Loading

 
Life Science Journal 
 
ISSN:1097-8135
 
Volume 8 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 24), February 15, 2011
 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Author Index, lsj0801
Get Word file: After you open Full Text for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from pdf to doc you 
will get Word file.
 

CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Role of Selenium in Attenuating Cardiac and Hepatic Damages Induced By the Antitumor Agent, Doxorubicin

 

Safinaz S. Ibrahim*, Maged A. Barakat and Hebatalla M. Helmy

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*safinazsibrahim@cu.edu.eg

 Abstract: Background and Objectives: The clinical use of doxorubicin, one of the most effective antitumor agents, soon proved to be hampered by such serious   problems   as the development of cardiomyopathy and liver damage. The current study aims at evaluating the role of trace element, selenium, in attenuating cardiac and hepatic damages induced by the antitumor agent, doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into normal control group and doxorubicin -treated group injecting doxorubicin i.p. as 6 equal doses of 2.5 mg/kg, twice weekly/ 3 weeks. The doxorubicin - treated animals were divided into 2 groups, one kept without further treatment (doxorubicin -group), second group, (doxorubicin + selenium) received selenium (Na Selenite) 0.5 mg/kg orally, 3 times/week/4 weeks including one week before the doxorubicin 1st dose. Serum creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, as cardiac damage markers, and alanine aminotransferase, as indicator of hepatic damage, were measured. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, as cardiac oxidative status indices, cardiac glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S–transferase and superoxide dismutase activities, as measures for cardiac antioxidant capacity, were also investigated. Histopathological changes in cardiac and liver tissues were examined. The results were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance with subsequent multiple comparisons using Tukey test. Results: doxorubicin induced significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase; creatine phosphokinase; alanine aminotransferase activities, cardiac nitric oxide, malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S–transferase activities, and reduction in glutathione content. Selenium co-administration caused significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase levels; normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase; significant decrease in cardiac malondialdehyde, nitric oxide levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S–transferase, superoxide dismutase activities and significant elevation in cardiac glutathione content, compared to doxorubicin -treated group values. Histopathological examination of cardiac and liver tissues supported the previous biochemical results. Conclusions: Chronic doxorubicin administration caused cardiomyopathy and hepatic damage. Selenium co-administration produced partial, but significant, protection against cardiomyocyte damage; however, it alleviated hepatic damage-induced by the antitumor agent, doxorubicin.

[Safinaz S. Ibrahim, Maged A. Barakat and Hebatalla M. Helmy. Role of Selenium in Attenuating Cardiac and Hepatic Damages Induced By the Antitumor Agent, Doxorubicin. Life Science Journal 2011;8(1):1-12]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key words: Doxorubicin, cardiomyopathy, liver damage, selenium

Full Text

1

2

The Impacts of Globalization on Rural Communities of Kermanshah Township, Iran

 

Jafar Azizi1, Seyed Rahim Taimoori2, Abdolhamid Papzan3, and Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari*4

1, 4 Department of Agricultural Management, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

2Department of Social Sciences, Tehran University, Iran

3Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, College of Agriculture, Razi University

*Allahyari@iaurasht.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Globalization, as a process, analyzed in consideration of communicative instruments, development possibilities, and the expanded nature of capitalism. The purpose of this study was to investigate impacts of globalization on economical and cultural aspects of rural communities in Kermanshah Township. The study represented correlation research. The statistical population of this research was selected among 700 villages located in Kermanshah Township. Among these, 30 villages were selected in three different regions for gathering data by multi-stage sampling. For data analysis multivariate procedures were used. This research examined eight factors of agro-industrialization, increasing in poverty and inequality, change in employment patterns, economic restructuring, role of nation-state, role of media, cultural universalism, cultural particularize and their impacts on rural communities progress. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between independent and dependent variables (p<0.01). On the base of regression analysis independent variables can be predicted 62 percent of changes in dependent variable. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) certificated regression analysis results. Path analysis results showed that the model fitted the data with acceptable fit indices: chi square=5.341, p=0.376, RMSEA=0.013, CFI=1.000, NFI=0.992.

[Jafar Azizi1, Seyed Rahim Taimoori, Abdolhamid Papzan and Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari. The Impacts of Globalization on Rural Communities of Kermanshah Township, Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):13–19] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Globalization, Rural communities, economical and cultural impacts, Structural Equation Modeling, Iran

Full Text

2

3

Sense of Community and Participation for Tourism Development

 

Fariborz Aref

School of Management and Economics, Science and Research Branch

 Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

fariborzaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This article investigated the relationship between sense of community and level of participation in tourism activities in Shiraz, Iran. Pearson correlation has been used to determine the relationship between these variables. The findings through survey questionnaire showed that there are significant relation between sense of community and level of participation for local tourism development. According to the results, sense of community can have a catalytic effect on development of tourism industry through enhancement of local participation.

[Fariborz Aref. Sense of Community and Participation for Tourism Development. Life Science Journal 2011;8(1):20-25]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: sense of community, participation, tourism development

Full Text

3

4

Concentration of zinc and boron in corn leaf as affected by zinc sulfate and boric acid fertilizers in a deficient soil

 

Farshid Aref

Department of Soil Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

farshidaref@iauf.ac.ir, farshidaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Zinc (Zn) and boron (B) deficiency is one of the most widespread micro nutritional disorders in crops, and occurs predominantly in calcareous soils of arid and semiarid regions. A field experiment with maize plant grown on Zn and B deficient soil was carried out in a calcareous soil at Fars Province, Iran. This work aimed to study the interaction effect of Zn and B on the concentration of Zn and B in the maize leaf during 2008. Treatments included five levels of Zn (0, 8, 16 and 24 kg ha−1 Zn added to the soil and Zn foliar spray at 0.5 weight percent of zinc sulfate) and four levels of B (0, 3, and 6 kg ha−1 B added to the soil and B foliar spray at 0.3 weight percent of boric acid) in a completely randomized block design. The findings showed that application of Zn, B, and Zn−B interaction on the B concentration in the leaf was insignificant. Zinc spraying increased Zn concentration in the leaf but adding Zn to the soil had no significant effect on it. Presence of B prevented from the increase in Zn concentration in the leaf; that is, an antagonism was seen between the Zn and B. Boron application decreased leaf Zn content and this increase was not influenced by the amount of Zn. Zinc use at no presence B in the soil (zero B and B spraying levels) increased leaf Zn content.

[F. Aref. Concentration and uptake of zinc and boron in corn leaf as affected by zinc sulfate and boric acid fertilizers in a deficient soil. Life Science Journal 2011; 8(1): 26−31]. (ISSN: 1097−8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Foliar nutrition, Zinc deficiency, Nutrients concentration, Interaction.

Full Text

4

5

[ZHAO Jie, YU Zu-jiang, KAN Quan-cheng, LI Xiao-fei, LI Zhi-qin, LIANG Hong-xia. A retrospective study: The Influence of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus on the efficacy with HAART in China AIDS area. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):27-31] (ISSN:1097-8135).

For this article, please see: Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):420-424

Full Text

5

6

The Role of 4G/5G Genetic Polymorphism of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene in Myocardial Infarction among Egyptians

 

Somaia Ismail1; Amira A. Abdel azeem*2; Mona A. Abdel Hamid 3; Shahira R. Nowier 2 and Heba Morad4

Molecular Genetics Department1, National Research Centre, Genetics2and Medical Biochemistry3departments, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Internal medicine Department4, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. *amiraazeem@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To assess weather the common polymorphic allele (4G) of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene is associated with myocardial infarction (MI) and with PAI-1 enzyme level in Egyptian patients. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients who presented with acute MI and 48 normal control subjects were included. Clinical features were examined, PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism was detected using polymerase chain reaction and PAI-1 levels with other risk factors were determined in all subjects. Results: Patient age averaged 51 (±SD 10.4) years, 68% were men and 46% had a family history of MI. Overall frequency of 4G allele was 60.4% among  patients versus 51.0% among  normal controls. There was no significant difference in genotype distribution (4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G), (P=0.34) and allele frequency (P=0.191) between patients with myocardial infarction and controls. Neither carriage of 4G allele (OR=1.46; 95% CI: 0.83-2.59; p=0.191) nor 4G/4G homozygosity (OR= 1.73; 95% CI: 0.684-4.36; p=0.245) was associated with MI. There was a significant increase of PAI-1enzyme level (p<0.001) among patients than the control group and the plasma levels of the enzyme were highest in myocardial infarction patients who were homozygous for the 4G allele (4.3±3.5) with a stepwise decrease in levels as the number of 4G alleles decreased; (3.6±2.3) for 4G/5G and (2.6±1.8) for 5G/5G; however the difference was not statistically significant (F=0.82, P=0.45); and even the increased mean level of PAI-1enzyme in patients with 4G/4G genotype than in patients with 5G/5G genotype; was not statistically significant (P=0.568).The study revealed also increased frequency of smoking (P= 0.001), family history of myocardial infarction (P=0.03) and hypertension (P = 0.016) among patients than controls. In multivariate analyses, risk factors associated with MI were smoking; hypertension and high level of PAI-1 enzyme. Conclusion: The common PAI-1 polymorphism (4G) was not associated with MI in Egyptian population, however modest risk (i.e., OR, =1.46) could not be excluded. Increased level of PAI-1enzyme, smoking and hypertension are significant risk factors for myocardial infarction among Egyptians.

[Somaia Ismail; Amira A. Abdel azeem; Mona A. Abdel Hamid; Shahira R. Nowier and Heba Morad. The Role of 4G/5G Genetic Polymorphism of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene in Myocardial Infarction among Egyptians. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(1):32-39] (ISSN: 1097–8135).

 Keywords: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1enzyme - Genetic polymorphism- Myocardial infarction

Full Text

6

7

Severe Anemia in Children Infected With Malaria in Taiz - Yemen and Its Relation to Age, Parasitaemia and Eosinophilia

 

AM. Elbadr*1, Amal. M. Abdo. Elmatary 1, N.A. Saif 2, E. Mahmoud 3, R. Osman 1

1 Dept. of parasitology, Fac. of Med., Assiut Univ., Assiut, Egypt

2 Dept. of parasit., Microbiol. Fac. of Med., 3Dean of Fac. of Nursing, Taiz University.Yemen

 

Abstract: In Yemen, about 12 million individuals live in endemic areas of malarias, out of them more than 90% were due to Plasmodium falciparum (WHO, 2001 a). Malaria continues to be a major health problem in Yemen .Severe anemia in malaric children occurs more frequently than cerebral malaria (Laurence et al, 1994).  The aim of this work is to detect the relation of severe anemia in malaric patients < 5ys with the parasitaemia level of Plasmodium falciparum. This research was done in Alsewedi pediatric hospital in Taiz governorate from January to September 2008, for 100 admitted cases, results, of this study indicated the strong relation of severe anemia in falciparum malaric children to age < 5ys and there was no relation between the severe anemia in falciparum malaric children to the parasitaemia level .There was strong relation between younger ages and low level of Hb (P<0.05). These finding suggest that increase level of parasitaemia not related to severe anemia in P falciparum malaria. Also younger ages <5ys has strong relation to severe anemia Hb<5g per ul in falciparum malaria.

[AM. Elbadr, Amal. M. Abdo. Elmatary, N.A. Saif, E.Mahmoud, R. Osman. Severe Anemia in Children Infected With Malaria in Taiz - Yemen and Its Relation to Age, Parasitaemia and Eosinophilia. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(1):40-43] (ISSN: 1097–8135).

 Keywords:  severe malaria, parasitaemia, severe anemia

Full Text

7

8

Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies on Avian Influenza Virus Receptors in Different Avian Species

 

Hussein I. El-Belbasi*; Mohamed F. Dowidar and Safaa I. Khater

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University,Egypt

*h_elbelbasi2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Avian influenza viruses are considered to be the key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. A major determinant of infection is the presence of virus receptors on susceptible cells to which the viral haemagglutinin is able to bind. Avian viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid α 2,3-galactose (SA α 2,3-Gal) linked receptors, whereas human strains bind to sialic acid α 2,6-galactose (SA α 2,6-Gal) linked receptors. Although ducks are the major reservoir for influenza viruses, they are typically resistant to the effects of viral infection, in contrast to the frequently severe disease observed in chickens In order to understand whether differences in receptors might contribute to this observation, we studied the expression of influenza receptors in upper and lower respiratory organs of ducks and chickens (expression of ST3Gal-III sialyltransferase and ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase genes) using semi quantitative RT-PCR. There was a marked difference in the expression of primary receptor type in the trachea of chickens and ducks. In chicken trachea, SA α 2,6-Gal was the dominant receptor type whereas in ducks SA α 2,3-Gal receptors were most abundant. This suggests that chickens could be more important as an intermediate host for the generation of influenza viruses with increased ability to bind to SA α 2,6-Gal receptors and thus greater potential for infection of humans. Chicken tracheal and intestinal epithelial cells also expressed a broader range of SA α 2,3-Gal receptors in contrast to ducks, which suggests that they may be able to support infection with a broader range of avian influenza viruses.

