great importance even in support of successful applications over learners, planners and executors for educational programs is important.

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. Assessing of Ways to Strengthen Adult Education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):514-519] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.69

 

Keywords: Adult Education; learn; course

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Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Post surgical Infections in Egyptian Hospital

 

Sherein I. Abd El-Moez 1*, Sohad M. Dorgham1, Eman Abd El-Aziz1

 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt* shereinabdelmoez@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics including methicillin, oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin.Our study investigated the reason of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in an Egyptian hospital in which multiple drug resistant S. aureus was isolated from pus, sputum and blood of infected cases. Our objective was to detect the mec-A gene using PCR analysis to confirm that the multiple drug resistant S. aureus is MRSA as well to find the drug of choice to be used for competing such infections and to find a safe method for competing MRSA using probiotics. The antibacterial effect of probiotic strains isolated from different animals was tested against MRSA isolates. The results obtained from molecular analysis identified the mec-A gene in six out of seven tested samples with a great success. Moreover, the results revealed that cefobid as well as claforan are the drugs of choice for competing MRSA. B.subtilus followed by L. acidophilus isolated from colostrum of mare showed great capability of hindrance of MRSA, then L. palantarum, Bifidobacterium and finally L.acidophilus isolated from goat colostrums, L. acidophilus isolated from buffalo-cow milk on the contrary showed no activity against MRSA. Our study identified mec-A gene from MRSA strains was confirmed to be the main cause of MRSA outbreak in infected hospital patients subjected to stressful conditions due to severe skin infections.

[Sherein I. Abd El-Moez, Sohad M. Dorgham, Eman Abd El-Aziz. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Post surgical Infections in Egyptian Hospital. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):520-526] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.70

 

Keywords: MRSA, PCR, mec-A gene, Antibiotic sensitivity, Human; Probiotic

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Factors Influencing the Adoption of Nanocides in Controlling the Fire Blight among Apple Producers in Iran

 

Seyed Jamal Hosseini 1, Parnaz Alimoradian 2, Aida MirAlmasi2, Vida Pezeshki2

 1. Department of Agriculture Extension and Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Agriculture Development, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

jamalfhosseini@srbiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Apple producers in the Province of East Azarbaijan were surveyed in order to explore their perception about factors influencing the adoption of nanocides in controlling Fire Blight among apple producers in Iran. As the factor analysis showed, the factors were categorized into four groups, namely marketing, social, regulatory and economic, ordered by the magnitude of their impact.

[Seyed Jamal Hosseini, Parnaz Alimoradian, Aida Miralmasi, Vida Pezeshki. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Nanocides in Controlling the Fire Blight among Apple Producers in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):527-530] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.71

 

Keywords: Apple producers, Nanotechnology, East Azarbaijan Province, Adoption, Nanocide, Fire Blight

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 Blood Ras-Association Domain Family 1 A Gene Methylation Status In Some Liver Diseases

 

Naglaa Ibrahim Azab*1, Heba Mohamed Abd El Kariem1, Tawheed Mowafi2, Hanan F. Fouad3, Awad M. El Abd1

 

1 Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University - Egypt.

2 General Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University - Egypt.

3 Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University - Egypt.

naglaa1270@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignancies and its impact on mortality is significant and well documented. Biomarkers have been developed for early HCC detection, with serum α-fetoprotein (S.AFP) being the most widely used clinically, but with relatively low diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore new biomarkers are needed for early HCC detection to improve overall-survival rates. METHODS: Blood RASSF1A promoter methylation was evaluated using methylation specific PCR in patients with chronic liver diseases together with its potential use as a biomarker for detecting HCC in comparison to or in association with S.AFP. RESULTS: Blood RASSF1A promoter methylation was detected in 70% of HCC patients on top of hepatitis C virus- associated liver cirrhosis, 28.5% of hepatitis C virus-associated liver patients and 16.6% of bilharzial liver fibrosis patients. However none of the healthy control subjects showed blood RASSF1A promoter methylation. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPP of blood RASSF1A promoter methylation for HCC diagnosis were 70%, 83.3%, 73.7% and 80.6% respectively. On the other hand the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPP of S.AFP with a cut off value of 33.6 for HCC diagnosis were 85%, 80%, 88.9% and 90.7% respectively. Moreover it was found that the combined use of RASSF1A promoter methylation status and S.AFP is better than S.AFP use alone in HCC prediction. CONCLUSION: RASSF1A promoter methylation plays an important role in the process of human hepatocarcinogenesis and is related to hepatic inflammation due to bilharziasis and viral hepatitis. Moreover it can be considered as an important biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC when combined with S.AFP.

[Naglaa Ibrahim Azab, Heba Mohamed Abd El Kariem, Tawheed Mowafi, Hanan F. Fouad, Awad M. El Abd. Blood Ras-Association Domain Family 1 A Gene Methylation Status In some Liver Diseases. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):531-539(ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.72

 

Key words: RASSF1A promoter methylation, AFP, HCC, Bilharziasis, Liver cirrhosis, blood.

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Different aspects of adult learning principles

 

Arezoo Mirzaei1 and Mohsen Elini2

1Former Graduate Student (M. S), Young Researchers Club, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran

2AssistantProfessor of Planning Economic and Rural Development Research Institute

*Corresponding author: Arezoo_agri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Learners must retain what the program delivers to them in order to benefit from the learning. In order for participants to retain the information taught, they must see a meaning or purpose for that information. They must also understand and be able to interpret and apply the information in their own real life contexts. Understanding includes their ability to assign the correct degree of importance to the material and its application in the future. The amount of retention is always directly affected by the degree of original learning. In other words if the learners did not learn the material well initially, they will not retain it well either. Retention by the participants is directly affected by their amount of practice during the learning. After the students demonstrate they can apply new financial skills, they should be urged to practice in their own time and for their own personal needs to retain and maintain the desired performance.

[Arezoo Mirzaei and Mohsen Elini. Different aspects of adult learning principles. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):540-546] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 73

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.73

Keywords: adult education, adult learning

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Strengthen Adult Education: Methods and Procedures

 

Abbas Emami 1, Alireza Bolandnazar 2 and Mojtaba Sadighi3

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Learning activities such as activities outside the classroom, dialogue, role playing and. Another type of content is presented. duties are placed on the learner, a resource for developing knowledge, skills and insights he considered. Curriculum content only from the training provided to learners or not, but put together their learning through activities that can inform or does, skills and attitude to achieve. In this case, apart from learning that the assays taught learners directly to sustainable and effective learning occurs in his. another way of providing content that is educational activities outside the learning environment possible for learning more and better enables adult learners. For example, hits, field trip experiences for learners or transfer is provided, develop knowledge, insight and skills they will. to ensure that science curriculum and educational aspects, according to community needs and audiences, application form is provided or not, the content selection criteria should be considered. These criteria is being include knowledge, effectiveness, flexibility, diversity, relevance and practical learning

[Abbas Emami, Alireza Bolandnazar and Mojtaba Sadighi. Strengthen Adult Education: Methods and Procedures. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):547-552] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.74

Keywords: Adult Education; learn

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Lens Protein Changes Associated With Cigarette Smoking

 

Eman M.Aly * and Eman S. Elabrak

 Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.

*e.Aly@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: Smoking is an independent risk factor that has dose-response effect. The goal of the present work is to study the biophysical and biological effects of smoking on the crystalline lens of the rabbits. Materials and methods: Twenty New Zealand albino rabbits used in this study were classified into five groups in which group I (n=4) served as control. The other groups were exposed to different durations of cigarette smoke (five cigarettes per day). Animals were decapitated after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and soluble lens proteins were separated and the following measurements were carried out: estimation of total soluble protein, refractive index measurement, sodium dodocyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and determination of sodium, calcium and potassium concentrations. Results: The results showed that, exposure of the animals to cigarette smoke resulted in decrease of the protein concentration and potassium content that was accompanied by an increase in the refractive index of the soluble lens proteins and an increase in sodium and calcium content. In addition, there were changes in the molecular structure of soluble lens proteins demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Conclusion: smoking causes morphological and functional changes to the lens that may lead to cataract.

[Eman M.Aly and Eman S. Elabrak. Lens Protein Changes Associated With Cigarette Smoking. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):553-558] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.75

 

Key words: Ultrasound, Rabbits, Lens, Refractive index, Proteins, SDS

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Key Factors in E- Banking: Concepts & Applications

 

Mohammad Taleghani

 Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran.

Taleghani@iaurasht.ac.ir

 

ABSTRACT - With the phenomenal growth of B2C e-commerce, most industries including banking and financial services sector have been influenced, in one way or another. Several studies suggest that customers have not adopted B2C e-commerce in the same degree primarily because of risk concerns and trust- related issues. This paper extends an area of information systems research into a marketing of financial services context by look in into the element of trust and risk in e- banking. A conceptual model of trust in e banking is proposed with two main antecedents that influence customer's trust: perceived security and perceived privacy. Trust is being defined as a function of degree of risk involved in the e- banking transaction, and the outcome of trust is proposed to be reduced perceived risk, leading to positive intentions towards adoption of e- banking.

[Mohammad Taleghani. Key Factors in E- Banking: Concepts & Applications. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):559-564] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.76

 

Keywords: Electronic Banking, Trust, perceived risk, satisfaction, Quality.

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The role of indigenous knowledge toward improving agriculture

 

Mohaddaseh Nazarpour 1, Maryam Abedi 2 and 3 Fatemeh Bakhtiar

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Experience shows that indigenous knowledge not only has no contradiction with formal knowledge but different indigenous knowledge features, put it as well complementary for formal knowledge. Indigenous knowledge is accessible, useful and cheap. Its perspective is holistic and its transmission is verbal. Knowledge is dynamic and time-tested, and while it has grown within local natural and social environment, so it is very sustainable with indigenous condition. Indigenous knowledge refers to both component and whole part of culture of each nation and this component and whole integration is so that stop to change traditional society of life without indigenous knowledge out of its cultural origin and therefore would lose it concept and effectiveness.