[Hussein I. El-Belbasi; Mohamed F. Dowidar and Safaa I. Khater. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies on Avian Influenza Virus Receptors in Different Avian Species. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(1):44-51] (ISSN: 1097–8135).

 Keywords: Host receptors, influenza, chicken, duck, ST3Gal-III sialyltransferase, ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase, gene expression

Full Text

8

9

Design and validation of Real Time Neuro Fuzzy Controller for stabilization of Pendulum-Cart System

 

Tharwat O. S. Hanafy

Computers and Systems Engineering Department, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, s_ewiss@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper presents an application of how to design and validate a real time neuro fuzzy controller of complex a nonlinear dynamic system using the Matlab-Simulink Real-Time Workshop environment. Once the controller is obtained and validated by simulation, it’s implemented to control the pendulum-cart system. Design of a neuro fuzzy controller is considered in this work because of its insensitivity to disturbances and uncertainties of model parameters. The design and optimization process of neuro fuzzy controller are based on an extended learning technique derived from adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The design and implementation of this pendulum-cart control system has been realized under MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of this design procedure and the ensured stability of the system.

[Tharwat O. S. Hanafy. Design and validation of Real Time Neuro Fuzzy Controller for stabilization of Pendulum-Cart System. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(1):52–60] (ISSN: 1097–8135).

 

Keywords: design and validate; real time neuro fuzzy controller; nonlinear dynamic system

Full Text

9

10

Analyzing Farm Management Skills in Poultry Production Enterprises in Iran

 

Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari1*, Mohammad Sadegh Saburi2 and Fatholah Keshavarz3

1Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran

3 Technical-Vocational Higher Education, Mirzakoochak Branch, Rasht, Iran

*Allahyari@iaurasht.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to analyze managerial skills of poultry production operators in Soumeh Sara Township in Guilan province, Iran, which used a descriptive-analytical design. The population of this study consisted of whole industrial poultry production enterprises of Soumeh Sara Township (N=117) and out of them, 50 operators had been selected as statistical sample through simple random sampling. The instrument used to achieve objectives of the study was a questionnaire by reliability 0.92. Findings reveal that among the studied management skills marketing skill had been placed the least ranking means. In addition, poultry production operators had the best ability in technical skills. The average of ability rate of poultry production operators in technical area was 4.08 which indicated the high to very high ability rate of respondents in this area. According to the results, it is necessary to improve the marketing and farm management skills of farm operators through extension and participation in training activities.

[Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh Saburi and Fatholah Keshavarz. Analyzing Farm Management Skills in Poultry Production Enterprises in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(1):61–67] (ISSN: 1097–8135).

 Keywords: poultry production, management, skill, farm operator, enterprise, Iran

Full Text

10

11

Ameliorate the Drastic Effect of Ochratoxin A by using Yeast and Whey in Cultured Oreochromus niloticus in Egypt.

 

Mansour, T.A1, Safinaz, G.Mohamed2, Soliman, M.K3. Eglal, A. Omar1, Srour, T.M.1, Mona S. Zaki*4  and Shahinaz, M. H. Hassan5

1 Department of Animal and Fish production, Fac. of Agriculture, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, Egypt.

2 National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria Branch, Alexandria, Egypt.

3 Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Fac. of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, ElBostan, Egypt.

4 Hydrobiology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

5 Animal Research Institute, Alexandria Lab. Alexandria, Egypt.

*dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Ochratoxin A is one of the most important mycotoxins in fish feed. In the present study the effects of OTA on cultured Oreochromus niloticus were evaluated. Trials for ameliorate the drastic effect of OTA were done by using active life yeast and whey. The results indicted that significant (p<0.05) decrease in RBCS, WBCS, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index were occurred in both levels of OTA. Hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, decrease of globulin, and antibody titer as well as increase of liver enzymes, creatinine and uric acid were noticed. The histopathological examination showed that OTA caused diffuse hydropic degeneration and advanced fatty changes in liver. Tubular necrosis and hydropic degeneration of the kidneys were observed .The activation of melano macrophage centers (MMCs) were recorded. The results proved that OTA produce serious physiological, immunological and pathological effects on, O.niloticus. Morovere active life yeast and whey were succeed to neutralize the drastic toxic effects of OTA.

[Mansour, T.A, Safinaz, G.Mohamed, Soliman, M.K. Eglal, A. Omar, Srour, T.M., Mona S. Zaki  and Shahinaz, M. H. Hassan. Ameliorate the Drastic Effect of Ochratoxin A by using Yeast and Whey in Cultured Oreochromus niloticus in Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):68–81] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Ameliorate; Drastic Effect; Ochratoxin; Oreochromus niloticus; Egypt

Full Text

11

12

Agricultural Cooperatives for Agricultural Development in Iran

 

Farshid Aref

Department of Soil Science, Islamic Azad University, Firouzabad Branch, Iran

farshidaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agricultural cooperatives are a significant form of business enterprise. The role of agricultural cooperatives as a critical dimension of market structure in agriculture must periodically be assessed to determine the future viability of the cooperative form of business. This paper aims to study the opportunities, challenges of agricultural cooperatives for agricultural development in Iran. The implication of this study arises from the fact that there has been little research carried out on the agricultural cooperatives. The findings of this study enrich the knowledge concerning agricultural development through rural cooperatives in third world countries; especially in Iran. Life

[F. Aref. Agricultural Cooperatives for Agricultural Development in Iran. Life Science Journal 2011;8(1):82-85]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: agricultural cooperative, agriculture development, rural development

Full Text

12

13

Assessment and Prediction on the Eutrophic State of a Drinking Water Source

 

Huizhen Zhang1, Hongxiang Guo2, Liju Duan1, Xiaohui Liu1,3, Xuemin Cheng1, Liuxin Cui1

1. College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zheng zhou, Henan 450001, China; 2. Department of life Sciences, Henan agriculture University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China; 3. School of Basic Medicine, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, China

Cuilx08@126.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate the eutrophic state of Xiliu Lake (one water source for Zhengzhou city) and establish prediction system to monitor and predict the eutrophic condition of this water resource. Environmental factors including water temperature (WT), secchi depth (SD), water depth (WD), chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll-a (Chla) and algae cell density (ACD) and cyanophyta cell density (CCD) were measured continuously in two sampling sites that were selected in Xiliu Lake. Trophic level index (∑) (TLI(∑)), linear correlation and stepwise multiple regression with a significant-value cut-off of α = 0.05 were used inorder to anayze the data. The result showed that the TLI(∑) of Xiliu Lake increased with seasonal changes. Three regression equations of standardized Chla, standardized ACD and standardized CCD were obtained respectively. Tests on these regression equations showed that there was a good correlation between practical value and predictive value of standardized Chla. The correlations for standardized ACD and CCD were even better. In a conclusion, the nutritive condition of Xiliu Lake was eutrophic. A prediction system was established for monitoring the eutrophic condition of surface water using the three regression equations of standardized Chla, standardized ACD and standardized CCD, which can be used to predict the trend of Chla in Xiliu Lake within a certain range.

[Huizhen Zhang,Hongxiang Guo,Xiaohui Liu,Xuemin Cheng, Liuxin Cui.Assessment and Prediction on the Eutrophic State of a Drinking Water Source. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):86–92] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

Full Text

13

14

 Interaction of TIM4-TIM1 decreases the function of CD4+CD25+Treg in intestine in food allergic mice

 

Xin-Ting Wang1 , Zhi-Qiang Liu1, Peng-Yuan Zheng1, Ping-Chang Yang2,Yu Luo3, Gao-Feng Lu1, Li-Li Zhang1

 1Department of Gastroenterology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Institute of Medical Microecology, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China, 2Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada ,3Henan Academy of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China. medp7123@126.com

 

Abstract: Research in the area of food allergy has advanced rapidly in recent years, however, the mechanism of food allergy remains unclear. It has been shown that the T regulatory cells play an important role in preventing the allergic responses in the intestine. TIM1 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein TIM 1 interacted with its endogenous ligand of TIM4 may attenuate the oral immune tolerance and lead to hypersensitivity reactions in the intestine. Forty male BALB/c mice fed on the OVA-free diet were randomly divided into five groups, and eight mice were used for each group: A group of mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection (ip) with Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) + Ovalbumin (OVA ) and the other four groups of mice were separately treated with normal saline (NS), anti-TIM1 (2 μg/mouse) +SEB + OVA, anti-TIM1 (10 μg/mouse) +SEB + OVA, anti-TIM4 (10 μg/mouse) + SEB + OVA, on the 0, 3rd and 9th day; and all of the mice were challenged by means of lavage with SEB+ OVA (except NS) on the 7th and 14th day. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with the same doses anti-TIM4 or anti-TIM1 30 minutes before gavage. Twenty-four hours after the last gavage, the mice were killed and subjected to immunologic analyses.  The expressions of Foxp3 mRNA in the jejunum and spleen decreased significantly in SEB+OVA group compared with those treated with NS, but the expressions of TIM4 mRNA increased significantly (P<0.05). The levels of TGF-β1 in serum and jejunum decreased significantly compared with those treated with NS. The expressions of Foxp3 mRNA in the jejunum and spleen and the levels of TGF-β1 in the serum and jejunum were significantly higher in anti-TIM1+SEB+OVA and anti-TIM4+SEB+OVA groups compared with SEB+OVA group (all P<0.05). The function of Treg cells can be suppressed in the intestine by sensitization that can be prevented by pretreatment with antibodies against TIM1 or TIM4.

[Xin-Ting Wang, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Peng-Yuan Zheng, Ping-Chang Yang, Yu Luo, Gao-Feng Lu, Li-Li Zhang .Interaction of TIM4-TIM1 decreases the function of CD4+CD25+Treg in intestine in food allergic mice. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):93-99] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key Words: Food allergy; CD4+CD25+Treg cells; Oral tolerance; TIM protein

Full Text

14

15

 Comparative Study between Inflorescences Characteristics, Pollen Viability, Germination and Dimensions of Tommy Atkins, Kent and Keitt Mango Cultivars

 

Abourayya, M.S*.; N.E. Kassim; M.H. El-Sheikh and A.M. Rakha

 Technology of horticultural crops dep. National Research Center, Dokki , Giza, Egypt

sami_abourayy@hotmail.com*

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted at orchard located at the side of Alexandria desert road (Cairo - Alexandria, Km. 140), at Nubariya region during 2007 and 2008 seasons. The three experimented mango cultivars were Tommy Atkins, Kent and Keitt. The trees of the three studied cultivars are grafted on seeded rootstocks, attained nine years old and grown in sandy Soil .Trees of all mango cvs. were planted at 3×5 meter apart and subjected to the same horticultural practices. The objective of the present study is comparing inflorescences characteristics, pollen viability, germination and dimensions of Tommy Atkins, Kent and Keitt cultivars grown under Nubaria conditions. There were significant differences among studied cultivars in the length of panicles. Keitt cv. was found to have longest panicle compared to the other cvs. Meanwhile the lowest value was found in Tommy Atkins cv. The highest value of panicle width was found in Keitt cv. meanwhile, the lowest value was found in Tommy Atkins cv. Keitt cv. had the highest Number of branches per panicle followed by Tommy Atkins cv. meanwhile Kent cv. had the lowest values. The highest number of flowers per panicle was found in Tommy Atkins cv. in the two seasons, meanwhile, the lowest value was found in Kent cv. Tommy Atkins cv. had the largest percentage of perfect flower per panicle followed by Kent cv. meanwhile Keitt cv. had lowerst percentage in the two seasons. The highest percentage of male flowers per panicle was detected in Kent cv. in the first season and Tommy Atkins in the second season. The lowest sex ratio was shown in Tommy Atkins cv. inflorescence in both seasons. Followed in a decreasing order by Keitt and Kent inflorescence. Keitt cv. was found to have the highest percentage of malformed panicles per tree, followed by Kent cv. while, Tommy Atkins cv. had the lowest percentage. Keitt cv. showed the highest percentage of pollen grains viability followed by Tommy Atkins and Kent cvs. Kent cv. recorded the highest percentage of pollen germination meanwhile, Keitt and Tommy Atkins cvs. recorded the lowest percentage of pollen germination in first season and Keitt cv. in second season. Pollen diameter was lower in Tommy Atkins cv. compered to Keitt and Kent cvs.

[Abourayya, M.S; N.E. Kassim; M.H. El-Sheikh and A.M. Rakha. Comparative Study between Inflorescences Characteristics, Pollen Viability, Germination and Dimensions of Tommy Atkins, Kent and Keitt Mango Cultivars. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):100–105] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: inflorescence characteristics, pollen viability germination and dimension, Tommy Atkins Kent and Keitt

Full Text

15

16

 Moderating Influence of Gender on the Link of Spiritual and Emotional Intelligences with Mental Health among Adolescents

 

Jafar Shabani, Siti Aishah Hassan, Aminah Ahmad, Maznah Baba

 Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

jshabani@yahoo.com

 Abstract: This study examined whether, Spiritual Intelligence (SI) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) can be considered as predictor for Mental Health (MH). Also, this study explored the moderating effects of gender on the link between SI and EI with MH among high school students. The participants in the study were 247 high school students, (124 male and 123 female, in the age range between 14-17 years old) at the Gorgan City, north of Iran. The research design was an ex post facto and tested the alternative hypotheses. Three valid and reliable instruments were used to assess SI, EI and MH. Descriptive statistics, multiple and moderated regression analysis were used to analyses the data. The result demonstrated that MH can be influence by SI and EI. In addition, the moderating effect of gender on the relationship of SI and EI with MH was not established.

[Jafar Shabani, Siti Aishah Hassan, Aminah Ahmad, Maznah Baba. Moderating Influence of Gender on the Link of Spiritual and Emotional Intelligences with Mental Health among Adolescents. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):106–112] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: psychology, education, spiritual and emotional intelligence, adolescents, mental health

Full Text

16

17

 Double CSF to areolar connective tissue shunting. An efficient and minor procedure in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. A Prospective Comparative Study.

 

1A A Abulazaim, M.d.,2Sherif Kamel, M.D.  
Departments of  Neurosurgery1 Ophthalmology2 and - faculty of Medicine - Cairo University.

abaaaza51@yahoo.com

 ABSTRACT: Study Design: A prospective study to evaluate the outcomes of 2 complimentary minor surgical procedures for shunting CSF to loose areolar connective tissues in both the eye and the scalp as an ensured, effective and definitive treatment to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Objective: To explore a more effective and less invasive technique without extensive tissue injury to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Summary of Background Data: The optic nerve sheath decompression is an established minimally invasive operation for IIH. The latter operation usually fails to competently eliminate headache as its effect is largely potent as regard the opthalmological manifestations of IIH. Thus a shunt operation is frequently needed thereafter. In the other hand; the traditional neurosurgical operation subtemporal decompression proved itself for decades as an effective surgery for resistant cases of IIH, however, it was plagued by the temporal-subtemporal extensive tissue injury. We found the newly revived minimally, invasive ventriculo-subgaleal shunt that proved effective in our Kasr El Aini hospital and actually divert the CSF to the scalp areolar tissues, a minimally invasive alternative to the old style operation subtempotal decompression and a very beneficial and effective operation that compliment the ONSD. Methods: This prospective study included 18 consecutive patients, 8 patients underwent ONSD and the rest ten patients needed in addition VSS to effectively manage all the manifestations of IIH. Results: The evaluation of the manifestations of IIH; the headache, papillaedema-visual field defects and the abducent nerve paresis were performed before surgery and after surgery. Both maneuvers had an excellent-to-fair operative result, with a low incidence of complications. Thus according to our data the double CSF shunting is a minimally invasion technique with a high efficiency and ensure a very satisfactory result. Conclusion: Our novel operation of double CSF to areolar connective tissue shunting is a minimally invasive and exceptionally effective operative management to IIH and can be a standard procedure for the surgical treatment of this insidious and dangerous vision threatening disease. 

[A A Abulazaim, Sherif Kamel. Double CSF to areolar connective tissue shunting. An efficient and minor procedure in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):113–120] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: areolar connective tissue shunting; Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Full Text

17

18

Calculated equation and specific absorption rate roots (SAR) for the nutrient

 

Tayeb Saki Nejad

 Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

, Corresponding Arthur: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com

Abstract: The experiment conducted in Islamic Azad University research farm of Ahwaz city (IRAN). Average of rain was 256mm based on split plot design and along with complete random block pillar, two factors and four repetitions. After measuring the parameters of root morphology and nutrient elements specific absorption rate (SAR), which is an indicator of the efficiency of root uptake based on the calculated parameters were measured, using the following formula based on root weight (RW) and mg unit g/g root dry matter per day was calculated:

: Average speed of absorption of mineral nutrients (mgg-1day-1),

R: root dry weight (g)

M: Dry weight root element value (mg)

t: sampling time (day)

Specific absorption rate (SAR) four elements: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium were measured. Numeric value to attract the highest speed with the amount of potassium element 0.19 mg / g. day in the severe stress and was calculated with the lowest amount of sodium was 0.001 mg/g day. Although in mild stress, nitrogen value increased to 0.21 mg / g. day, which are because of osmotic pressure phenomenon, but the element phosphorus absorption to the wilting point plant (PWP) element did not decrease. SAR of  nutrient nitrogen, phosphorus, in comparison to control with full irrigation decreased the N SAR decreased even with the incidence of mild water stress found, although in severe stress treatment, water, SAR value of N increased, but severe water stress treatment, SAR showed a significant reduction of nitrogen. SAR of P only to stress that in the permanent wilting point (PWP) reduced, did not show decreasing to PWP. SAR of K+ applying different levels of water stress than the control group showed an increasing trend, especially between these two elements, SAR K+ increases much higher than the sodium was almost SAR sodium potassium approximately 55 times the most stress treatments water respectively. Conditions without water stress, the highest SAR-related elements nitrogen phosphorus and potassium elements was then that water stress, especially severe water stress, the highest SAR related to the element potassium phosphate, nitrogen and sodium were. Nitrogen absorption rate equations shows that reducing the amount of water absorption of this element also severely reduce (YN=0.016X+0.046). But the element phosphorus, the absorption process does not stop until the point wilt (YP=0.02X+0.002), Potassium absorption process according to the equation is increasing (YK=0.016X+0.030), Element in the situation is different sodium absorption rate of this element is extremely low (YNa=0.006X+0.003).

[Tayeb Saki Nejad. Calculated equation and specific absorption rate roots (SAR) for the nutrient. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):121-126] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key words: specific absorption rate roots (SAR), nutritional elements and corn

Full Text

18

19

 Providing a Supervised Map of Olive Orchards by IRS Satellite Images

 

Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand 1 and Shahryar Sobhe Zahedi 2

1 Islamic Azad University-Rasht Branch

2 Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Guilan, Iran

Torkashvand@iaurasht.ac.ir, m.torkashvand54@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Due to some changes which are created above time in olive cultivated surface preparing updated map of olive is one of the most important requirements in the management and region agricultural planning. In this research, surveying of olive orchards investigated using IRS Satellite images in the region including some sector of Roudbar, Manjil, Loshan and Abbar, Guilan, Iran. Two methods evaluated to images controlled classification in order to separate olive orchards spectrum reflex from the other surface covers which include: 1.classifcation using spectrum reflex statistics and slicing and 2. classification with Minimum Distance method. The results indicate that in classification of images with spectrum reflex statistics, more than 60% of training points had again olive class in the olive orchards classified map.

 [Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand 1 and Shahryar Sobhe Zahedi. Providing a Supervised Map of Olive Orchards by IRS Satellite Images. Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand, Shahryar Sobhe Zahedi. Providing a Supervised Map of Olive Orchards by IRS Satellite Images. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):127–133] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Spectrum reflex; Olive; Training points; Map

Full Text

19

20

 Impact of an Educational Program on Nursing Care of Neonates with Congenital Hypothyrodism

 

Amal Mohamed El-Dakhakhny

Pediatric Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background: Unrecognized congenital hypothyroidism (CH) leads to mental retardation. Newborn screening and thyroid therapy started within two weeks of age and effective nursing intervention can normalize cognitive development. Initial dosage of 10 to 15 µg/kg Levothyroxine is recommended.

Objectives: this study aims to assess nurses' knowledge regarding CH, to evaluate nurses' intervention offered to CH neonates and to determine the impact of educational program on nurses' performance regarding care of CH neonates. Design: A quasi experimental design was used in this study. Subjects and Methods: This study included 60 nurses whom were recruited from 3 maternal and child health units (MCH) at Zagazig city. Two tools were used to collect the necessary data: a structured interview sheet and observational checklist were used to assess nurses' performance. Results: It was found that total nurses' complete knowledge and practice score about hypothyroidism was poor (100%) before program implementation and improved at post- test and this results was highly significant at 1%. Conclusion: The nurses' performance significantly improved after program implementation.

[Amal Mohamed El-Dakhakhny. Impact of an Educational Program on Nursing Care of Neonates with Congenital Hypothyrodism. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):134–144] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key wards: Congenital Hypothyroidism

Full Text

20

21

Evaluation of the Role of Radiotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

 

Laila A. Korashy; Mahmoud M. Elgantiry* and Fatma Zakaria

 Departments of Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University and NCI Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

shehata0123@yahoo.com  / drfatouh@gmail.com *

 

Abstract: Purpose: Retrospective study for evaluation of the role of radiotherapy in early breast cancer patients T1-2 M0 with (0-3 positive axillary LNs) as regard disease free survival (DFS) and over all survival (OS). Patients and methods: Between January 1999 to December 2004, ninety patients pathologically confirmed early breast cancer were classified into two groups, 50 patients in the first group were treated with Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM) + adjuvant radiation therapy + systemic therapy (Chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy) and 40 patients in the second group were treated with  MRM + adjuvant systemic therapy. All patients entered in this study were monitored for treatment related events, toxicity, loco-regional and distant failure, time to death and survival. The (OS) rates and(DFS) rates depicted on Kaplan Meier plots. Results:Patients in the first group who received radiation therapy developed less loco-regional recurrence rate (8% vs 22.5%) than did those receiving no radiation therapy in the second group with no significances statistical, p=>0.05. According to the time gap since surgery to radiation therapy, twenty six percent of patients who received radiation therapy in period more than 3 months  from the surgical interference had developed loco-regional failure vs no patients in population who received radiation therapy in period less than 3 months since surgical interference with statistical significant difference (P<0.005). Within 50 patients in the first group, skin desquamation was the most common acute complication of radiation therapy (20%) and hyperpigmentation was the most common late effect of radiation therapy (30%). There was statistical significant difference for  the 5- year loco-regional recurrence free survival rates according to the treatment modalities  in the first group versus those in the second group( 88.24% vs 73.16 respectively ,P=0.0308). There was insignificant improvement in the 5-year (OS) rates and the 5-year (DFS) rates according to treatment modalities in the first group versus the second group, (70.62% vs 61.00%, p=0.2145) for (OS) rates and (51.54% vs 44.38%, p=0.111) for (DFS) rates respectively. Nodal and hormonal status was the only two prognostic factors that significantly influence (OS) and (DFS) rates. Bone was the most common site of distant failure in this retrospective study. Conclusions: Despite the improvement in loco-regional recurrence rates, loco-regional recurrence free survival rates,  five-year (OS) and 5-year (DFS) rates for patients in the first group who received  radiation therapy, still the value of routine use of radiation therapy in early breast cancer is unclear.

[Laila A. Korashy; Mahmoud M. Elgantiry and Fatma Zakaria. Evaluation of the Role of Radiotherapy in Early Breast Cancer. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):145-153]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key words: Breast cancer- early stage disease ¨C surgery- radiation therapy-systemic therapy

Full Text

21

22

 Effect of Exposure to Mercury on Health in Tropical Macrobrachium Rosenbergii

 

Hussein A. Kaoud*1, Manal M.  Zaki1, Mona M. Ismail2

 1Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 2Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt. ka-oud@link.net*

 

Abstract: The effects of Hg on mortality, resistance and bioconcentration in the tropical giant freshwater Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied. Mortalities of prawns exposed to mercury doses below 0.1 mg L–1 were sig­nificantly lower than those exposed to higher doses. After 96 hours prawns ex­posed to >0.4 mg L–1of mercury had a greater reduction in total haemocyte count and phagocytic activity than those exposed to lower concentrations. Bioconcentration of Hg in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscles was variable. Mercury accumulated in gills and hepatopancreas but Hg accumulation in the muscles only increased marginally. Macrobrachium rosenbergii manifested histopathological alterations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles when exposed to different concentrations of mercury.