[Mohaddaseh Nazarpour, Maryam Abedi and Fatemeh Bakhtiar. The role of indigenous knowledge toward improving agriculture. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):565-568] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.77

 

Keywords: agriculture, indigenous knowledge

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Aerobic Degradation of Synthetic-Based Drilling Mud Base Fluids by Gulf of Guinea Sediments under Natural Environmental Conditions

 

Okoro Chuma. Conlette.

 Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Caleb University Imota, Lagos, Nigeria

chuma2k2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Synthetic-based fluids (SBF), which are composed mostly of linear alpha Olephins, Esters and Paraffins are used in drilling mud to lubricate the drill bit, control reservoir pressure and bring rock chips and cuttings to the surfaces which are subsequently released into the marine environment as a residue on the cuttings as they are discharged. Aerobic biodegradation is a major criterion for selecting synthetic –based fluids for drilling mud. In the present study, sediments were collected from four different locations in the Gulf of Guinea measuring from 100-500m depth and were used in indoor basin benthic chamber tests to measure degradation rates of 4 different Ester based synthetic fluids at room temperature over a 120 day test period. At each 30 day interval, residual organic carbons were measured by gas chromatograph while microbial populations were quantified with the most probable plate number method (MPN). At the end of the 120-day monitoring period, the following % degradation rates were recorded for the different ester based fluids used in the study; BR-EST (94%), CH-EST (91%), PFB-009 (94.8%), PFB-008 (93.8%). This result indicate that the Ester based fluids used in the experiment are readily biodegradable and the Gulf of Guinea sediments harbour considerable populations of indigenous hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms that are capable of degrading the exogenous ester based synthetic fluids. This study addressed the fate of the synthetic ester base fluid portion of the drilling mud in Gulf of Guinea sediments by determining the potential of indigenous marine sediment microbes to degrade representative SBF under natural conditions.

[Okoro Chuma. Conlette. Aerobic Degradation of Synthetic-Based Drilling Mud Base Fluids by Gulf of Guinea Sediments under Natural Environmental Conditions. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):569-576] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.78

 

Keywords: Synthetic base fluids, Drilling mud, Cuttings, Biodegradable, Hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms, Gulf of Guinea sediments.

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Community Participation for Poverty Reduction in Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 Dept. of Organizational and Industrial Psychology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

fatemeharef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study assesses the level of community participation for poverty reduction in rural areas of Iran. Data were collected using focus group discussions. Results indicate that although there is sense of community towards poverty reduction between the rural people; but rural communities still face challenges and constraints which hinder their participation in poverty reduction.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi. Community Participation for Poverty Reduction in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):577-579] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.79

 

Keywords: community participation, rural community, poverty reduction

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Production, Purification and Characterization of Alkaline and Thermostable Protease by Shewanella putrefaciens-EGKSA21 Isolated from El-Khorma Governorate KSA

 

Bahobil, A. S.

 

Biology Dept., Faculty of Science, Taif Univ., Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

 abahobail@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Proteases catalyzes the hydrolysis of protein. Among the various proteases, bacterial proteases are the most significant when compared with animal and fungal proteases. The aim of the present study was to production of alkaline thermostable bacterial protease for application in biodetergent technology. Screening studies were carried out for twenty one thermophilic bacterial isolates with respect to their ability to produce both protease and lipase when grown on mineral salts medium supplemented with gelatin as only source and carbon and energy at 50°C and pH 9. The most potent thermophilic bacterial isolate for production of two enzymes was identified as Shewanella putrefaciens-EGKSA21. The optimum incubation temperature and pH for maximum alkaline–thermostable protease production were 50°C and 9 under fermentation conditions. Optimum substrate concentrations for protease production were 3 % gelatine. The best carbon sources that induce protease production by Shewanella putrefaciens-EGKSA21 was D (+) arabinose and D-xylose. Potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate and ammonium chloride were the optimal nitrogen sources for alkaline–thermostable protease production by Shewanella putrefaciens-EGKSA21. Maximum protease production was observed at the end of 48hrs. The overall steps protocol resulted in raising the purification fold to 411.9 times. Optimum incubation temperature and thermal-stability were 50 and 50-55 ºC for the purified protease. The activities of the purified enzymes increased gradually with the increase of time up to 48 h incubation of the reaction mixture. The activities of the purified enzyme increased gradually by the increase of enzyme concentrations. The effect of different metalic ions on the purified enzyme activities recorded that Sodium azide (50 ppm), Lead acetate (50 ppm) and EDTA (50ppm) exhibited maximal activities while cadmium chloride and magnesium chloride inhibited the purified enzyme activities. The purified enzymes exhibited good stability towards organic solvents. The crude and purified protease of produced by Shewanella putrefaciens-EGKSA21 bacterial strain with a potential to be a candidate for the application in the detergent industry.

[Bahobil, A. S. Production, Purification and Characterization of Alkaline and Thermostable Protease by Shewanella putrefaciens-EGKSA21 Isolated from El-Khorma Governorate KSA. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):580-590] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.80

 

Key words: Thermostable protease, Biodetergent, Shewanella putrefaciens, Submerged fermentation; EL-Khorma Governorate.

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Employment of rural women

 

Mohaddaseh Nazarpour 1, Maryam Abedi 2 and 3 Fatemeh Bakhtiar

1,2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women as an effective member of society, can crystalline their lead roles in various responsibilities formations. These responsibilities include promoting the concept of participation and employment in life and building the suitable areas for freely activity and introduce the right of economic management, ownership and.... This requires that all fees and necessary training for women to be considered. Due to the fact that the concept of women's participation, is not necessarily the female employment, although certainly part of the participation of women will be crystallized in their employment, but in this context, home and family affairs by women and their role in nutrition and child growth and Their education are also many responsibilities that women often are responsible for them. Throughout history we have always been seen that women have always been active but in culture and tradition, this mentality largely exists that if the job exists, it would be for men. Because they are responsible for their families Economic or wherever there is a good opportunity for participation, men have a prior right.

[Mohaddaseh Nazarpour, Maryam Abedi and Fatemeh Bakhtiar. Employment of rural women. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):591-594] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.81

 

Keywords: employment, rural women

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Challenges of information and communication technology (ICT) in education

 

1Mohammad Reza Rezaei, 2 Mehdi Nazarpour, 3 Abbas Emami

1, 2,3 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: fereshteh12150@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Technologies (ICT) during the past two decades have had many points of contact with education and training. The development of technology is placing new demands on expertise, and it is also leading to the increased use of information technology (IT) in instruction and learning. As early as in the 1970s discussions of the future of school systems started to pay attention to the opportunities provided by ICT. Now with the approach of the new millennium, IT is playing an increasingly central role in almost all future planning of schools and instruction. With the help of state and local funding, information technology has been purchased for schools ever since the 1980s. The state has also found many ways to support teacher training in the use of IT, and it has also allocated funds for the production of IT programs. Instruction in the use of IT has also played an important role in teacher training organized by local school authorities. It is against this background that the need arose to find out how far we have progressed in the application of ICT in education and what impacts these significant economic investments have had. It is also time to start a value-oriented discussion of how strongly the future of the Iran society will be linked to the vision of an information society brimming over with technology.

[Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Mehdi Nazarpour and Abbas Emami. Challenges of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):595-598] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.82

Keywords: ICT, education

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Field study on Cadmium pollution in water and Crustacean gill parasites in cultured Tilapia zilli at Lower Egypt fish farms

 

A. I. E. Noor El Deen*1, S. I. A. Shalaby2 and M. S. Zaki1

 1Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Reproduction Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

*dr_ahmednoor2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to explain the relationship between Cadmium pollution in water and Crustacean gill parasites in cultured Tilapia zilli at Lower Egypt fish farms. A total of 375 adults Tilapia zilli cultured at Lower Egypt fish farms were studied the effect of water cadmium pollution on clinical examination and the prevalent seasonal crustacean gill parasitic infestations in the period 2009-2010. This investigation revealed the appearance of the parasites during spring, summer and autumn and their disappearance during winter. Clinical signs were pale skin, blood spots with cognation of gills, as well as post mortem lesions and isolation of infested parasites. Ergasilus sp and Lamproglena sp were increased in gills with high concentration of cadmium. The present study was concluded that, there were inversely proportion relationship between cadmium concentration pollution in aquaculture and the prevalence of gill crustacean infestation during spring, summer and autumn seasons while infestation was disappeared during winter season. Also, there was a relationship between cadmium residues in Tilapia zilli gills and its concentration in the water, the obtained results showed that the cadmium concentration in the gills were higher than that in the water.