[Hussein A. Kaoud, Manal M.  Zaki,  Mona M. Ismail. Effect of Exposure to Mercury on Health in Tropical Macrobrachium Rosenbergii. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):154-163] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, mercury, total haemocyte count, phagocytic activity

Full Text

22

23

Evaluation of Different Desensitizing Agents after in-Office Bleaching

 

Mohamed A. Ibrahim* and Mai El Banna

 Operative Dentistry Department, Misr University for Sciences and Technology, Cairo, Egypt

mohatef16@hotmail.com*

 

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of present study is to compare the effect of different desensitizing agents in the management of dentinal hypersensitivity after the application of in-office bleaching. Methods: This study was conducted on 27 patients complaining of tooth hypersensitivity and seeking for their teeth whitening. Gluma, Seal & Protect and Fluoride varnish desensitizing agents were used in this study then in-office bleaching was applied. The Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) was used to record scores before and after desensitization, and then was used again to record scores before and after in-office bleaching. The data compiled was statistically analyzed. Results: A remarkable reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity to both air blast and cold water stimuli was noted at the end of the application of the three desensitizing agents. However, the differences in effectiveness of the desensitizing effect after the application of the bleaching material were recorded. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it could be implied that for relieving hypersensitivity, all three desensitizing agents were almost equally effective, but it was concluded that the sustainability of the desensitizing effect was detected with the resin-based desensitizing agents rather than the Fluoride-based desensitizing agents.

[Mohamed A. Ibrahim and Mai El Banna. Evaluation of Different Desensitizing Agents after in-Office Bleaching. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):164-168] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Evaluation of Different Desensitizing Agents after in-Office Bleaching

Full Text

23

24

Antioxidant Activity of Leek towards Free Radical Resulting from Consumption of Carbonated Meat in Rats

 

Wafeka Abdulah Al Hamedan and Manal Lalualit Khalid Anfenan

 Department of Nutrition and Food Science , Home Economic , Collage, Princess Nora Bent abdul – rahman -University, Riyadh, Saud Arabia

 

Abstract: Forty -two albino male rats were randomly classified into six groups (7 rats each). The first group kept as control negative fed basal diet only. The other five groups fed on basal diet with 10% extreme grilled meat and classified into non treated group and treated groups with water leek extract, methanol leek extract, 2.5 % leek powder and 5% leek powder. Consumption of carbonyl meat only in non treated group decreased final weight, weight gain, food intake ,feed efficiency ratio(FER) , hemoglobin , packed cell volume ,blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) , blood super oxide dismutase (SOD) , liver super oxide dismutase (SOD), liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and liver glutathione transferase (GST) but significant increase in AST enzyme, creatinine ,urea nitrogen blood free radical and serum lipid peroxide (LPX) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to normal control group. The treated groups with water ,methanol extracts, 2.5 % and 5% leak showed that the values of final weight, weight gain, food intake ,FER, hemoglobin, serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) enzyme, creatinine, urea nitrogen , blood GPX , blood SOD and blood GST around the values of normal control group. The treated groups with water ,methanol extracts, 2.5 % and 5% leak showed significant decrease in packed cell volume , liver SOD and GPX but significant increase in AST, blood free radical , LPX ,liver MDA compared to normal control group. The values of final weight, weight gain, food intake , FER hemoglobin , packed cell volume ,blood GPX , blood SOD, liver SOD, liver GPX and liver GST were increased but the values of AST enzyme, creatinine ,urea nitrogen, blood free radical, serum lipid peroxide and liver MDA were decreased in all treated groups compared to non treated group.

[Wafeka Abdulah Al Hamedan and Manal Lalualit Khalid Anfenan. Antioxidant Activity of Leek towards Free Radical Resulting from Consumption of Carbonated Meat in Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):169-176] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com

Key wards: leek, free radical, antioxidant, carbonated meat& rats

Full Text

24

25

Effect of Different Media and Growth Regulators on the in vitro Shoot Proliferation of Aspen, Hybrid Aspen and White Poplar Male Tree and Molecular Analysis of Variants in Micropropagated Plants

 

Salah Khattab

  Suez Canal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Ismailia- Egypt

khattabfar@yahoo.de

 

Abstract: Among other in vitro factors like temperature and light, concentration of plant growth regulators and medium constituents are two of the most important aspects of successful micropropagation. With the aim of optimization of in vitro multiplication of Populus alba L., Populus tremula L. and Populus tremula L. x Populus. tremuloides Michx , the effect of MS and WPM media with various concentrations of BAP and 2iP was studied. The following multiplication parameters were monitored: number of shoots regenerated/explant, explant height, and explants weight were determined. MS medium proved to be the most effective one, resulting in better and morphologically superior microshoots as compared to WPM medium in the case of Populus alba. However in Populus tremula and Populus tremula x Populus Tremuloides the highest number of shoots was found when grown on WPM medium. In all three poplar lines, the highest shoot multiplication was obtained on MS and WPM media supplemented with BAP at (0.1 and 0.2 mgl-1). Very poor multiplication was achieved on media with 2iP. Shoot tips were isolated and induced to root on MS medium supplemented with IAA, IBA and/or NAA (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg l -1). About 90% of the rooted plantlets tested have successfully established in soil. In vitro derived plants were genetically analyzed using RAPD fingerprints. RAPD analysis confirmed that all the in vitro derived plant which tested were genetically identical to their donor plants, suggesting the absence of detectable genetic variation in the regenerated plants.

[Salah Khattab. Effect of Different Media and Growth Regulators on the in vitro Shoot Proliferation of Aspen, Hybrid Aspen and White Poplar Male Tree and Molecular Analysis of Variants in Micropropagated Plants. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):177-184] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: In vitro multiplication, BAP, 2iP, WPM, MS, Populus alba, Populus tremula, Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides, RAPD

Full Text

25

26

Amelioration the Toxic Effects of Cadmium-Exposure in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) by using Lemna gibba L

 

Hussein A. Kaoud1*, Manal M.  Zaki1, Ahmed R. El-Dahshan1, Sherein Saeid2 and Hesham Y. El Zorba3

 1 Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

3Depratment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

ka-oud@link.net

 

Abstract: The effect of cadmium (Cd) toxicity and its impact on histopathology, haematological, and biochemical changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromius niloticus) were studied. Fish (35-45 grams) were exposed to Cd that resulted in significant reduction (p< 0.05) of the erythrocyte count (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb) and haematocrit value (Hct). Significant increases in plasma aspartate aminotranseferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were observed in fish exposed to Cd. The obtained results indicate that Lemna gibba L weed and their extract are effective in removing Cd from water and reducing Cd bioaccumulation in fish. The addition of Lemna gibba L-extract reduced significantly (p<0.05) the Cd level in water and the metal uptake as compared to fish exposed to Cd alone. The Cd concentration in water was 9.620±0.198 mg L-1 and it decreased significantly (p< 0.05). The Cd accumulation in liver and muscles of fish exposed to Cd alone was higher than that of Lemna gibba L-extract treatment. The addition of Lemna gibba L-extract improves the haematological parameters (RBCs, Hb and Hct) and ameliorates the toxic effect of Cd which indicating the capability of Lemna gibba L-extract to chelate Cd from the media. Subsequently, the Cd toxicity was reduced. This study indicates that Cd poisoning cause structural damage in the fish organs. It is also demonstrated that Lemna gibba L-extract, weed or the weed plus the extract provided protection against the degenerative action of Cd and increased the chance of tissue regeneration.

[Hussein A. Kaoud, Manal M.  Zaki, Ahmed R. El-Dahshan, Sherein Saeid and Hesham Y. El Zorba. Amelioration the Toxic Effects of Cadmium-Exposure in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) by using Lemna gibba L. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):185-195] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Cadmium; histopathology; Lemna gibba L; amelioration; Oreochromis niloticus

Full Text

26

27

Early Detection of Breast Cancer among Females at Fakous District,

Sharqia Governorate, Egypt

 

Mona Aboserea1, Mohamed Abdelgawad2 and Wagida wafik3

 1Public Health Department, 2 Oncology Department 3Community health nursing department  Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Nursing,  Zagazig University,  Zagazig. Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background:  Breast cancer is the most important cancer, with women in an increasing numbers in incidence developing countries. It is by far the commonest cancer among Egyptian women and represents 37% of all female cancers. Objectives: Early detection of breast cancer, and determining the most frequent barriers of delay in breast cancer diagnosis among females at Fakous district, Sharqia Governorate, in addition to identification of the risk factors and prevalence of breast cancer in the year 2010. Subjects & Methods: Community based survey study at Fakous district, Sharqia Governorate for 6 months period (from 1 January 2010 –to 30 June 2010). A multistage cluster random sampling was adopted for this work on a sample of 390 females. The study tools included :a- a questionnaire which was designed and pretested in pilot testing before the study. It was prepared to ask women about some socio-demographic characteristics, and risk factors of breast cancer. In addition to any suspected symptoms of breast cancer as lump, pain or tenderness, or nipple discharge. b-Weight and height were measured  to calculate Body mass index (BMI). c-Clinical Breast examination. d-Referral of the suspected cases to Fakous Cancer Center for doing mammogram, ultrasound, and fine needle biopsy to ensure the diagnosis. Results: The most frequent interviewed age groups were 30-39 ys, 20-29 ys, and 40-49 years (27.9%, 24.4%, and 22.1% respectively) with mean age (38.7) years and median age 36.5 years. About 52% of the studied females had early menarche (<12 years), and Null parity constituted 4.1% of the studied sample. The age of women at 1st  full term pregnancy (at ≥35years) represented  more than one quarter (26.6%) of the studied females and no breast feeding which constituted 59% among the multipara women. More than 54% of the studied sample was overweight  and obese with positive family history of breast cancer constituted 3.5%. About 86.7% of the menopausal women had delayed menopause (≥50 years). Illiteracy took the upper hand among the studied females (34.6%). 23.1% of the studied sample was oral contraceptive users. After doing clinical breast examination (CBE) of women and mammography; 23 cases were presented by breast lesions (5.9%). 18 cases were diagnosed as benign breast lesions (4.6%), and 5 cases were confirmed as breast cancer 'BC' (1.3%) by ultrasonography & fine needle aspiration biopsy. Histopathological reports for the discovered BC cases, revealed that 2 females presented with infiltrating duct carcinoma (IDC) and 2 cases presented with ILC, 3 cases (60%) had lymph node metastasis. Mean tumor size was 3.9 cm. By reviewing the BC stages among the females with breast cancer, it was found that 2 cases were in stage II (40%), 2 cases were in stage III (40%) . It was found that lack of doing mammography, annual CBE, & monthly BSE were the main limitations for early diagnosis of breast cancer. In addition to  illiteracy, reluctance in seeking medical care,  far distance from health services, negligence of the complaint, and fear from BC diagnosis  constituted the most frequent barriers for early detection  of breast cancer among the studied females. Recommendations: taking any women's breast complaints seriously, Proper training programs for women about monthly breast self examination for early detection of any breast lesion. Health education programs on a wide scale on the studied places to improve not only awareness, or knowledge but also changing the faulty attitudes & practices about breast cancer especially among illiterate women. In addition to training programs for health care providers at primary health care units about the importance of annual CBE in early detection of BC cases especially in low resources settings.

[Mona Aboserea, Mohamed Abdelgawad and Wagida wafik. Early Detection of Breast Cancer among Females at Fakous District, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):196-203] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key words: Breast cancer, early detection, clinical breast examination, prevalence, risk factors, barriers for early diagnosis.

Full Text

27

28

Effects of Renal Ischemia Reperfusion on Brain, Liver & Kidney Tissues in Adult Male Rats.