[A. I. E. Noor El Deen, S. I. A. Shalaby and M. S. Zaki. Field study on Cadmium pollution in water and Crustacean gill parasites in cultured Tilapia zilli at Lower Egypt fish farms. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):599-605] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.83

 

Keywords: Tilapia zilli, gills, cadmium, Ergasilus sp., Lamproglena sp., pollution

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Benazepril Inhibits the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Rabbits

 

Yang Fu1, Jianhua Huang2, Huihuan Tang2, Xiaocheng Li3, Qi Zhang2

 1Department of Vascular Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China

2Department of Vascular Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South university, Changsha 410078, China

3Department of General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Liuzhou 545006, China

gentlem0423@hotmail.com

 

Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of benazepril on the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in rabbits.Methods: Male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into six groups according to the perfusion solution (saline, elastase, and elastase combined with benazepril intervention) and postoperative observation time (two days and seven days). Morphological changes of the abdominal aorta after perfusion and blood pressure changes were observed. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were measured. Results: Among the three groups at postoperative day two, there was no significant difference in the mean dilation rate of the abdominal aorta (P=0.055). At postoperative day seven, the mean dilation rates were 7.50% (saline perfusion), 120.62% (elastase perfusion), and 39.20% (benazepril intervention). Blood pressure is not significantly correlated with the mean dilation rates of the abdominal aorta (r=-0.137). Benazepril partially reduce degradation of elastic fibers and inhibit inflammatory cell infiltration (P<0.01). In the benazepril intervention groups, the expression of MMP-9 were decreased in each time group compared with that in the elastase groups (P<0.01), and the intranuclear expression of NF-κB p65 was also decreased compared with that in the elastase groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: Benazepril can significantly inhibit AAA formation in rabbit models; the mechanism may be related to inhibition of inflammatory infiltration, multilevel down regulation of degradation of extracellular matrix, and protection of elastic fibers.

[Yang Fu, Jianhua Huang, Huihuan Tang, Xiaocheng Li, Qi Zhang. Benazepril Inhibits the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Rabbits. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):606-612] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.84

 

Key words: AAA, Inflammation, MMP-9, NF-κB

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The Observations of Cytokines and Coagulation for Patients after Operation of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter

 

Zhang Zhenxiang 1, Liu Ying 2, Wang Yanli 2, Yang Qiaofang 3, Cheng Ruilian 4, Gao Feng 5, Lin Beilei 1

 1 Zhengzhou University Nursing School, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

2 Zhengzhou University Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

3 Henan Providence People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

4 Zhengzhou City People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

3 Henan Providence Medical Science Institue, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

 

Abstract: Fifty cancer, blood disease and non-cancer patients after operation of peripherally inserted central catheter were observed to analyze TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, blood coagulation in blood which may correlated with the formation of venous thrombosis. Basically, for TNF-α and IL-6 by radioimmunoassay, IL-10 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the blood coagulation by automatic coagulation instrument were measured in plasma. The experimental results revealed that operation of peripherally inserted central catheter may cause inflammatory cytokines in plasma levels of TNF-α increased and levels of IL-6 decrease. It also anticipate the possibility of the formation of venous thrombosis.

[Zhang Zhenxiang, Liu Ying, Wang Yanli, Yang Qiaofang, Cheng Ruilian, Gao Feng, Lin Beilei. The Observations of Cytokines and Coagulation for Patients after Operation of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):613-615] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.85

 

Keywords: PICC; vein; thrombosis; inflamation; factor

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Effect of Pastoralist-Farmers Conflict on Access to Resources in Savanna Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

 

1Oladele O.T and 2Oladele O.I.

 1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North –West University Mafikeng Campus. South Africa oladimeji.oladele@nwu.ac.za

 

Abstract: This paper examines the effect of pastoralist-farmers conflict on access to resources in savanna area of Oyo state, Nigeria. A snow ball technique was used to obtain a list of agro-pastoralists and their camps in the study area whose conflicts with crop farmers were caused by the nomadic pastoralists’ uncontrolled grazing. Fifty percent of the households in each camp were randomly chosen and simple random technique was used to sample male and female household heads. Data was collected through primary source by administering a well-structured interview schedule to the agro-pastoralists. Majority of the agro-pastoralists are married and they are within their active productive age. All male agro-pastoralists made cattle rearing as their primary occupation and their secondary occupations include crop production, goat rearing and sheep rearing, while milk processing and fowl rearing were primary occupation and secondary occupation of female agro-pastoralists respectively. Majority of the agro-pastoralists had no formal education, and not a native of the study area hence adoption of innovation will be difficult. The agro-pastoralists suffered in numerous forms and ways from the conflict ensuing between them and the crop farmers. The aggressiveness of the nomadic pastoralists was the prominent assumed cause of the nomadic pastoralists uncontrolled grazing. The competitive use of various natural resources such as land, water, shelter and air by various rural dwellers is inevitable.

[Oladele O.T and 2Oladele O.I. Effect of Pastoralist-Farmers Conflict on Access to Resources in Savanna Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):616-621] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.86

 

Keywords: Pastoralists, farmers, conflict, pasture, land, water resources, transhumance

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Learning Alliances in Sawah Rice Technology Development and Dissemination in Nigeria and Ghana

 

1Oladele O. I and 2Wakatsuki T

 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa, oladele20002001@yahoo.com,2Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University Nara Japan wakatuki@nara.kindai.ac.jp

 

Abstract: Millions of dollars are spent each year on research and development initiative on rice in order to improve the livelihood of farmers and other stakeholders in the rice value chain, however little has been the impact. Major reasons for this failure include the limited collective learning that occurs between various stakeholders and the neglect of building a multi-stakeholder innovation systems for rice in West Africa. This has made research results less relevant and the impact making farmers worse off. This paper describes how Sawah rice production technology has evolved through learning alliances that involves social learning and innovation systems and brings Japanese institutions, research institutes, Ministry of Agriculture, extension agencies, farmers groups, Millennium Village, marketers, and universities in Nigeria and Ghana together on a platform with clear objectives, shared responsibilities, cost and benefits, output as inputs, differentiated learning mechanisms, long term and trust-based relationships. The process is increasingly leading to increased learning and effectiveness in rural entrepreneurial development and improved livelihoods. The paper gives a description of the scenarios based on experience in the sawah rice technology development and concludes with its application in other parts of West African region.

[Oladele O. I and Wakatsuki T. Learning Alliances in Sawah Rice Technology Development and Dissemination in Nigeria and Ghana. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):622-627] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.87

 

Keywords: Learning Alliances, Sawah Rice Technology, farmers, Nigeria, Ghana

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The Role of Urban Services` Spatial Dispersion on creation of Ghetto Quarters in Yazd City and Its associated Social Impact

 

Mehri Heidari Noshahr 1 Naiier Heidari Noshahr2 Javad Ebrahimi3

 1. Ph.D. student, Department of geography and urban planning, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. B.Sc., Department of Natural geography, Islamic, Marand branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran

 3. M.Sc., Department of geography and urban planning, Payam-e-Noor University of Rezvanshahr, Iran

mp.heidari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigated the causes shaping ghettos in the city of Yazd in terms of the indices of education, health, culture, business, sport, green space and social reflections from it. With regard to the coefficient of functions and urban services in ghettos and nearby, it is inferred that above mentioned factors affect forming ghettos and there is a relationship between ghetto and underdevelopment. Based on linear regression, there is also a significant relationship between ghettos and unfair distribution of services and underdevelopment. In addition, the results from the cluster model suggest that the settling in a neighborhood, besides lack of services and functions, other factors were also considered. The other finding of this study has been about social impact of ghettos. Based on the finding, the relatively low-income unemployed people commit more crimes and there is no significant relationship between immigration and social offenses.

[Mehri Heidari Noshahr- Naiier Heidari Noshahr-Javad Ebrahimi. The Role of Urban Services` Spatial Dispersion on creation of Ghetto Quarters in Yazd City and Its associated Social Impact. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):628-633] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.88

 

Keywords: Spatial Dispersion, ghetto, urban service, social crimes, the city of Yazd

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A Scatter Search Algorithm for RCPSP with Discounted Weighted Earliness-Tardiness Costs

 

Mohammad Khalilzadeh1 FereydoonKianfar2Mohammad Ranjbar3

 1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

khalilzadeh@mehr.sharif.edu

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

kianfar@sharif.edu

3Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

ranjbar@um.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this paper, we study a resource-constrained project scheduling problem in which a set of project activities have due dates. If the finish time of each one of these activities is not equal to its due date, an earliness or a tardiness cost exists for each tardy or early period. The objective is to minimize the sum of discounted weighted earliness-tardiness penalty costs of these activities. Scatter Search algorithm is used to deal with this extended form of resource-constrained project scheduling problem. Our implementation of Scatter Search integrates the advanced methods such as dynamic updating of the reference set and the use of frequency-based memory within the diversification generator. Finally, some small and medium size test problems are examined and the computational results are presented. The computational results show the efficiency of the proposed meta heuristic procedure.

[Mohammad Khalilzadeh, FereydoonKianfar, Mohammad Ranjbar. A Scatter Search Algorithm for RCPSP with Discounted Weighted Earliness-Tardiness Costs. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):634-640] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.89

 

Keywords: Earliness-tardiness, net present value, project scheduling, RCPSP, scatter search.

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Effect of Flavonoid Quercetin Supplement on the Progress of Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

 

Gehane M. Hamed1, Nehal Mohammad Bahgat*1, Fayda I. Abdel Mottaleb2 and Maher M. Emara3

 1Physiology Dept., 2Biochemistry Dept., 3Histology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

*nehalgamil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Liver cirrhosis is a serious health problem as it represents an irreversible stage of liver damage in both the developed and developing countries. Up till now no successful therapeutic approach has been developed for this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of the flavonoid quercetin on liver cirrhosis induced by the hepatotoxin thioacetamide. Thirty male Albino rats weighing 160-200gm were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, Control group (C), Thioacetamide group (TA) treated with thioacetamide (100 mg/kg. i.p.) twice weekly for 6 weeks, Thioacetamide /Quercetin group (TA/Q) treated with thioacetamide (100 mg/kg. i.p.) twice weekly for 6 weeks as well as quercetin (50 mg/kg i.p.) for the last 3 weeks. After 6 weeks, all rats were sacrificed; blood samples were taken for determination of serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, total bilitubin, and adiponectin levels. Livers were weighed and were used for measurement of liver GPx, catalase, lipid peroxides and histopathological examination. TA rats showed significant increase of absolute and relative liver weights, liver peroxides, serum ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin, while body weight, BMI, Liver antioxidants (GPx, CAT) and serum adiponectin were significantly decreased compared to control ones. TA/Q rats exhibited a decrease of liver peroxides, serum ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin, while body weight, liver antioxidants (GPx, CAT) and serum adiponectin levels were significantly increased compared to TA rats. Histopathological examination showed loss of normal liver architecture in TA rats (very thick septa and leukocytic infiltration). On the other hand, TA/Q rat livers had almost normal hepatic architecture. In conclusion. The natural flavonoid quercetin could ameliorate thioacetamide induced - liver cirrhosis and dysfunction in adult rats.

[Gehane M. Hamed, Nehal Mohammad Bahgat, Fayda I. Abdel Mottaleb and Maher M. Emara. Effect of Flavonoid Quercetin Supplement on the Progress of Liver Cirrhosis in Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):641-651] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.90

 

Key words: thioacetamide, liver cirrhosis, quercetin, lipid peroxides, liver antioxidants, serum liver enzymes, serum bilirubin.

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Silencing a putative cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme gene compromised tomato resistance to Oidium neolycopersici

 

Dong-Li Pei1, 2, Hong-Zhen Ma1, Yi Zhang3, Yuan-Song Ma2, Wen-Jing Wang2, Hui-Xia Geng2, Jian-Yu Wu1, Cheng-Wei Li1, 2, 3*

 

1College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China;

2Department of Life Science, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu, Henan 476000, China;

3Key Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, Henan 466001, China. lichengweiwau@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Tomato powdery mildew caused by Oidium neolycopersici is a worldwide plant fungal disease distributed in Europe, African, South and North America and Asian, which is responsible for a remarkable reduction in quality and yield of tomato. The most effective way to control this disease is resistant breeding, which depends on the resistant materials and resistance genes. In our previous study, a putative enzyme gene (named ShME1) was found to be up-regulated in the Ol-1 mediated tomato resistance response to Oidium neolycopersici. In this study, in order to know whether this gene is a key gene of the resistance response, we further analyzed the function of the gene using virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) in resistant tomato plants Solanum habrochiates G1.1560 carrying Ol-1 gene. It was shown that the resistant S. habrochiates G1.1560 became susceptible to O. neolycopersici after ShME1 was silenced in it. Microscopic observation demonstrated that O. neolycopersici was able to complete its life cycle on silenced resistant plants, it indicated that ShME1 was required for Ol-1 mediated tomato resistance against O. neolycopersici. It also suggested that ShME1 could be involved in hypersensitive response (HR) and H2O2 accumulation, which was thought to be tightly linked to the establishment of tomato resistance to O. neolycopersici.

[Dong-Li Pei, Hong-Zhen Ma, Yi Zhang, Yuan-Song Ma, Wen-Jing Wang, Hui-Xia Geng, Jian-Yu Wu, Cheng-Wei Li. Silencing a putative cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme gene compromised tomato resistance to Oidium neolycopersici. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):652-657] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.91

 

Key words: Tomato; Oidium neolycopersici; NADP-malic enzyme; VIGS; HR; H2O2

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The use of a by-product of paper industry in reclamation of berry-cultivated soils

 

Mohammadi Torkashvand, A.1*, Bizhannia, A.2, Mavajpour, M.2 and Haghighat, N.1

 1Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2Iran Silkworm Research Center, Rasht, Iran

*Corresponding E-mail: m.torkashvand54@yahoo.com;Torkashvand@iaurasht.ac.ir,

Tel. 0098-131-4247058; Fax: 0098-131-422362.

 

Abstract: Using conventional lime in amending acidic soils reform is expensive. Therefore, the importance of using cheaper resources is seems more necessary. A variety of materials including industries by-products are used in reclamation of acidic soil. By-products with the character of lime not only increase the pH and improvement of soils have special priority, but also increase the fertility with create consistency with the aggregate building sustainable soil, air conditioning, increases porosity and cation exchange capacity and soil reactivity. In this study, the possibility of using paper sludge lime had been investigated in berry orchard improvement under cultivation of sericulture in a field experiment. The results indicating the potential of paper lime sludge as acidic soil modifiers in the replacement of conventional calcite sources such as calcite which can reduce the disposal costs and possible environmental contamination of this by-product.

[Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand, Bizhannia A., Mavajpour M, Haghighat N. The use of a by-product of paper industry in reclamation of berry-cultivated soils. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):658-661] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.92

 

Keywords: Acid soil, Liming, Paper mill sludge.

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Evaluation of IL18 in acute coronary syndrome patients and its relation to diabetes

 

Ahmed A. Battah, *Abeer Ibrahim and *Hanan Abdel mawgood

 

Critical Care Department, Kasr El Ainy Hospital, *Biochemistry department, Faculty of pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar and Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

s_eldayem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To assess interlukein 18 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with and without diabetes and to detect its relation to lipid profile. Patients and Methods: The study included 40 ACS patients (20 patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus) and 15 age and sex matched as a control group. Results: Total cholesterol is significantly higher and HDL-c is significantly lower in diabetic patients with ACS than the other 2 groups. IL18 is significantly higher is diabetic patients with ACS followed by non diabetic patients with ACS than the control group. No significant correlation was found between IL8 and blood glucose level or lipid profile in the 3 groups. Conclusion: IL18 is an inflammatory marker in patients with ACS and diabetes. No relation between IL18 and lipid profile. In addition, IL-18 levels were associated with traditional risk factors such as diabetes mellitus.

[Ahmed A. Battah, Abeer Ibrahim and Hanan Abdel mawgood. Evaluation of IL18 in acute coronary syndrome patients and its relation to diabetes. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):662-666] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.93

 

Keywords: IL18; coronary syndrome; diabetes.

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Beneficial Effects of some beverage consumption and Orlist drug on Diet Induced Obesity in Experimental Rate

 

1*Hala, E.M El- Kewawy, 2 Farida, Abdullah Al-Firdous and 1Rasha M Nagib

 1Home Economics Dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Home Economic, Collage, Princess Nora Bent abdul – rahman -University, Riyadh, Saud Arabia

*elkewawyh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Forty two normal male albino rats of Sprague Dawley strain, weighing (170 ± 5 g) strain were fed on high fat diet for six week to induce obesity. The obesity rats were randomly classified into six groups (7 rats each) and treated with orlistat, coffee, green tea, cinnamon and mixture of them for six week.

The results revealed that, obese rat groups which treated with orlistate, green tea, coffee,cinnamon and mixture of them showed lowered values of final weight, weight gain, gain percent, FER, leptin, glucose,cholesterol, total lipids, phospholipids,triglyceride, LDL-C,VDL-C and cholesterol/HDL-c but a significant increase in the value of serum HDL-C in comparing with control (+ve). The rat group which treated with orlistat showed non significant difference in the values of serum AST, ALT &ALP but all rat groups treated with green tea, coffee, cinnamon and mixture of them showed a significant decrease in serum AST, ALT &ALP, serum creatinine and urea compared with control (+ve).

The rat groups which treated with green tea, coffee, cinnamon and mixture of them showed a significant decrease in the values of serum creatinine and urea but the rat groups which treated with cinnamon and mixture of green tea, coffee and cinnamon showed a significant decrease in the value of serum uric acid compared with control (+ve).

[Hala, E.M El- Kewawy, Farida, Abdullah Al-Firdous and Rasha M Nagib. Beneficial Effects of some beverage consumption and Orlist drug on Diet Induced Obesity in Experimental Rate. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):667-675] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.94

 

Key wards: Obesity – Orlistat – Coffee- Green tea – Cinnamon- Rats

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Petroleum Systems in the North Western Desert of Egypt

 

Ahmed Nabil Shahin 1 and Amira Mohamed Al-Awadly 2

 1 Prof. Emeritus, Cairo Univ., Egypt,

2 Scholarship at Faculty of Science, Damitta Branch, Mansura Univ., Egypt

nabilshahin@aol.com

 

Abstract: The northern part of the Western Desert, bound from the east by the River Nile, occupies a vast area of intracratonic sub-basins covered by the prospective Paleozoic to Tertiary sediments. Structural, stratigraphic and maturation studies indicate that migration studies guided by buoyancy drive, was initiated in the depocenters from potential Devonian and Jurassic source beds during Early Senonian and trapped in pre-Laramide structures. Pods of active sources were defined based on maturity modeling and mapping isopachs and pyrolysis results. Hydrocarbon charges, losses from catchment areas and recovery factors were normalized statistically. The least preservation risk is considered for hydrocarbons migrated from Cretaceous sources after the Alpine tectonics. Accordingly, the WD can be subdivided into five petroleum systems: Safa-Bahariya (!) system, Safa-Alamein (!) system, Safa-Khataba (!) system, Zaitun-Safa (.) system, and Khataba-Kharita (.) system. The five systems are under explored, being estimated to host 48 Boeb Eurr, about 15 times the proven ultimate recoverable reserves in the whole WD.

[Ahmed Nabil Shahin and Amira Mohamed Al-Awadly Petroleum Systems in the North Western Desert of Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):676-685] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.95

 

Keyword: Petroleum System, North Western Desert.