 

Nahed Salah El-din Mohamed* and Hanan Abd El-Aziz Mubarak

 Department of Physiology, Kasr Al-Aini Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

nahedsm4@hotmail.com*

 

Abstract: Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR) can induce acute kidney injury (AKI).  However, remote effects of RIR injury need further investigations. Renal injury associated with liver disease or neurological manifestations is a common clinical problem. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of RIR on brain and liver tissues in rats by inducing bilateral  renal ischemia for 30, 45 and 60 minutes followed by one hour reperfusion  and measurement of renal functions, liver functions & tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)   in addition to histological examinations of kidney, liver and brain tissues. 40 rats were subjected to either sham operated (control group-1) or 30 min RIR (group-2), 45 minRIR (group-3), 60min RIR (group-4).  The results  demonstrated that  compared to sham rats, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST),  increased significantly 45 min & 60 min of RIR(P <0.05). There was a  significant increase (P<0.05 ) in TNF-α in kidney, liver and brain tissues after 30 min, 45min, and 60min RIR compared to shame rats (p<0.01) and  the rise of TNF-α after 60 min RIR is significantly higher (p<0.05)than that after 30min RIR. Histological examination of brain tissues showed mild pyknosis after 45 min RIR and patches of vacuolization after 60 min RIR. In liver tissues there were congestion & hydropic degeneration after 45 min RIR and there was leucocyte infiltration in addition to congestion after 60 min RIR. Stained kidney tissues showed mild glomerular collapse after 30 min RIR, mild necrosis of tubular cells after 45 min RIR and periarteriolar neutrophilic infiltration in addition to mild tubular necrosis after 60 min RIR. It is concluded that RIR causes inflammation in liver & brain tissues which was much more after 60 min. The effects of RIR on remote organs need to be investigated for a long period after RIR

[Nahed Salah El-din Mohamed and Hanan Abd El-Aziz Mubarak. Effects of Renal Ischemia Reperfusion on Brain, Liver & Kidney Tissues in Adult Male Rats. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):204-212] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key words: Renal ischemia reperfusion, brain, liver, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), rats

Full Text

28

29

Application of Constructivist Educational Theory in providing Tacit Knowledge and Pedagogical Efficacy in Architectural Design Education: A Case Study of an Architecture school in Iran

 

Amineh Andjomshoaa 1, Seyed Gholamreza Islami 2, Seyed Mostafa Mokhtabad-Amrei 3

 1. Department of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3. Faculty of Arts, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran

 Aida_Andjomshoaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Beginning with general debates about the character of pedagogy in architectural design studios, and the role of constructivist educational theory and tacit knowledge in efficacious learning and teaching, this article makes some predictions about the interrelationship between these processes. These predictions are then tested by conducting an empirical research at one of the early design studios of architecture education devoted to residential design, in the department of art and architecture at Kerman Azad University in Iran. These tests have shown significant differences between the design performance of students who have been subjected to constructivist educational theory in their design process, and those who encountered other pedagogical approaches. This paper uses these findings to confirm that applying constructivist educational theory in the design studio leads to an increase in tacit knowledge, the kind of knowledge that is required among designers, as design is related to a skill-based domain dealing more with knowing how to complete tasks than of mere reliance on knowing facts. In this article, it is argued that if such educational strategy gains currency in schools of architecture, the outcome will be a positive experience of pedagogical efficacy through supporting lifelong learning. This efficacy, when woven with tacit knowledge, can create architects that are more dependent on their own critical thinking abilities, more interrelated to communities of people, and more responsive to their feedbacks, which in turn allows them to be more realistic in their endeavors.

[Amineh Andjomshoaa, Seyed Gholamreza Islami, Seyed Mostafa Mokhtabad-Amrei. Application of Constructivist Educational Theory in providing Tacit Knowledge and Pedagogical Efficacy in Architectural Design Education: A Case Study of an Architecture school in Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):213-233] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Constructivism; Architectural Design Education; Computer-Aided Design; Tacit Knowledge; Iran

Full Text

29

30

Role of Selenium in Attenuating Cardiac and Hepatic Damages Induced By the Antitumor Agent, Doxorubicin

Safinaz S. Ibrahim*, Maged A. Barakat, Hebatalla M. Helmy

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

College of Pharmacy, Kasr Al-Aini St, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

safinazsibrahim@cu.edu.eg; dr_safinaz_747@hotmail.com; barakat_maged_1950@yahoo.com; drhebasamy@hotmail.com

 Abstract: Background and Objectives: The clinical use of doxorubicin, one of the most effective antitumor agents, soon proved to be hampered by such serious problems as the development of cardiomyopathy and liver damage. The current study aims at evaluating the role of trace element, selenium, in attenuating cardiac and hepatic damages induced by the antitumor agent, doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into normal control group and doxorubicin -treated group injecting doxorubicin i.p. as 6 equal doses of 2.5 mg/kg, twice weekly/ 3 weeks. The doxorubicin - treated animals were divided into 2 groups, one kept without further treatment (doxorubicin -group), second group, (doxorubicin + selenium) received selenium (Na Selenite) 0.5 mg/kg orally, 3 times/week/4 weeks including one week before the doxorubicin 1st dose. Serum creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, as cardiac damage markers, and alanine aminotransferase, as indicator of hepatic damage, were measured. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, as cardiac oxidative status indices, cardiac glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S–transferase and superoxide dismutase activities, as measures for cardiac antioxidant capacity, were also investigated. Histopathological changes in cardiac and liver tissues were examined. The results were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance with subsequent multiple comparisons using Tukey test. Results: doxorubicin induced significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase; creatine phosphokinase; alanine aminotransferase activities, cardiac nitric oxide, malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S–transferase activities, and reduction in glutathione content. Selenium co-administration caused significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase levels; normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase; significant decrease in cardiac malondialdehyde, nitric oxide levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S–transferase, superoxide dismutase activities and significant elevation in cardiac glutathione content, compared to doxorubicin -treated group values. Histopathological examination of cardiac and liver tissues supported the previous biochemical results. Conclusions: Chronic doxorubicin administration caused cardiomyopathy and hepatic damage. Selenium co-administration produced partial, but significant, protection against cardiomyocyte damage; however, it alleviated hepatic damage-induced by the antitumor agent, doxorubicin.

[Safinaz S. Ibrahim, Maged A. Barakat, Hebatalla M. Helmy. Role of Selenium in Attenuating Cardiac and Hepatic Damages Induced By the Antitumor Agent, Doxorubicin. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):234-245] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key words: Doxorubicin, cardiomyopathy, liver damage, selenium

Full Text

30

31

[Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):246-252. (ISSN:1097–8135)]. http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 7  pages

As the result of critical review, this article has been withdrawn.

Full Text

31

32

Influence of Growth Media Composition on the Emulsifying Activity of Bioemulsifiers Produced by Four Bacterial Isolates with Wide Substrate Specificity

 Okoro Chuma Conlette

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Caleb University, Imota, Lagos, Nigeria

chuma2k2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The influence of growth media composition on the emulsifying activity of bioemulsifiers produced by four bacterial isolates were monitored by using three standard growth media formulations of Rosenberg et al, 1979, Monticallo et al, 1985 and Mills et al, 1978 with a common carbon source, Acetate but with varied Nitrogen, Phosphate and Trace element constituents. Three of the four bacterial isolates namely; Pseudomonas mallei, Pseudomonas pseudomallei and Pseudomonas sp. recorded their highest emulsifying activity of 30.80, 26.30 and 29.10 µ/ml respectively when grown on Rosenberg et al, 1979 growth medium with respective pH optimums of 7.09, 7.60 and 7.40 while the last isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa recorded its highest emulsifying activity of 28.40 µ/ml when grown on Mills et al, 1978 growth medium with an optimum pH of 8.11. Monticello et al, 1985 growth medium which lack MgS04 salts recorded lower emulsifying activity in all the four bacterial isolates tested. The results indicate that the three bacterial isolates that grew better on Rosenberg et al, 1979 growth medium showed preference for (NH4)2S04 as opposed to NaN03 as the ideal source of Nitrogen, however the reverse was the case with the isolate that grew better on Mills et al, 1978 growth medium which showed preference for NaN03 as its best Nitrogen source. Magnesium ions and other trace elements constituents of Rosenberg et al, 1979 growth medium are suspected to stimulate higher emulsifying activity as the other growth media formulations that lacked them showed lower emulsifying activity.

[Okoro Chuma Conlette. Influence of Growth Media Composition on the Emulsifying Activity of Bioemulsifiers Produced by Four Bacterial Isolates with Wide Substrate Specificity. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):253-259] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135).

 

Keywords: Bioemulsifier, Emulsifying activity, Growth media, Bacterial isolates

Full Text

32

33

*         Study  Of  The  Cardiovascular  Effects Of  Exposure  To  Electromagnetic  Field

*        

Fatma A. Mohamed, Azza A. Ahmed, *Bataa M.A. El- Kafoury, & Noha N. Lasheen

 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

*Corresponding Author:  Email: dr_bataa@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Background: Electromagnetic radiofrequency (EMR) emitted from cell phones was accused of causing a number of negative health effects; the influence on the heart and circulatory system still being not clearly defined. Objective: To throw more light on the cardiovascular health risk associated with exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) of cell phones. Material and Methods: 110 adult albino rats, of both sexes, weighing 180- 200 gms were used in the present study. Animals were allocated into two main groups: group I, including rats exposed to cell phone EMF for 4 weeks; and group II, including rats exposed to EMF for 8 weeks. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups, a control group and three subgroups exposed to EMF for either 1h/day, 2hrs/day or 3hrs/day, exposure being carried out six days/ week, at fixed time of the day. The test groups were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) of 1800 MHz emitted by global system mobile communications (GSM) cell phone Nokia 1208 modality, the phone being kept in the silent position while receiving calls from another phone during the period of exposure. All rats were subjected to measurement of the systolic blood pressure on the day prior to the day of sacrifice, ECG recording, assessment of cardiac weights, absolute& relative,  and MDA level in cardiac tissue, as well as determination of  plasma renin activity, plasma total antioxidant capacity and plasma calcium level. Specimens from the apex of the heart were subjected to histological examination. Results: The systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in all EMF-exposed rats compared to their respective controls. The heart rate, deduced from the ECG tracings, was non-significantly altered in all groups exposed to EMF for 4 weeks and in the 8 weeks-1hr/day exposure group, but was significantly reduced in rats exposed to EMF for 2hrs or 3hrs/day for 8 weeks.  The ECG recording of rats exposed to EMF for 4 weeks revealed a significantly higher R voltage in the group exposed for 3hrs/day, a significant increase in QRS duration in the groups exposed for 2hrs and 3hrs/day and significant prolongation of QT-c interval in the group exposed for 3hrs/day. On the other hand,  the ECG recording of rats exposed to EMF for 8 weeks revealed significantly higher R and T voltages, and significantly prolonged P-R and QT-c intervals in the groups exposed for 2hrs or 3hrs/day, the QRS duration being significantly increased in all the 8 weeks- exposed groups. The main features of changes in the cardiac weights were the significant increase in the absolute and relative weights of the whole heart and of the left ventricle in rats exposed to EMF 2hrs or 3hrs/day for either 4 or 8 weeks. Plasma renin activity was increased in all exposed rats, the increase being statistically significant in rats exposed to EMF 3hrs/day for 4 weeks, and in all the groups exposed to EMF for 8 weeks. Plasma calcium level was significantly decreased in all the exposed groups except for the group exposed for 1hr/day for 4 weeks. The plasma total anti-oxidant capacity was significantly decreased in all exposed groups, for either 4 or 8 weeks, while the MDA level in the cardiac tissue was only significantly elevated in the 8 weeks-3hrs/day exposed group compared to the matched control group. The histological examination revealed hypertrophy, fragmentation and vacuolation of the myocardium, which were directly proportional to the exposure time. Conclusion: The results encountered in the present study revealed that long-term exposure to cell phone EMF increases the liability for hypertension reflected on the ECG and cardiac weights, accompanied by histological changes in the myocardium. The associated increased PRA, decreased plasma total antioxidant capacity and hypocalcemia could be suggested as contributing mechanisms reflecting interaction of EMF with biological functions.

[Fatma A. Mohamed, Azza A. Ahmed, Bataa M.A. El- Kafoury, & Noha N. Lasheen. Study  Of  The Cardiovascular  Effects Of  Exposure  To  Electromagnetic  Field. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):260-274] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Key words: electromagnetic field- cell phone- cardiac effects- oxidative stress

Full Text

33

34

The Level of Managerial Functions Practiced by the Head of household and Family Economic Status in Kerman, Iran

 Mehdi Yadollahi1, Laily Hj Paim2, Mumtazah Othman3, Turiman Suandi4, Mohsen Darya beygi5

 1- Mehdi Yadollahi, Department of Resources Management & Consumer Studies.

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Department of Management Studies, Payame Noor University (PNU), Sirjan, Iran.

E-mail: mfma155@yahoo.com, Phone number (+60) 173466174.

2- Laily Paim, Department of Resources Management & Consumer Studies. Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: lailypaim@yahoo.com, phone number (+603) 89467051/89424371.

3- Mumtazah Othman Department of Resources Management & Consumer Studies.

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

4- Turiman Suandi, Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

5- Mohsen Darya baygi, Department of Management Studies, Payame Noor University, (PNU), Sirjan, Iran.

 

ABSTRACT: Household management is a process of using the required resources to attain the families’ goals through planning and taking the necessary steps to meet these goals. The aim of this article is to determine, the level of managerial functions practiced by the families, and the relationship between the levels of managerial functions practiced and family economic status. Management functions include five dimensions (planning, coordinating, organizing, directing and controlling). Family economic status included three dimensions (income, expenditure, and ownership of physical asset). The instrument used for this study is a questionnaire survey; the researcher selected 390 households, out of a total of 127,892 families in Kerman City. Data collection was through face-to-face interviews to obtain information from the heads of households. The relationship between household expenditure, income, ownership of physical asset, and management functions was investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Findings indicated that elements of management functions have effect on family economic status, but the affected is not considerable, and there is a weak relationship between management functions and family economic status. It may be interesting for future studies to look at the effect of other elements on family economic status.

[Mehdi Yadollahi, Laily Hj Paim, Mumtazah Othman, Turiman Suandi, Mohsen Darya beygi. The Level of Managerial Functions Practiced by the Head of household and Family Economic Status in Kerman, Iran. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):275-187] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Management function; Economic status; Income, Expenditure, Ownership of physical Asset.

Full Text

34

35

Bioactivities and Biochemical Effects of Marjoram Essential Oil used against Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

 

Mona F. Abd El-Aziz

 Entomology Department -Faculty of Science -Benha University- Benha- Egypt

dmonafzwy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The bioactivities of marjoram essential oil against immature stages and adults of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella Zeller were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant contact and fumigation insecticidal activities against different stages. The oil revealed strong contact toxicity and moderate fumigant activity against immature stages. Both adult males and females showed high susceptibility to the fumigation. Oviposition deterrent effects were found to be insignificant. Furthermore, the results showed that treatment of immature stages with the essential oil produced adult deformations. The essential oil tested had some biochemical effects on the last larval instar treated by the contact method, based on LC50 during metamorphosis to the adult. The results showed increases in the total protein and triacylglycerol content of most post-treatment days. Insignificant increases were found in the activities of acetylcholinesterase and chitinase. These results suggested that marjoram essential oil could be used as a potential control agent for potato tuber moth in storage facilities.

[Mona F. Abd El-Aziz. Bioactivities and Biochemical Effects of Marjoram Essential Oil used against Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):288-297] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key words: Essential oils- marjoram- Phthorimaea operculella- insecticidal activity-   biochemical effects

Full Text

35

36

Design and Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Biphenyl Dimethyl Dicarboxylate (DDB) and Silymarin Solid Dispersion and Self-Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems

 

Hanan M. El-laithy1*, Yassin E. Hamza1  and Soha M. Kandil2

 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt,2New Kasr Elini Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

*hmellaithy@soficom.com.eg

 

Abstract: Biphenyl Dimethyl Dicarboxylate (DDB) and Silymarin are widely used drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, have poor bioavailability due to their low aqueous solubility that limits their dissolution rates. To overcome these limitations solid dispersions (SDs) and self-microemulsifing drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) were prepared in an attempt to improve their release profile. SDs were prepared using co-precipitation and melting methods at various drug-polymer ratios. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30 and PVP K17) or sodium desoxycholate were used to prepare SDs by co-precipitation method. PEG 4000, PEG 6000 or poloxamers (F68 and F127) were used to prepare SDs by melting method. On the other hand, Ternary phase diagram was constructed using Miglyol® 812 (oil), Tween® 80 (surfactant), Transcutol® HP (co-surfactant) and water to identify the efficient self-microemulsification region. In-vitro release studies were studied for the prepared SDs and SMEDDS. DDB release from all prepared SDs did not show any significant improvement when compared to their corresponding commercial product except for the melts prepared by poloxamer F68 used in 1:5 drug to carrier weight ratio. Silymarin release from all SDs was significantly improved when compared to their corresponding physical mixture, Silymarin powder or its commercial product. Silymarin:Sodium desoxycholate with 1:3 weight ratio, gave the highest drug dissolution behaviour. On the other hand, it was found that the optimal formulation with the best Self-microemulsifying and dissolution behaviour for DDB or Silymarin consisted of 10% Miglyol® 812, 40% Tween® 80, and 50% Transcutol® HP. This formulation showed higher extends of DBB or Silymarin release compared to their powder or commercial products. The optimized formulations of DDB or Silymarin SDs and SMEDDS were evaluated regarding their hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in Albino rats when challenged with commercial products DBB pillules® and Mariagon® capsules. These develobed formulations might be useful in the prevention of used successfully hepatic fibrosis.

[Hanan. M. Ellaithy, Yassin. E. Hamza and Soha. M. Kandil. Formulation and Histopathological Evaluation of Biphenyl Dimethyl Dicarboxylate (DDB) and Silymarin Solid Dispersion and Self-Micro emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):298-310] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: DDB, Silymarin, solid dispersion, self-microemulsifing drug delivery systems, in vitro- release, hepatotoxicity

Full Text

36

37

Pyrethroid Toxic Effects on some Hormonal Profile and Biochemical Markers among Workers in Pyrethroid Insecticides Company

 Sahar A. Abou El-Magd1.; Laila M.E.  Sabik.2*; and Amira Shoukry3

 Departments of Community, Environmental, and Occupational Medicine1, Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology2, and Internal medicine 3. Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

*lailasabik714@ hotmail.com  

 

Abstract: Background: As Pyrethroids use is common and likely increasing worldwide, so more researches are needed to know its hazardous effects. Objectives:  This study was designed to evaluate chronic toxic effects of synthetic pyrethroids on some hormonal     profile (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone & thyroid hormones), respiratory system, liver and kidney functions, in addition, trying to clarify some underlying mechanisms of toxicity through measuring total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdhyde), and IgE among workers exposed to pyrethroids. Subjects and Methods: The study included eighteen workers of both sexes exposed to pyrethroids in pyrethroid Insecticides Company.  Twenty non exposed workers from the administrative workers of Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University were selected as a control group. All participating workers were interviewed using a pre-composed questionnaire, furthermore they were examined clinically and investigated by measuring some blood parameters as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH), IgE, ALT, AST, creatinine, urea, total-antioxidants and malondialdehyde according to standard procedures. Results: The studied groups were matched as regard gender, age, duration of work, marital status, income, residence and smoking habit. There   was a highly significant prevalence of headache, cough & wheeze among exposed workers compared to control group (p< 0.001). Moreover, the exposed group had significantly lower values of testosterone, T3, T4, and pan-antioxidants, as compared to control group (p<0.001). Also, there was a higher significant values of TSH, IgE, ALT, AST and malondialdehyde among exposed workers as compared to control group (p<0.001). Conclusion & Recommendations: Chronic exposure to pyrethroid insecticides may cause endocrine disrupting effects, respiratory problems, liver function impairment, beside oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.  So we recommended, improving working condition. Restriction of unlimited use of pyrethroid insecticides especially at home and agricultural purposes. Further researches are needed to evaluate pyrethroids effect on large sample to obtain detailed information about the exposure route, pathways, other mechanisms of toxicity and other health hazards.

[Sahar A. Abou El-Magd; Laila M. E.  Sabik and Amira Shoukry. Pyrethroid Toxic Effects on some Hormonal Profile and Biochemical Markers among Workers in Pyrethroid Insecticides Company. Life Science Journal. 2011; 8(1):311-322] (ISSN: 1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Pyrethroids exposure, endocrine disruptor, lung, liver, kidney, oxidative stress

Full Text

37

38

Deterioration and Treatment Study of Archaeological Limestone Statues, Sakkara, Egypt

 

S. A. Abd El – Rahim   and M.K. Khallaf

 Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

shehataaa@yahoo.com             m_kamal555@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sakkara is one section of the great necropolis of Memphis, the Old Kingdom capital and the kings of the 1st Dynasty as well as that of the 2nd Dynasty are mostly buried in this section of the Memphis necropolis. A group of Greco-roman limestone statues were found in front of Serapeum tomb entrance which was built at least as early as the 18th dynasty. They called "Statues of Philosophies". They suffer from different deterioration phenomena such as missing parts, erosion of stone, presence of cracks and micro cracks, disintegration of some parts, crystallization of salts and dirt. Deterioration factors were different sources of moisture, salts, wind erosion and changes in temperature. Studying phenomena and factors of their deterioration were performed by various investigations and analyses. Stone samples were collected from these statues. study of these samples have been carried out using polarizing microscope (PLM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Treatment and conservation techniques were discussed. XRD data showed that limestone consists mainly of calcite. (PLM) examination showed presence of fine-grained calcite in stone texture. (SEM) determined disintegration between mineral grains, erosion, loose of binding material, cracks and salts crystallization. Restoration techniques of the Greco-roman statues were studied, for example mechanical and chemical cleaning , consolidation, treatment of cracks , compilation missing parts and isolation of the surface to protect it against moisture using water repellent materials.

[S. A. Abd El – Rahim   and M.K. Khallaf. Deterioration and Treatment Study of Archaeological Limestone Statues, Sakkara, Egypt. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):323-328] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Key Words: Sakkara;  serapeum;  Statues of Philosophies;  limestone consolidation;  water repellent materials.

Full Text

38

39

Laboratory Approach To Chlamydia Trachomatis Conjunctivitis

 

Elham Ragab Abd El Samea 1, Eman Badr El Din El Hadidy1, Sahar Mostafa El Tarshouby2, Amina Mostafa Abd El Aal1

 

  1. Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

  2. Opthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine,  Mansoura University-Egypt

elhamelngar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: It is a chronic follicular conjunctivitis. In Egypt, the high prevalence of trachoma represents a major cause of blindness especially in rural areas. The aim of this work is to confirm the clinical diagnosis and to evaluate the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in direct antigen detection of C.trachomatis in conjunctival scrapings and C.trachomatis antibodies in the sera of patients. Two groups of patients; the first group included 20 active cases (group I) and the second group included 25 cicatricial cases (group II). Direct antigen detection by ELISA from conjunctival scrapping, trachoma IgG and IgM by ELISA. Evaluation of direct antigen detection of C.trachomatis in conjunctival scrapings by ELISA revealed that there were insignificant difference between active and cicatricial (P>0.05). There was insignificant higher titre in active than cicatricial cases. As regard, IgM detection of C.trachomatis there were insignificant difference between them (P>0.05). There was insignificant higher titre in active than cicatricial cases. Detection of C.trachoatis IgG revealed 20 positive cases (44.4%), all of them were cicatricial cases (80%) which were significantly higher than active cases (P<0.001). There was significantly higher titre in cicatricial than in active cases. All antigen positive cases in group I were bilaterally affected, while in group II, detection of C.trachomatis antigen was higher in unilateral than bilateral eye infection. There was insignificant difference between active and cicatricial cases in either affection (P>0.05) with insignificant higher titre in bilateral than unilateral positive cases. The sensitivity of ELISA IgM compared to direct antigen detection in cicatricial cases was 50%, the specificity was 100%. Direct antigen detection test and serodiagnosis of C.trachomatis IgM by ELISA are more reliable than ELISA IgG in diagnosis of active trachoma infection. ELISA IgG is a reliable method in the serodiagnosis of cicatricial phase of trachoma.

 

[Elham Ragab Abd El Samea, Eman Badr El Din El Hadidy, Sahar Mostafa El Tarshouby, Amina Mostafa Abd El Aal: Laboratory study of Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):329-336] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Chlamydia Trachomatis, Conjunctivitis, Trachoma

Full Text

39

40

Effects Of Cobalt Sulfate And Choline Chloride On Fruiting And Fruit Quality Of Mango Cv. Succary Abiad.

 

M. T. Wahdan

 Department of horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Wahdan2011@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The effects of foliar application of Cobalt Sulfate (Co SO4) and Choline Chloride on fruit retention; yield and quality of "Succary Abiad" mangoes were studied in two successive seasons (2007 and 2008). Cobalt Sulfate was sprayed at concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 ppm 30 days after full bloom, while Choline Chloride was sprayed at concentrations of 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm on the same time. In general, foliar application of Cobalt Sulfate and Choline Chloride were significantly reduced fruitlets abscission, while the minimum value was recorded in Choline Chloride at 2000 ppm followed by Choline Chloride at 1500 ppm with no significant differences. All treatments increased the number of harvested fruits per tree in both seasons. Low concentrations of both Cobalt Sulfate and Choline Chloride were more effective on physical characteristics. It was increased fruit weight, volume and pulp weight. Fruit firmness was increased by spraying Cobalt Sulfate at 300 or Choline Chloride at 1500 ppm. The application of Cobalt Sulfate and Choline Chloride significantly increased SSC, SSC/TA ratio and total sugars while, ascorbic acid was decreased with almost treatments, except the treatments of Cobalt Sulfate at 200 ppm or Choline Chloride at 2000 ppm in the second season only.