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Perinatal Exposure to Sodium Fluoride with Emphasis on Territorial Aggression, Sexual Behaviour and Fertility in Male Rats

 

Mervat M. Kamel1*, Heba S. El-lethey1, Iman B. Shaheed2

 1Department of Animal Hygiene and Management, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

* mevy58@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : Territorial aggression, sexual behaviour and fertility parameters were evaluated at adulthood of male rats previously exposed to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (Na-F) at their gestation, lactation and post-weaning period till maturation. Sixty weanling male Wistar rats were received Na-F via their dams from second trimester of their pregnancy onward till weaning at 30 days of age at one of three different concentrations; 0, 50 and 100 ppm, 20 pups for each dose. Na-F was then administered in drinking water, at the same doses, to the three experimental groups throughout the course of the study till completing all investigations. Na-F treatment significantly diminished territorial aggressive behaviour parameters in adult male rats as indicated by reduced lateralization, boxing bouts, fighting as well as ventral presenting postures compared with controls. Likewise, a significant decline in sexual behaviour was also noted for Na-F-exposed rats, where latencies to first mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly prolonged, and notably for the higher incorporated dose. Moreover, a significant decrease was evident for frequencies of mounts, intromissions and ejaculations when Na-F was given to males compared to their untreated counterparts. Higher post-ejaculatory intervals were observed with Na-F group, particularly at high dose. Compared to control group, high Na-F-treated rats displayed a significant inhibited profile of fertility as reflected in reduced number of impregnated females, implantations as well as viable fetuses, along with increased number of resorptions. Relative weights of reproductive organs were also lessened in Na-F-administered males. Histopathological examination showed degenerative changes in testes, seminal vesicles and prostate gland of Na-F-exposed males with varied degree of severity according to incorporated dose. Our study clearly signifies the adverse effect of fluoride to increase aggression, sexual dysfunction with prohibited fertility in adult male rats.

[Mervat M. Kamel, Heba S. El-lethey, Iman B. Shaheed. Perinatal Exposure to Sodium Fluoride with Emphasis on Territorial Aggression, Sexual Behaviour and Fertility in Male Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):686-694] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.96

 

Key word: Sodium Fluoride; Territorial aggression; fertility; Wistar rats

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Review: Electrical study of pipe – soil – earth system

 

Dr. Ashraf Abdel Raouf Mohamed Fouad Ahmed

 Ashrafahmed9000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The rate of discharge through the stray electrolytic capacitor between the pipe and the remote earth is to be considered as the corrosion current. The electrochemical properties of the soil, which are the soil resistivity of the soil volume, the relative permittivity of the soil layer around the pipe and the chemical properties which could be considered as the pH of the soil film layer around the pipe, are affected directly by the humidity change. When considering the room temperature and by neglecting the effect of CO2 content in the soil, these values of the electrochemical properties of any soil returns back to its initial conditions after soil dryness to its initial condition. This means that corrosion rate will also be changed during the humidity change around the pipe segment. So, when considering the fact that the pipeline will not be changed or replaced and the surrounding medium around it will not be changed or replaced by another kind of soil, then the behavior of the electrical parameters (stray electrolytic capacitance, stray potential, surface created charge) of the pipe-soil-earth system will act as a print of this combination of this pipe and this soil. The average error reduced to be less than ± 5% for the general equations of the electric parameters while the print curves & constants at natural condition with and without applying cathodic protection system in terms of the electrochemical properties around the pipe were deduced. This will help to study both the corrosion problem and cathodic protection for a complete pipeline by an electric concept with an electric analogue circuit which is the aim of this study. This will help, in the future, in the choice of pipeline route, pipeline cathodic protection design and cathodic protection maintenance process for the pipe line along its route, however long it is. One of the most critical problems in CP systems is the effect of a sudden change of the soil humidity around the protected pipe line. The behavior of the protection current demand of the pipe-soil-earth system during the change of the electrochemical properties of the soil could be plotted as protection current print which will be always valid in all times as the pipe-soil-earth system is maintained and without any external interference. In other words, if the system is subjected to humidity change, there will be another new protection current demand with new print for this pipe-soil-earth system to keep the pipe cathodically protected. Of course, as a result of humidity change, the pipe to soil potential will be changed. This paper tries to calculate segmental pipe to soil potential along the pipe line without the need of both the test point and Cu/CuSO4 half cell by a general equation of the pipe to soil potential which is function of both the segmental protection current and the soil factor around the pipe segment during such humidity change. Another critical problem in CP systems is the presence of the earthing network beside the protected pipe line. The behavior of the stray potential between the external surface of the pipe and earth could be plotted as stray potential print which will be always valid in all times as the pipe-soil-earth system is maintained and without any external interference. This paper tries to calculate pipe to soil potential along the pipe line without the need of Cu/CuSO4 half cell by the deduction of a general equation of the pipe to soil potential which is function of an electric quantity and system’s print. In other words, the aim is to deduce a correlation between pipe to soil potential and both of the measured stray potential of the pipe segment and the measured soil factor around it in the presence of an earthing grid.

[Ashraf Abdel Raouf Mohamed Fouad Ahmed.eview: Electrical study of: pipe – soil – earth system. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):695-723] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.97

 

Keywords: discharge; electrolytic capacitor; corrosion current; soil; cathodic; earth

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Prognostic Value Of Expression Of Survivin And Ki67 In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated By Chemoradiotherapy

 

Samy M. Al Gizawy*, Hoda H. Essa*, Abeer M. Refaiy**. Gehan M. Elosaily**, and H.E.Ahmed***

 

Departments of oncology*, Pathology**, and E.N.T***,

Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University

 

Abstract: Aim of the work: to evaluate prognostic value of expression of survivin and ki67 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between Jan. 2005 and Dec. 2009, all patients who were treated with primary chemoradiotherapy with curative intent for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) at our department of clinical oncology. All initial pretreatment specimens were examined for expression of survivin and ki67 using immunohistochemical staining. Results: One hundred and fifty four patients were eligible for this study. Survivin expression was low in 107 (69.5%) and high in 47cases (30.5%). According to immunoreactive score (IRS), the staining was negative in 78 (50.7%), weak in 28 (18.2%), moderate in 22 (14.3%) and strong in 26 (16.9%) cases. Nuclear staining of Ki-67 was positive in 72 tumors (46.8%) and negative in 82 tumors (53.2%). The median follow-up was 19.5 months (range: 3 - 55 months). There were 114 local treatment failures (74%) and 86 deaths (55.8%), of which 72deaths (83.7%) were caused by disease. High survivin expression was correlated significantly with higher disease free survival and overall survival. Patients with high survivin expression in their tumors had a median disease free survival of 32 months compared with 16 months for patients with low expression tumors (P = 0.007). The median overall survival of patients with high survivin expression was 36 months versus 24 months for those with low survivin expression, (P = 0.04). The expression of Ki-67 significantly correlated with tumor grade but it was not significantly correlated with either disease free survival, (P = 0.5) or overall survival, (P = 0.7). Conclusion: the present study demonstrated that high survivin expression predicts better local control and superior overall survival in advanced HNSCC treated with radiochemotherapy. Survivin might be used as a stratification marker to define HNSCC patients, who would potentially benefit from radiochemotherapy. Further investigation is necessary to clarify and understand the roles of survivin in patients with HNSCC.

[Samy M. Al Gizawy, Hoda H. Essa, Abeer M. Refaiy, Gehan M. Elosaily, and H.E.Ahmed. Prognostic Value Of Expression Of Survivin And Ki67 In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated By Chemoradiotherapy. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):724-733] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.98

 

Keywords: Prognostic Value Of Expression Of Survivin And Ki67 In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated By Chemoradiotherapy

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Methods of Distance Education in Agricultural education

 

1 Hamid Mohammadi, 2 Azam Ghaffari

 

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: According to the information in the development of any society should take half of the world to progress until the necessary coordination and synchronization global developments so as to accept the design structure of a knowledge-based society have a special place for the University and respect the role of education and technology was In designing a model with global standards of dynamism and flexibility at first be necessary to select a sample that the facilities and communications needed for this purpose provide action and then determine optimal cognitive deficiencies than Hammett and weaknesses push. No doubt the experiences of implementing these standards and to develop troubleshooting information using technological tools would be much more economical. That if we develop a range of information from a city university level and conduct more successful we'll be more acceptable was. Because the utilization and application tools and step up the information they've been successful. Therefore the most important first step needed to coordinate and synchronize technology education and educational technology standards and capability in the high user acceptability of the world is also enjoyed.

[Hamid Mohammadi, Azam Ghaffari. Methods of Distance Education in Agricultural education. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):734-738] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.99

 

Keywords: Distance Education, Agricultural Education

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The Wise, Hero Man and His Characteristics from Nietzsche’s Viewpoint

 

Muhammad Hossein Mardani Nokandeh 1

 

1. Faculty of philosophy, Tajik State Pedagogical University, Doshanbeh, Tajikestan.

mardani.nokandeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nietzsche has had an enormous influence on the thoughts of intellectuals and artists. He is a philosopher who is different from others. He wrested the hammer of philosophy and smashed to pieces the idols of one millennial value after another. He regarded himself as another Christ in another era, an era longing for tidings of a different kind, tidings of an abundant and powerful life. Nietzsche’s wise and heroic man loves life, possesses ambition and fertility, is abundant with positive energies, and is opposed to all weakness and self-belittlement. He is courageous and adventurous. This short paper focuses on Nietzsche’s wise and heroic man and his characteristics. [Muhammad Hossein Mardani Nokandeh. The Wise, Hero Man and His Characteristics from Nietzsche’s Viewpoint. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):739-745] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.100

 

Keywords: Nietzsche; wise man; hero; superma; vitality; passion

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Feminism and Power in Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Mehrdokht Ghooparanloo

 

PhD student, Department of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Mehrdokhtghooparanloo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Feminism and women’s movements has been in to concern during the last years in Iran. But there isn’t any comprehensive and coherent understanding about it among Iranian intellectuals’ minds due to its deconstructive aspect of this theory. Since feminism thesis relies on Foucault’s theory of discourse and power relation analysis, this article is trying to represent the reply to this question that how Iranian elites have perceived feminism in Islamic Republic of Iran by applying the concepts of Foucault’s discourse theory such as discourse, power/knowledge and gender. From the view of Foucault’s, in any negotiation the knowledge power will produce its own correlated thus the current negotiation in Islamic Republic of Iran (Islamic, construction, reforms and fundamentalism) have formulated the feminism knowledge in intellectuals’ mind under the shadow of dominant power relation considering the fact which has been produced pertaining to women( gender) in discussed discourses. Consequently, what as feminism in Islamic Republic of Iran has been generated by Iranian intellectuals is strictly affected by the frame of power in this period, so acquires features and characteristics which will distinguish it from its own western model.

[Mehrdokht Ghooparanloo. Feminism and Power in Islamic Republic of Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):746-762] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.101

 

Keywords: Feminist; Knowledge/Power; Discourse; Gender; Islamic Republic of Iran

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A multidisciplinary program using World Health Organization observation forms to measure the improvement in hand hygiene compliance in burn unit

 

Reham A. Khalifa1, Maha S. Hamdy 1, Eman I. Heweidy2, Riham Magdy3 and Mohamed A. Al Rooby4

 

1 Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 2 Head of Infection Control Team Ain Shams University Hospital, 3 Infection Control Specialist International Military Medical Center, 4 Cosmetic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Nosocomial infections occur frequently in patients with burn injuries and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene (HH) was found to be a fundamental element in preventing health care–associated infections. Improving HH compliance is a major target for the World Health Organization (WHO) Patient Safety Challenge. Multimodal approaches including educational programs and the introduction of alcohol based hand-rub in healthcare settings proved to be the most effective strategies for promoting HH compliance. The aim of this work was to assess the improvement in hand hygiene compliance of health care workers (HCWs) in burn unit over a period of 12 months, after a multi-faceted training program, by using WHO HH observation forms and to evaluate the relationship between compliance rates and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence rate as a secondary outcome. Materials and methods; A direct observational before–after study to assess the improvement in HH compliance after a multi-faceted training program, was implemented at the burn unit, Ain Shams University Hospital. The improvement intervention included lectures, on job training, distributing factsheets and reminders and providing HH supplies as alcohol hand rub dispensers. Results; There was a significant increase in average HH compliance percentage from 39.8% during the baseline phase to 61.9% during the improvement phase. This increment was sustained during the control phase (60.6%). HH compliance percentage among different professional categories showed highest compliance among nurses throughout the three phases of the study. The nurses' category also demonstrated the highest percentage as regards WHO 5 moment of HH orientation and performing correct HH technique. There was a drop in health care associated (HA) MRSA incidence rate per 1000 patient days from 10.2 during baseline phase to 8.2 during the improvement phase and 8.3 during the control phase, however the difference was statistically non-significant. Conclusion; The multi-faceted training program, through different approaches, was successful to improve HH compliance among HCWs at the burn unit and to decrease HA MRSA incidence rate. Recommendations; Continuous improvement efforts as regular training and persistent evaluation, monitoring and feedback are crucial to maintain and even enhance adherence to appropriate HH practice. Additional measures as prudent use of antibiotics, active surveillance for patients with a high risk for MRSA carriage and management of nasal MRSA colonization are recommend for reduction of MRSA incidence rates.

[Reham A. Khalifa, Maha S. Hamdy, Eman I. Heweidy, Riham Magdy, and Mohamed A. Al Rooby. A multidisciplinary program using World Health Organization observation forms to measure the improvement in hand hygiene compliance in burn unit. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):763-790] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.102

 

Key words: Nosocomial infections; Hand hygiene; Compliance; Improvement; World Health Organization (WHO).

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Comparison of Corneal Thickness with Online Optical Coherence Pachymetry and Ultrasound Pachymeter

 

Rany E. Mitwally, MD, M. Tarek El-Naggar, MD, FRCS, Mohamed A. Marzouk*, MD.

 

Research Institute of Ophthalmology – Giza – Egypt.

*marrzouk@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of the intraoperative online optical coherence pachymetry (OCP) during LASIK surgery and assess its value during laser ablation. Setting: International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt Methods: A prospective comparative study of 78 patients (156 eyes) with mild to moderate myopic/myopic astigmatic refractive error who underwent LASIK with Schwind Amaris Excimer Laser system equipped with optical coherence pachymetry (OCP). Preoperative, pre- and post- ablation stromal beds were measured with ultrasound pachymetry and optical coherence pachymetry. Only the Moria M2 microkeratome was used, and the flap thickness and actual ablation depth were calculated. Results: The preoperative measurements taken with the non-contact OCP were significantly lower than that with the contact ultrasound pachymeter, while there was a good correlation between them in the pre- ablation stromal bed and post- ablation stromal bed thicknesses. The calculated ablation depth by both techniques also matched the assumed maximum ablation depth calculated preoperatively with Schwind-CAM software.Conclusion: Intraoperative online optical coherence pachymetry may be considered a useful tool to assess the flap thickness and the residual stromal bed during LASIK surgery.

[Rany E. Mitwally, M. Tarek El-Naggar, FRCS, Mohamed A. Marzouk. Comparison of Corneal Thickness with Online Optical Coherence Pachymetry and Ultrasound Pachymeter. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):791-795] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.103

 

Keywords: Pachymetry; Optical coherence; LASIK; Online.

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The deferral of investigation or prosecution in the ICC by request of the Security Council of UN organization

 

Amir Hussein Rahgoshay

 

PhD Student, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Amirhossein.rahgoshay@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Pursuant to Article 16 of the ICC, The Security Council of UN may request a deferral of proceedings for a period of twelve months. It allows the Security Council to block a case from reaching the court. The power of the Security Council Makes some concerns to judicial Independence of the ICC, but this power is based on a number of conditions and limitations, both arising from the UN charter and the Statute of the ICC. This power of Security Council originated from the UN Charter that charge and compel the Security Council to maintain international peace and security.

[Amir Hossein Rahgoshay. The deferral of investigation or prosecution in the ICC by request of the Security Council of UN organization) Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):796-804] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.104

 

Keywords: ICC, Security Council, UN Organization, International Peace

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Effect of Short Term Caloric Restriction on Ischemic Reperfused Hearts in Adult Rats Subjected to Stress

 

Gehane M. Hamed1, Nehal M. Bahgat*1, Enas A. Azziz1 and Ghada Z.A. Soliman2

 

1 Physiology Department, Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Biochemistry Department, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt

*nehalgamil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Caloric restriction extends life span and decrease tissue susceptibility to stress –induced injury so it was intriguing to investigate a possible cardioprotective effect of short term caloric restriction during stress on ischemic reperfusion injury of the heart. This investigation was conducted on 32 adult albino rats which were assigned to 3 groups; control(C) one (n=10), Stress(S) rats (n= 11) subjected to immobilization stress, and (CR/S) rats (n= 11) comprising rats subjected to 65% caloric restriction and subjected to immobilization stress. The study was conducted for one month, obtained results revealed that CR/S rats exhibited significant decrease in body weight, BMI and significant bradycardia compared to control rats. ST segment showed significant elevation in both S and CR/S rats compared to C rats, Ischemic reperfusion study of CR/S rat hearts revealed better ischemic tolerance compared to S rats as evidenced by the significant elevation of PT/100mg LV at 10 and 20 minutes of reperfusion, significant shortening of TPT at 20,30 minutes of reperfusion and HRT at 10, 20, 30 minutes of reperfusion as well as significant increase of MFR/100 mg LV at 20, 30 minutes of reperfusion. Biochemical analysis revealed significant elevation of tissue nitrate & plasma adiponectin in CR/S compared to S rats. Histopathological examination of the hearts of S rats showed large areas of leucocytic infiltration, marked vacuolation, undergoing apoptosis with small deeply stained nuclei and widely dilated and engorged blood vessels indicating injury of myocardium. On the other hand hearts of CR/S rats revealed apparently normal cardiac muscle fibers with small area of leucocytic infiltration.

In conclusion, short term caloric restriction improved tolerance of the heart to global ischemic reperfusion injury in stress-subjected rats.

[Gehane M. Hamed, Nehal M. Bahgat, Enas A. Azziz and Ghada Z.A. Soliman. Effect of Short Term Caloric Restriction on Ischemic Reperfused Hearts in Adult Rats Subjected to Stress.Life Science Journa,. 2011; 8(2):805-816] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.105

 

Key words: caloric restriction, ischemic reperfusion injury, cardioprotection,immobilization stress, tissue

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Chronic Intestinal Schistosomiasis Could Be Mistaken for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

 

Wael Safwat*, Amgan Anas, Emad Abdel Raouf, Ayman Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Abou EL Ezz and Mohamed Fathy

 

Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Gastroenterology Dept. Cairo, Egypt

*waelsafwat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common medical disorder, reported to occur in 10-20% of the adult population. However, IBS might be a presentation of another intestinal disease acute or chronic. In a previous study of an endemic area of schistosomiasis, 17% of patients who reported lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms, similar to symptoms of IBS, were found to have schistosomiasis. Objectives: To assess the incidence of chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in cases coming from endemic areas of schistosomiasis with a clinical diagnosis of IBS. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 90 patients with initial diagnosis of IBS and is coming from endemic areas for schistosomiasis. All patients were planned for a stool analysis, CBC, serum schistosomal antibody and antigen titres, and a colonoscopy and tissue biopsy for shistosomal ova in those with a positive serology testing. Results: The most common presenting symptom was recurrent abdominal pain/discomfort in all patients, diarrhea dominant. Stool analysis was negative for schistosomal ova for the whole studied population. A positive sero-diagnosis of schistosomiasis was made in 24 (26.7%) patients. All patients with positive sero-testing (24 patients) had a colonoscopy; with the commonest finding of a flat or slightly raised whitish/yellowish nodules and recto-sigmoid biopsies for a histopathological diagnosis. Most common finding was chronic active schistosomal colitis 16 (17.8%). Re-assessment of symptoms in patients with a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of schistosomal colitis after treatment at 3 & 6 month was done. Conclusion: Our study that it shows that patients with IBS living or coming from endemic areas of schistosomiasis have a 17.8% chance of being misdiagnosed as having IBS. What’s new? IBS as common diagnosis which is sometimes quickly applied on certain patients in whom another disease condition is the real underlying cause, as applies for patients coming from endemic areas for schostosomiasis and are diagnosed as having IBS, these should be revised.