[M. T. Wahdan. Effects Of Cobalt Sulfate And Choline Chloride On Fruiting And Fruit Quality Of Mango Cv. Succary Abiad. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):337-343] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Mango, Cobalt Sulfate, Choline Chloride, fruiting, fruit quality.

Full Text

40

41

Using Nonwoven Hollow Fibers to Improve Cars Interior Acoustic Properties

 

Abdelfattah, A. Mahmoud1, Ghalia E.  Ibrahim and Eman R. Mahmoud2

 

1 Acoustic Dept.,National Institute for Standards, Giza, Egypt

2Spinning, Weaving and Knitting Dept, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University

*yy_abd_elfattah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The necessity and importance of protecting our environment is evident in this time and the high developed industrial nations are responsible in the first position The industrial fabrics industry will continue to develop to meet the needs of society and the growth of the industry is assured because industrial fabrics are leading the way for materials to be structured to solve problems and to be engineered to meet the special performance of products. In the past few years, car manufacturers have focused on automobile interiors from a merely function as not only do interior trims serve to differentiate models, but materials and designs can also be used to tailor the same model to different target groups. This research aims to produce nonwoven fabrics that can be used in car interior components (head liners, doors, side panels and trunk liners) to prevent noise from reaching the passenger compartment and so achieving comfort in the car interior. Two kinds of fibers were used polyester and hollow polyester fibers, both of 6 denier, to produce three different fabrics of 100 % polyester fibers, 75 % polyester /25 % hollow polyester fibers, and 55 % polyester /45 % hollow polyester fibers. Four fabric weights were produced 300, 400, 500 and  600 g/m2. All samples were bonded using thermal bonding technique. More results were reached, for examples, samples produced with high percentage of hollow fibers had recorded the highest rates of sound absorption, whereas samples produced with 100% polyester fibers have recorded the lowest rates. It was also found that there are direct relationship between weight per m2 and sound absorption efficiency. All samples have achieved the expected results and sample produced with 55% polyester/45% hollow polyester fibers and 600 g/ m2, have achieved the best results.

[Abdelfattah, A. Mahmoud, Ghalia E.  Ibrahim and Eman R. Mahmoud. Using Nonwoven Hollow Fibers to Improve Cars Interior Acoustic Properties. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):344-351] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: Nonwoven fabrics, Hollow Fibers, Cars Interior, Acoustic properties, sound insulation

Full Text

41

42

Application Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA) A New Tool for Rural Development (Case Study Khouzestan Province, Iran)

 

Ahmad Reza Ommani

Assistant Professor Agricultural Management Department, Islamic Azad University Shoushtar Branch,  Shoushtar,Iran. ommani@ijamad.com

 

Abstract: Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA) is suitable tool to identify, prioritize and analyze of needs and problems of the people, while opportunities and solutions existing in the community are discovered. PRCA specifically seeks to discover issues to resolution through the application of communication. The method of this research was qualitative research with semi structure interview. At this research 5 analytical loops organized. In each loop one facilitator person and 6 to 9 farmers as analyzer were exist. By using different PRCA techniques such as matrix, community map, cause and effect diagram, factor analysis diagram, tree diagram etc, identified educational needs, situation geographical and natural resources and cause of environmental destruction based on farmers view. Application Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA) A New Tool for Rural Development (Case Study Khouzestan Province, Iran).

[Ahmad Reza Ommani. Application Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA) A New Tool for Rural Development (Case Study Khouzestan Province, Iran). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):352-355] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Keywords: PRCA, Rural Development, Watershed

Full Text

42

43

Study on Variation Effects Caused by Ion Beam-mediated Transformation Whose Transformation Receptor is Wheat’s Segregation Population Seed

 

Gu Yunhong, Gao Fei, Qi Yanlei, Jiao Zhen

 

Henan Province Ion Beam Bio-engineering Key Laboratory, Physics Department of Zhengzhou University,

Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China

guyunhong@zzu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: To provide theory evidence for ion beam transformation used in traditional breeding easily, the variation effects were studied that wheat’s segregating population seeds were used as transformation receptor via ion beam implantation. Wheat’s F2 segregating population seeds of two hybridization combination were used as transformation receptor via ion beam implantation, and the genome DNA of Hongmang wheat and Hexaploid Triticale were used as transformation donor.The result showed that the germination rate of different transformation combination was different. The coefficient variability of spike length of wheat main axic increased significantly. The average of plant height had decreasing trend. Both the average and coefficient variability of  grain’s quality characters had decreasing trend. All the above results show that after doing ion beam-mediated transformation to segregation population seed, the coefficient variability of some characters could increase significantly, in another word, ion beam-mediated transformation could widen the variation spectrum of some characters.

[Gu Yunhong, Gao Fei, Qi Yanlei, Jiao Zhen. Study on Variation Effects Caused by Ion Beam-mediated Transformation Whose Transformation Receptor is Wheat’s Segregation Population Seed. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):356-362] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 

Key words: Transformation mediated by ion beam implantation;  Wheat;  Segregating population

Full Text

43

44

Effect of Mercuric Oxide Toxicity on some Biochemical Parameters on African Cat Fish Clarias gariepinus Present in the River Nile

 

Mona, S. Zaki*1, Nabila, Elbattrawy2 Olfat M. Fawzi3, Isis Awad3and Nagwa, S. Atta4

 1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology, Reproductive institute, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

4Department of Microbiology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

 *dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The effect of dietary carbohydrates and mercuric oxide on haematalogical profile, blood chemistry and hormonal level was studied in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were divided into 3 groups (n=10), exposed to different doses of mercuric oxide and carbohydrate. Group (1) was served as control. Group (2) was fed with carbohydrate and mercuric oxide (10 mg Kg-1 diet ration). Group (3) was fed with carbohydrate and mercuric oxide (1 5 rng Kg-1 diet ration). There is a significant decrease in hemoglobin and P .C.V in group (3). There is a significant increase in serum corlisol, cholesterol, AST, ALT, urea, creatinine and alkaline phosphorous in group (3). Also there is a significant decrease in serum phosphorous, sodium and potassium in treated fish. There is a significant high level of mercuric content in kidney muscles, heart and spleen in group (3) suggesting toxic effects of mercuric oxide on   African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). The total viable count of bacteria identified higher in fish fed on carbohydrate mercuric. Predominate bacteria were identified as, E. coli, Streptococcous, Pseudomonas, and Fluorscences. We emphasize the finding that an increase carbohydrate concentration causes harmful pathological effect which reduces humoral immure responses and enhances dietary mercuric toxicity.

[Mona, S. Zaki, Nabila, Elbattrawy Olfat M. Fawzi, Isis Awad and Nagwa, S. Atta. Effect of Mercuric Oxide Toxicity on some Biochemical Parameters on African Cat Fish Clarias gariepinus Present in the River Nile. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):363-368] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

Keywords: Clarias gariepinis, mercuric pollution, haematalogical, biochemical, clinicopathological, Bacteria account

Full Text

44

45

Preoperative Seminal Plasma Disturbed Oxidant/Antioxidant Milieu Could Predict Failure of Varicocelectomy as a Therapeutic Modality for Male Infertility

 

Ahmed M.Awadallah*1, Jehan H.Sabry1 and Mohamed M.El Sharkawy2

 1 Departments of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

 2 General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

*a_mamdouh8@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate seminal plasma (SP) malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide desmutase (SOD) and CoQ10 levels in infertile men with and without varicocele as a trial to evaluate the predictability of their preoperative estimation for postoperative (PO) improvement of seminal parameters. Patients & Methods: 70 infertile men; with (n=35) and without (n=35) and 20 fertile men with (n=10) and without (n=10) clinically and ultrasonographically diagnosed varicocele. Infertile men with varicocele were assigned to undergo bilateral varicocelectomy using subinguinal approach. All infertile patients had preoperative hormonal profile. Semen samples were obtained from all men for standard semen analysis and SP estimation of CoQ10 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), SP MDA using a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and SP SOD activity by chemiluminescence. Another semen sample was obtained PO for standard semen analysis. Results: Baseline data showed a significant decrease of sperm concentration and percentage of sperms with rapid progressive motility with significantly higher percentage of sperms with abnormal morphology and significantly lower SP CoQ10 and SOD levels with significantly higher SP MDA levels in infertile men compared to fertile men with significant difference among infertile men in favor of those free of varicocele. In all infertile men, there was negative significant correlation between SP MDA and CoQ10 levels and a positive significant correlation between SP SOD and CoQ10 levels with higher significance in those had varicocele. In infertile men free of varicocele, there was a negative correlation between sperm count and SP MDA with a positive significant correlation with SP SOD levels, while in infertile men with varicocele, the correlation was significant between SP SOD and the three seminal parameters and between the percentage of abnormal sperm forms and SP MDA and CoQ10. PO sperm count showed a negative significant correlation with preoperative SP MDA levels, while the correlation was positive significant with SP CoQ10 and SP SOD levels. Regression analysis identified high preoperative SP SOD level as significant predictor of improvement of sperm count after varicocelectomy. ROC curve analysis defined preoperative SOD level at ≥88 U/ml as a specific predictor for PO improvement of sperm count, while identified preoperative SP MDA level at ≥0.53 nmol/ml and SP CoQ10 at cutoff point of 0.12 µg/ml could identify infertile men with varicocele most probably will not get benefit of varicocelectomy. Conclusion: Combined varicocele and disturbed oxidant/antioxidant system could be the underlying mechanism for varicocele associated male infertility and highly disturbed oxidant/antioxidant system could influence the outcome of varicocelectomy as a therapeutic modality. Preoperative estimation of SP levels of MDA and SOD could aid to predict the outcome of varicocelectomy. 

[Ahmed M.Awadallah, Jehan H.Sabry and Mohamed M.El Sharkawy. Preoperative Seminal Plasma Disturbed Oxidant/Antioxidant Milieu Could Predict Failure of Varicocelectomy as a Therapeutic Modality for Male Infertility. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):369-376] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Preoperative; Seminal Plasma; Oxidant/Antioxidant; Varicocelectomy; Infertility

Full Text

45

46

Evaluation of Colletotrichum graminicola as an Eventual Bioherbicide for Biocontrolling Alisma plantago-aquatica in Paddy Fields

 

 

Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh1 and Armin Javadzadeh2

1. Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Guilan Province 41335-3516, Iran. Tel:00989111384168

2. Department of Plant Breeding and Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Azarbayjan Province Iran

*Corresponding author’s  email: ssafarimotlagh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Alisma plantago-aquatica is one of the most important paddy field weeds in Iran. In this research, Colletotrichum graminicola was isolated from the said weed and studied as a biological agent for controlling Alisma plantago-aquatica. To do so, at first, reactions of five rice cultivars including three indigenous cultivars such as Hashemi, Ali Kazemi and Binam and two bred ones, i.e. Sepidroud and Khazar to Colletotrichum graminicola were evaluated. Thus, a random completely design with three replications and five treatments was used at a greenhouse. Then, Colletotrichum graminicola was inoculated on Alisma plantago-aquatica. This inoculation was done at the 3-4-leaf stage using a spore suspension consisting of 10 conidia/ml distilled water to which Tween-20 1% was added. Results indicated that the disease rating caused by the this fungus in the weed was more than that in the studied rice cultivars. Also, the fungus had a significant effect on the height, fresh weight and dry weight of Alisma plantago-aquatica and reduced them. Furthermore, Colletotrichum graminicola had a significant effect on all the studied rice cultivars and significantly reduced their heights and fresh weights. With consideration of the results of this research, Colletotrichum graminicola is not recommended as a probable mycoherbicide for biological controlling Alisma plantago-aquatica in paddy fields, unless more tolerant rice cultivars are used when using it.

[Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh and Armin Javadzadeh. Evaluation of Colletotrichum graminicola as an Eventual  Bioherbicide for Biocontrolling Alisma plantago-aquatica in Paddy Fields. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):377-382 (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Alisma plantago-aquatica; biological control; Colletotrichum graminicola; rice

Full Text

46

47

Investigation of the possibility to prepare supervised classification map of gully erosion

 

Mohammadi Torkashvand, A1 and Shadparvar, V.2

 1Islamic Azad University-Rasht Branch

2M.Sc Student, Islamic Azad University-Rasht Branch

Torkashvand@iaurasht.ac.ir, m.torkashvand54@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was done to investigate the possibility providing gully erosion map by the supervised classification of satellite images (ETM+) in two mountainous and plain land types. These land types were the part of Varamin plain, Tehran province, and Roodbar sub-basin, Guilan province, as plain and mountainous land types, respectively. The position of 652 and 124 ground control points were recorded by GPS respectively in mountain and plain land types. Soil gully erosion, land uses or plant covers were investigated in these points. Regarding ground control points and auxiliary points, training points of gully erosion and other surface features were introduced to software (Ilwis 3.3 Academic). The supervised classified map of gully erosion was prepared by maximum likelihood method and then, overall accuracy of gully erosion map was computed. Results showed that the possibility supervised classification of gully erosion isn’t possible, although it need more studies for results generalization to other mountainous regions. Also, when land uses and other surface features to increase in plain physiography, it will be decreased the classification of accuracy. 

 [Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand, Vahid Shadparvar. Investigation of the possibility to prepare supervised classification map of gully erosion. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):383-386] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Supervised classification, Gully erosion, Map

Full Text

47

48

Design, Synthesis, and Docking Studies of Novel Diarylpyrazoline and Diarylisoxazoline Derivatives of Expected Anti-inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities

 

Gehan Hegazy Hegazy1, Ghaneya Sayed Hassan1*, Nahla Ahmed Farag2, Amal Yousef3

 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt.

 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Egypt.

3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

ghanmoom@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two series of novel non acidic 3, 5-diarylpyrazoline and 3, 5-diarylisoxazoline derivatives were designed to be synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. In addition, molecular modelling and docking of the designed compounds into cyclooxygenase II (COX-II) using Molsoft ICM 3.4-8C program was performed in order to predict the affinity and orientation of the designed compounds at the active site compared with its binding inhibitor celecoxib. The ICM score values show good agreement with predicted binding affinities, where all the designed compounds exhibit ICM score values (range from -88.89 to -70.40) less than celecoxib (-60.71) revealing higher binding affinity with the enzyme. Accordingly, synthesis of the designed compounds via reaction of various propenone derivatives with hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine or hydroxylamine hydrochlorides were carried out. Evaluation of their activity as anti-inflammatory and analgesics using dextran-induced rat paw edema, formaldehyde arthritis test and paw pressure test, respectively and their ability to induce gastric toxicity was also estimated. All the synthesized compounds exhibited significant activity as anti-inflammatory and analgesic, where compounds 2 and 8 were the most active as anti-inflammatory in dextran-induced rat paw edema, while compounds 7 and 10 were the most active as anti-inflammatory in formaldehyde- induced arthritis rat paw edema test.  All compounds showed analgesic activity with the most potent compounds were 3, and 10 were the most active. No one of the tested compounds cause gastric toxicity. We can conclude that the synthesized compounds proved a successful hit and seem potentially attractive as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

[Gehan Hegazy Hegazy, Ghaneya Sayed Hassan, Nahla Ahmed Farag, Amal Yousef. Design, Synthesis, and Docking Studies of Novel Diarylpyrazoline and Diarylisoxazoline Derivatives of Expected Anti-inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):387-396]. (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Diarylpyrazoline, Diarylisoxazoline, Anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase II inhibitor, analgesic, docking, Internal Coordinate Mechanics (ICM)

Full Text

48

49

Magnetized water and saline as a Contrast agent to Enhance MRI Images

 

Samir M. Badawi  1, Wael Abou EL-wafa. Ahmed 2, Yasser M. Kadah 3

 1. industrial electronics and control engineering,  Faculty  of  Electronic  Engineering, Monoufia University, Egypt

                 2 Biomedical  Engineering  Department,  Faculty  of  Engineering,  Minia University, Egypt

              3  Biomedical  Engineering  Department,  Faculty  of  Engineering,  Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

                                                              wael@eng.miniauniv.edu.eg

 

Abstract: MRI image enhancements have been carried out using different contrast agents. In this research we started with testing the effect of accurately pre-specified magnetized water on MRI received signal, and then considered the magnetized-saline (MS) as a new MRI brain contrast agent (CA).A 40 years old 80kg male injected with 250ml MS. Couple groups of MRI images were performed over the same circumstantial conditions and MRI protocol; before and after the injection. The focused study on MRI showed a significant difference in image intensities after injecting the MS compared to normal MRI images, and water contour of the white matter in T2 WIS is more obvious than before saline injection series. Further quantitative measurements applied using MATLAB genetic algorithm. Leading to the result; magnetized saline injection affect signal intensity and enhance contrast in MRI brain images.

[Samir M. Badawi, Wael Abou EL-wafa. Ahmed, Yasser M. Kadah. Magnetized water and saline as a Contrast agent to Enhance MRI Images. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):397-401] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Image contrast; MRI; magnetized water; enhancement

Full Text

49

50

Pathogenicity of Aeromonas on Embryonated Chicken Eggs

 

Zeinab. M.S. Amin Girh1, K.M. Mahgoub1, Nagwa Rabie, S., 1 ; Sahar A. Zoo El-Fakar2 and M.A. Kutkat1

 1National Research Centre, Poultry Diseases Dep.

2Cairo University Fac. of Vet. Med. Poultry Diseases Dep.

nagwasrabie@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Pathogenicity of Aeromonas on embryonated chicken eggs was studied in three species of Aeromonas : (Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas sobria) in embryonated chicken eggs either by inoculation via yolk sac route or dipping of egg incubated for till hatching . The criteria of judgment was mortality , hatchability, reisolation from dead embryo, histopathological changes in liver, yolk sac of dead embryo on hatched chicks Yolk sac inoculation of three species of Aeromonas in a dose 1.5x 107/ml gave  100% embryonic mortalities after 3 days and the reisolation from liver 83%, 75%, 50%, respectively and from yolk sac 91.6%,75%,66.6% respectively. In dipped eggs  in media contains three Aeromonas species  in adose 1.5x107/ml gave embryonic mortalities 25%, 33.4%, 17% respectively  reisolation rate of Aeromonas species from  liver 33.3%, 25%,  0% respectively and from yolk sac 100%, 50%, 100% respectively while hatchability was 75%, 66.6% and 83% respectively. Hatched chicks showed pathological changes in both liver and intestine. Finally the results indicated that, Aeromonas strains (A.hydrophila, A.caviae, A.sobria) were highly pathogenic for chicken and causing embryo mortalities and decrease of the hatchability.

[Zeinab. M.S. Amin Girh, K.M. Mahgoub, Nagwa Rabie, S.,; Sahar A. Zoo El-Fakar and M.A. Kutkat. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas on Embryonated Chicken Eggs. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):402-407] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Pathogenicity, Aeromonas, histopathological, embryonated

Full Text

50

51

Perceptions of Forestry and Rangeland Department Specialists on the Role of Extension-Education Activities to Protect Forests (Case of Mazandaran Province, Iran)

 

Mohammad Abedi1, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari2 and Sharareh Khodamoradi3

 1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Ghaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

3Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

Email: Allahyari@iautasht.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of forestry and rangeland department specialists in Sari Township regarding the role of extension and education in protection of forests. The population of this study included 230 forest specialists in Sari Township. A stratified random sample of 140 specialists was selected. The research design used for this study utilized descriptive survey research methodology. A questionnaire was developed to assess role of extension-education programs in protection of forests. Findings revealed that education of youth and children at the elementary and secondary school level is also necessary and important in forest protection and conservation.  Also results showed that inform to public about worth of forest is very important in protection of forest. The study showed that extension-education methods are important factors in protection of forests.

[Mohammad Abedi, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari and Khodamoradi. Perceptions of Forestry and Rangeland Department Specialists on the Role of Extension-Education Activities to Protect Forests (Case of Mazandaran Province, Iran). Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):408-411] (ISSN: 1097 – 8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Forest, rangeland, perception, protection, extension method

Full Text

51

52

Dental Caries Prevalence among a group of Egyptian Nurseries Children

 

Abou El-Yazeed, M.*; Rashed, M. **;  El sayed, M. **; Salah, A. *

 * Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry Department, National Research Centre, Egypt.

** Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. el_yazieddent@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Dental caries in children attending nurseries has a significant dental public health problem and health disparity implications.  Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of dental caries among a group of Egyptian children at nurseries in El Kalubia Governorate, Egypt.  Subjects and Methods: A total number of 999 Egyptian children 496 boys and 503 girls with their ages ranged from three years to less than six years.  Children were selected randomly and examined from those attending nurseries.  The examined children were subdivided according to their ages into five age groups with six month intervals.  Clinical examination was conducted at the nurseries and was exclusively visual with the help of tongue depressor according to the World Health Organization oral examination criteria for mass population and carried out under natural day light with children lying on ordinary desks.  Results: Dental caries prevalence was high among the study subjects (60.4%) with the mean dmf value 3.31±3.99.  The results of this study showed that the prevalence of dental caries increases with age and there is no statistically significant difference between boys and girls (P value equal 0.24).  The sequence of caries attacks follows specific pattern where the right mandibular first primary molar had the highest caries percentage (36.5 %) then maxillary molars and maxillary anteriors teeth and finally the left lower primary lateral incisor which exhibit the lowest caries percentage (1.00%).  Conclusions: Dental caries prevalence is relatively high among the examined subject and these findings stress the need for implementing an effective oral health preventive program for those children as well as an educational dental health programs for their guardians and teachers to improve their oral health status.

[Abou El-Yazeed, M.; Rashed, M.;  El sayed, M.; Salah, A. Dental Caries Prevalence among a group of Egyptian Nurseries Children. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):412-419] (ISSN:1097–8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com.

 Keywords: Dental Caries; prevalence; El Kalubia Governorate

Full Text

52

53

A retrospective study: The Influence of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus on the efficacy with HAART in China AIDS area

 

ZHAO Jie1YU Zu-jiang2 KAN Quan-cheng1LI Xiao-fei1 LI Zhi-qin2 LIANG Hong-xia2.

 

1Department of Pharmacology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

2Department of the infectious disease, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China. johnyue70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) on the efficacy of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HARRT) and analysis on the variable pattern of resistant’s sites in HIV RNA.The patients were divided into three groups: HIV/HBV/HCV co-infection group (23 patients), HIV/HCV co-infection group (168 patients), and HIV-only group (178 patients). All patients in the 3 groups were given the same HAART, that was, AZT+DDI+NVP, but not given other antivirus treatment including HCV and HBV antivirus therapy. HIV RNA, HCV RNA or HBV DNA were detected by real time PCR every 90 days, meanwhile the counts of CD4+ T lymphocyte and liver function including ALT(alanine transaminase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) were tested. According to the titer of HIV RNA(>104copies/ml) in sera during the one year HAART, polymerase genes of HIV RNA were sequenced and analyzed. During one-year HAART, HIV RNA of HIV-only group, HIV/HBV/HCV co-infection group and HIV/HCV co-infection group decreased significantly from 6.78±1.08, 6.23±1.34, 6.54±1.23 log copies/ml to 0.53±0.15, 0.67±0.16, 0.43±0.11 log copies/ml respectively (P-Value < 0.001). And CD4+lymphocyte counts of the three groups elevated significantly from 197±127, 184±113, 213±143 cells/μl to 382±74, 383±70, 378±76 cells/μl respectively (P-value<0.001). However there were no differences among the three groups in HIV RNA and CD4+ cell counts. There were no differences in liver functions including ALT, AST and T-Bil among the three groups. The detection of sites of drug resistance: the major mutant sites to AZT+DDI were at M41L, E44A, K70KR, D67N, L210W, T215Y or K219W which were highly resistant and to NVP were at A98G, V179H, Y181C,K103N or G190A which were highly resistant in the 3 groups. Meanwhile, the rates resistant of emergence were similar and there were no sites to 3TC and protease inhibitors (PIs) in the above HAART groups. HIV co-infected with HBV and/or HCV does not impact on the efficacy of HAART. What more, HAART does not impact HCV replication.

[ZHAO Jie, YU Zu-jiang, KAN Quan-cheng, LI Xiao-fei, LI Zhi-qin, LIANG Hong-xia. A retrospective study: The Influence of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus on the efficacy with HAART in China AIDS area. Life Science Journal. 2011;8(1):420-424] (ISSN:1097-8135).

 

Key words: HIV; Co-infection; High active anti-retroviral therapy

Full Text

53

The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 12, 2010. 
All comments are welcome:
editor@sciencepub.net, or contact with authors directly.

 

For back issues of the Life Science Journal, click here. http://www.lifesciencesite.com

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com; lifesciencej@gmail.com 

 

 

   
 

 

Terms of Service  | 

© 2011. Zhengzhou University, Marsland Press