 [Wael Safwat, Amgan Anas, Emad Abdel Raouf, Ayman Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Abou EL Ezz and Mohamed Fathy Chronic Intestinal Schistosomiasis Could It Be Mistaken for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):817-820] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.106

 

Keywords: Chronic liver disease-Colonic disease-colorectal disease-infectious disease-Irritable bowel syndrome.

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Knowledge and perception towards human trafficking in agrarian communities of Niger Delta, Nigeria

 

1Olujide, M.G, 2Oladele O.I, 1Akinbobola A.A

 

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Mmabatho, South Africa, oladele20002001@yahoo.com, +27 183892746

 

Abstract: This paper examines the knowledge and perception towards human trafficking in agrarian communities of Niger Delta, Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that there is high incidence of human trafficking in Nigeria. A large sample size technique n > 30 was used to select at least 38 rural dwellers from each of the states. Data were collected through questionnaire which was subjected to face validation and has a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), was used for data analysis with frequency counts, percentages, means, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that majority of respondents were males (58.78%), married (51.32%), between 30 and 40 years of age (47.39%), Christians (77.2%) had no formal education (55.7%) domiciled in the communities (52.2%) having between 5 and 8 persons as dependants (49.1%) and had inherited land tenure practice (74.6%). Rural dwellers have negative perception about human trafficking but their knowledge on human trafficking is low. Significant determinants were income (t = 2.64), knowledge (t =4.33) perceived risk (t =-2.88) Education level (t =-3.13) and number of dependants (t =1.93). The policy implications are to introduce measures to counter human trafficking and related awareness campaigns should mainly be targeted to those areas where migration rates are high or on the rise. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):821-827] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.107

 

Keywords: Rural dwellers, human trafficking, knowledge perception, agrarian communities, Nigeria

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Potential Health Impact of Black Tea against Na-F-Induced Alterations in Territorial Aggression, Sexual Behaviour and Fertility of Male Rats

 

Heba S. El-lethey1, Mervat M. Kamel1*and Iman B. Shaheed2

 

1Department of Animal Hygiene and Management, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. * mevy58@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: I In an extension of previous work on sodium fluoride (Na-F) toxicity, the ameliorative effect of black tea on Na-F-induced behavioural and reproductive toxicity was evaluated in male rats in terms of territorial aggressive behaviour, sex behaviour, along with fertility indices. Oral administration of 100 ppm Na-F and 2% black tea to eighty weanling 32-days old male Wistar rats, randomly allotted into 4 groups of 20, were performed daily for 14-weeks treatment period in a 2 x 2 factorial manner. A marked suppression in all parameters of territorial aggression was seen in adult male Na-F-treated rats. This suppression was significantly alleviated when black tea was concurrently administered. Ingestion of black tea alone significantly improved territorial aggression responses, namely lateralization and boxing bouts. The ingested Na-F also suppress sexual behaviour in adult male rats expressed by a prolongation of first mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, decrease in numbers of mounts, intromissions and ejaculations along with increased post-ejaculatory intervals. A profound ameliorative effect was noted for all abolished male sex behaviour when black tea solution was supplemented to Na-exposed rats. Black tea exhibited an aphrodisiac tendency when solitary administered to male rats, as reflected in significant shortening of mount and intromission latencies as well as increase in mount and intromission frequencies. This aphrodisiac activity was not associated with influence on ejaculation-related parameters. Furthermore, an obvious impairment in all fertility indices was detected in Na-F-treated males as displayed by reduced numbers of impregnations, implantations and viable fetuses accompanied by increased resorptions. This observed diminution in fertility was significantly mitigated by black tea. Similarly, the lessening effect of Na-F on relative weights of male sex organs was noticeably improved when black tea was given. Our histopathological investigations revealed severe degenerative changes in testes, seminal vesicles and prostate gland. Combined administration of black tea with Na-F resulted in marked amelioration of the pathological alterations. Our study denotes a powerful mitigative effect of black tea in combating behavioural and reproductive toxicity triggered by Na-F as signified by harmed aggressive and sexual behaviour together with abolished fertility in adult male rats. Our findings also evidently point toward the aphrodisiac property of black tea which might be of help in certain forms of sexual dysfunction in male individuals.

[Heba S. El-lethey1, Mervat M. Kamel1*and Iman B. Shaheed2 Potential Health Impact of Black Tea against Na-F-Induced Alterations in Territorial Aggression, Sexual Behaviour and Fertility of Male Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):828-839] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.108

 

Key words: Sodium fluoride, black tea, territorial aggression, sex behaviour, fertility, Wistar rats

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Sustainability of livelihoods through Urban Agriculture: Gender dimensions in Accra, Ghana

 

1Adeoti A.I, 2Oladele O.I, 3Cofie O.

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibdan Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa. 3International Water Management Institute PMB CT 112, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana

 

Abstract: This paper examines the sustainability of livelihoods through Urban Agriculture: Gender dimensions in Accra, Ghana. The population used for the study was the vegetable producers within and around Accra, Ghana. A mix of sampling techniques was followed in choosing UA producers. While a random sampling technique was employed in choosing male UA producers, all female producers who were willing to be interviewed were chosen. In all, 92 male producers and 8 female producers gave consistent responses that were analyzed. The results show that the mean age for male producers is 39.4 years. Female producers are more elderly with a mean age of 49.8 years. The mean year of schooling is 6.4 years for male producers and 7.1years for female producers. While all the households are involved in irrigated farming, only 13% male and 25 % female managed farms practiced irrigated farming alone. The majority of the male and female farmers indicated that high contribution of urban agriculture to their livelihoods. Farm size and access to credit were significant determinants of income from urban agriculture among the respondents.

[Adeoti A.I, Oladele O.I, Cofie O. Sustainability of livelihoods through Urban Agriculture: Gender dimensions in Accra, Ghana. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(2):840-848] (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.109

 

Keywords: Urban agriculture, gender, livelihoods, assets, income, resource use

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Karyological investigation of Persian Gulf cuttle fish (sepia arabica) in the coasts of Khuzestan province

 

*Ashraf Jazayeri, Forough Papan, Hossein Motamedi, Soghra Mahmoudi ASL

 

Shahid chamran university of Ahwaz

*Corresponding Author: Jazayeriashraf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cephalopods are a group of Molluska. Which have extensive geographical extension and variation, in the worlds oceans the most important cephalopods in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea are squids and cuttle fish? Nowadays we have found that cuttle fish has an extensive application in several contexts. But there is not enough information about their biology and the amount of their storage in Irans waters. We must considerate reservoirs more than ever. Because of its economic value and the amount cattle fish's hunting. Therefore in this research for the first time in the world, cattle fish of Persian Gulf was investigated Kariologicaly. Investigation results of metaphase plaques resultant from analyzing blood cells of cuttle fish showed that, this species has the chromosomal number of 2n=68 indeed it is found than in chromosomal extension of this species there were not identifiable sexual chromosomes. [Ashraf Jazayeri, Kariologicaly investigation of Persian Gulf cuttle fish (sepia arabica) in the coasts of Khuzestan province. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(2):949-952] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.110

 

Keywords: kariology, cattle fish, Persian Gulf, sepia Arabica

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Effect of Self awareness Education on the Self efficacy and Sociotropy Autonomy Characteristics of Nurses in a Psychiatry Clinic

 

Hanem A. A. Ahmed¹ and Yosr M. Elmasri*²

 

1Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

*dr_yosrelmasri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To be a part of the therapy in the patients' surroundings, nurses need to know about patient's behaviors, needs, feelings, and ways to define these behaviors. However, to obtain information on patient, nurses particularly need to be aware of themselves and understand the effects they have on their surroundings. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of self awareness education on the self efficacy and sociotropy autonomy characteristics of nurses in a psychiatric inpatient clinic at Zagazig University Hospitals. The sample was composed of 19 nurses who on the job. Three tools were used for data collection: nurses characteristics data form, self efficacy scale, and sociotropy autonomy scale. The study result indicated that the psychiatric nurses self efficacy was improved at post educational program, a significant difference was observed between the pre-test and post-test mean scores for the total nurses autonomy and total nurses sociotropy (P<0.05). However the mean score of total Sociotropy autonomy didn't differ significantly at pre and post educational program (P=0.488), and a highly significant correlation was present between total of self efficacy and total of sociotropy autonomy at pre and post educational program (P<0.05). It was concluded that self awareness education program had a positive effect on the development of self efficacy and sociotropy autonomy characteristics of nurses in a psychiatric clinic. It is recommended that, self awareness education should be applied as continuing education for nurses working in psychiatry clinics and further studies should be carried out with bigger and different sample groups, along with control groups.

[Hanem A. A. Ahmed and Yosr M. Elmasri. Effect of Self awareness Education on the Self efficacy and Sociotropy Autonomy Characteristics of Nurses in a Psychiatric Clinic. Life Science Journal, 2011; 8(2):953-963] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.111

 

Key words: Nurses, Psychiatry Clinic, Self awareness, Self efficacy, Sociotropy Autonomy.

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Effect of Some Production Parameters on Net Wrap Used in Agricultural Products Packaging on the End Use Properties

 

*Ibrahim, G. E. and Dorgham, M. E.

 

Spinning, Weaving and Knitting Dept, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

*ghalia1980@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research is mainly concerned with designing net wrap used for packaging agricultural products. Twenty seven samples were produced using polyethylene yarns. Warp knitted technique was applied to produce all samples under study using different parameters. Different parameters were studied including, inlay tape thickness 20,25 and 30 micron, inlay tape width 1,1.25 and 1.5 mm,pillar blades number 99, 101 and 213,treatment with ultra violet and anti static. Many tests were carried out in order to evaluate the net according to the final product needs such as tensile strength and elongation of net and inlay tape and linear meter tests. Some more results were reached concerning structures and materials. The results showed that there is a direct relationship between tensile strength and number of pillar, the more inlay tape width, the higher tensile strength of the sample become, the more inlay tape thickness per unit area the more tensile strength of the sample become, the more number of pillar yarns the lower elongation the samples become, and the higher pillar yarns per unit area the more linier meter weight the sample become.

 [Ibrahim, G. E. and Dorgham, M. E. Effect of Some Production Parameters on Net Wrap Used in Agricultural Products Packaging on the End Use Properties. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(2):864-875] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.112

Key words: Production Parameters, Net Wrap, Agricultural, Products Packaging End Use Properties

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Effect of Amino Acid L-leucine On the Musculo-Skeletal Changes during Cast-Immobilization in Adult Male Albino Rats. Physiological and Histological study

 

Bataa, M.A.EL-Kafoury1, Nagwa Kostandy Kalleny2 and Ghada Galal Hamam2

 

1Physiology & 2Histology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

dr_bataa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The relation between muscle atrophy and bone osteoporotic changes due to immobilization are still not completely understood. This study tried to throw more light on this association and to probe the ability of amino acid L-leucine, to limit these changes in a trial to accelerate rehabilitation. Adult male Albino rats weighing 180-210 g were used and classified into three groups, I-control group, II-cast-immobilized group and III-immobilized-L-leucine treated group. Right hind-limb cast immobilization was performed for 15 days in groups II&III, while L-leucine, was given by oral gavage in a dose 0.7g/kg/day concomitant with immobilization in group III. The initial and final body weights were determined. Blood samples were used for determination of serum levels of total calcium, CPK, ADH, TNFα and Cortisol as well as for plasma MDA and glucose level. In the immobilized right hind-limb after removing the cast, the gastrocnemius muscle was identified, dissected, weighed. Then the right gastrocnemius muscle was prepared for light and transmission electron microscopic studies and the right tibia was prepared for both decalcified and un-decalcified light microscopic studies. Cast-immobilized group II showed significantly increased serum calcium, LDH, CPK, cortisol, TNFα and plasma MDA with non-significant change in blood glucose level. Also immobilization resulted in significantly reduced body weight, reduced gastrocnemius body weight ratio and resulted microscopically in both skeletal muscle atrophy in the gastrocnemius muscle and osteoporosis in the tibia cancellous bone compared with control group. Immobilized -Leucine treated group-III exhibited significantly reduced LDH, CPK, MDA and glucose levels but the levels of calcium was non-significantly altered compared to immobilized non treated group. Although serum cortisol and TNFα levels in leucine treated group were reduced non-significantly compared to immobilized non treated group, microscopically Leucine administration to cast-immobilized rats of group III markedly prevented skeletal muscle atrophy and partially prevented cancellous bone osteoporosis. It is concluded that increased MDA, Cortisol, TNFα with immobilization may explain in part the associated changes in muscle and bone. Leucine prevented these changes which could be attributed to its direct anabolic effect or its ability to reduce oxidative stress and /or its ability to counteract the effect of Cortisol and TNFα rather than reducing their levels. Overall, these data suggesting that leucine intake may represent a nutritional strategy for limiting muscle and bone protein loss as a consequence of immobilization. [Bataa, M.A.EL-Kafoury, Nagwa Kostandy Kalleny and Ghada Galal Hamam. Effect of Amino Acid L-leucine On the Musculo-Skeletal Changes during Cast-Immobilization in Adult Male Albino Rats. Physiological and Histological study. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(2):876-892] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.113

 

Key words: leucine, immobilization, osteoporosis, muscle atrophy and TNFα

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The Role of Educational Systems in International Crises: A Reappraisal of Middle East Countries

 

Dr. Mohammad Soltanifar

 Department of Communication Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Email: msoltanifar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The worldwide crises and incidents in the two recent decades have made many researchers in different fields of human knowledge describe, analyze and give out solutions for them. Comparative Education as a "science" has been no exception and its latest developments indicate the point that comparativists have conceived a new mission for themselves. The very political nature of these international crises which mainly have educational foundations has caused daily- increasing interest towards the discipline. Today, politicians in particular and many people in general are so eager to know what kind of belief or educational system can give rise to certain political behavior. This political behaviour reveals itself in a way that is unjustifiable as far as rational criteria are concerned. Suicide bombings, attacks on public centres, firing bullets at children and the youth who have just a piece of stone in their hands and blind aimless bombings have made people totally confused. This bewilderment is a global affair and not limited to the developed countries. So the question which is now raised is to ask, firstly, why the youth incline to join into fundamentalist organizations, and secondly, what roles the educational systems play in creation and development of international crises. The response to these two questions can be a new mission of the researchers in the field of comparative education. Awareness and emphasis on the importance of this mission can be found in papers published in famous journals of the disciplin, but there is an obvious lack of a tangible and theoretical analysis. This paper is an attempt to give a theoretical framework to answer the two raised questions in a particular geographical area, namely, the Middle East.

 [Dr. Mohammad Soltanifar. The Role of Educational Systems in International Crises: A Reappraisal of Middle East Countries. Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(2):893-897] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.114

Keywords: International Crises, Educational Systems, Middle East

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Status of rural people in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

 

1 Azam Ghaffari, 2 Abbas Emami

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: khodamoradi121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: PRA consists of a series of participatory exercises which help community members better assess their history, resources, and overall situation as concerns agriculture, health, marketing, credit, coping mechanisms, education, and other important areas. During the conduct of the PRAs, rural communities in the selected villages will gather information on the resources they already possess; organize their knowledge; share experience among themselves; learn from each other; identify and prioritize local development needs; and develop action plans which respond to these needs. The aim of PRA is to help strengthen the capacity of villagers to plan, make decisions, and to take action towards improving their own situation. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is considered one of the popular and effective approaches to gather information in rural areas. This approach was developed in early 1990s with considerable shift in paradigm from top-down to bottom-up approach, and from blueprint to the learning process. In fact, it is a shift from extractive survey questionnaires to experience sharing by local people. Much of the spread of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as an emerging family of approaches and methods has been lateral, South-South, through experiential learning and changes in behavior, with different local applications.

[ Azam Ghaffari, Abbas Emami. Status of rural people in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(2):898-901] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.115

 

Keywords: participation, rural people, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

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The role of micro-credit in improving financial situation of rural women

 

1 Mohammad Reza Rezaei, 2 Hamid Mohammadi

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural women are considered as a noticeable potential in the community either directly (crops production, livestock, handicrafts, cottage industries) or indirectly by helping the agricultural sector (as labor). About 5.6 million women are involved in agricultural production, and activities related to planting... harvesting, preparation of animal food, and taking care of livestock and poultry and some certain activities related to trading and marketing are all different fields of rural women’s role and participation. Based on current statistics, women in rural area participate about 50% in conversion industries, 22% in producing crops and livestock, 75% in handicrafts and in areas related to planting…harvesting, respectively, 25, 24 and 4.26. And also in activities related to livestock, they handle 23% of livestock grazing, 42% of animal care and 100 percent of total poultry in the village. Therefore their role in achieving food security is undeniable. But, like most developing countries, this crucial role in society and in process of rural development, is not obvious. In Iranian rural community, about 80% of women work, but they are mostly considered as housewives, unpaid employment, domestic workers, family workers, or independent employers. The statistics often do not take into account seasonal, part-time, unpaid employment, and housekeeping activities. In economics and social sciences, those of women’s activities that have emerged out of house and affected national economy, are the ones to be noticed. In most research and statistics men are known as the heads of household and they are also the owners of lands and fields. That only 1% of the rural lands are belonging to women does confirm such matter.

[ Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Hamid Mohammadi. The role of micro-credit in improving financial situation of rural women.Life Science Journal,. 2011; 8(2):902-906] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.116

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, micro-credi

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Impact of Social Networks on Functions of Political Parties in Iran Following the 10th Presidential Election

 

Dr. Mohammad Soltanifar

 Department of Communication Sciences, Science and Research Branch,

Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Email: msoltanifar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The 10th presidential election in Iran was not the sole election to be influenced by the cyberspace, but it was among prominent political developments in the country whose new frameworks and functions were defined by the public opinion formed in the cyberspace. The presence research studies impact of social networks (as one of the most important components of cyberspace) on functions of political parties in Iran following the tenth presidential polls. This article, which is the result of a namesake study, focuses on the impact of social networks on authorized political parties in Iran following the tenth presidential elections in 2009 and tries to answer this answer: Have social networks been influencing functions of authorized political parties in Iran after the tenth presidential election? It also tries to answer the following questions: Are social networks able to start or guide special social movements? Can such networks take advantage of ongoing movements? Are social networks able to impress the elite and cause big social movements?

[Dr. Mohammad Soltanifar. Impact of Social Networks on Functions of Political Parties in Iran Following the 10th Presidential Election. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(2):907-918] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

doi:10.7537/marslsj080211.117

 

Keywords: social networks, socio-political movements, the tenth presidential election, authorized political parties of Iran

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 1, 2011. 
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